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Basics of certification in organic agriculture

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					IKC UM




         Basics of certification in
           organic agriculture

                               Assoc. prof. dr. Martina Bavec

                             Head of Organic farming study program
                           Faculty of Agriculture University of Maribor
                         Professional head of IKC-Institute for inspection
                              and certification University of Maribor



           Summer Academy on Organic Animal Breeding and Organic Animal Husbandry,
                          Dresden, Germany, 1 - 14 September 2008




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         Content
          Introduction
          History of organic inspection and certification
          development
          Definitions
          Legislation for organic farming
          Steps in inspection and certification
          Specifics in inspection of animal production
          Conversion period
          Labelling of organic products
          Inspection and certification – possibility for professional
          career


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         Introduction
          What is organic agriculture?


          What is organic food?


          What inspection and certification?


          Why inspection and certification?

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             Pillars of organic farming

         Use of tolerant plants species,
                    breeds,…,                         High soil fertility with high
              breeds of animals.                number of soil animals and humus ratio.



     The use of chemical sintethical       Organic
    pesticides, GMO,… is prohibited.                      High soluble mineral
                                           farming      fertilizers are prohibited.




          Creation of stabile ecosysem with      A close cycle of energy and material on
             high diversity of plant and         the organic farm as much as possible.
                  animal species.




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         IFOAM principles and standards as a
         base for organic farming worldwide


          Organic agriculture is based on:
            • The principle of health
            • The principle of ecology
            • The principle of fairness
            • The principle of care

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         Principle of health
         Organic Agriculture should sustain and enhance the health of
         soil, plant, animal, human and planet as one and indivisible.
         This principle points out that the health of individuals and
         communities cannot be separated from the health of ecosystems -
         healthy soils produce healthy crops that foster the health of animals
         and people.
         Health is the wholeness and integrity of living systems. It is not
         simply the absence of illness, but the maintenance of physical,
         mental, social and ecological well-being. Immunity, resilience and
         regeneration are key characteristics of health.
         The role of organic agriculture, whether in farming, processing,
         distribution, or consumption, is to sustain and enhance the health of
         ecosystems and organisms from the smallest in the soil to human
         beings. In particular, organic agriculture is intended to produce high
         quality, nutritious food that contributes to preventive health
         care and well-being. In view of this it should avoid the use of
         fertilizers, pesticides, animal drugs and food additives that may have
         adverse health effects.
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         Principle of ecology
         Organic Agriculture should be based on living ecological systems
         and cycles, work with them, emulate them and help sustain
         them.
         This principle roots organic agriculture within living ecological
         systems. It states that production is to be based on ecological
         processes, and recycling. Nourishment and well-being are achieved
         through the ecology of the specific production environment. For
         example, in the case of crops this is the living soil; for animals it is
         the farm ecosystem; for fish and marine organisms, the aquatic
         environment.
         Organic farming, pastoral and wild harvest systems should fit the
         cycles and ecological balances in nature. These cycles are
         universal but their operation is site-specific. Organic management
         must be adapted to local conditions, ecology, culture and scale.
         Inputs should be reduced by reuse, recycling and efficient
         management of materials and energy in order to maintain and
         improve environmental quality and conserve resources.
         Organic agriculture should attain ecological balance through the
         design of farming systems, establishment of habitats and
         maintenance of genetic and agricultural diversity.
         Those who produce, process, trade, or consume organic products
         should protect and benefit the common environment including     9
         landscapes, climate, habitats, biodiversity, air and water.




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         Principle of fairness
         Organic Agriculture should build on relationships that ensure
         fairness with regard to the common environment and life
         opportunities.
         Fairness is characterized by equity, respect, justice and
         stewardship of the shared world, both among people and in their
         relations to other living beings.
         This principle emphasizes that those involved in organic agriculture
         should conduct human relationships in a manner that ensures
         fairness at all levels and to all parties – farmers, workers,
         processors, distributors, traders and consumers. Organic agriculture
         should provide everyone involved with a good quality of life, and
         contribute to food sovereignty and reduction of poverty. It aims to
         produce a sufficient supply of good quality food and other products.
         This principle insists that animals should be provided with the
         conditions and opportunities of life that accord with their
         physiology, natural behavior and well-being.
         Natural and environmental resources that are used for production
         and consumption should be managed in a way that is socially and
         ecologically just and should be held in trust for future generations.
         Fairness requires systems of production, distribution and trade that
         are open and equitable and account for real environmental 10




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         Principle of care
         Organic Agriculture should be managed in a precautionary and
         responsible manner to protect the health and well-being of
         current and future generations and the environment.
         Organic agriculture is a living and dynamic system that responds to
         internal and external demands and conditions. Practitioners of
         organic agriculture can enhance efficiency and increase productivity,
         but this should not be at the risk of jeopardizing health and well-
         being. Consequently, new technologies need to be assessed
         and existing methods reviewed. Given the incomplete
         understanding of ecosystems and agriculture, care must be taken.
         This principle states that precaution and responsibility are the key
         concerns in management, development and technology choices in
         organic agriculture. Science is necessary to ensure that organic
         agriculture is healthy, safe and ecologically sound. However,
         scientific knowledge alone is not sufficient. Practical experience,
         accumulated wisdom and traditional and indigenous knowledge offer
         valid solutions, tested by time. Organic agriculture should prevent
         significant risks by adopting appropriate technologies and
         rejecting unpredictable ones, such as genetic engineering.
         Decisions should reflect the values and needs of all who might be
         affected, through transparent and participatory
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         BASIC DISALLOWANCES IN ORGANIC
         FARMING

          Using chemical synthetically agnets for plant
          protection,
          Using chemically untreated seeds,
          Using highly solvent mineral fertilizers,
          Using synthetic additives in feedstuffs,
          Using ingredients of animal origin in feedstuffs
          and fertilizers,
          Using GMO,
          Using prophilactic medicine for animals
          (antibiotics, coccidiostatics,…
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         Meny demands from organic farming
         are becaming obligatory also in
         conventional farming!

         Examples from animal production:
          Ban on use ingredients of animal origin
          in feedstuffs (after BSE crises)
          Ban of egg production
          in cages
          Having calves tied


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             Organic farming situation
               Organic and
         in-conversion land area:
         The 10 leading countries



          Source: FiBL Survey,
                June 2008




         The increase in organic production and in number of organic producers are
           the worldwide trends.
         Supply- and demand-driven forces explain this trend. Although in some
           countries it is still at an infant stage, organic agriculture definitely took off
           in the worldwide market system.
         What was just a niche market some years ago has now entered as
           important segment in mainstream markets.

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         What makes Organic Agriculture so interesting for an
         export strategy?

         • Organic agricultural products are based on traditional
         production techniques

         • Cost efficiency and labor-intensive character

         • New stringent environmental and health-related
         requirements in key export markets for conventional
         agricultural products:
               – Mandatory traceability of all agricultural products
               – Mandatory HCCP – Hazard Analysis of Critical
               Control Points
               – Very stringent MRL – Maximum Residue Levels for
               Pesticides
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                                                       Ulrich HOFFMANN, 2004 UNCTAD




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           Definition: ‘ Certification is a third party
           attestation related to products,
           processes, systems or persons’
         Certification is an assurance of conformity .

         There are several reference documents guiding certification:
                •   SIST EN 45011 or ISO/IEC /IEC 65 or ISO/IEC /IEC 17020
                •   IFOAM Criteria as part of the IFOAM Norms (The IFOAM Criteria were
                    developed specifically for organic)
                •   Specific national regulations


                    Organic products cannot be tested as organic.
                    Organic certification is ‘process certification’ .
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         Definitions
          Inspection
          Evaluation
          Certification
          Accreditation
          Standards
          Guideliness
          Technical standards

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                                                                      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
                                                                            Certified_organic
         Definition - Organic certification
         Organic certification is a certification process for producers of organic
           food and other organic agricultural products. In general, any
           business directly involved in food production can be certified,
           including seed suppliers, farmers, food processors, retailers and
           restaurants.

         Requirements vary from country to country, and generally involve a set
           of production standards for growing, storage, processing, packaging
           and shipping that include:
             •   avoidance of most synthetic chemical inputs (e.g. fertilizer, pesticides,
                 antibiotics, food additives, etc), genetically modified organisms, irradiation,
                 and the use of sewage sludge;
             •   use of farmland that has been free from chemicals for a number of years
                 (often, three or more);
             •   keeping detailed written production and sales records (audit trail);
             •   maintaining strict physical separation of organic products from non-certified
                 products;
             •   undergoing periodic on-site inspections.
             •   In some countries, certification is overseen by the government, and
                 commercial use of the term organic is legally restricted. Certified organic
                 producers are also subject to the same agricultural, food safety and other
                 government regulations that apply to non-certified producers.        19




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          Definition: ‘Accreditation is a third party
          attestation related to a conformity
          assessment body conveying formal
          demonstration of its competence to carry out
          specific conformity assessment tasks.’

         Accreditation is an assessment of
          competence of control bodies;
         There are 3 forms of ‘accreditation’
           - government approval,
           - national and
           - international accreditation.
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               Accreditation possibilities
         SIST EN 45011:1998 (en) General criteria for certification bodies operating
            product certification systems (ISO/IEC Guide 65:1996) is a guide that
            establishes general principles for certification bodies, is seen as the most
            accepted norm for accreditation.

            The main reason is that its accreditation is required by a number of
            regulatory authorities, including the most important in terms of trade, EU
            Regulation 2092/91

         The International Organic Accreditation is offering another accreditation
           mechanism programme (IOAS). It runs an accreditation programme based
           on norms from the International Federation of Organic Agriculture
           Movements (IFOAM). The IOAS implements a multilateral recognition
           agreement where IFOAM-accredited certification bodies can become
           signatories and recognize the equivalence of each others’ inspection and
           certification work. The IFOAM Accreditation Criteria Programme is adapted
           from the ISO/IEC Guide 65, but adds further detailed requirements relating
           to inspection and certification. The number of certification bodies currently
           accredited by IOAS is still lowIOAS accreditation is not yet recognized by
           EU authorities because IOAS is not a member of any of the Multilateral
           recognition Arrangements (MLA) at the International Accreditation Forum
           (IAF).
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         Member countries in IAF, countries approved as EU third countries, and
         certification bodies accredited by IOAS and ISO 65 Guidelines
         _______________________________________________________________
                            Europe       North          Asia     Latin         Near East            Africa
                                          America                America
         _______________________________________________________________
         IOAS                  14            5            4           4            2                0
         IAF                   21            2           16           4            3                1


         EU third country 1               ¸ 0             2           2            1                0
         ISO65                 69          20             5          13                             3
         _______________________________________________________________
         Sources: IOAS, 2006 (www.ioas.org); IAF, 2005 (www.iaf.nu); and ISO, 2006 (www.iso.org).


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            Definition: Standard =
         A document approved by a recognized body, that
           provides for common and repeated use, rules,
           guidelines or characteristics for products or related
           processes and production methods, with which
           compliance is not mandatory.

         It may also include or deal exclusively with
            terminology, symbols, packaging, marking or
            labelling requirements as they apply to a product,
            process or production method.

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         Standard examples
         Based on state                        Voluntary national and/or
         regulations, rules,…                  producers groups guidelines
                                               •   AMA Gütesiegel - Austia,
         •   Organic farming (EU 2092/91)
                                               •   QS Qualität und Sicherheit GmbH -
                                                   Germany,
         •   Geographical domain,…             •   Thema TQM - Finland,
         •   Integrated production in          •   Swedish Seal - Sweden,
             Slovenia                          •   Agri Confiance in Quali'Terre -
                                                   France,
         Chains standards                      •   Kvalitetssystem i landbruket -
         Standardi trgovskih                       Norway,
         lanaca,…                              •   Keten Kwaliteit Melk - Nederland,
         •   EUREP GAP = GLOBAL G.A.P.
                                               •   More independent schemes in
                                                   Denmark defined by export markets
         •   BCR British Retail Consortium         of food
         •   IFS International Food Standard
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    Private associations started to
      develop organic standards
      more than 40 years ago, and
      today at least 100 regional
      or national organic
      standards have been
      developed worldwide.




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         Standard can assure



               quality       safety




                    tracebility
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           Standards
         The importance of the Regulation, bearing in mind that many Member
           States and private institutions may have their own standards in
           place, is that it establishes common requirements across the EU
           and does not discriminate between different areas or bodies. This
           offers greater confidence to consumers when they buy organic
           produce from another Member State to their own.

         World level (FAO and WHO) Codex Alimentarious – 170 states
           members

         EU level (2092/91         834/2007)

         National OF legislation

         Standards on international level: IFOAM, DEMETER

         Standards on the national level: Biodar (Slovenia), Naturland, Bioland
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            (Germany), BioSuisse, BioAustria,….




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         Situation in 2004 for organic
         farming
         • More than 360 standards setting & certification
         bodies
         • 60 Government Regulations

         • Two international Organic Standards
            • IFOAM Basic Standards
            • Codex Alimentarius Guidelines

         • One private International Organic Guarantee System (IOS)
            • IFOAM Accreditation program (30 certification bodies)
            • Includes IFOAM Basic Standards


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         Issue                Function
         Law/standards        Sets out conditions of organic production,
                              certification and trade.


         Accreditation        Accredits organizations for control and
                              certification.


         Certification        Supervises compliance with law, standards and
                              procedures for organic agriculture.

                              Carries out inspection at the farm and
         Inspection           processing level.

                              Helps to develop farmers’ skills in technical and
         Extension services   organizational aspects to comply with organic
                              agriculture standards.

         Internal Control     Farmers’ organization to be certified as a group
         System                                                         29




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         Position of the product on the market
         depends



                                        20%
          20% of demands is
          covered by
          standards
                                        80%

          80% of demands is
          covered by
          legislation
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           Third party certification – the
           internationally recognized certification
           scheme



         Certification procedures and accreditation
          mechanisms are tools in the quality
          assurance system to ensure transparency
          and compliance with the standards and
          regulations that define organic agriculture.

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         History of inspection and certification
            Begin of organic farming – 1924 course of dr. Rudolf Steiner

            1946 Soil Association Founded in England and 1967 Soil Association Standards

            Organic standards have long been used to create an agreement within organic
            agriculture about what an "organic" claim on a product means, and to some extent, to
            inform consumers. Regional groups of organic farmers and their supporters began
            developing organic standards as early as in the 1940's. Currently there are hundreds
            of private organic standards worldwide; and in addition, organic standards have been
            codified in the technical regulations of more than 60 governments.


            Third-party organic certification was first instituted in the 1970's by the same regional
            organic farming groups that first developed organic standards. In the early years, the
            farmers inspected one another on a voluntary basis, according to quite a general set
            of standards.

            1972 establishment of IFOAM

         Today third-party certification is a much more complex and formal process. Although
            certification started as a voluntary activity, the market began to demand it for sales
            transactions, and now it is required by the regulations of many governments for any
            kind of an "organic" claim on a product label.
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                                                       http://www.ifoam.org/about_ifoam/standards/index.html




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          Legislation
         EU Regulation on organic farming

         On 24 June 1991, the Council of the EU adopted Regulation (EEC) No
           2092/91 on organic production of agricultural products and
           indications referring thereto on agricultural products and
           foodstuffs.

         The introduction of the Regulation was part of the reform of the EU’s
           Common Agricultural Policy and was the culmination of a process of
           official recognition of organic farming in certain EU Member States.

         Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 laid down rules applicable to all
           Community output of organic crop products only.

         But further rules adopted in 1992 and 1995 provided the possibility of
           developing a specific logo for the organic sector and governing
           technical matters such as labelling and importing.

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         Legislation
         In 1999, the Council adopted Regulation (EC) No 1804/1999
            of 19 July 1999, which laid down Community rules for
            the production of organic livestock products and
            issues such as foodstuffs, disease prevention and
            veterinary treatments, animal welfare, husbandry
            practices and the management of manure.

         The 1999 Regulation also excluded production using
           genetically modified organisms and products derived
           from them and allowed imports of organic products
           from third countries whose production criteria and
           control systems were recognised as equivalent by the
           EU.


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         Legislation
         The rules contained in Regulation (EEC) No
           2092/91 are very complex and comprehensive.
           As well as defining the required method of
           production of crops and livestock they also
           regulate the following aspects of organic
           products:
           •   Labelling
           •   Processing
           •   Inspection
           •   Marketing
           •   Import

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            Legislation
         The Regulation is also accompanied by several technical indexes covering
            matters such as:
            Principles of organic production at the farm level, including for plant and plant
            products, livestock and livestock products, and beekeeping and beekeeping
            products
            Products authorised for use in organic farming including fertilisers and soil
            conditioners, pesticides and feed materials

         These annexes and other aspects of the Regulation can be amended by the
            Commission to keep them up-to-date with technical and scientific
            developments and with the market for organic products.

         The rules laid down in Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 do not preclude the
            application of general Community rules applying to all agricultural
            products. All provisions governing the production, preparation, marketing,
            labelling and inspection of agricultural products do apply for organic as for any
            food products.
            The Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 requirements cover specifically the
            organic method of production, the characteristics of organic products
            and rules linked to it.
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            Further EU regulations
         Are governing issues such as feed, imports, seed and food additives aspects complete the legislative
             framework governing the organic farming sector:
             Commission Regulation (EC) No 223/2003 of 5 February 2003 on labelling requirements related to the
             organic production method for feedingstuffs, compound feedingstuffs and feed materials and
             amending Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91

             Commission Regulation (EC) No 1788/2001 of 7 September 2001 laying down detailed rules for
             implementing the provisions concerning the certificate of inspection for imports from third countries
             under Article 11 of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 on organic production of agricultural products
             and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs

             Commission Regulation (EEC) No 94/92 of 14 January 1992 laying down detailed rules for implementing
             the arrangements for imports from third countries provided for in Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 on
             organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and
             foodstuffs

             Commission Regulation (EEC) No 207/93 of 29 January 1993 defining the content of Annex VI to
             Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring
             thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs and laying down detailed rules for implementing the
             provisions of Article 5 (4) thereto

             Commission Regulation (EC) No 1452/2003 of 14 August 2003 maintaining the derogation provided for in
             Article 6(3)(a) of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 with regard to certain species of seed and
             vegetative propagating material and laying down procedural rules and criteria relating to that
             derogation



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         New regulation 834/2007


         Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 of
           28 June 2007 on organic production
          and labelling of organic products and
              repealing Regulation (EEC) No
                         2092/91

         It shall apply as from 1 January 2009.
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         Structure of the new regulation
         834/2007

         I AIM, SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS
         II OBJECTIVES AND PRINCIPLES FOR
             ORGANIC PRODUCTION
         III PRODUCTION RULES
         IV LABELLING
         V CONTROLS
         VI TRADE WITH THIRD COUNTRIES
         VII FINAL AND TRANSITIONAL RULES
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         REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION
         BODIES


           NOTIFY ACTIVITY TO THE COMPETENTE AUTHORITY OF
           THE STATE,
           SUPERVISION FROM THE AUTHORITY,
           INSPECTION EXPERIENCE AND RELIABILITY,
           ADMINISTRATIVE AND TECHNICAL FACILITIES,
           QUALIFIED STAFF,
           INDEPENDENCE,
           OBJECTIVITY

         APPROVEMENT FROM THE COMPETENT AUTHORITY -
         ACCREDITATION according to SIST EN 45 011
                                (ISO/IEC Guide 56:2006)
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         … from 834/2007
          the control body is accredited to the most
          recently notified version, by a publication in the
          C series of the Official Journal of the European
          Union, of European Standard EN 45011 or ISO
          Guide 65 (General requirements for bodies
          operating product certification systems), and is
          approved by the competent authorities;

                In 2092/92 … the control body has to operate according to
                                     SIST EN 45011


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         SIST EN 45011:1998 (en)
         General criteria for certification bodies
         operating product certification systems
         (ISO/IEC Guide 65:1996)

             Independent

             Imaptial

             Competent
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         Steps in inspection and certification
         1. APPLICATON OF FARMER
                                           Basic information



                  Contact with
               responsible person
                                         Contact to the farmer




                                             Registration
                                             of the farmer
                                    NO      in IIC Register
                                                   ?




                                          YES


                                         Farmers Data input into
                                             IIC Register and
                                         preparation of the basic
                                         material for keeping the
                                                documents


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                                          Signing contract




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         Steps in inspection and certification
         2. INSPECTION

                        FARM VISIT BY ICC INSPECTOR




                                FARM CONTROL:

                       THE INSPECTION
                       CHECK THE REAL SITUATION ON
                       THE FARM (fields, stables, storages,
                       processing units, recepies…)
                       CHECK THE RECORDS




                         FIIL OUT THE ICC DOCUMENTS
                                  (REPPORTS)




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         Steps in inspection and certification
         3. CERTIFICATION PROCESS

                         CHECK UP AND EVALUATION THE FARM
                          DOCUMENTS – REPPORTS, ANAYSIS,
                           ADDITIONAL SEND DOCUMENTS,…




                              CERTIFICATION PROCESS:

                                  MAKING DECISION

                          ORGANIC FARM STATUS DEFINITION




                                CERTICATE DEFINITION


                         PRINTING AND SIGNING THE CERTIFICATE

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         The certification process proceeds as
            follows:                                 Certification
         • Definition of scope and standard
             to be used;
                                                          scheme
         • Pre-audit (optional) in order to
             assess the current producer’s
             status;

         • Certification audit to verify that all
             products and procedures
             conform to standards. If this is
             the case, the certificate will be
             issued;

         • Surveillance audit to follow the
             production.

         For agricultural products, a conversion
             period is necessary between the
             initial audit and the issuing of the
             certificate (i.e. a period of 2 years
             is necessary for vegetable
             products).


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           Annex III, 5.   Inspection visits

         The inspection body or authority must make a full physical
           inspection at least once a year, of the
           production/preparation units or other premises.
         The inspection body or authority may take samples for
           testing….
         An inspection report must be drawn up after each visit,
           countersigned by the responsible person of the unit or his
           representative.
         Moreover, the inspection body or authority shall carry out
           random inspection visits, announced or not. The visits shall
           cover in particular those holdings or situations where
           specific risk or exchange of products from organic products
           with other products may exist.                        47




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         Inspction visit
         Preparation for the visit - mostly unannounced
         Checking fields, pastures,…
                   stables, animals – calculating ANI
         Storages (fertilizers, pesticides,… to final products)
         Processing unit, calculating recepies,
         Checking declarations

         Checking records and relevant documents (declarations, specifications,
         invoices,…)
         Calculating f.i. rate of conventional feed, N, storage capacities for slurry,…

         Taking samples if necessary

         The situation on the farm or in the processing unit has to be written in the report
         including unconformities, sanctions (1-3) and signedd by farmer and inspection

         Delivery of the reports and samples to the office.
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         Uncomformities
         If inspector find some uncomformities against
            the standards and regulation 2092/91 the
            proper measures with dead lines for
            improving has to be given to the farmer.
         Sanctions can be imposed:
           -   Sanction 1: warning
           -   Sanction 2: additional provement has to be sent to
               office
           -   Sanction 3: additional inspection
           -   Sanction 4: product can not be sold as organic,
           -   Sanction 5: exclusion the farm from inspection

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         Risk assesment is included in the
         work of CB!
         Risk to the integrity of certification of organic agriculture
         arises from error, poor management and intentional fraud.

         Certification requirements therefore attempt to reduce the
         chance of error, establish good management practices and
         use audit practices and control of certificates to deter and
         expose fraud.

         Specific rules have been incorporated into various norms to
         reduce the risk in certain situations. e.g. split production .

         Other rules have been developed to control special
         certification circumstances e.g. wild harvest or contracted
         production.

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          Inspection and certification –
             The whole chain is checked and evaluated
                 from the farm – to the consumer.
         Certified are organic products, but whole production system is
                                    controlled.
                 on the farm in the slaughter house in selling




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                         Organic farm


         Cereals



          Mill




                        Direct marketing / Trade



                   Consumer of organic food
                                                   52




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         Some questions conected to the
         legislation – inspection points in
         animal production



         Conversion of farm to organic farming
         Animal origin
         Animal breeding
         Animal husbandry
         Feed


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         Conversion of a farm

          Conversion plan!
          Time span:
            - 2 years for annual crops (24 months from
          the use of not allowed substances)
            - 3 years for perennial crops (36 months)
          Status of the harvest/ land:
         - “from conversion” (just products of plants)
         - after the conversion period and received
          certificate it’s certified “organic”!
          Products from animal origin can not be sold
          as product “from conversion”




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         When is the farm in conversion?

         The farm is in conversion from conventional, when:
            • it hands in the application documents to the inspection body for organic farming,
            • signs the contract of the inspection body,
            • the introductive course about organic farming is passed (recomended),
            • is a member of an organic farmers union (desirable).

         The conversion time is at least two years, three years for plantations of permanent crops. The
            conversion period can be prolonged in certain cases, but not longer than five years (“gradual”
            conversion). The conversion can be shortened, too.

         If after the contract is signed any un-allowed substances are used the date of the
         use is obligatory for the start of the new conversion time. The harvest status is
         based on the vegetation period of the first inspection.
         P1 farm in the 1. year of conversion to organic farming (the products are
         “conventional”)
         P2 farm in the 2. year of conversion to organic farming (the products from plant
         origin are sold as “products from conversion”)
         P3 farm in the 3. year of conversion to organic farming (products from plant
         origin are sold as “products from conversion”)
         O organic farm (products are labeled and sold as “organic”).




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             EC 2092/91 regulation

         Organic farm/ enterprise is in the conversion period, if the production or
           processing unit is converting from other forms of production or
           processing, with the current regulation for organic farming.

            The organic agricultural product or foodstuff, produced in
              the conversion time, can be labeled as “organic” if in the
              same time the “from conversion” is clearly visible:
                 – if the one year period has passed before harvesting, the products
                 are produced according to the regulation for organic farming;
                 – the product contains only one component of agricultural origin;
                 – the agricultural product was produced without the use of GMOs;
                 – the product was not under the impact of ionized radiation.

         Organic feedstuff was produced in the time span of conversion of the
           feedstuff, in accordance with the EC regulation 2092/91 in minimum
           period of one year before the harvest on the organic production unit
           (farm).




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         Example 1

         Entry in the inspection procedure of the
         certification body for organic farming 25.12.2005:

         •   Products from the year 2006 – “conventional”.

         •   Products from the year 2007 – “from conversion” to organic
             farming for products of plant and animal origin are
             convetional. With exeption of bees, which can be already
             “certified organic”.

         •   Products from year 2008 – “organic”, with exception of
             permanent plantations (are still in conversion period).




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         Example 2

          Entry in the inspection procedure of the certification body for
          organic farming 30.6.2005:

          •   Products from the year 2005 – “conventional”.

          •   Products from the year 2006 – “conventional”, except the plants which
              were planted/sowed after 30.6.2006 (e.g. buckwheat, millet,
              vegetables), these can be sold as “organic” in the autumn. Animal
              products are “conventional” except bee products (which got the
              “organic” status in the year 2006).

          •   Products from year 2007 –”from conversion to organic farming” for all
              plant products which have been sown before 30.6.2007 (e.g.
              buckwheat, millet, vegetables) – this can get the “organic” status in the
              autumn.

          Products from year 2008 – “organic”.




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             Conversion of an organic farm with animals

         The conversion period to organic animal husbandry lasts
           at least two years, if the conversion time of the organic
           farm for plant production has passed.

         Without respect to the previous paragraph the conversion period can be
            shortened with the permission of the certification body, if we convert
            only the organic animal husbandry part, to:
            - one year, if we adapt the outdoor facilities (grassland, outdoor fences
            and areas on the outdoor run) which are used by the animals,
            - 6 months, if the area and the facilities of the organic farm fit the
            according regulation.

         Conversion of the whole organic farm lasts for at least 24 months for
           animals and its offspring, which:
           - are mostly fed with organic feedstuff from the own organic farm,
           - were on the organic farm when the conversion period on the farm
           started,
           - area for the fodder (grassland) is used on the farm from the beggining
           of the conversion of the farm.




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         Conversion of an organic farm with
         animals
         The source of organic agricultural products/foodstuff of animal
           origin have to be on an organic farm according this regulation,
           at least:
           - 12 months or ¾ of the lifespan from an animal (horses
           and cattle) for meat production;
           - 2 months for calfs,
           - 6 months for small ruminants,
           - 6 months for pigs,
           - 6 months for animals for milk production,
           - 10 weeks for poultry if the animal was younger than 3
           days (for meat production) or 6 weeks (for egg production),
           - 2/3 of the lifespan of a fish.

         Conversion in beekeeping lasts for 12 months!


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         FARM WITH GRASSLAND (BEEF PRODUCTION)
         POSSIBLE PROBLEMS IN CONVERSION POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS




             high weed pressure            improved storage
             (dock plants),                facilities for animal
                                           manure and techniqes
             over fertilization (high      of the manure use,
             load of animals),
                                           lower the number of
             not sufficient feedstuff      animals per hectare,
             production,                   improved fertalization
             not suitable housing          practices,
             systems,                      rearranged
             not well arranged             stable/exercise area
             exercise area for the         system,
             animals,                      incorporation to a
                                           trademark for organic
             lower possibilities for the   meat production.
             marketing of meat
             products.




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         Specific problems in conversion of
         organic farms with animals

         Problems that apear in the feedstuff production:
            weeds like docks plants,
            not enoght own fodder (mostly in dry years),
            buying in of conventional concentrates are over the limit of
            allowance,
            own production of concentrates is not present (in spite the fact that
            this farms produced grains by themselves in the past).

         Problems with selling/marketing organic produced meat and milk
            products:
            organic meat or milk is sold as conventional,
            there are just a few slaughter houses
             the farms which produce milk are very spread and in small numbers
            (collecting the milk for organic processing is nearly impossible),
            high financial inpoot (building and processing facilities) for
            processing of animal products.




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         Specific problems in conversion of organic farms with
         animals


         The conversion of an organic farm with animal and grassland is not counted as
            difficult, but we still have to face problems within the conversion period.
         During the first years of inspections we can report several lacks in organic animal husbandry –
            as an examle data for the year 2002 in the case of Slovenia are presented :
            if the husbandry was how it should be we can as a exception (to 2010) tie up the animals
            in the stable, if a outdoor run is present. The outdoor run was not suitable on 307 farms
            (from 1.150 all farms);
            after the year 2010 there will be a certification body requirement that the stable has an
            outdoor run;
            traditional stables were without appropriate light and air conditions (on 160 farms in year
            2002);
            to tie up calves until they were 6 months old is not allowed (on 122 farms);
            inappropriate storage facilities for the manure (on 247 farms);
            the presence or use of not allowed feedstuff (concentrates) and mineral additives, which
            were not in the List of allowed substances in organic farming (on 147 farms);
            in cage stables for laying hens and rabbits was not allowed (on 46 farms);
            perforated floor within stables for cattle (on 35 farms) and too short standing places (on 48
            farms);
            preventive treatment (on 97 farms) was not allowed;
            buying in of animals (source) was not appropriate (23 farms);
            not enough litter/bedding;
            inappropriate keeping of requirred records.




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         Conversion of new areas –
         fodder
         The first harvest of fodder is after a conversion
         period of 12 months, the first grass cut (as
         “organic”) on the grassland can be after a
         conversion period of 12 months.
         The first harvest after 24 months conversion
         period can be for organic feddstuff (grains and
         legumes).
         On grassland this is the first cut after 24 months
         conversion period (from the date on which we
         got the new area).




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         Conversion of new areas –
         fodder
          On the first inspection the organic farmer has to hand in a
          document which presents the former use of the area
          (surface). With this it has to be proven that the area was not
          poluted with not allowed substances in organic farming 12
          months before the first cut which counts as organic. If the
          evidence (document) is acceptible the first cut for fodder
          from this area is counted as “from conversion”. This fodder
          can be included to 60% in the annual food intake (if it is
          produced on the own farm).

          If the document about the former use of the area is not
          appropriate, the fodder produced in the first year is
          “conventional”. That means that the produced fodder can be
          used in accordance with the rules concerning permitted
          shares of conventional fodder in the daily food intake.




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         Example 1 – fodder

          In addition to the organic farm (on the 31.12.2006)
          1,5 ha new grassland area was bought. On the
          first inspection in spring 2007 they handed in the
          document of former use of the new area. The
          purchase contract and a folder copy was added. It
          was stated that on the area substances which are
          not allowed in organic farming were used in
          autumn 2005 for the last time.

          Consequence:
          •   1,5 ha of grassland is in conversion. Fodder from this
              area can be used in accordance with the rules of
              permitted share of conventional origin in organic
              farming (with 60% of yearly food intake on the own
              farm). First organic fodder from this area will be
              available on the 31.12.2008 (first cut in 2009).




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         Example 2 – fodder

         In addition to the organic farm (on the 1.11.2006) 2,5
         ha of grassland area was bought. On the first
         inspection in spring 2007 the documents of former use
         of the new grassland area is not added. Without this
         document it is not possible to prove when on this area
         substances which are not allowed in organic farming
         were used for the last time (minimum 12 months).
         Consequence:
         •   The fodder from the 2,5 ha area is untill the 1.11.2007
             “conventional”. Fodder from 2008 is “from conversion”. First
             “organic” fodder from this area is on the 1.11.2008 (first cut in
             2009).




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         Example 4: Application to inspection
         before start of vegetation or after?
         First application or getting new grasland from conventioanl farm before
             start of vegetation 1st of April:
         o All areas and yields Vse površine (pridelki) tega leta so
             konvencionalne(i)
         o Vse površine (pridelki) v drugem letu so iz preusmeritve
         o Vse površine (pridelki) po 24-ih mesecih so ekološke(i)
         Ce je bila 1. prijava ali pridobitev novih površin po zacetku vegetacije
             tekocega leta
         (1. april) velja:
         o Vse površine (pridelki) so prvih 12 mesecev konvencionalne(i), kljub
             temu je
         pridelek (trava, seno) tudi v drugem letu konvencionalen
         o Vse površine po 12-ih mesecih so iz preusmeritve, pridelek pa je
             lahko
         prodan z oznako 'iz preusmeritve' šele v tretjem letu
         o Vse površine so z novim letom in 24 mesecev po zacetku preusmeritve
         ekološke, torej je pridelek ekološki šele v 4. letu!
         Kaj to                                                              70




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         Article 11
         General farm production rules

         The entire agricultural holding shall be managed in compliance with
           the requirements applicable to organic production.

         However, in accordance with specific conditions to be laid down in
           accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 37(2), a holding
           may be split up into clearly separated units or aquaculture production
           sites which are not all managed under oorganic production.
             •   As regards animals, different species shall be involved.
             •   As regards aquaculture the same species may be involved, provided that there
                 is adequate separation between the production sites.
             •   As regards plants, different varieties that can be easily differentiated shall be
                 involved.

         Where, in accordance with the second subparagraph, not all units of a
           holding are used for organic production, the operator shall keep the
           land, animals, and products used for, or produced by, the organic units
           separate from those used for, or produced by, the non-organic units
           and keep adequate records to show the separation.

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         General requierments

         Healthy, highly productive and long-lived livestock must be
         kept in a natural and appropriate environment if the animals
         are to produce high-quality agricultural products and
         fertilizers.

         Livestock numbers must be adapted to the agricultural
         area. An organic farm can hold only so many animals
         enough that the nitrogen production from the livestock does
         not exceed 170kg N/ha/year.



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            Article 5 Specific principles
            applicable to farming
         (g) the practice of site-adapted and land-related livestock production;
         (h) the observance of a high level of animal welfare respecting species-specific
              needs;
         (i) the production of products of organic livestock from animals that have been raised
              on organic holdings since birth or hatching and throughout their life;
         (j) the choice of breeds having regard to the capacity of animals to adapt to local
              conditions, their vitality and their resistance to disease or health problems;
         (k) the feeding of livestock with organic feed composed of agricultural ingredients
              from organic farming and of natural non-agricultural substances;
         (l) the application of animal husbandry practices, which enhance the immune system
              and strengthen the natural defence against diseases, in particular including
              regular exercise and access to open air areas and pastureland where appropriate;
         (m) the exclusion of rearing artificially induced polyploid animals;
         (n) the maintenance of the biodiversity of natural aquatic ecosystems, the continuing
              health of the aquatic environment and the quality of surrounding aquatic and
              terrestrial ecosystems in aquaculture production;
         (o) the feeding of aquatic organisms with feed from sustainable exploitation of
              fisheries or with organic feed composed of agricultural ingredients from organic
              farming and of natural non-agricultural substances.


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         organic feed
         Specific principles applicable to processing of organic feed

         In addition to the overall principles set out in Article 4, the
             production of processed organic feed shall be based on the
             following specific principles:
         (a) the production of organic feed from organic feed materials,
             except where a feed material is not available on the market in
             organic form;
         (b) the restriction of the use of feed additives and processing aids
             to a minimum extent and only in case of essential technological
             or biotechnical needs or for particular nutritional purposes;
         (c) the exclusion of substances and processing methods that might
             be misleading as to the true nature of the product;
         (d) the processing of feed with care, preferably with the use of
             biological, mechanical and physical methods.

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                                                                                74
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         Replacement stock must originate from the member’s own
           holding or from another certified organic producer.
            • Calves for fattening must be from organic origin.
            Exceptions:
            • Calves for breeding can be from conventional origin, less than 6
              month old
            • Female animals, that have never calved, can be purchased every
              year for the increase or renewal of the herd, up to a maximum of
              10%, or 1 per year if the herd is less than 10 female animals
            • For the renewal or restoration of the stock conventional chicks for
              laying hen production and poultry for meat production can be
              purchased, if they are not older than 3 days, if animals from organic
              origin are not available in sufficient quantities.
            • Piglets for fattening must be from organic origin.
            Exceptions:
            • Piglets for gilt upbringing for the renewing or restoring of the stock –
              if animals from organic origin are not available in sufficient quantities
              – must after weaning be kept according to the regulations for organic
              farming and have a weight under 35 kg.

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         Animal breeding
          The natural breeding of agricultural livestock
          should allow for a diversity of breeds.
          Fertility and overall fitness are the main
          breeding goals. Standards are set in terms of
          lifetime performance.
          Genetic engineering, embryo transfers or the
          purchase of animals resulting from embryo
          transfers is forbidden. No genetically
          manipulated animals are to be used.
          Purchased breeding sows and deployed boars
          must be stress-negative in halothane tests.

                                                   76




                                                           76
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         breeding:


         (i) reproduction shall use natural methods.
              Artificial insemination is however allowed;
         (ii) reproduction shall not be induced by
              treatment with hormones or similar
              substances, unless as a form of veterinary
              therapeutic treatment in case of an individual
              animal;
         (iii) other forms of artificial reproduction, such as
              cloning and embryo transfer, shall not be
              used;
         (iv) appropriate breeds shall be chosen. The
              choice of breeds shall also contribute to the
              prevention of any suffering and to avoiding the
                                                          77
              need for the mutilation of animals;         834/2007




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         Breed of animal species



            Farmers have to consider the adaptability of
            the breed on the environment and the animals
            resistance against diseases.

            Old indigineus and local breeds have priority
            by the decision. We have to avoid species and
            breeds which are suceptible to specific animal
            diseases as BSE syndrom, sudden death,
            heavy births, miscarriage and others.




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         Indigineus and local breeds have to
         be prefered,…




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         For poultry, the minimum age at slaughter shall be:


           81 days for chickens,
           150 days for capons,
           49 days for Peking ducks,
           70 days for female Muscovy ducks,
           84 days for male Muscovy ducks,
           92 days for Mallard ducks,
           94 days for guineafowl,
           140 days for turkeys and roasting geese.
           Where producers do not apply these minimum slaughter
           ages, they must use slow-growing strains.



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           Husbandry management practices, transport and
           identification of livestock products
              Husbandry practices
         i) personnel keeping animals shall possess the necessary basic
              knowledge and skills as regards the health and the welfare needs of
              the animals;
         (ii) husbandry practices, including stocking densities, and housing
              conditions shall ensure that the developmental, physiological and
              ethological needs of animals are met;
         (iii) the livestock shall have permanent access to open air areas,
              preferably pasture, whenever weather conditions and the state of
              the ground allow this unless restrictions and obligations related to
              the protection of human and animal health are imposed on the basis
              of Community legislation;
         (iv) the number of livestock shall be limited with a view to minimising
              overgrazing, poaching of soil, erosion, or pollution caused by
              animals or by the spreading of their manure;
         (v) organic livestock shall be kept separate from other livestock.
              However, grazing of common land by organic animals and of
              organic land by non-organic animals is permitted under certain
              restrictive conditions;
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                                                                         834/2007




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           Husbandry practices

         (vi) tethering or isolation of livestock shall be prohibited, unless for
             individual animals for a limited period of time, and in so far as this is
             justified for safety, welfare or veterinary reasons;
         (vii) duration of transport of livestock shall be minimised;
         (viii) any suffering, including mutilation, shall be kept to a minimum
             during the entire life of the animal, including at the time of slaughter;
         (ix) apiaries shall be placed in areas which ensure nectar and pollen
             sources consisting essentially of organically produced crops or, as
             appropriate, of spontaneous vegetation or non-organically managed
             forests or crops that are only treated with low environmental impact
             methods. Apiaries shall be kept at sufficient distance from sources
             that may lead to the contamination of beekeeping products or to the
             poor health of the bees;
         (x) hives and materials used in beekeeping shall be mainly made of
             natural materials;
         (xi) the destruction of bees in the combs as a method associated with
             the harvesting of beekeeping products is prohibited;
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         Care
          In the case of illness, injury or damage the necessary care
          or veterinarian treatment must be taken swiftly. Sick or
          injured animals are to be kept according to their special
          needs and if necessary separated.
          Animals in animal keeping systems, whose well-being
          depends on the regular care of people, must be controlled
          at least once a day.
          Weight and age similarities, depending on the type of
          livestock, must be respected when animals are kept in
          groups.
          Hoof care is to be carried out regularly by qualified
          personnel, as often as required.
          In order to ensure the highest meat quality, loading and
          transport of the animals should be as careful and stress-
          free as possible. Therefore loading units on the holding
          are recommended.
          Electric prods are forbidden. The use of sedatives is
          forbidden. Animal transport laws are to be observed.
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         Animal Needs Index (Bartussek)
         ANI-35L-systems exist and are in use now for
            cows, young and beef cattle, calves, laying
            hens, fattening pigs (including piglets) and
            pregnant sows.
         The ANI principally considers five aspects of the
            animal’s environment:
            •   the possibility of mobility;
            •   social contact;
            •   condition of flooring for lying, standing and walking;
            •   climatization (including ventilation, light and noise);
                and
            •   the intensity or quality of human care.

                Source: www.veeru.reading.ac.uk/organic/proc/bart.htm
                                                                        84




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         85




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    Animal Needs Index (Bartussek)
    Sum of     Names of categories of Percentage      School   Verbal school Symbols
    ANI          housing conditions with of range     grades      grades
    Points       respect to welfare      of points


    < 11       Not suitable                 < 35      5        Insufficient     No label

    11-16      Scarcely suitable            35 - 44   4        Sufficient       *
    16.5-21    Little suitable (mediocre)   45 - 54   3        Satisfactory     **

    21.5 -24   Fairly suitable              55 - 62   2        Good             ***

    24.5-28    Suitable                     63 - 70   1        Very good        ****
    > 28       Very suitable                > 70      E        Excellent        *****

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         87




              87
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           Use of ANI in Slovenia
         Started in 1998 after establishing organic farming certification
            system.

         It was introduced in the first Slovene legislation about organic
             farming in 2001.

         After EU accession it was not included anymore in the Slovene
            OF legislative,
         but in inspection it is still used for evaluation the housing
            condition for tied housing of cows:
                    - over 21 points in old stables
                    - over 24 points in new stables



                                                                    88




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           Feeding
         Origin of feeding stuff
         Livestock should generally be fed home-grown organic feeds.

         Exemptions
         All percentages are based on the maximum dry matter content of feeding
             stuff of agricultural origin in the yearly ration.
         Conversion feeds
             Rations may include up to 30% conversion feedstuffs. If the conversion
             feeds come from the member’s own holding, then the ration may include
             up to 60% conversion feedstuffs.
         Conventional feeds
             Conventional feeding stuff is only to be used if organic feeding stuff is
             not available.
             The permitted maximum portion of conventional feeding stuff is for:
             •   Roughage feeder (ruminants and horses) up to 31.12.2007: 5%, afterwards 0%
                 of the yearly ration
             •   For other animals (mono gastric animals):
                  •   up to 31.12.2007: 15% conventional feeding stuff dry matter in the yearly ration
                  •   up to 31.12.2009: 10% conventional feeding stuff dry matter in the yearly ration
                  •   up to 31.12.2011: 5% conventional feeding stuff, afterwards 0% dry matter in the yearly
                      ration
                  •                                                                           is
                      In both cases, the percentage of conventional feeds in the daily ration 89 not to exceed
                      25%.




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             Feeding
            Antibiotics, coccidiostatics and other pharmaceuticals, growth promoters
            and other agents for promoting performance or growth, dyes, urea and
            non-protein nitrogen compounds as protein substitutes are forbidden.

         Roughage for ruminants
           Roughage must comprise at least 60% of the daily ration for ruminants.
           Calves are to be offeredstructured roughage from the second week of
           age.

         Feeding of young roughage feeders (calves, lambs, kids, foals)
           Feed for young mammals is to be based on natural milk.
           Minimum time limits for liquid feeding:
             •   Cattle and horses: 3 months;
             •   Sheep and goats: 45 days
           For dairy goats and dairy sheep holders the following applies:
         Feeding based on natural milk means a minimum of 50% of the ration is
           natural milk (cow milk is possible). The remainder of the ration may be
           organic milk substitute e.g. organic whole milk powder.


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              feed:
         (i) primarily obtaining feed for livestock from the holding where the animals
             are kept or from other organic holdings in the same region;

         (ii) livestock shall be fed with organic feed that meets the animal's nutritional
              requirements at the various stages of its development. A part of the ration
              may contain feed from holdings which are in conversion to organic
              farming;

         (iii) with the exception of bees, livestock shall have permanent access to
              pasture or roughage;

         (iv) non organic feed materials from plant origin, feed materials from animal
             and mineral origin, feed additives, certain products used in animal
             nutrition and processing aids shall be used only if they have been
             authorised for use in organic production under Article 16;

         (v) growth promoters and synthetic amino-acids shall not be used;

         (vi) suckling mammals shall be fed with natural, preferably maternal, milk;

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         disease prevention and veterinary treatment:


          (i) disease prevention shall be based on breed and strain selection,
              husbandry management practices, high quality feed and exercise,
              appropriate stocking density and adequate and appropriate housing
              maintained in hygienic conditions;

          (ii) disease shall be treated immediately to avoid suffering to the
               animal; chemically synthesised allopathic veterinary medicinal
               products including antibiotics may be used where necessary and
               under strict conditions, when the use of phytotherapeutic,
               omeopathic and other products is inappropriate. In particular
               restrictions with respect to courses of treatment and withdrawal
               periods shall be defined;

          (iii) the use of immunological veterinary medicines is allowed;

          (iv) treatments related to the protection of human and animal health
              imposed on the basis of Community legislation shall be allowed;
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         Inspection bodies
          List
          How to find it?
          Career in inspection and certification




                                               93




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         List of inspection bodies in EU
         Article 9 of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 of 24
           June 1991 on organic production of agricultural products
           and indications referring thereto on agricultural products
           and foodstuffs, requires that the Member States set up
           an inspection system operated by one or more
           designated inspection authorities and/or approved
           private inspection bodies.

         According to the provision of the last subparagraph of
           Article 15 of the Regulation, the current communication
           lists, on the basis of the information from the Member
           States updated in 2007, the system made operational in
           each Member State and the bodies and/or authorities
           approved for inspection.

                                                               94




                                                                        94
IKC UM




         List of inspection bodies in EU
         Published in the Official Journal of the European
           Union C

         LIST OF BODIES OR PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
           IN CHARGE OF INSPECTION PROVIDED
           FOR IN ARTICLE 15 OF COUNCIL
           REGULATION (EEC) No 2092/91 (2008/C
           13/03)

         http://eur-
            lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2008:013:0
            003:0028:EN:PDF
                                                                95




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IKC UM




            Example
            Member States and Code:
                                SI-IKC-EKO

            Inspection authority(ies) or body(ies) adress and contacts:
                     IKC — Institute for Inspection and Certification
                            of University of Maribor
                     Vrbanska 30
                     SLO-2000 Maribor
                     Tel: (386) 2 250 58 00/49
                     Fax: (386) 2 229 60 71
                     E-mail: Polonca.repic@uni-mb.si
                     E-mail: Martina.bavec@uni-mb.si
                     Website: www.ikc-um.si

           Comments: System A
         Specifics: Estonia 3 authorithies for different tasks, in Austria, Germany
           and Spain, the bodies have their activity limited to certain specified
           Länder/Autonomous Communities

                                                                          96




                                                                                      96
IKC UM




         Types of inspection bodies
         Under the column ‘comments’ the systems
          made operational in each of the Member
          States are indicated as follows:
             A: System of approved private inspection bodies
              (majority EU members)
             B: System of (a) designated public inspection
              authority(ies) in DK, EE, FI, LT, MT, NL
             C: System of a designated public inspection authority
              and approved private inspection bodies in LX, PO,
              ES

                                                           97




                                                                     97
IKC UM




         Majority EU members have A system
         – private inspection bodies
         Private inspection bodies must satisfy certain
           conditions:

            •   They have to be accredited under the EU’s General
                requirements for bodies operating product certification
                systems

            •   They have to be approved by the Member States'
                competent authority

            •   They have to be objective vis-à-vis the operators
                subject to their inspections


                                                                 98




                                                                          98
IKC UM




            Code
         Member states attribute an individual identification
          code to each organic inspection body and authority.
               Consumers have to be able to find this code or the name of the inspection
                 body or authority on every organic label. The code is a sign that the
                 product consumers are buying has been inspected by the inspection body
                 or authority which guarantees it was produced or processed in accordance
                 with the organic Regulation.

         Examples:   SI-IKC-EKO  FR-AB 01      CZ-KEZ-01
                     EL-01-BIO     IT-ICA       UK 2
                     AT-N-01-BIO   ES-AN-00-AE N-001
                     DE-039-Öko-Kontrollstelle
                     HU-ÖKO-01
                     RO-ECO-001 SK-02-BIO
                                                                           99




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IKC UM




         Number of inspection bodies per EU
         state

         Number       Countries
         1            LT, MT, NL, SK, N
         2            BE, CY, HU, LV, SE, IS
         3            CZ, EE, FI, IRL, SI
         4            LU
         5 and more   AT, BG, DK, FR, DE, GR, IT,
                      PO, PT, RO, ES, UK

                                                100




                                                      100
IKC UM




         Labelling of organic products
                            Eu logo

                           State logo

                      Inspection body logo

                          Trade logo




                                             101




                                                   101
IKC UM




         Career in inspection
         Inspectors have to
         - be competent - educated (at least end of the
           study of agriculture, food processing,…)
         - have practical experineces in organic farming



         -   be able to work with people
         -   be good in organizing, have own transportation
         -   work outside, stables,..

                                                     102




                                                              102
IKC UM




         Thank you!
         Wellcome to visit Slovenia, University of Maribor
         Faculty of Agriculture




                                                       103




                                                             103
IKC UM




                                          IKC Institute for inspection and
              www.fk.uni-mb.si               certification UM,
                                          Vrbanska 30, SI 2000 Maribor
         Vegetable production                www.ikc.si,
         Organic production               SIST EN 45011 accredited
         Alternative crops
                                          Inspection and Certification of
                                             integrated and organic
         Head of Organic farming             production,
         Bacheral Study program           Inspection of Eurep GAP = Global
         Ecologica (LDV) e-learning          GAP (certification by AgroVet
         tool                                Austria)
         Research (intercropping,
         fertilizing, quality dependent
         of production method, “foot
                                                                 104
         prints”…




                                                                             104
IKC UM




         Bavec F., Bavec M. (2006): Organic production and use of alternative crops, CRC
             Press, Boca Raton, 241 p.
         Santacoloma P. (2007): Organic certification schemes: managerial skills and
             associated costs FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE
             UNITED NATIONS Rome, 2007, 16, FAO Rural Infrastructure and
             Agroindustries Division ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1227e/a1227e00.pdf
         http://www.unctad.org/trade_env/test1/meetings/phnompen1/Presentation%20on%2
             0organic%20agriculture.pdf
         Bartussek H. How to measure animal welfare? The idea of an "Animal Needs
             Index" ANI-35L [Tiergerechtheitsindex TGI 35L]: A practical tool for assessing
             farm animal housing conditions on farm level in respect to animals´ well being
             and behavioural needs - Austrian experiences
         COUNCIL REGULATION (EEC) No 2092/91 of 24 June 1991 on organic production
           of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural
           products and foodstuffs (OJ L 198, 22.7.1991, p. 1)
         Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 of 28 June 2007 on organic production
           and labelling of organic products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No
           2092/91


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