Basics of certification in
Assoc. prof. dr. Martina Bavec
Head of Organic farming study program
Faculty of Agriculture University of Maribor
Professional head of IKC-Institute for inspection
and certification University of Maribor
Summer Academy on Organic Animal Breeding and Organic Animal Husbandry,
Dresden, Germany, 1 - 14 September 2008
History of organic inspection and certification
Legislation for organic farming
Steps in inspection and certification
Specifics in inspection of animal production
Labelling of organic products
Inspection and certification – possibility for professional
What is organic agriculture?
What is organic food?
What inspection and certification?
Why inspection and certification?
Pillars of organic farming
Use of tolerant plants species,
breeds,…, High soil fertility with high
breeds of animals. number of soil animals and humus ratio.
The use of chemical sintethical Organic
pesticides, GMO,… is prohibited. High soluble mineral
farming fertilizers are prohibited.
Creation of stabile ecosysem with A close cycle of energy and material on
high diversity of plant and the organic farm as much as possible.
IFOAM principles and standards as a
base for organic farming worldwide
Organic agriculture is based on:
• The principle of health
• The principle of ecology
• The principle of fairness
• The principle of care
Principle of health
Organic Agriculture should sustain and enhance the health of
soil, plant, animal, human and planet as one and indivisible.
This principle points out that the health of individuals and
communities cannot be separated from the health of ecosystems -
healthy soils produce healthy crops that foster the health of animals
Health is the wholeness and integrity of living systems. It is not
simply the absence of illness, but the maintenance of physical,
mental, social and ecological well-being. Immunity, resilience and
regeneration are key characteristics of health.
The role of organic agriculture, whether in farming, processing,
distribution, or consumption, is to sustain and enhance the health of
ecosystems and organisms from the smallest in the soil to human
beings. In particular, organic agriculture is intended to produce high
quality, nutritious food that contributes to preventive health
care and well-being. In view of this it should avoid the use of
fertilizers, pesticides, animal drugs and food additives that may have
adverse health effects.
Principle of ecology
Organic Agriculture should be based on living ecological systems
and cycles, work with them, emulate them and help sustain
This principle roots organic agriculture within living ecological
systems. It states that production is to be based on ecological
processes, and recycling. Nourishment and well-being are achieved
through the ecology of the specific production environment. For
example, in the case of crops this is the living soil; for animals it is
the farm ecosystem; for fish and marine organisms, the aquatic
Organic farming, pastoral and wild harvest systems should fit the
cycles and ecological balances in nature. These cycles are
universal but their operation is site-specific. Organic management
must be adapted to local conditions, ecology, culture and scale.
Inputs should be reduced by reuse, recycling and efficient
management of materials and energy in order to maintain and
improve environmental quality and conserve resources.
Organic agriculture should attain ecological balance through the
design of farming systems, establishment of habitats and
maintenance of genetic and agricultural diversity.
Those who produce, process, trade, or consume organic products
should protect and benefit the common environment including 9
landscapes, climate, habitats, biodiversity, air and water.
Principle of fairness
Organic Agriculture should build on relationships that ensure
fairness with regard to the common environment and life
Fairness is characterized by equity, respect, justice and
stewardship of the shared world, both among people and in their
relations to other living beings.
This principle emphasizes that those involved in organic agriculture
should conduct human relationships in a manner that ensures
fairness at all levels and to all parties – farmers, workers,
processors, distributors, traders and consumers. Organic agriculture
should provide everyone involved with a good quality of life, and
contribute to food sovereignty and reduction of poverty. It aims to
produce a sufficient supply of good quality food and other products.
This principle insists that animals should be provided with the
conditions and opportunities of life that accord with their
physiology, natural behavior and well-being.
Natural and environmental resources that are used for production
and consumption should be managed in a way that is socially and
ecologically just and should be held in trust for future generations.
Fairness requires systems of production, distribution and trade that
are open and equitable and account for real environmental 10
Principle of care
Organic Agriculture should be managed in a precautionary and
responsible manner to protect the health and well-being of
current and future generations and the environment.
Organic agriculture is a living and dynamic system that responds to
internal and external demands and conditions. Practitioners of
organic agriculture can enhance efficiency and increase productivity,
but this should not be at the risk of jeopardizing health and well-
being. Consequently, new technologies need to be assessed
and existing methods reviewed. Given the incomplete
understanding of ecosystems and agriculture, care must be taken.
This principle states that precaution and responsibility are the key
concerns in management, development and technology choices in
organic agriculture. Science is necessary to ensure that organic
agriculture is healthy, safe and ecologically sound. However,
scientific knowledge alone is not sufficient. Practical experience,
accumulated wisdom and traditional and indigenous knowledge offer
valid solutions, tested by time. Organic agriculture should prevent
significant risks by adopting appropriate technologies and
rejecting unpredictable ones, such as genetic engineering.
Decisions should reflect the values and needs of all who might be
affected, through transparent and participatory
BASIC DISALLOWANCES IN ORGANIC
Using chemical synthetically agnets for plant
Using chemically untreated seeds,
Using highly solvent mineral fertilizers,
Using synthetic additives in feedstuffs,
Using ingredients of animal origin in feedstuffs
Using prophilactic medicine for animals
Meny demands from organic farming
are becaming obligatory also in
Examples from animal production:
Ban on use ingredients of animal origin
in feedstuffs (after BSE crises)
Ban of egg production
Having calves tied
Organic farming situation
in-conversion land area:
The 10 leading countries
Source: FiBL Survey,
The increase in organic production and in number of organic producers are
the worldwide trends.
Supply- and demand-driven forces explain this trend. Although in some
countries it is still at an infant stage, organic agriculture definitely took off
in the worldwide market system.
What was just a niche market some years ago has now entered as
important segment in mainstream markets.
What makes Organic Agriculture so interesting for an
• Organic agricultural products are based on traditional
• Cost efficiency and labor-intensive character
• New stringent environmental and health-related
requirements in key export markets for conventional
– Mandatory traceability of all agricultural products
– Mandatory HCCP – Hazard Analysis of Critical
– Very stringent MRL – Maximum Residue Levels for
Ulrich HOFFMANN, 2004 UNCTAD
Definition: ‘ Certification is a third party
attestation related to products,
processes, systems or persons’
Certification is an assurance of conformity .
There are several reference documents guiding certification:
• SIST EN 45011 or ISO/IEC /IEC 65 or ISO/IEC /IEC 17020
• IFOAM Criteria as part of the IFOAM Norms (The IFOAM Criteria were
developed specifically for organic)
• Specific national regulations
Organic products cannot be tested as organic.
Organic certification is ‘process certification’ .
Definition - Organic certification
Organic certification is a certification process for producers of organic
food and other organic agricultural products. In general, any
business directly involved in food production can be certified,
including seed suppliers, farmers, food processors, retailers and
Requirements vary from country to country, and generally involve a set
of production standards for growing, storage, processing, packaging
and shipping that include:
• avoidance of most synthetic chemical inputs (e.g. fertilizer, pesticides,
antibiotics, food additives, etc), genetically modified organisms, irradiation,
and the use of sewage sludge;
• use of farmland that has been free from chemicals for a number of years
(often, three or more);
• keeping detailed written production and sales records (audit trail);
• maintaining strict physical separation of organic products from non-certified
• undergoing periodic on-site inspections.
• In some countries, certification is overseen by the government, and
commercial use of the term organic is legally restricted. Certified organic
producers are also subject to the same agricultural, food safety and other
government regulations that apply to non-certified producers. 19
Definition: ‘Accreditation is a third party
attestation related to a conformity
assessment body conveying formal
demonstration of its competence to carry out
specific conformity assessment tasks.’
Accreditation is an assessment of
competence of control bodies;
There are 3 forms of ‘accreditation’
- government approval,
- national and
- international accreditation.
SIST EN 45011:1998 (en) General criteria for certification bodies operating
product certification systems (ISO/IEC Guide 65:1996) is a guide that
establishes general principles for certification bodies, is seen as the most
accepted norm for accreditation.
The main reason is that its accreditation is required by a number of
regulatory authorities, including the most important in terms of trade, EU
The International Organic Accreditation is offering another accreditation
mechanism programme (IOAS). It runs an accreditation programme based
on norms from the International Federation of Organic Agriculture
Movements (IFOAM). The IOAS implements a multilateral recognition
agreement where IFOAM-accredited certification bodies can become
signatories and recognize the equivalence of each others’ inspection and
certification work. The IFOAM Accreditation Criteria Programme is adapted
from the ISO/IEC Guide 65, but adds further detailed requirements relating
to inspection and certification. The number of certification bodies currently
accredited by IOAS is still lowIOAS accreditation is not yet recognized by
EU authorities because IOAS is not a member of any of the Multilateral
recognition Arrangements (MLA) at the International Accreditation Forum
Member countries in IAF, countries approved as EU third countries, and
certification bodies accredited by IOAS and ISO 65 Guidelines
Europe North Asia Latin Near East Africa
IOAS 14 5 4 4 2 0
IAF 21 2 16 4 3 1
EU third country 1 ¸ 0 2 2 1 0
ISO65 69 20 5 13 3
Sources: IOAS, 2006 (www.ioas.org); IAF, 2005 (www.iaf.nu); and ISO, 2006 (www.iso.org).
Definition: Standard =
A document approved by a recognized body, that
provides for common and repeated use, rules,
guidelines or characteristics for products or related
processes and production methods, with which
compliance is not mandatory.
It may also include or deal exclusively with
terminology, symbols, packaging, marking or
labelling requirements as they apply to a product,
process or production method.
Based on state Voluntary national and/or
regulations, rules,… producers groups guidelines
• AMA Gütesiegel - Austia,
• Organic farming (EU 2092/91)
• QS Qualität und Sicherheit GmbH -
• Geographical domain,… • Thema TQM - Finland,
• Integrated production in • Swedish Seal - Sweden,
Slovenia • Agri Confiance in Quali'Terre -
Chains standards • Kvalitetssystem i landbruket -
Standardi trgovskih Norway,
lanaca,… • Keten Kwaliteit Melk - Nederland,
• EUREP GAP = GLOBAL G.A.P.
• More independent schemes in
Denmark defined by export markets
• BCR British Retail Consortium of food
• IFS International Food Standard
GMO free erzeugt 24
Private associations started to
develop organic standards
more than 40 years ago, and
today at least 100 regional
or national organic
standards have been
Standard can assure
The importance of the Regulation, bearing in mind that many Member
States and private institutions may have their own standards in
place, is that it establishes common requirements across the EU
and does not discriminate between different areas or bodies. This
offers greater confidence to consumers when they buy organic
produce from another Member State to their own.
World level (FAO and WHO) Codex Alimentarious – 170 states
EU level (2092/91 834/2007)
National OF legislation
Standards on international level: IFOAM, DEMETER
Standards on the national level: Biodar (Slovenia), Naturland, Bioland
(Germany), BioSuisse, BioAustria,….
Situation in 2004 for organic
• More than 360 standards setting & certification
• 60 Government Regulations
• Two international Organic Standards
• IFOAM Basic Standards
• Codex Alimentarius Guidelines
• One private International Organic Guarantee System (IOS)
• IFOAM Accreditation program (30 certification bodies)
• Includes IFOAM Basic Standards
Law/standards Sets out conditions of organic production,
certification and trade.
Accreditation Accredits organizations for control and
Certification Supervises compliance with law, standards and
procedures for organic agriculture.
Carries out inspection at the farm and
Inspection processing level.
Helps to develop farmers’ skills in technical and
Extension services organizational aspects to comply with organic
Internal Control Farmers’ organization to be certified as a group
Position of the product on the market
20% of demands is
80% of demands is
Third party certification – the
internationally recognized certification
Certification procedures and accreditation
mechanisms are tools in the quality
assurance system to ensure transparency
and compliance with the standards and
regulations that define organic agriculture.
History of inspection and certification
Begin of organic farming – 1924 course of dr. Rudolf Steiner
1946 Soil Association Founded in England and 1967 Soil Association Standards
Organic standards have long been used to create an agreement within organic
agriculture about what an "organic" claim on a product means, and to some extent, to
inform consumers. Regional groups of organic farmers and their supporters began
developing organic standards as early as in the 1940's. Currently there are hundreds
of private organic standards worldwide; and in addition, organic standards have been
codified in the technical regulations of more than 60 governments.
Third-party organic certification was first instituted in the 1970's by the same regional
organic farming groups that first developed organic standards. In the early years, the
farmers inspected one another on a voluntary basis, according to quite a general set
1972 establishment of IFOAM
Today third-party certification is a much more complex and formal process. Although
certification started as a voluntary activity, the market began to demand it for sales
transactions, and now it is required by the regulations of many governments for any
kind of an "organic" claim on a product label.
EU Regulation on organic farming
On 24 June 1991, the Council of the EU adopted Regulation (EEC) No
2092/91 on organic production of agricultural products and
indications referring thereto on agricultural products and
The introduction of the Regulation was part of the reform of the EU’s
Common Agricultural Policy and was the culmination of a process of
official recognition of organic farming in certain EU Member States.
Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 laid down rules applicable to all
Community output of organic crop products only.
But further rules adopted in 1992 and 1995 provided the possibility of
developing a specific logo for the organic sector and governing
technical matters such as labelling and importing.
In 1999, the Council adopted Regulation (EC) No 1804/1999
of 19 July 1999, which laid down Community rules for
the production of organic livestock products and
issues such as foodstuffs, disease prevention and
veterinary treatments, animal welfare, husbandry
practices and the management of manure.
The 1999 Regulation also excluded production using
genetically modified organisms and products derived
from them and allowed imports of organic products
from third countries whose production criteria and
control systems were recognised as equivalent by the
The rules contained in Regulation (EEC) No
2092/91 are very complex and comprehensive.
As well as defining the required method of
production of crops and livestock they also
regulate the following aspects of organic
The Regulation is also accompanied by several technical indexes covering
matters such as:
Principles of organic production at the farm level, including for plant and plant
products, livestock and livestock products, and beekeeping and beekeeping
Products authorised for use in organic farming including fertilisers and soil
conditioners, pesticides and feed materials
These annexes and other aspects of the Regulation can be amended by the
Commission to keep them up-to-date with technical and scientific
developments and with the market for organic products.
The rules laid down in Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 do not preclude the
application of general Community rules applying to all agricultural
products. All provisions governing the production, preparation, marketing,
labelling and inspection of agricultural products do apply for organic as for any
The Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 requirements cover specifically the
organic method of production, the characteristics of organic products
and rules linked to it.
Further EU regulations
Are governing issues such as feed, imports, seed and food additives aspects complete the legislative
framework governing the organic farming sector:
Commission Regulation (EC) No 223/2003 of 5 February 2003 on labelling requirements related to the
organic production method for feedingstuffs, compound feedingstuffs and feed materials and
amending Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1788/2001 of 7 September 2001 laying down detailed rules for
implementing the provisions concerning the certificate of inspection for imports from third countries
under Article 11 of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 on organic production of agricultural products
and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs
Commission Regulation (EEC) No 94/92 of 14 January 1992 laying down detailed rules for implementing
the arrangements for imports from third countries provided for in Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 on
organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and
Commission Regulation (EEC) No 207/93 of 29 January 1993 defining the content of Annex VI to
Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring
thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs and laying down detailed rules for implementing the
provisions of Article 5 (4) thereto
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1452/2003 of 14 August 2003 maintaining the derogation provided for in
Article 6(3)(a) of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 with regard to certain species of seed and
vegetative propagating material and laying down procedural rules and criteria relating to that
New regulation 834/2007
Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 of
28 June 2007 on organic production
and labelling of organic products and
repealing Regulation (EEC) No
It shall apply as from 1 January 2009.
Structure of the new regulation
I AIM, SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS
II OBJECTIVES AND PRINCIPLES FOR
III PRODUCTION RULES
VI TRADE WITH THIRD COUNTRIES
VII FINAL AND TRANSITIONAL RULES
REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION
NOTIFY ACTIVITY TO THE COMPETENTE AUTHORITY OF
SUPERVISION FROM THE AUTHORITY,
INSPECTION EXPERIENCE AND RELIABILITY,
ADMINISTRATIVE AND TECHNICAL FACILITIES,
APPROVEMENT FROM THE COMPETENT AUTHORITY -
ACCREDITATION according to SIST EN 45 011
(ISO/IEC Guide 56:2006)
… from 834/2007
the control body is accredited to the most
recently notified version, by a publication in the
C series of the Official Journal of the European
Union, of European Standard EN 45011 or ISO
Guide 65 (General requirements for bodies
operating product certification systems), and is
approved by the competent authorities;
In 2092/92 … the control body has to operate according to
SIST EN 45011
SIST EN 45011:1998 (en)
General criteria for certification bodies
operating product certification systems
(ISO/IEC Guide 65:1996)
Steps in inspection and certification
1. APPLICATON OF FARMER
Contact to the farmer
of the farmer
NO in IIC Register
Farmers Data input into
IIC Register and
preparation of the basic
material for keeping the
Steps in inspection and certification
FARM VISIT BY ICC INSPECTOR
CHECK THE REAL SITUATION ON
THE FARM (fields, stables, storages,
processing units, recepies…)
CHECK THE RECORDS
FIIL OUT THE ICC DOCUMENTS
Steps in inspection and certification
3. CERTIFICATION PROCESS
CHECK UP AND EVALUATION THE FARM
DOCUMENTS – REPPORTS, ANAYSIS,
ADDITIONAL SEND DOCUMENTS,…
ORGANIC FARM STATUS DEFINITION
PRINTING AND SIGNING THE CERTIFICATE
The certification process proceeds as
• Definition of scope and standard
to be used;
• Pre-audit (optional) in order to
assess the current producer’s
• Certification audit to verify that all
products and procedures
conform to standards. If this is
the case, the certificate will be
• Surveillance audit to follow the
For agricultural products, a conversion
period is necessary between the
initial audit and the issuing of the
certificate (i.e. a period of 2 years
is necessary for vegetable
Annex III, 5. Inspection visits
The inspection body or authority must make a full physical
inspection at least once a year, of the
production/preparation units or other premises.
The inspection body or authority may take samples for
An inspection report must be drawn up after each visit,
countersigned by the responsible person of the unit or his
Moreover, the inspection body or authority shall carry out
random inspection visits, announced or not. The visits shall
cover in particular those holdings or situations where
specific risk or exchange of products from organic products
with other products may exist. 47
Preparation for the visit - mostly unannounced
Checking fields, pastures,…
stables, animals – calculating ANI
Storages (fertilizers, pesticides,… to final products)
Processing unit, calculating recepies,
Checking records and relevant documents (declarations, specifications,
Calculating f.i. rate of conventional feed, N, storage capacities for slurry,…
Taking samples if necessary
The situation on the farm or in the processing unit has to be written in the report
including unconformities, sanctions (1-3) and signedd by farmer and inspection
Delivery of the reports and samples to the office.
If inspector find some uncomformities against
the standards and regulation 2092/91 the
proper measures with dead lines for
improving has to be given to the farmer.
Sanctions can be imposed:
- Sanction 1: warning
- Sanction 2: additional provement has to be sent to
- Sanction 3: additional inspection
- Sanction 4: product can not be sold as organic,
- Sanction 5: exclusion the farm from inspection
Risk assesment is included in the
work of CB!
Risk to the integrity of certification of organic agriculture
arises from error, poor management and intentional fraud.
Certification requirements therefore attempt to reduce the
chance of error, establish good management practices and
use audit practices and control of certificates to deter and
Specific rules have been incorporated into various norms to
reduce the risk in certain situations. e.g. split production .
Other rules have been developed to control special
certification circumstances e.g. wild harvest or contracted
Inspection and certification –
The whole chain is checked and evaluated
from the farm – to the consumer.
Certified are organic products, but whole production system is
on the farm in the slaughter house in selling
Direct marketing / Trade
Consumer of organic food
Some questions conected to the
legislation – inspection points in
Conversion of farm to organic farming
Conversion of a farm
- 2 years for annual crops (24 months from
the use of not allowed substances)
- 3 years for perennial crops (36 months)
Status of the harvest/ land:
- “from conversion” (just products of plants)
- after the conversion period and received
certificate it’s certified “organic”!
Products from animal origin can not be sold
as product “from conversion”
When is the farm in conversion?
The farm is in conversion from conventional, when:
• it hands in the application documents to the inspection body for organic farming,
• signs the contract of the inspection body,
• the introductive course about organic farming is passed (recomended),
• is a member of an organic farmers union (desirable).
The conversion time is at least two years, three years for plantations of permanent crops. The
conversion period can be prolonged in certain cases, but not longer than five years (“gradual”
conversion). The conversion can be shortened, too.
If after the contract is signed any un-allowed substances are used the date of the
use is obligatory for the start of the new conversion time. The harvest status is
based on the vegetation period of the first inspection.
P1 farm in the 1. year of conversion to organic farming (the products are
P2 farm in the 2. year of conversion to organic farming (the products from plant
origin are sold as “products from conversion”)
P3 farm in the 3. year of conversion to organic farming (products from plant
origin are sold as “products from conversion”)
O organic farm (products are labeled and sold as “organic”).
EC 2092/91 regulation
Organic farm/ enterprise is in the conversion period, if the production or
processing unit is converting from other forms of production or
processing, with the current regulation for organic farming.
The organic agricultural product or foodstuff, produced in
the conversion time, can be labeled as “organic” if in the
same time the “from conversion” is clearly visible:
– if the one year period has passed before harvesting, the products
are produced according to the regulation for organic farming;
– the product contains only one component of agricultural origin;
– the agricultural product was produced without the use of GMOs;
– the product was not under the impact of ionized radiation.
Organic feedstuff was produced in the time span of conversion of the
feedstuff, in accordance with the EC regulation 2092/91 in minimum
period of one year before the harvest on the organic production unit
Entry in the inspection procedure of the
certification body for organic farming 25.12.2005:
• Products from the year 2006 – “conventional”.
• Products from the year 2007 – “from conversion” to organic
farming for products of plant and animal origin are
convetional. With exeption of bees, which can be already
• Products from year 2008 – “organic”, with exception of
permanent plantations (are still in conversion period).
Entry in the inspection procedure of the certification body for
organic farming 30.6.2005:
• Products from the year 2005 – “conventional”.
• Products from the year 2006 – “conventional”, except the plants which
were planted/sowed after 30.6.2006 (e.g. buckwheat, millet,
vegetables), these can be sold as “organic” in the autumn. Animal
products are “conventional” except bee products (which got the
“organic” status in the year 2006).
• Products from year 2007 –”from conversion to organic farming” for all
plant products which have been sown before 30.6.2007 (e.g.
buckwheat, millet, vegetables) – this can get the “organic” status in the
Products from year 2008 – “organic”.
Conversion of an organic farm with animals
The conversion period to organic animal husbandry lasts
at least two years, if the conversion time of the organic
farm for plant production has passed.
Without respect to the previous paragraph the conversion period can be
shortened with the permission of the certification body, if we convert
only the organic animal husbandry part, to:
- one year, if we adapt the outdoor facilities (grassland, outdoor fences
and areas on the outdoor run) which are used by the animals,
- 6 months, if the area and the facilities of the organic farm fit the
Conversion of the whole organic farm lasts for at least 24 months for
animals and its offspring, which:
- are mostly fed with organic feedstuff from the own organic farm,
- were on the organic farm when the conversion period on the farm
- area for the fodder (grassland) is used on the farm from the beggining
of the conversion of the farm.
Conversion of an organic farm with
The source of organic agricultural products/foodstuff of animal
origin have to be on an organic farm according this regulation,
- 12 months or ¾ of the lifespan from an animal (horses
and cattle) for meat production;
- 2 months for calfs,
- 6 months for small ruminants,
- 6 months for pigs,
- 6 months for animals for milk production,
- 10 weeks for poultry if the animal was younger than 3
days (for meat production) or 6 weeks (for egg production),
- 2/3 of the lifespan of a fish.
Conversion in beekeeping lasts for 12 months!
FARM WITH GRASSLAND (BEEF PRODUCTION)
POSSIBLE PROBLEMS IN CONVERSION POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
high weed pressure improved storage
(dock plants), facilities for animal
manure and techniqes
over fertilization (high of the manure use,
load of animals),
lower the number of
not sufficient feedstuff animals per hectare,
production, improved fertalization
not suitable housing practices,
not well arranged stable/exercise area
exercise area for the system,
animals, incorporation to a
trademark for organic
lower possibilities for the meat production.
marketing of meat
Specific problems in conversion of
organic farms with animals
Problems that apear in the feedstuff production:
weeds like docks plants,
not enoght own fodder (mostly in dry years),
buying in of conventional concentrates are over the limit of
own production of concentrates is not present (in spite the fact that
this farms produced grains by themselves in the past).
Problems with selling/marketing organic produced meat and milk
organic meat or milk is sold as conventional,
there are just a few slaughter houses
the farms which produce milk are very spread and in small numbers
(collecting the milk for organic processing is nearly impossible),
high financial inpoot (building and processing facilities) for
processing of animal products.
Specific problems in conversion of organic farms with
The conversion of an organic farm with animal and grassland is not counted as
difficult, but we still have to face problems within the conversion period.
During the first years of inspections we can report several lacks in organic animal husbandry –
as an examle data for the year 2002 in the case of Slovenia are presented :
if the husbandry was how it should be we can as a exception (to 2010) tie up the animals
in the stable, if a outdoor run is present. The outdoor run was not suitable on 307 farms
(from 1.150 all farms);
after the year 2010 there will be a certification body requirement that the stable has an
traditional stables were without appropriate light and air conditions (on 160 farms in year
to tie up calves until they were 6 months old is not allowed (on 122 farms);
inappropriate storage facilities for the manure (on 247 farms);
the presence or use of not allowed feedstuff (concentrates) and mineral additives, which
were not in the List of allowed substances in organic farming (on 147 farms);
in cage stables for laying hens and rabbits was not allowed (on 46 farms);
perforated floor within stables for cattle (on 35 farms) and too short standing places (on 48
preventive treatment (on 97 farms) was not allowed;
buying in of animals (source) was not appropriate (23 farms);
not enough litter/bedding;
inappropriate keeping of requirred records.
Conversion of new areas –
The first harvest of fodder is after a conversion
period of 12 months, the first grass cut (as
“organic”) on the grassland can be after a
conversion period of 12 months.
The first harvest after 24 months conversion
period can be for organic feddstuff (grains and
On grassland this is the first cut after 24 months
conversion period (from the date on which we
got the new area).
Conversion of new areas –
On the first inspection the organic farmer has to hand in a
document which presents the former use of the area
(surface). With this it has to be proven that the area was not
poluted with not allowed substances in organic farming 12
months before the first cut which counts as organic. If the
evidence (document) is acceptible the first cut for fodder
from this area is counted as “from conversion”. This fodder
can be included to 60% in the annual food intake (if it is
produced on the own farm).
If the document about the former use of the area is not
appropriate, the fodder produced in the first year is
“conventional”. That means that the produced fodder can be
used in accordance with the rules concerning permitted
shares of conventional fodder in the daily food intake.
Example 1 – fodder
In addition to the organic farm (on the 31.12.2006)
1,5 ha new grassland area was bought. On the
first inspection in spring 2007 they handed in the
document of former use of the new area. The
purchase contract and a folder copy was added. It
was stated that on the area substances which are
not allowed in organic farming were used in
autumn 2005 for the last time.
• 1,5 ha of grassland is in conversion. Fodder from this
area can be used in accordance with the rules of
permitted share of conventional origin in organic
farming (with 60% of yearly food intake on the own
farm). First organic fodder from this area will be
available on the 31.12.2008 (first cut in 2009).
Example 2 – fodder
In addition to the organic farm (on the 1.11.2006) 2,5
ha of grassland area was bought. On the first
inspection in spring 2007 the documents of former use
of the new grassland area is not added. Without this
document it is not possible to prove when on this area
substances which are not allowed in organic farming
were used for the last time (minimum 12 months).
• The fodder from the 2,5 ha area is untill the 1.11.2007
“conventional”. Fodder from 2008 is “from conversion”. First
“organic” fodder from this area is on the 1.11.2008 (first cut in
Example 4: Application to inspection
before start of vegetation or after?
First application or getting new grasland from conventioanl farm before
start of vegetation 1st of April:
o All areas and yields Vse površine (pridelki) tega leta so
o Vse površine (pridelki) v drugem letu so iz preusmeritve
o Vse površine (pridelki) po 24-ih mesecih so ekološke(i)
Ce je bila 1. prijava ali pridobitev novih površin po zacetku vegetacije
(1. april) velja:
o Vse površine (pridelki) so prvih 12 mesecev konvencionalne(i), kljub
pridelek (trava, seno) tudi v drugem letu konvencionalen
o Vse površine po 12-ih mesecih so iz preusmeritve, pridelek pa je
prodan z oznako 'iz preusmeritve' šele v tretjem letu
o Vse površine so z novim letom in 24 mesecev po zacetku preusmeritve
ekološke, torej je pridelek ekološki šele v 4. letu!
Kaj to 70
General farm production rules
The entire agricultural holding shall be managed in compliance with
the requirements applicable to organic production.
However, in accordance with specific conditions to be laid down in
accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 37(2), a holding
may be split up into clearly separated units or aquaculture production
sites which are not all managed under oorganic production.
• As regards animals, different species shall be involved.
• As regards aquaculture the same species may be involved, provided that there
is adequate separation between the production sites.
• As regards plants, different varieties that can be easily differentiated shall be
Where, in accordance with the second subparagraph, not all units of a
holding are used for organic production, the operator shall keep the
land, animals, and products used for, or produced by, the organic units
separate from those used for, or produced by, the non-organic units
and keep adequate records to show the separation.
Healthy, highly productive and long-lived livestock must be
kept in a natural and appropriate environment if the animals
are to produce high-quality agricultural products and
Livestock numbers must be adapted to the agricultural
area. An organic farm can hold only so many animals
enough that the nitrogen production from the livestock does
not exceed 170kg N/ha/year.
Article 5 Specific principles
applicable to farming
(g) the practice of site-adapted and land-related livestock production;
(h) the observance of a high level of animal welfare respecting species-specific
(i) the production of products of organic livestock from animals that have been raised
on organic holdings since birth or hatching and throughout their life;
(j) the choice of breeds having regard to the capacity of animals to adapt to local
conditions, their vitality and their resistance to disease or health problems;
(k) the feeding of livestock with organic feed composed of agricultural ingredients
from organic farming and of natural non-agricultural substances;
(l) the application of animal husbandry practices, which enhance the immune system
and strengthen the natural defence against diseases, in particular including
regular exercise and access to open air areas and pastureland where appropriate;
(m) the exclusion of rearing artificially induced polyploid animals;
(n) the maintenance of the biodiversity of natural aquatic ecosystems, the continuing
health of the aquatic environment and the quality of surrounding aquatic and
terrestrial ecosystems in aquaculture production;
(o) the feeding of aquatic organisms with feed from sustainable exploitation of
fisheries or with organic feed composed of agricultural ingredients from organic
farming and of natural non-agricultural substances.
Specific principles applicable to processing of organic feed
In addition to the overall principles set out in Article 4, the
production of processed organic feed shall be based on the
following specific principles:
(a) the production of organic feed from organic feed materials,
except where a feed material is not available on the market in
(b) the restriction of the use of feed additives and processing aids
to a minimum extent and only in case of essential technological
or biotechnical needs or for particular nutritional purposes;
(c) the exclusion of substances and processing methods that might
be misleading as to the true nature of the product;
(d) the processing of feed with care, preferably with the use of
biological, mechanical and physical methods.
Replacement stock must originate from the member’s own
holding or from another certified organic producer.
• Calves for fattening must be from organic origin.
• Calves for breeding can be from conventional origin, less than 6
• Female animals, that have never calved, can be purchased every
year for the increase or renewal of the herd, up to a maximum of
10%, or 1 per year if the herd is less than 10 female animals
• For the renewal or restoration of the stock conventional chicks for
laying hen production and poultry for meat production can be
purchased, if they are not older than 3 days, if animals from organic
origin are not available in sufficient quantities.
• Piglets for fattening must be from organic origin.
• Piglets for gilt upbringing for the renewing or restoring of the stock –
if animals from organic origin are not available in sufficient quantities
– must after weaning be kept according to the regulations for organic
farming and have a weight under 35 kg.
The natural breeding of agricultural livestock
should allow for a diversity of breeds.
Fertility and overall fitness are the main
breeding goals. Standards are set in terms of
Genetic engineering, embryo transfers or the
purchase of animals resulting from embryo
transfers is forbidden. No genetically
manipulated animals are to be used.
Purchased breeding sows and deployed boars
must be stress-negative in halothane tests.
(i) reproduction shall use natural methods.
Artificial insemination is however allowed;
(ii) reproduction shall not be induced by
treatment with hormones or similar
substances, unless as a form of veterinary
therapeutic treatment in case of an individual
(iii) other forms of artificial reproduction, such as
cloning and embryo transfer, shall not be
(iv) appropriate breeds shall be chosen. The
choice of breeds shall also contribute to the
prevention of any suffering and to avoiding the
need for the mutilation of animals; 834/2007
Breed of animal species
Farmers have to consider the adaptability of
the breed on the environment and the animals
resistance against diseases.
Old indigineus and local breeds have priority
by the decision. We have to avoid species and
breeds which are suceptible to specific animal
diseases as BSE syndrom, sudden death,
heavy births, miscarriage and others.
Indigineus and local breeds have to
For poultry, the minimum age at slaughter shall be:
81 days for chickens,
150 days for capons,
49 days for Peking ducks,
70 days for female Muscovy ducks,
84 days for male Muscovy ducks,
92 days for Mallard ducks,
94 days for guineafowl,
140 days for turkeys and roasting geese.
Where producers do not apply these minimum slaughter
ages, they must use slow-growing strains.
Husbandry management practices, transport and
identification of livestock products
i) personnel keeping animals shall possess the necessary basic
knowledge and skills as regards the health and the welfare needs of
(ii) husbandry practices, including stocking densities, and housing
conditions shall ensure that the developmental, physiological and
ethological needs of animals are met;
(iii) the livestock shall have permanent access to open air areas,
preferably pasture, whenever weather conditions and the state of
the ground allow this unless restrictions and obligations related to
the protection of human and animal health are imposed on the basis
of Community legislation;
(iv) the number of livestock shall be limited with a view to minimising
overgrazing, poaching of soil, erosion, or pollution caused by
animals or by the spreading of their manure;
(v) organic livestock shall be kept separate from other livestock.
However, grazing of common land by organic animals and of
organic land by non-organic animals is permitted under certain
(vi) tethering or isolation of livestock shall be prohibited, unless for
individual animals for a limited period of time, and in so far as this is
justified for safety, welfare or veterinary reasons;
(vii) duration of transport of livestock shall be minimised;
(viii) any suffering, including mutilation, shall be kept to a minimum
during the entire life of the animal, including at the time of slaughter;
(ix) apiaries shall be placed in areas which ensure nectar and pollen
sources consisting essentially of organically produced crops or, as
appropriate, of spontaneous vegetation or non-organically managed
forests or crops that are only treated with low environmental impact
methods. Apiaries shall be kept at sufficient distance from sources
that may lead to the contamination of beekeeping products or to the
poor health of the bees;
(x) hives and materials used in beekeeping shall be mainly made of
(xi) the destruction of bees in the combs as a method associated with
the harvesting of beekeeping products is prohibited;
In the case of illness, injury or damage the necessary care
or veterinarian treatment must be taken swiftly. Sick or
injured animals are to be kept according to their special
needs and if necessary separated.
Animals in animal keeping systems, whose well-being
depends on the regular care of people, must be controlled
at least once a day.
Weight and age similarities, depending on the type of
livestock, must be respected when animals are kept in
Hoof care is to be carried out regularly by qualified
personnel, as often as required.
In order to ensure the highest meat quality, loading and
transport of the animals should be as careful and stress-
free as possible. Therefore loading units on the holding
Electric prods are forbidden. The use of sedatives is
forbidden. Animal transport laws are to be observed.
Animal Needs Index (Bartussek)
ANI-35L-systems exist and are in use now for
cows, young and beef cattle, calves, laying
hens, fattening pigs (including piglets) and
The ANI principally considers five aspects of the
• the possibility of mobility;
• social contact;
• condition of flooring for lying, standing and walking;
• climatization (including ventilation, light and noise);
• the intensity or quality of human care.
Animal Needs Index (Bartussek)
Sum of Names of categories of Percentage School Verbal school Symbols
ANI housing conditions with of range grades grades
Points respect to welfare of points
< 11 Not suitable < 35 5 Insufficient No label
11-16 Scarcely suitable 35 - 44 4 Sufficient *
16.5-21 Little suitable (mediocre) 45 - 54 3 Satisfactory **
21.5 -24 Fairly suitable 55 - 62 2 Good ***
24.5-28 Suitable 63 - 70 1 Very good ****
> 28 Very suitable > 70 E Excellent *****
Use of ANI in Slovenia
Started in 1998 after establishing organic farming certification
It was introduced in the first Slovene legislation about organic
farming in 2001.
After EU accession it was not included anymore in the Slovene
but in inspection it is still used for evaluation the housing
condition for tied housing of cows:
- over 21 points in old stables
- over 24 points in new stables
Origin of feeding stuff
Livestock should generally be fed home-grown organic feeds.
All percentages are based on the maximum dry matter content of feeding
stuff of agricultural origin in the yearly ration.
Rations may include up to 30% conversion feedstuffs. If the conversion
feeds come from the member’s own holding, then the ration may include
up to 60% conversion feedstuffs.
Conventional feeding stuff is only to be used if organic feeding stuff is
The permitted maximum portion of conventional feeding stuff is for:
• Roughage feeder (ruminants and horses) up to 31.12.2007: 5%, afterwards 0%
of the yearly ration
• For other animals (mono gastric animals):
• up to 31.12.2007: 15% conventional feeding stuff dry matter in the yearly ration
• up to 31.12.2009: 10% conventional feeding stuff dry matter in the yearly ration
• up to 31.12.2011: 5% conventional feeding stuff, afterwards 0% dry matter in the yearly
In both cases, the percentage of conventional feeds in the daily ration 89 not to exceed
Antibiotics, coccidiostatics and other pharmaceuticals, growth promoters
and other agents for promoting performance or growth, dyes, urea and
non-protein nitrogen compounds as protein substitutes are forbidden.
Roughage for ruminants
Roughage must comprise at least 60% of the daily ration for ruminants.
Calves are to be offeredstructured roughage from the second week of
Feeding of young roughage feeders (calves, lambs, kids, foals)
Feed for young mammals is to be based on natural milk.
Minimum time limits for liquid feeding:
• Cattle and horses: 3 months;
• Sheep and goats: 45 days
For dairy goats and dairy sheep holders the following applies:
Feeding based on natural milk means a minimum of 50% of the ration is
natural milk (cow milk is possible). The remainder of the ration may be
organic milk substitute e.g. organic whole milk powder.
(i) primarily obtaining feed for livestock from the holding where the animals
are kept or from other organic holdings in the same region;
(ii) livestock shall be fed with organic feed that meets the animal's nutritional
requirements at the various stages of its development. A part of the ration
may contain feed from holdings which are in conversion to organic
(iii) with the exception of bees, livestock shall have permanent access to
pasture or roughage;
(iv) non organic feed materials from plant origin, feed materials from animal
and mineral origin, feed additives, certain products used in animal
nutrition and processing aids shall be used only if they have been
authorised for use in organic production under Article 16;
(v) growth promoters and synthetic amino-acids shall not be used;
(vi) suckling mammals shall be fed with natural, preferably maternal, milk;
disease prevention and veterinary treatment:
(i) disease prevention shall be based on breed and strain selection,
husbandry management practices, high quality feed and exercise,
appropriate stocking density and adequate and appropriate housing
maintained in hygienic conditions;
(ii) disease shall be treated immediately to avoid suffering to the
animal; chemically synthesised allopathic veterinary medicinal
products including antibiotics may be used where necessary and
under strict conditions, when the use of phytotherapeutic,
omeopathic and other products is inappropriate. In particular
restrictions with respect to courses of treatment and withdrawal
periods shall be defined;
(iii) the use of immunological veterinary medicines is allowed;
(iv) treatments related to the protection of human and animal health
imposed on the basis of Community legislation shall be allowed;
How to find it?
Career in inspection and certification
List of inspection bodies in EU
Article 9 of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 of 24
June 1991 on organic production of agricultural products
and indications referring thereto on agricultural products
and foodstuffs, requires that the Member States set up
an inspection system operated by one or more
designated inspection authorities and/or approved
private inspection bodies.
According to the provision of the last subparagraph of
Article 15 of the Regulation, the current communication
lists, on the basis of the information from the Member
States updated in 2007, the system made operational in
each Member State and the bodies and/or authorities
approved for inspection.
List of inspection bodies in EU
Published in the Official Journal of the European
LIST OF BODIES OR PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
IN CHARGE OF INSPECTION PROVIDED
FOR IN ARTICLE 15 OF COUNCIL
REGULATION (EEC) No 2092/91 (2008/C
Member States and Code:
Inspection authority(ies) or body(ies) adress and contacts:
IKC — Institute for Inspection and Certification
of University of Maribor
Tel: (386) 2 250 58 00/49
Fax: (386) 2 229 60 71
Comments: System A
Specifics: Estonia 3 authorithies for different tasks, in Austria, Germany
and Spain, the bodies have their activity limited to certain specified
Types of inspection bodies
Under the column ‘comments’ the systems
made operational in each of the Member
States are indicated as follows:
A: System of approved private inspection bodies
(majority EU members)
B: System of (a) designated public inspection
authority(ies) in DK, EE, FI, LT, MT, NL
C: System of a designated public inspection authority
and approved private inspection bodies in LX, PO,
Majority EU members have A system
– private inspection bodies
Private inspection bodies must satisfy certain
• They have to be accredited under the EU’s General
requirements for bodies operating product certification
• They have to be approved by the Member States'
• They have to be objective vis-à-vis the operators
subject to their inspections
Member states attribute an individual identification
code to each organic inspection body and authority.
Consumers have to be able to find this code or the name of the inspection
body or authority on every organic label. The code is a sign that the
product consumers are buying has been inspected by the inspection body
or authority which guarantees it was produced or processed in accordance
with the organic Regulation.
Examples: SI-IKC-EKO FR-AB 01 CZ-KEZ-01
EL-01-BIO IT-ICA UK 2
AT-N-01-BIO ES-AN-00-AE N-001
Number of inspection bodies per EU
1 LT, MT, NL, SK, N
2 BE, CY, HU, LV, SE, IS
3 CZ, EE, FI, IRL, SI
5 and more AT, BG, DK, FR, DE, GR, IT,
PO, PT, RO, ES, UK
Labelling of organic products
Inspection body logo
Career in inspection
Inspectors have to
- be competent - educated (at least end of the
study of agriculture, food processing,…)
- have practical experineces in organic farming
- be able to work with people
- be good in organizing, have own transportation
- work outside, stables,..
Wellcome to visit Slovenia, University of Maribor
Faculty of Agriculture
IKC Institute for inspection and
www.fk.uni-mb.si certification UM,
Vrbanska 30, SI 2000 Maribor
Vegetable production www.ikc.si,
Organic production SIST EN 45011 accredited
Inspection and Certification of
integrated and organic
Head of Organic farming production,
Bacheral Study program Inspection of Eurep GAP = Global
Ecologica (LDV) e-learning GAP (certification by AgroVet
fertilizing, quality dependent
of production method, “foot
Bavec F., Bavec M. (2006): Organic production and use of alternative crops, CRC
Press, Boca Raton, 241 p.
Santacoloma P. (2007): Organic certification schemes: managerial skills and
associated costs FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE
UNITED NATIONS Rome, 2007, 16, FAO Rural Infrastructure and
Agroindustries Division ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1227e/a1227e00.pdf
Bartussek H. How to measure animal welfare? The idea of an "Animal Needs
Index" ANI-35L [Tiergerechtheitsindex TGI 35L]: A practical tool for assessing
farm animal housing conditions on farm level in respect to animals´ well being
and behavioural needs - Austrian experiences
COUNCIL REGULATION (EEC) No 2092/91 of 24 June 1991 on organic production
of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural
products and foodstuffs (OJ L 198, 22.7.1991, p. 1)
Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 of 28 June 2007 on organic production
and labelling of organic products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No