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FAR Contents

VIEWS: 19 PAGES: 523

									FAR                                Contents
Federal Aviation Regulations (from Titles 14 and 49 Code of Federal Regulations)




                                                                                                                                                       1
Part 1           Definitions and Abbreviations................................................................................. 1..........




                                                                                                                                                      43
Part 43          Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, and Alteration ..................... 15..........




                                                                                                                                                      61
Part 61          Certification: Pilots, Flight Instructors, and Ground Instructors ............................ 31..........




                                                                                                                                                      67
Part 67          Medical Standards and Certification .................................................................. 133..........




                                                                                                                                                      71
Part 71          Designation of Class Airspace Areas; Service Routes; and Reporting Points......145 ..........




                                                                                                                                                      73
Part 73          Special Use Airspace ......................................................................................... 149..........




                                                                                                                                                      91
Part 91          General Operating and Flight Rules................................................................... 151..........




                                                                                                                                                      97
Part 97          Standard Instrument Procedures ....................................................................... 279..........




                                                                                                                                                      142 141 137 136 135 119 105 103
Part 103 Ultralight Vehicles ............................................................................................... 283..........


Part 105 Parachute Operations ........................................................................................ 285..........


Part 119 Certification: Air Carriers and Commercial Operators ........................................ 291..........


Part 135 Operating Requirements: Commuter and On Demand Operations.................... 309..........


Part 136 Commercial Air Tours and National Parks Air Tour Management....................... 423..........


Part 137 Agricultural Aircraft Operations .......................................................................... 431..........


Part 141 Pilot Schools ...................................................................................................... 439..........


Part 142 Training Centers ................................................................................................. 483..........
                                                                                                                                                                                        CFR
                                                                                                                                                      49




49 CFR           NTSB 830 Accident Reporting                     •   TSA 1552 Flight Training Security............. 493..........
                                                                                                                                                      INDEX




               Index................................................................................................................ 1053..........
Part 1: Definitions and Abbreviations                                                                      §1.1


          SUBCHAPTER A                                       Air traffic clearance means an authorization
                                                         by air traffic control, for the purpose of preventing




                                                                                                                    1
           DEFINITIONS                                   collision between known aircraft, for an aircraft to
                                                         proceed under specified traffic conditions within
                                                         controlled airspace.
                    PART 1                                   Air traffic control means a service operated
                                                         by appropriate authority to promote the safe, or-
DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS                            derly, and expeditious flow of air traffic.
                                                             Air Traffic Service (ATS) route is a specified
Sec.
                                                         route designated for channeling the flow of traffic
*1.1 General definitions.
                                                         as necessary for the provision of air traffic ser-
*1.2 Abbreviations and symbols.
                                                         vices. The term “ATS route” refers to a variety of
1.3 Rules of construction.
                                                         airways, including jet routes, area navigation
Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701.               (RNAV) routes, and arrival and departure routes.
                                                         An ATS route is defined by route specifications,
§1.1 General definitions.                                 which may include:
   As used in Subchapters A through K of this                (1) An ATS route designator;
chapter, unless the context requires otherwise:              (2) The path to or from significant points;
   Administrator means the Federal Aviation Ad-              (3) Distance between significant points;
ministrator or any person to whom he has dele-               (4) Reporting requirements; and
gated his authority in the matter concerned.                 (5) The lowest safe altitude determined by the
   Aerodynamic coefficients means nondimen-               appropriate authority.
sional coefficients for aerodynamic forces and                Air transportation means interstate, over-
moments.                                                 seas, or foreign air transportation or the transpor-
   Air carrier means a person who undertakes di-         tation of mail by aircraft.
rectly by lease, or other arrangement, to engage             Alert Area. An alert area is established to in-
in air transportation.                                   form pilots of a specific area wherein a high vol-
   Air commerce means interstate, overseas, or           ume of pilot training or an unusual type of aero-
foreign air commerce or the transportation of mail       nautical activity is conducted.
by aircraft or any operation or navigation of air-           Alternate airport means an airport at which an
craft within the limits of any Federal airway or any     aircraft may land if a landing at the intended air-
operation or navigation of aircraft which directly       port becomes inadvisable.
affects, or which may endanger safety in, inter-             Altitude engine means a reciprocating aircraft
state, overseas, or foreign air commerce.                engine having a rated takeoff power that is pro-
   Aircraft means a device that is used or in-           ducible from sea level to an established higher al-
tended to be used for flight in the air.                  titude.
   Aircraft engine means an engine that is used              Amateur rocket means an unmanned rocket
or intended to be used for propelling aircraft. It in-   that:
cludes turbosuperchargers, appurtenances, and                (1) Is propelled by a motor or motors having a
accessories necessary for its functioning, but           combined total impulse of 889,600 Newton-sec-
does not include propellers.                             onds (200,000 pound-seconds) or less; and
   Airframe means the fuselage, booms, na-                   (2) Cannot reach an altitude greater than 150
celles, cowlings, fairings, airfoil surfaces (includ-    kilometers (93.2 statute miles) above the earth’s
ing rotors but excluding propellers and rotating         surface.
airfoils of engines), and landing gear of an aircraft        Appliance means any instrument, mechanism,
and their accessories and controls.                      equipment, part, apparatus, appurtenance, or ac-
   Airplane means an engine-driven fixed-wing             cessory, including communications equipment,
aircraft heavier than air, that is supported in flight    that is used or intended to be used in operating or
by the dynamic reaction of the air against its           controlling an aircraft in flight, is installed in or at-
wings.                                                   tached to the aircraft, and is not part of an air-
   Airport means an area of land or water that is        frame, engine, or propeller.
used or intended to be used for the landing and              Approved, unless used with reference to an-
takeoff of aircraft, and includes its buildings and      other person, means approved by the FAA or any
facilities, if any.                                      person to whom the FAA has delegated its au-
   Airship means an engine-driven lighter-than-          thority in the matter concerned, or approved un-
air aircraft that can be steered.                        der the provisions of a bilateral agreement be-
   Air traffic means aircraft operating in the air or     tween the United States and a foreign country or
on an airport surface, exclusive of loading ramps        jurisdiction.
and parking areas.



                                                                                                               1
§1.1                                                                   Federal Aviation Regulations


   Area navigation (RNAV) is a method of navi-              Category B, with respect to transport category
gation that permits aircraft operations on any de-       rotorcraft, means single-engine or multiengine ro-
sired flight path.                                        torcraft which do not fully meet all Category A
   Area navigation (RNAV) route is an ATS route          standards. Category B rotorcraft have no guaran-
based on RNAV that can be used by suitably               teed stay-up ability in the event of engine failure
equipped aircraft.                                       and unscheduled landing is assumed.
   Armed Forces means the Army, Navy, Air                   Category II operations, with respect to the op-
Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, including          eration of aircraft, means a straight-in ILS ap-
their regular and reserve components and mem-            proach to the runway of an airport under a Cate-
bers serving without component status.                   gory II ILS instrument approach procedure issued
   Autorotation means a rotorcraft flight condi-          by the Administrator or other appropriate authority.
tion in which the lifting rotor is driven entirely by       Category III operations, with respect to the
action of the air when the rotorcraft is in motion.      operation of aircraft, means an ILS approach to,
   Auxiliary rotor means a rotor that serves ei-         and landing on, the runway of an airport using a
ther to counteract the effect of the main rotor          Category III ILS instrument approach procedure
torque on a rotorcraft or to maneuver the rotor-         issued by the Administrator or other appropriate
craft about one or more of its three principal axes.     authority.
   Balloon means a lighter-than-air aircraft that is        Category IIIa operations, an ILS approach
not engine driven, and that sustains flight through       and landing with no decision height (DH), or a DH
the use of either gas buoyancy or an airborne            below 100 feet (30 meters), and controlling run-
heater.                                                  way visual range not less than 700 feet (200
   Brake horsepower means the power delivered            meters).
at the propeller shaft (main drive or main output)          Category IIIb operations, an ILS approach
of an aircraft engine.                                   and landing with no DH, or with a DH below 50
   Calibrated airspeed means the indicated air-          feet (15 meters), and controlling runway visual
speed of an aircraft, corrected for position and in-     range less than 700 feet (200 meters), but not
strument error. Calibrated airspeed is equal to          less than 150 feet (50 meters).
true airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea                 Category IIIc operations, an ILS approach
level.                                                   and landing with no DH and no runway visual
   Canard means the forward wing of a canard             range limitation.
configuration and may be a fixed, movable, or                 Ceiling means the height above the earth’s
variable geometry surface, with or without control       surface of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring
surfaces.                                                phenomena that is reported as “broken,” “over-
   Canard configuration means a configuration              cast,” or “obscuration,” and not classified as “thin”
in which the span of the forward wing is substan-        or “partial.”
tially less than that of the main wing.                     Civil aircraft means aircraft other than public
   Category:                                             aircraft.
   (1) As used with respect to the certification, rat-       Class:
ings, privileges, and limitations of airmen, means          (1) As used with respect to the certification, rat-
a broad classification of aircraft. Examples in-          ings, privileges, and limitations of airmen, means
clude: airplane; rotorcraft; glider; and lighter-than-   a classification of aircraft within a category having
air; and                                                 similar operating characteristics. Examples in-
   (2) As used with respect to the certification of       clude: single engine; multiengine; land; water; gy-
aircraft, means a grouping of aircraft based upon        roplane; helicopter; airship; and free balloon; and
intended use or operating limitations. Examples             (2) As used with respect to the certification of
include: transport, normal, utility, acrobatic, lim-     aircraft, means a broad grouping of aircraft having
ited, restricted, and provisional.                       similar characteristics of propulsion, flight, or
   Category A, with respect to transport category        landing. Examples include: airplane; rotorcraft;
rotorcraft, means multiengine rotorcraft designed        glider; balloon; landplane; and seaplane.
with engine and system isolation features speci-
fied in Part 29 and utilizing scheduled takeoff and
landing operations under a critical engine failure
concept which assures adequate designated sur-
face area and adequate performance capability for
continued safe flight in the event of engine failure.




2
Part 1: Definitions and Abbreviations                                                                  §1.1


    Clearway means:                                         Controlled airspace means an airspace of de-
    (1) For turbine engine powered airplanes certif-     fined dimensions within which air traffic control




                                                                                                               1
icated after August 29, 1959, an area beyond the         service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR
runway, not less than 500 feet wide, centrally lo-       flights in accordance with the airspace classifica-
cated about the extended centerline of the run-          tion.
way, and under the control of the airport authori-       NOTE — Controlled airspace is a generic term
ties. The clearway is expressed in terms of a            that covers Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D,
clearway plane, extending from the end of the            and Class E airspace.
runway with an upward slope not exceeding 1.25
percent, above which no object nor any terrain              Controlled Firing Area. A controlled firing
protrudes. However, threshold lights may protrude        area is established to contain activities, which if
above the plane if their height above the end of         not conducted in a controlled environment, would
the runway is 26 inches or less and if they are lo-      be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft.
cated to each side of the runway.                           Crewmember means a person assigned to
    (2) For turbine engine powered airplanes certif-     perform duty in an aircraft during flight time.
icated after September 30, 1958, but before Au-             Critical altitude means the maximum altitude
gust 30, 1959, an area beyond the takeoff runway         at which, in standard atmosphere, it is possible to
extending no less than 300 feet on either side of        maintain, at a specified rotational speed, a speci-
the extended centerline of the runway, at an ele-        fied power or a specified manifold pressure. Un-
vation no higher than the elevation of the end of        less otherwise stated, the critical altitude is the
the runway, clear of all fixed obstacles, and under       maximum altitude at which it is possible to main-
the control of the airport authorities.                  tain, at the maximum continuous rotational speed,
    Climbout speed, with respect to rotorcraft,          one of the following:
means a referenced airspeed which results in a              (1) The maximum continuous power, in the
flight path clear of the height-velocity envelope         case of engines for which this power rating is the
during initial climbout.                                 same at sea level and at the rated altitude.
    Commercial operator means a person who,                 (2) The maximum continuous rated manifold
for compensation or hire, engages in the carriage        pressure, in the case of engines, the maximum
by aircraft in air commerce of persons or property,      continuous power of which is governed by a con-
other than as an air carrier or foreign air carrier or   stant manifold pressure.
under the authority of Part 375 of this title. Where        Critical engine means the engine whose fail-
it is doubtful that an operation is for “compensa-       ure would most adversely affect the performance
tion or hire”, the test applied is whether the car-      or handling qualities of an aircraft.
riage by air is merely incidental to the person’s           Decision altitude (DA) is a specified altitude in
other business or is, in itself, a major enterprise      an instrument approach procedure at which the
for profit.                                               pilot must decide whether to initiate an immediate
    Configuration, Maintenance, and Proce-                missed approach if the pilot does not see the re-
dures (CMP) document means a document ap-                quired visual reference, or to continue the ap-
proved by the FAA that contains minimum configu-          proach. Decision altitude is expressed in feet
ration, operating, and maintenance requirements,         above mean sea level.
hardware life-limits, and Master Minimum Equip-             Decision height (DH) is a specified height
ment List (MMEL) constraints necessary for an air-       above the ground in an instrument approach pro-
plane-engine combination to meet ETOPS type              cedure at which the pilot must decide whether to
design approval requirements.                            initiate an immediate missed approach if the pilot
    Consensus standard means, for the purpose            does not see the required visual reference, or to
of certificating light-sport aircraft, an industry-de-    continue the approach. Decision height is ex-
veloped consensus standard that applies to air-          pressed in feet above ground level.
craft design, production, and airworthiness. It in-         Early ETOPS means ETOPS type design ap-
cludes, but is not limited to, standards for aircraft    proval obtained without gaining non-ETOPS ser-
design and performance, required equipment,              vice experience on the candidate airplane-engine
manufacturer quality assurance systems, produc-          combination certified for ETOPS.
tion acceptance test procedures, operating in-              Enhanced flight visibility (EFV) means the
structions, maintenance and inspection proce-            average forward horizontal distance, from the
dures, identification and recording of major              cockpit of an aircraft in flight, at which prominent
repairs and major alterations, and continued air-        topographical objects may be clearly distin-
worthiness.                                              guished and identified by day or night by a pilot
                                                         using an enhanced flight vision system.




                                                                                                          3
§1.1                                                                    Federal Aviation Regulations


   Enhanced flight vision system (EFVS)                       External-load attaching means means the
means an electronic means to provide a display of         structural components used to attach an external
the forward external scene topography (the natu-          load to an aircraft, including external-load con-
ral or manmade features of a place or region es-          tainers, the backup structure at the attachment
pecially in a way to show their relative positions        points, and any quick-release device used to jetti-
and elevation) through the use of imaging sen-            son the external load.
sors, such as a forward looking infrared, millime-           Final approach fix (FAF) defines the begin-
ter wave radiometry, millimeter wave radar, low           ning of the final approach segment and the point
light level image intensifying.                           where final segment descent may begin.
   Equivalent airspeed means the calibrated air-             Final takeoff speed means the speed of the
speed of an aircraft corrected for adiabatic com-         airplane that exists at the end of the takeoff path
pressible flow for the particular altitude. Equiva-        in the en route configuration with one engine inop-
lent airspeed is equal to calibrated airspeed in          erative.
standard atmosphere at sea level.                            Fireproof —
   ETOPS Significant System means an air-                     (1) With respect to materials and parts used to
plane system, including the propulsion system,            confine fire in a designated fire zone, means the
the failure or malfunctioning of which could ad-          capacity to withstand at least as well as steel in
versely affect the safety of an ETOPS flight, or the       dimensions appropriate for the purpose for which
continued safe flight and landing of an airplane           they are used, the heat produced when there is a
during an ETOPS diversion. Each ETOPS signifi-             severe fire of extended duration in that zone; and
cant system is either an ETOPS group 1 signifi-               (2) With respect to other materials and parts,
cant system or an ETOPS group 2 significant sys-           means the capacity to withstand the heat associ-
tem.                                                      ated with fire at least as well as steel in dimen-
   (1) An ETOPS group 1 Significant System—                sions appropriate for the purpose for which they
   (i) Has fail-safe characteristics directly linked to   are used.
the degree of redundancy provided by the number              Fire resistant —
of engines on the airplane.                                  (1) With respect to sheet or structural members
   (ii) Is a system, the failure or malfunction of        means the capacity to withstand the heat associ-
which could result in an IFSD, loss of thrust con-        ated with fire at least as well as aluminum alloy in
trol, or other power loss.                                dimensions appropriate for the purpose for which
   (iii) Contributes significantly to the safety of an     they are used; and
ETOPS diversion by providing additional redun-               (2) With respect to fluid-carrying lines, fluid sys-
dancy for any system power source lost as a re-           tem parts, wiring, air ducts, fittings, and power-
sult of an inoperative engine.                            plant controls, means the capacity to perform the
   (iv) Is essential for prolonged operation of an        intended functions under the heat and other con-
airplane at engine inoperative altitudes.                 ditions likely to occur when there is a fire at the
   (2) An ETOPS group 2 significant system is an           place concerned.
ETOPS significant system that is not an ETOPS                 Flame resistant means not susceptible to
group 1 significant system.                                combustion to the point of propagating a flame,
   Extended Operations (ETOPS) means an air-              beyond safe limits, after the ignition source is re-
plane flight operation, other than an all-cargo op-        moved.
eration in an airplane with more than two engines,           Flammable, with respect to a fluid or gas,
during which a portion of the flight is conducted          means susceptible to igniting readily or to ex-
beyond a time threshold identified in part 121 or          ploding.
part 135 of this chapter that is determined using            Flap extended speed means the highest
an approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed           speed permissible with wing flaps in a prescribed
under standard atmospheric conditions in still air.       extended position.
   Extended over-water operation means —                     Flash resistant means not susceptible to
   (1) With respect to aircraft other than helicop-       burning violently when ignited.
ters, an operation over water at a horizontal dis-           Flight crewmember means a pilot, flight engi-
tance of more than 50 nautical miles from the             neer, or flight navigator assigned to duty in an air-
nearest shoreline; and                                    craft during flight time.
   (2) With respect to helicopters, an operation             Flight level means a level of constant atmo-
over water at a horizontal distance of more than          spheric pressure related to a reference datum of
50 nautical miles from the nearest shoreline and          29.92 inches of mercury. Each is stated in three
more than 50 nautical miles from an off-shore he-         digits that represent hundreds of feet. For exam-
liport structure.                                         ple, flight level 250 represents a barometric altim-
   External load means a load that is carried, or         eter indication of 25,000 feet; flight level 255, an
extends, outside of the aircraft fuselage.                indication of 25,500 feet.



4
Part 1: Definitions and Abbreviations                                                                    §1.1


   Flight plan means specified information, relat-           Full flight simulator (FFS) means a replica of
ing to the intended flight of an aircraft, that is filed   a specific type; or make, model, and series air-




                                                                                                                 1
orally or in writing with air traffic control.            craft cockpit. It includes the assemblage of equip-
   Flight simulation training device (FSTD)              ment and computer programs necessary to repre-
means a flight simulator or a flight training device.      sent aircraft operations in ground and flight
   Flight time means:                                    conditions, a visual system providing an out-of-
   (1) Pilot time that commences when an aircraft        the-cockpit view, a system that provides cues at
moves under its own power for the purpose of             least equivalent to those of a three-degree-of-
flight and ends when the aircraft comes to rest af-       freedom motion system, and has the full range of
ter landing; or                                          capabilities of the systems installed in the device
   (2) For a glider without self-launch capability,      as described in part 60 of this chapter and the
pilot times that commences when the glider is            qualification performance standards (QPS) for a
towed for the purpose of flight and ends when the         specific FFS qualification level.
glider comes to rest after landing.                         Glider means a heavier-than-air aircraft, that is
   Flight training device (FTD) means a replica          supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the
of aircraft instruments, equipment, panels, and          air against its lifting surfaces and whose free flight
controls in an open flight deck area or an en-            does not depend principally on an engine.
closed aircraft cockpit replica. It includes the            Go-around power or thrust setting means
equipment and computer programs necessary to             the maximum allowable in-flight power or thrust
represent aircraft (or set of aircraft) operations in    setting identified in the performance data.
ground and flight conditions having the full range           Ground visibility means prevailing horizontal
of capabilities of the systems installed in the de-      visibility near the earth’s surface as reported by
vice as described in part 60 of this chapter and         the United States National Weather Service or an
the qualification performance standard (QPS) for          accredited observer.
a specific FTD qualification level.                           Gyrodyne means a rotorcraft whose rotors are
   Flight visibility means the average forward           normally engine-driven for takeoff, hovering, and
horizontal distance, from the cockpit of an aircraft     landing, and for forward flight through part of its
in flight, at which prominent unlighted objects may       speed range, and whose means of propulsion,
be seen and identified by day and prominent               consisting usually of conventional propellers, is
lighted objects may be seen and identified by             independent of the rotor system.
night.                                                      Gyroplane means a rotorcraft whose rotors
   Foreign air carrier means any person other            are not engine-driven, except for initial starting,
than a citizen of the United States, who under-          but are made to rotate by action of the air when
takes directly, by lease or other arrangement, to        the rotorcraft is moving; and whose means of pro-
engage in air transportation.                            pulsion, consisting usually of conventional propel-
   Foreign air commerce means the carriage by            lers, is independent of the rotor system.
aircraft of persons or property for compensation            Helicopter means a rotorcraft that, for its hori-
or hire, or the carriage of mail by aircraft, or the     zontal motion, depends principally on its engine-
operation or navigation of aircraft in the conduct       driven rotors.
or furtherance of a business or vocation, in com-           Heliport means an area of land, water, or
merce between a place in the United States and           structure used or intended to be used for the land-
any place outside thereof; whether such com-             ing and takeoff of helicopters.
merce moves wholly by aircraft or partly by air-            Idle thrust means the jet thrust obtained with
craft and partly by other forms of transportation.       the engine power control level set at the stop for
   Foreign air transportation means the car-             the least thrust position at which it can be placed.
riage by aircraft of persons or property as a com-          IFR conditions means weather conditions be-
mon carrier for compensation or hire, or the car-        low the minimum for flight under visual flight rules.
riage of mail by aircraft, in commerce between a            IFR over-the-top, with respect to the operation
place in the United States and any place outside         of aircraft, means the operation of an aircraft over-
of the United States, whether that commerce              the-top on an IFR flight plan when cleared by air
moves wholly by aircraft or partly by aircraft and       traffic control to maintain “VFR conditions” or
partly by other forms of transportation.                 “VFR conditions on top”.
   Forward wing means a forward lifting surface             Indicated airspeed means the speed of an air-
of a canard configuration or tandem-wing configu-          craft as shown on its pitot static airspeed indicator
ration airplane. The surface may be a fixed, mov-         calibrated to reflect standard atmosphere adia-
able, or variable geometry surface, with or without      batic compressible flow at sea level uncorrected
control surfaces.                                        for airspeed system errors.




                                                                                                            5
§1.1                                                                     Federal Aviation Regulations


   In-flight shutdown (IFSD) means, for ETOPS                 Intrastate air transportation means the car-
only, when an engine ceases to function (when             riage of persons or property as a common carrier
the airplane is airborne) and is shutdown,                for compensation or hire, by turbojet-powered air-
whether self induced, flightcrew initiated or              craft capable of carrying thirty or more persons,
caused by an external influence. The FAA consid-           wholly within the same State of the United States.
ers IFSD for all causes: for example, flameout, in-           Kite means a framework, covered with paper,
ternal failure, flightcrew initiated shutdown, for-        cloth, metal, or other material, intended to be
eign object ingestion, icing, inability to obtain or      flown at the end of a rope or cable, and having as
control desired thrust or power, and cycling of the       its only support the force of the wind moving past
start control, however briefly, even if the engine         its surfaces.
operates normally for the remainder of the flight.            Landing gear extended speed means the
This definition excludes the airborne cessation of         maximum speed at which an aircraft can be safely
the functioning of an engine when immediately             flown with the landing gear extended.
followed by an automatic engine relight and when             Landing gear operating speed means the
an engine does not achieve desired thrust or              maximum speed at which the landing gear can be
power but is not shutdown.                                safely extended or retracted.
   Instrument means a device using an internal               Large aircraft means aircraft of more than
mechanism to show visually or aurally the atti-           12,500 pounds, maximum certificated takeoff
tude, altitude, or operation of an aircraft or aircraft   weight.
part. It includes electronic devices for automati-           Lighter-than-air aircraft means aircraft that
cally controlling an aircraft in flight.                   can rise and remain suspended by using con-
   Instrument approach procedure (IAP) is a               tained gas weighing less than the air that is dis-
series of predetermined maneuvers by reference            placed by the gas.
to flight instruments with specified protection from           Light-sport aircraft means an aircraft, other
obstacles and assurance of navigation signal re-          than a helicopter or powered-lift that, since its
ception capability. It begins from the initial ap-        original certification, has continued to meet the
proach fix, or where applicable, from the begin-           following:
ning of a defined arrival route to a point:                   (1) A maximum takeoff weight of not more
   (1) From which a landing can be completed; or          than—
   (2) If a landing is not completed, to a position at       (i) 1,320 pounds (600 kilograms) for aircraft not
which holding or en route obstacle clearance cri-         intended for operation on water; or
teria apply.                                                 (ii) 1,430 pounds (650 kilograms) for an aircraft
   Interstate air commerce means the carriage             intended for operation on water.
by aircraft of persons or property for compensa-             (2) A maximum airspeed in level flight with
tion or hire, or the carriage of mail by aircraft, or     maximum continuous power (VH) of not more
the operation or navigation of aircraft in the con-       than 120 knots CAS under standard atmospheric
duct or furtherance of a business or vocation, in         conditions at sea level.
commerce between a place in any State of the                 (3) A maximum never-exceed speed (VNE) of
United States, or the District of Columbia, and a         not more than 120 knots CAS for a glider.
place in any other State of the United States, or            (4) A maximum stalling speed or minimum
the District of Columbia; or between places in the        steady flight speed without the use of lift-enhanc-
same State of the United States through the air-          ing devices (VS1) of not more than 45 knots CAS
space over any place outside thereof; or between          at the aircraft’s maximum certificated takeoff
places in the same territory or possession of the         weight and most critical center of gravity.
United States, or the District of Columbia.                  (5) A maximum seating capacity of no more
   Interstate air transportation means the car-           than two persons, including the pilot.
riage by aircraft of persons or property as a com-           (6) A single, reciprocating engine, if powered.
mon carrier for compensation or hire, or the car-            (7) A fixed or ground-adjustable propeller if a
riage of mail by aircraft in commerce:                    powered aircraft other than a powered glider.
   (1) Between a place in a State or the District of         (8) A fixed or autofeathering propeller system if
Columbia and another place in another State or            a powered glider.
the District of Columbia;                                    (9) A fixed-pitch, semi-rigid, teetering, two-
   (2) Between places in the same State through           blade rotor system, if a gyroplane.
the airspace over any place outside that State; or           (10) A nonpressurized cabin, if equipped with a
   (3) Between places in the same possession of           cabin.
the United States;                                           (11) Fixed landing gear, except for an aircraft
                                                          intended for operation on water or a glider.
Whether that commerce moves wholly by aircraft
                                                             (12) Fixed or retractable landing gear, or a hull,
of partly by aircraft and partly by other forms of
                                                          for an aircraft intended for operation on water.
transportation.
                                                             (13) Fixed or retractable landing gear for a glider.


6
Part 1: Definitions and Abbreviations                                                                   §1.1


   Load factor means the ratio of a specified load           Maximum speed for stability characteris-
to the total weight of the aircraft. The specified        tics, VFC/MFC means a speed that may not be




                                                                                                                1
load is expressed in terms of any of the following:      less than a speed midway between maximum op-
aerodynamic forces, inertia forces, or ground or         erating limit speed (VMO/MMO) and demonstrated
water reactions.                                         flight diving speed (VDF/MDF), except that, for alti-
   Long-range communication system (LRCS).               tudes where the Mach number is the limiting fac-
A system that uses satellite relay, data link, high      tor, MFC need not exceed the Mach number at
frequency, or another approved communication             which effective speed warning occurs.
system which extends beyond line of sight.                  Medical certificate means acceptable evi-
   Long-range navigation system (LRNS). An               dence of physical fitness on a form prescribed by
electronic navigation unit that is approved for use      the Administrator.
under instrument flight rules as a primary means             Military operations area. A military operations
of navigation, and has at least one source of nav-       area (MOA) is airspace established outside Class
igational input, such as inertial navigation system,     A airspace to separate or segregate certain non-
global positioning system, Omega/very low fre-           hazardous military activities from IFR Traffic and
quency, or Loran C.                                      to identify for VFR traffic where theses activities
   Mach number means the ratio of true airspeed          are conducted.
to the speed of sound.                                      Minimum descent altitude (MDA) is the low-
   Main rotor means the rotor that supplies the          est altitude specified in an instrument approach
principal lift to a rotorcraft.                          procedure, expressed in feet above mean sea
   Maintenance means inspection, overhaul, re-           level, to which descent is authorized on final ap-
pair, preservation, and the replacement of parts,        proach or during circle-to-land maneuvering until
but excludes preventive maintenance.                     the pilot sees the required visual references for
   Major alteration means an alteration not listed       the heliport or runway of intended landing.
in the aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller specifi-      Minor alteration means an alteration other
cations—                                                 than a major alteration.
   (1) That might appreciably affect weight, bal-           Minor repair means a repair other than a ma-
ance, structural strength, performance, powerplant       jor repair.
operation, flight characteristics, or other qualities        National defense airspace means airspace
affecting airworthiness; or                              established by a regulation prescribed, or an or-
   (2) That is not done according to accepted            der issued under, 49 U.S.C. 40103(b)(3).
practices or cannot be done by elementary opera-            Navigable airspace means airspace at and
tions.                                                   above the minimum flight altitudes prescribed by
   Major repair means a repair:                          or under this chapter, including airspace needed
   (1) That, if improperly done, might appreciably       for safe takeoff and landing.
affect weight, balance, structural strength, perfor-        Night means the time between the end of
mance, powerplant operation, flight characteris-          evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning
tics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness; or     civil twilight, as published in the American Air Al-
   (2) That is not done according to accepted            manac, converted to local time.
practices or cannot be done by elementary oper-             Nonprecision approach procedure means a
ations.                                                  standard instrument approach procedure in which
   Manifold pressure means absolute pressure             no electronic glide slope is provided.
as measured at the appropriate point in the in-             Operate, with respect to aircraft, means use,
duction system and usually expressed in inches           cause to use or authorize to use aircraft, for the
of mercury.                                              purpose (except as provided in §91.13 of this
   Maximum engine overtorque, as it applies to           chapter) of air navigation including the piloting of
turbopropeller and turboshaft engines incorporat-        aircraft, with or without the right of legal control
ing free power turbines for all ratings except one       (as owner, lessee, or otherwise).
engine inoperative (OEI) ratings of two minutes or          Operational control, with respect to a flight,
less, means the maximum torque of the free               means the exercise of authority over initiating,
power turbine rotor assembly, the inadvertent oc-        conducting or terminating a flight.
currence of which, for periods of up to 20 sec-
onds, will not require rejection of the engine from
service, or any maintenance action other than to
correct the cause.




                                                                                                           7
§1.1                                                                     Federal Aviation Regulations


   Overseas air commerce means the carriage                   Powered parachute means a powered aircraft
by aircraft of persons or property for compensa-          comprised of a flexible or semi-rigid wing con-
tion or hire, or the carriage of mail by aircraft, or     nected to a fuselage so that the wing is not in po-
the operation or navigation of aircraft in the con-       sition for flight until the aircraft is in motion. The fu-
duct or furtherance of a business or vocation, in         selage of a powered parachute contains the
commerce between a place in any State of the              aircraft engine, a seat for each occupant and is at-
United States, or the District of Columbia, and any       tached to the aircraft’s landing gear.
place in a territory or possession of the United              Precision approach procedure means a
States; or between a place in a territory or pos-         standard instrument approach procedure in which
session of the United States, and a place in any          an electronic glide slope is provided, such as ILS
other territory or possession of the United States.       and PAR.
   Overseas air transportation means the car-                 Preventive maintenance means simple or mi-
riage by aircraft of persons or property as a com-        nor preservation operations and the replacement
mon carrier for compensation or hire, or the car-         of small standard parts not involving complex as-
riage of mail by aircraft, in commerce:                   sembly operations.
   (1) Between a place in a State or the District of          Prohibited area. A prohibited area is airspace
Columbia and a place in a possession of the               designated under part 73 within which no person
United States; or                                         may operate an aircraft without the permission of
   (2) Between a place in a possession of the             the using agency.
United States and a place in another possession               Propeller means a device for propelling an air-
of the United States; whether that commerce               craft that has blades on an engine-driven shaft
moves wholly by aircraft or partly by aircraft and        and that, when rotated, produces by its action on
partly by other forms of transportation.                  the air, a thrust approximately perpendicular to its
   Over-the-top means above the layer of clouds           plane of rotation. It includes control components
or other obscuring phenomena forming the ceiling.         normally supplied by its manufacturer, but does
   Parachute means a device used or intended to           not include main and auxiliary rotors or rotating
be used to retard the fall of a body or object            airfoils of engines.
through the air.                                              Public aircraft means any of the following air-
   Person means an individual, firm, partnership,          craft when not being used for a commercial pur-
corporation, company, association, joint-stock as-        pose or to carry an individual other than a crew-
sociation, or governmental entity. It includes a          member or qualified non-crewmember:
trustee, receiver, assignee, or similar representa-           (1) An aircraft used only for the United States
tive of any of them.                                      Government; an aircraft owned by the Govern-
   Pilotage means navigation by visual reference          ment and operated by any person for purposes
to landmarks.                                             related to crew training, equipment development,
   Pilot in command means the person who:                 or demonstration; an aircraft owned and operated
   (1) Has final authority and responsibility for the      by the government of a State, the District of Co-
operation and safety of the flight;                        lumbia, or a territory or possession of the United
   (2) Has been designated as pilot in command            States or a political subdivision of one of these
before or during the flight; and                           governments; or an aircraft exclusively leased for
   (3) Holds the appropriate category, class, and         at least 90 continuous days by the government of
type rating, if appropriate, for the conduct of the       a State, the District of Columbia, or a territory or
flight.                                                    possession of the United States or a political sub-
   Pitch setting means the propeller blade set-           division of one of these governments.
ting as determined by the blade angle measured                (i) For the sole purpose of determining public
in a manner, and at a radius, specified by the in-         aircraft status, commercial purposes means the
struction manual for the propeller.                       transportation of persons or property for compen-
   Positive control means control of all air traffic,      sation or hire, but does not include the operation
within designated airspace, by air traffic control.        of an aircraft by the armed forces for reimburse-
   Powered-lift means a heavier-than-air aircraft         ment when that reimbursement is required by any
capable of vertical takeoff, vertical landing, and        Federal statute, regulation, or directive, in effect
low speed flight that depends principally on en-           on November 1, 1999, or by one government on
gine-driven lift devices or engine thrust for lift dur-   behalf of another government under a cost reim-
ing these flight regimes and on nonrotating air-           bursement agreement if the government on
foil(s) for lift during horizontal flight.                 whose behalf the operation is conducted certifies
                                                          to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Ad-
                                                          ministration that the operation is necessary to re-
                                                          spond to a significant and imminent threat to life
                                                          or property (including natural resources) and that



8
Part 1: Definitions and Abbreviations                                                                    §1.1


no service by a private operator is reasonably              Rated maximum continuous power, with re-
available to meet the threat.                            spect to reciprocating, turbopropeller, and turbo-




                                                                                                                 1
   (ii) For the sole purpose of determining public       shaft engines, means the approved brake horse-
aircraft status, governmental function means an          power that is developed statically or in flight, in
activity undertaken by a government, such as na-         standard atmosphere at a specified altitude,
tional defense, intelligence missions, firefighting,       within the engine operating limitations established
search and rescue, law enforcement (including            under Part 33, and approved for unrestricted peri-
transport of prisoners, detainees, and illegal           ods of use.
aliens), aeronautical research, or biological or            Rated maximum continuous thrust, with re-
geological resource management.                          spect to turbojet engine type certification, means
   (iii) For the sole purpose of determining public      the approved jet thrust that is developed statically
aircraft status, qualified non-crewmember means           or in flight, in standard atmosphere at a specified
an individual, other than a member of the crew,          altitude, without fluid injection and without the
aboard an aircraft operated by the armed forces          burning of fuel in a separate combustion cham-
or an intelligence agency of the United States           ber, within the engine operating limitations estab-
Government, or whose presence is required to             lished under Part 33 of this chapter, and approved
perform, or is associated with the performance of,       for unrestricted periods of use.
a governmental function.                                    Rated takeoff augmented thrust, with re-
   (2) An aircraft owned or operated by the armed        spect to turbojet engine type certification, means
forces or chartered to provide transportation to         the approved jet thrust that is developed statically
the armed forces if—                                     under standard sea level conditions, with fluid in-
   (i) The aircraft is operated in accordance with ti-   jection or with the burning of fuel in a separate
tle 10 of the United States Code;                        combustion chamber, within the engine operating
   (ii) The aircraft is operated in the performance      limitations established under Part 33 of this chap-
of a governmental function under title 14, 31, 32,       ter, and limited in use to periods of not over 5 min-
or 50 of the United States Code and the aircraft is      utes for takeoff operation.
not used for commercial purposes; or                        Rated takeoff power, with respect to recipro-
   (iii) The aircraft is chartered to provide trans-     cating, turbopropeller, and turboshaft engine type
portation to the armed forces and the Secretary of       certification, means the approved brake horse-
Defense (or the Secretary of the department in           power that is developed statically under standard
which the Coast Guard is operating) designates           sea level conditions, within the engine operating
the operation of the aircraft as being required in       limitations established under Part 33, and limited
the national interest.                                   in use to periods of not over 5 minutes for takeoff
   (3) An aircraft owned or operated by the Na-          operation.
tional Guard of a State, the District of Columbia,          Rated takeoff thrust, with respect to turbojet
or any territory or possession of the United             engine type certification, means the approved jet
States, and that meets the criteria of paragraph         thrust that is developed statically under standard
(2) of this definition, qualifies as a public aircraft     sea level conditions, without fluid injection and
only to the extent that it is operated under the di-     without the burning of fuel in a separate combus-
rect control of the Department of Defense.               tion chamber, within the engine operating limita-
   Rated continuous OEI power, with respect to           tions established under Part 33 of this chapter,
rotorcraft turbine engines, means the approved           and limited in use to periods of not over 5 minutes
brake horsepower developed under static condi-           for takeoff operation.
tions at specified altitudes and temperatures                Rated 30-minute OEI power, with respect to
within the operating limitations established for the     rotorcraft turbine engines, means the approved
engine under part 33 of this chapter, and limited in     brake horsepower developed under static condi-
use to the time required to complete the flight af-       tions at specified altitudes and temperatures
ter the failure or shutdown of one engine of a mul-      within the operating limitations established for the
tiengine rotorcraft.                                     engine under part 33 of this chapter, and limited in
   Rated maximum continuous augmented                    use to one period of use no longer than 30 min-
thrust, with respect to turbojet engine type certifi-     utes after the failure or shutdown of one engine of
cation, means the approved jet thrust that is de-        a multiengine rotorcraft.
veloped statically or in flight, in standard atmo-
sphere at a specified altitude, with fluid injection
or with the burning of fuel in a separate combus-
tion chamber, within the engine operating limita-
tions established under Part 33 of this chapter,
and approved for unrestricted periods of use.




                                                                                                            9
§1.1                                                                   Federal Aviation Regulations


   Rated 30-second OEI power, with respect to               Rotorcraft-load combination means the com-
rotorcraft turbine engines, means the approved           bination of a rotorcraft and an external-load, in-
brake horsepower developed under static condi-           cluding the external-load attaching means. Rotor-
tions at specified altitudes and temperatures             craft-load combinations are designated as Class
within the operating limitations established for the     A, Class B, Class C, and Class D, as follows:
engine under part 33 of this chapter, for continua-         (1) Class A rotorcraft-load combination means
tion of one flight operation after the failure or shut-   one in which the external load cannot move freely,
down of one engine in multiengine rotorcraft, for        cannot be jettisoned, and does not extend below
up to three periods of use no longer than 30 sec-        the landing gear.
onds each in any one flight, and followed by man-            (2) Class B rotorcraft-load combination means
datory inspection and prescribed maintenance             one in which the external load is jettisonable and
action.                                                  is lifted free of land or water during the rotorcraft
   Rated 2-minute OEI power, with respect to ro-         operation.
torcraft turbine engines, means the approved                (3) Class C rotorcraft-load combination means
brake horsepower developed under static condi-           one in which the external load is jettisonable and
tions at specified altitudes and temperatures             remains in contact with land or water during the
within the operating limitations established for the     rotorcraft operation.
engine under part 33 of this chapter, for continua-         (4) Class D rotorcraft-load combination means
tion of one flight operation after the failure or shut-   one in which the external-load is other than a
down of one engine in multiengine rotorcraft, for        Class A, B, or C and has been specifically ap-
up to three periods of use no longer than 2 min-         proved by the Administrator for that operation.
utes each in any one flight, and followed by man-            Route segment is a portion of a route
datory inspection and prescribed maintenance             bounded on each end by a fix or navigation aid
action.                                                  (NAVAID).
   Rated 2 1⁄2-minute OEI power, with respect to            Sea level engine means a reciprocating air-
rotorcraft turbine engines, means the approved           craft engine having a rated takeoff power that is
brake horsepower developed under static condi-           producible only at sea level.
tions at specified altitudes and temperatures                Second in command means a pilot who is
within the operating limitations established for the     designated to be second in command of an air-
engine under part 33 of this chapter for periods of      craft during flight time.
use no longer than 21⁄2 minutes each after the fail-        Show, unless the context otherwise requires,
ure or shutdown of one engine of a multiengine           means to show to the satisfaction of the Adminis-
rotorcraft.                                              trator.
   Rating means a statement that, as a part of a            Small aircraft means aircraft of 12,500 pounds
certificate, sets forth special conditions, privi-        or less, maximum certificated takeoff weight.
leges, or limitations.                                      Special VFR conditions mean meteorological
   Reference landing speed means the speed of            conditions that are less than those required for
the airplane, in a specified landing configuration,        basic VFR flight in controlled airspace and in
at the point where it descends through the 50 foot       which some aircraft are permitted flight under vi-
height in the determination of the landing dis-          sual flight rules.
tance.                                                      Special VFR operations means aircraft oper-
   Reporting point means a geographical loca-            ating in accordance with clearances within con-
tion in relation to which the position of an aircraft    trolled airspace in meteorological conditions less
is reported.                                             than the basic VFR weather minima. Such opera-
   Restricted area. A restricted area is airspace        tions must be requested by the pilot and approved
designated under Part 73 within which the flight of       by ATC.
aircraft, while not wholly prohibited, is subject to        Standard atmosphere means the atmosphere
restriction.                                             defined in U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1962 (Geo-
   Rocket means an aircraft propelled by ejected         potential altitude tables).
expanding gases generated in the engine from self-          Stopway means an area beyond the takeoff
contained propellants and not dependent on the in-       runway, no less wide than the runway and cen-
take of outside substances. It includes any part         tered upon the extended centerline of the runway,
which becomes separated during the operation.            able to support the airplane during an aborted
   Rotorcraft means a heavier-than-air aircraft          takeoff, without causing structural damage to the
that depends principally for its support in flight on     airplane, and designated by the airport authori-
the lift generated by one or more rotors.                ties for use in decelerating the airplane during an
                                                         aborted takeoff.




10
Part 1: Definitions and Abbreviations                                                                    §1.1


   Suitable RNAV system is an RNAV system                   TCAS II means a TCAS that utilizes interroga-
that meets the required performance established          tions of, and replies from airborne radar beacon




                                                                                                                 1
for a type of operation, e.g. IFR; and is suitable for   transponders and provides traffic advisories and
operation over the route to be flown in terms of          resolution advisories in the vertical plane.
any performance criteria (including accuracy) es-           TCAS III means a TCAS that utilizes interroga-
tablished by the air navigation service provider for     tion of, and replies from, airborne radar beacon
certain routes (e.g. oceanic, ATS routes, and            transponders and provides traffic advisories and
IAPs). An RNAV system’s suitability is dependent         resolution advisories in the vertical and horizontal
upon the availability of ground and/or satellite         planes to the pilot.
navigation aids that are needed to meet any route           Time in service, with respect to maintenance
performance criteria that may be prescribed in           time records, means the time from the moment an
route specifications to navigate the aircraft along       aircraft leaves the surface of the earth until it
the route to be flown. Information on suitable            touches it at the next point of landing.
RNAV systems is published in FAA guidance ma-               True airspeed means the airspeed of an air-
terial.                                                  craft relative to undisturbed air. True airspeed is
   Synthetic vision means a computer-gener-              equal to equivalent airspeed multiplied by (ρ0/
ated image of the external scene topography from         ρ)1 ⁄ 2.
                                                            Traffic pattern means the traffic flow that is
the perspective of the flight deck that is derived
                                                         prescribed for aircraft landing at, taxiing on, or
from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation
                                                         taking off from, an airport.
solution, and database of terrain, obstacles and
                                                            Type:
relevant cultural features.
                                                            (1) As used with respect to the certification, rat-
   Synthetic vision system means an electronic
                                                         ings, privileges, and limitations of airmen, means
means to display a synthetic vision image of the
                                                         a specific make and basic model of aircraft, in-
external scene topography to the flight crew.
                                                         cluding modifications thereto that do not change
   Takeoff power:
                                                         its handling or flight characteristics. Examples in-
   (1) With respect to reciprocating engines,
                                                         clude: DC-7, 1049, and F-27; and
means the brake horsepower that is developed
                                                            (2) As used with respect to the certification of
under standard sea level conditions, and under
                                                         aircraft, means those aircraft which are similar in
the maximum conditions of crankshaft rotational
                                                         design. Examples include: DC-7 and DC-7C;
speed and engine manifold pressure approved
                                                         1049G and 1049H; and F-27 and F-27F.
for the normal takeoff, and limited in continuous
                                                            (3) As used with respect to the certification of
use to the period of time shown in the approved
                                                         aircraft engines means those engines which are
engine specification; and
   (2) With respect to turbine engines, means the        similar in design. For example, JT8D and JT8D-7
brake horsepower that is developed under static          are engines of the same type, and JT9D-3A and
conditions at a specified altitude and atmospheric        JT9D-7 are engines of the same type.
                                                            United States, in a geographical sense, means
temperature, and under the maximum conditions
                                                         (1) the States, the District of Columbia, Puerto
of rotor shaft rotational speed and gas tempera-
                                                         Rico, and the possessions, including the territorial
ture approved for the normal takeoff, and limited
                                                         waters, and (2) the airspace of those areas.
in continuous use to the period of time shown in
                                                            United States air carrier means a citizen of
the approved engine specification.
                                                         the United States who undertakes directly by
   Takeoff safety speed means a referenced air-
                                                         lease, or other arrangement, to engage in air
speed obtained after lift-off at which the required
                                                         transportation.
one-engine-inoperative climb performance can be
                                                            VFR over-the-top, with respect to the opera-
achieved.
                                                         tion of aircraft, means the operation of an aircraft
   Takeoff thrust, with respect to turbine engines,
                                                         over-the-top under VFR when it is not being oper-
means the jet thrust that is developed under static
                                                         ated on an IFR flight plan.
conditions at a specific altitude and atmospheric
                                                            Warning area. A warning area is airspace of
temperature under the maximum conditions of ro-
                                                         defined dimensions, extending from 3 nautical
torshaft rotational speed and gas temperature ap-
                                                         miles outward from the coast of the United
proved for the normal takeoff, and limited in con-
                                                         States, that contains activity that may be hazard-
tinuous use to the period of time shown in the
                                                         ous to nonparticipating aircraft. The purpose of
approved engine specification.
                                                         such warning areas is to warn nonparticipating
   Tandem wing configuration means a configu-
                                                         pilots of the potential danger. A warning area may
ration having two wings of similar span, mounted
                                                         be located over domestic or international waters
in tandem.
                                                         or both.
   TCAS I means a TCAS that utilizes interroga-
tions of, and replies from, airborne radar beacon
transponders and provides traffic advisories to
the pilot.


                                                                                                          11
§1.2                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


   Weight-shift-control aircraft means a pow-            EFVS means enhanced flight vision system.
ered aircraft with a framed pivoting wing and a fu-      Equi-Time Point means a point on the route of
selage controllable only in pitch and roll by the         flight where the flight time, considering wind,
pilot’s ability to change the aircraft’s center of        to each of two selected airports is equal.
gravity with respect to the wing. Flight control of      ETOPS means extended operations.
the aircraft depends on the wing’s ability to flexibly
deform rather than the use of control surfaces.          EWIS, as defined by §25.1701 of this chapter,
   Winglet or tip fin means an out-of-plane sur-           means electrical wiring interconnection
face extending from a lifting surface. The surface        system.
may or may not have control surfaces.                    FAA means Federal Aviation Administration.
[Docket No. 1150, 27 FR 4588, May 15, 1962; as           FFS means full flight simulator.
amended by Amdt. 1–39, 60 FR 5075, Jan. 25, 1995;        FM means fan marker.
Amdt. 1–40, 60 FR 30749, June 9, 1995; Amdt. 1–42, 61
                                                         FSTD means flight simulation training device.
FR 2081, Jan. 24, 1996; Amdt. 1–43, 61 FR 5183, Feb.
9, 1996; Amdt. 1–44, 61 FR 7190, Feb. 26, 1996; Amdt.    FTD means flight training device.
1–46, 61 FR 31328, June 19, 1996; Amdt. 1–45, 61 FR      GS means glide slope.
34547, July 2, 1996; Amdt. 1–47, 62 FR 16298, April 4,
1997; Amdt. 1–49, 67 FR 70825, Nov. 26, 2002; Amdt.      HIRL means high-intensity runway light
1–50, 68 FR 16947, April 8, 2003; Amdt. 1–51, 68 FR       system.
25487, May 13, 2003; Amdt. 1–52, 69 FR 1639, Jan. 9,     IAS means indicated airspeed.
2004; Amdt. 1–53, 69 FR 44861, July 27, 2004; Amdt. 1–
                                                         ICAO means International Civil Aviation
54, 71 FR 63425, Oct. 30, 2006; Amdt. 1–55, 72 FR
1871, Jan. 16, 2007; Amdt. 1–55, 72 FR 7348, Feb. 15,     Organization.
2007; Amdt. 1–56, 72 FR 19664, April 19, 2007; Amdt.     IFR means instrument flight rules.
1–57, 72 FR 31677, June 7, 2007; amended at 73 FR        IFSD means in-flight shutdown.
48123, Aug. 18, 2008; Amdt. 1–62, 73 FR 73781, Dec. 4,
2008; Amdt. 1–63, 73 FR 76213, Dec. 16, 2008; Amdt.      ILS means instrument landing system.
1–65, 74 FR 45310, Sept. 2, 2009; Amdt. 1–64, 74 FR      IM means ILS inner marker.
53384, Oct. 16, 2009]
                                                         INT means intersection.
                                                         LDA means localizer-type directional aid.
§1.2 Abbreviations and symbols.
                                                         LFR means low-frequency radio range.
  In Subchapters A through K of this chapter:
                                                         LMM means compass locator at middle
  AFM means airplane flight manual.                        marker.
  AGL means above ground level.                          LOC means ILS localizer.
  ALS means approach light system.                       LOM means compass locator at outer marker.
  APU means auxiliary power unit.                        M means mach number.
  ASR means airport surveillance radar.                  MAA means maximum authorized IFR altitude.
  ATC means air traffic control.                          MALS means medium intensity approach light
  ATS means Air Traffic Service.                           system.
  CAMP means continuous airworthiness                    MALSR means medium intensity approach
   maintenance program.                                   light system with runway alignment indicator
  CAS means calibrated airspeed.                          lights.
  CAT II means Category II.                              MCA means minimum crossing altitude.
  CHDO means an FAA Flight Standards                     MDA means minimum descent altitude.
   certificate holding district office.                    MEA means minimum en route IFR altitude.
  CONSOL or CONSOLAN means a kind of low                 MEL means minimum equipment list.
   or medium frequency long range navigational           MM means ILS middle marker.
   aid.                                                  MOCA means minimum obstruction clearance
  CMP means configuration, maintenance, and                altitude.
   procedures.                                           MRA means minimum reception altitude.
  DH means decision height.                              MSL means mean sea level.
  DME means distance measuring equipment                 NDB (ADF) means nondirectional beacon
   compatible with TACAN.                                 (automatic direction finder).
  EAS means equivalent airspeed.




12
Part 1: Definitions and Abbreviations                                                           §1.2


  NM means nautical mile.                           VEF means the speed at which the critical
                                                     engine is assumed to fail during takeoff.




                                                                                                        1
  NOPAC means North Pacific area of operation.
  NOPT means no procedure turn required.            VF means design flap speed.
  OEI means one engine inoperative.                 VFC/MFC means maximum speed for stability
                                                     characteristics.
  OM means ILS outer marker.
                                                    VFE means maximum flap extended speed.
  OPSPECS means operations specifications.
                                                    VFTO means final takeoff speed.
  PAR means precision approach radar.
                                                    VH means maximum speed in level flight with
  PACOTS means Pacific Organized Track
                                                     maximum continuous power.
   System.
                                                    VLE means maximum landing gear extended
  PMA means parts manufacturer approval.
                                                     speed.
  PTRS means Performance Tracking and
                                                    VLO means maximum landing gear operating
   Reporting System.
                                                     speed.
  RAIL means runway alignment indicator light
                                                    VLOF means lift-off speed.
   system.
                                                    VMC means minimum control speed with the
  RBN means radio beacon.
                                                     critical engine inoperative.
  RCLM means runway centerline marking.
                                                    VMO/MMO means maximum operating limit
  RCLS means runway centerline light system.         speed.
  REIL means runway end identification lights.       VMU means minimum unstick speed.
  RFFS means rescue and firefighting services.        VNE means never-exceed speed.
  RNAV means area navigation.                       VNO means maximum structural cruising
  RR means low or medium frequency radio             speed.
   range station.                                   VR means rotation speed.
  RVR means runway visual range as measured         VREF means reference landing speed.
   in the touchdown zone area.
                                                    VS means the stalling speed or the minimum
  SALS means short approach light system.            steady flight speed at which the airplane is
  SATCOM means satellite communications.             controllable.
  SSALS means simplified short approach light        VS0 means the stalling speed or the minimum
   system.                                           steady flight speed in the landing
  SSALSR means simplified short approach light        configuration.
   system with runway alignment indicator lights.   VS1 means the stalling speed or the minimum
  TACAN means ultra-high frequency tactical air      steady flight speed obtained in a specific
   navigational aid.                                 configuration.
  TAS means true airspeed.                          VSR means reference stall speed.
  TCAS means a traffic alert and collision           VSR0 means reference stall speed in the
   avoidance system.                                 landing configuration.
  TDZL means touchdown zone lights.                 VSR1 means reference stall speed in a specific
  TSO means technical standard order.                configuration.
  TVOR means very high frequency terminal           VSW means speed at which onset of natural or
   omnirange station.                                artificial stall warning occurs.
  VA means design maneuvering speed.                VTOSS means takeoff safety speed for
                                                     Category A rotorcraft.
  VB means design speed for maximum gust
   intensity.                                       VX means speed for best angle of climb.
  VC means design cruising speed.                   VY means speed for best rate of climb.
  VD means design diving speed.                     V1 means the maximum speed in the takeoff at
                                                     which the pilot must take the first action (e.g.,
  VDF/MDF means demonstrated flight diving            apply brakes, reduce thrust, deploy speed
   speed.                                            brakes) to stop the airplane within the
                                                     accelerate-stop distance. V1 also means the
                                                     minimum speed in the takeoff, following a
                                                     failure of the critical engine at VEF, at which
                                                     the pilot can continue the takeoff and achieve
                                                     the required height above the takeoff surface
                                                     within the takeoff distance.



                                                                                                  13
§1.2                                                                  Federal Aviation Regulations


  V2 means takeoff safety speed.                        §1.3 Rules of construction.
  V2min means minimum takeoff safety speed.                (a) In Subchapters A through K of this chapter,
  VFR means visual flight rules.                         unless the context requires otherwise:
  VHF means very high frequency.                           (1) Words importing the singular include the
                                                        plural;
  VOR means very high frequency omnirange                  (2) Words importing the plural include the sin-
   station.                                             gular; and
  VORTAC means collocated VOR and TACAN.                   (3) Words importing the masculine gender in-
[Docket No. 1150, 27 FR 4590, May 15, 1962; as          clude the feminine.
amended by Amdt. 1–48, 63 FR 8318, Feb. 18, 1998;          (b) In Subchapters A through K of this chapter,
Amdt. 1–49, 67 FR 70825, Nov. 26, 2002; Amdt. 1–52,     the word:
69 FR 1639, Jan. 9, 2004; Amdt. 1–54, 71 FR 63426,         (1) “Shall” is used in an imperative sense;
Oct. 30, 2006; Amdt. 1–55, 72 FR 1872, Jan. 16, 2007;      (2) “May” is used in a permissive sense to state
Amdt. 1–57, 72 FR 31677, June 7, 2007; Amdt. 1–60, 72
                                                        authority or permission to do the act prescribed,
FR 63404, Nov. 8, 2007; Amdt. 1–64, 74 FR 53384, Oct.
16, 2009]                                               and the words “no person may * * *” or “a person
                                                        may not * * *” mean that no person is required, au-
                                                        thorized, or permitted to do the act prescribed;
                                                        and
                                                           (3) “Includes” means “includes but is not limited
                                                        to”.
                                                        [Docket No. 1150, 27 FR 4590, May 15, 1962; as
                                                        amended by Amdt. 1–10, 31 FR 5055, March 29, 1966]




14
Part 43: Maintenance, Rebuilding & Alteration                                                        §43.1


                  PART 43                             Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44703,
                                                      44705, 44707, 44711, 44713, 44717, 44725.
  MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE                             Source: Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964,
MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND                          unless otherwise noted.




                                                                                                                43
        ALTERATION                                    Editorial Note: For miscellaneous technical amendments
                                                      to this Part 43, see Amdt. 43–3, 31 FR 3336, March 3,
Sec.                                                  1966, and Amdt. 43–6, 31 FR 9211, July 6, 1966.
*43.1   Applicability.
*43.2   Records of overhaul and rebuilding.           §43.1 Applicability.
*43.3   Persons authorized to perform                    (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and
          maintenance, preventive                     (d) of this section, this part prescribes rules gov-
          maintenance, rebuilding, and                erning the maintenance, preventive maintenance,
          alterations.                                rebuilding, and alteration of any—
43.5    Approval for return to service after             (1) Aircraft having a U.S. airworthiness certifi-
          maintenance, preventive maintenance,        cate;
          rebuilding, or alteration.                     (2) Foreign-registered civil aircraft used in com-
43.7    Persons authorized to approve aircraft,       mon carriage or carriage of mail under the provi-
          airframes, aircraft engines, propellers,    sions of part 121 or 135 of this chapter; and
          appliances, or component parts for             (3) Airframe, aircraft engines, propellers, appli-
          return to service after maintenance,        ances, and component parts of such aircraft.
          preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or         (b) This part does not apply to—
          alteration.                                    (1) Any aircraft for which the FAA has issued an
43.9    Content, form, and disposition of             experimental certificate, unless the FAA has pre-
          maintenance, preventive maintenance,        viously issued a different kind of airworthiness
          rebuilding, and alteration records          certificate for that aircraft; or
          (except inspections performed in               (2) Any aircraft for which the FAA has issued an
          accordance with Part 91, Part 125,          experimental certificate under the provisions of
          §135.411(a)(1), and §135.419 of this        §21.191(i)(3) of this chapter, and the aircraft was
          chapter).                                   previously issued a special airworthiness certifi-
43.10   Disposition of life-limited aircraft parts.   cate in the light-sport category under the provi-
43.11   Content, form, and disposition of records     sions of §21.190 of this chapter.
          for inspections conducted under Parts          (c) This part applies to all life-limited parts that
          91 and 125 and §§135.411(a)(1) and          are removed from a type certificated product, seg-
          135.419 of this chapter.                    regated, or controlled as provided in §43.10.
43.12   Maintenance records: Falsification,               (d) This part applies to any aircraft issued a
          reproduction, or alteration.                special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport
43.13   Performance rules (general).                  category except:
43.15   Additional performance rules for                 (1) The repair or alteration form specified in
          inspections.                                §§43.5(b) and 43.9(d) is not required to be com-
43.16   Airworthiness Limitations.                    pleted for products not produced under an FAA
43.17   Maintenance, preventive maintenance,          approval;
          and alterations performed on U.S.              (2) Major repairs and major alterations for prod-
          aeronautical products by certain            ucts not produced under an FAA approval are not
          Canadian persons.                           required to be recorded in accordance with ap-
                                                      pendix B of this part; and
Appendix A to Part 43 — Major Alterations, Major         (3) The listing of major alterations and major re-
  Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance                 pairs specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of ap-
Appendix B to Part 43 — Recording of Major            pendix A of this part is not applicable to products
  Repairs and Major Alterations                       not produced under an FAA approval.
Appendix C to Part 43 — [Reserved]                    [Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, Apr. 23, 1964; as
Appendix D to Part 43 — Scope and Detail of           amended by Amdt. 43–23, 47 FR 41084, Sept. 16, 1982;
  Items (as Applicable to the Particular Aircraft)    Amdt. 43–37, 66 FR 21066, April 27, 2001; Amdt. 43–38,
                                                      67 FR 2109, Jan. 15, 2002; Amdt. 43–39, 69 FR 44863,
  to be included in Annual and 100-Hour
                                                      July 27, 2004; Amdt. 43–44, 75 FR 5219, Feb. 1, 2010]
  Inspections
Appendix E to Part 43 — Altimeter System Test
  and Inspection
Appendix F to Part 43 — ATC Transponder Tests
  and Inspections



                                                                                                         15
§43.2                                                                 Federal Aviation Regulations


§43.2 Records of overhaul and                          essary to ensure that it is being done properly and
  rebuilding.                                          if the supervisor is readily available, in person, for
   (a) No person may describe in any required          consultation. However, this paragraph does not
maintenance entry or form an aircraft, airframe,       authorize the performance of any inspection re-
aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or compo-       quired by part 91 or part 125 of this chapter or any
nent part as being overhauled unless —                 inspection performed after a major repair or alter-
   (1) Using methods, techniques, and practices        ation.
acceptable to the Administrator, it has been disas-        (e) The holder of a repair station certificate may
sembled, cleaned, inspected, repaired as neces-        perform maintenance, preventive maintenance,
sary, and reassembled; and                             and alterations as provided in part 145 of this
   (2) It has been tested in accordance with ap-       chapter.
proved standards and technical data, or in accor-          (f) The holder of an air carrier operating certifi-
dance with current standards and technical data        cate or an operating certificate issued under part
acceptable to the Administrator, which have been       121 or 135, may perform maintenance, preventive
developed and documented by the holder of the          maintenance, and alterations as provided in part
type certificate, supplemental type certificate, or a    121 or 135.
material, part, process, or applicance approval            (g) Except for holders of a sport pilot certificate,
under part 21 of this chapter.                         the holder of a pilot certificate issued under part
   (b) No person may describe in any required          61 may perform preventive maintenance on any
maintenance entry or form an aircraft, airframe,       aircraft owned or operated by that pilot which is
aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or compo-       not used under part 121, 129, or 135 of this chap-
nent part as being rebuilt unless it has been dis-     ter. The holder of a sport pilot certificate may per-
assembled, cleaned, inspected, repaired as nec-        form preventive maintenance on an aircraft
essary, reassembled, and tested to the same            owned or operated by that pilot and issued a spe-
tolerances and limits as a new item, using either      cial airworthiness certificate in the light-sport cat-
new parts or used parts that either conform to         egory.
new part tolerances and limits or to approved              (h) Notwithstanding the provisions of para-
oversized or undersized dimensions.                    graph (g) of this section, the Administrator may
                                                       approve a certificate holder under part 135 of this
[Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964; as       chapter, operating rotorcraft in a remote area, to
amended by Amdt. 43–23, 47 FR 41084, Sept. 16, 1982;
                                                       allow a pilot to perform specific preventive mainte-
Amdt. 43–43, 74 FR 53394, Oct. 16, 2009]
                                                       nance items provided —
                                                           (1) The items of preventive maintenance are a
§43.3 Persons authorized to perform                    result of a known or suspected mechanical diffi-
  maintenance, preventive                              culty or malfunction that occurred en route to or in
  maintenance, rebuilding, and                         a remote area;
  alterations.                                             (2) The pilot has satisfactorily completed an ap-
   (a) Except as provided in this section and          proved training program and is authorized in writ-
§43.17, no person may maintain, rebuild, alter, or     ing by the certificate holder for each item of pre-
perform preventive maintenance on an aircraft,         ventive maintenance that the pilot is authorized to
airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or    perform;
component part to which this part applies. Those           (3) There is no certificated mechanic available
items, the performance of which is a major alter-      to perform preventive maintenance;
ation, a major repair, or preventive maintenance,          (4) The certificate holder has procedures to
are listed in Appendix A.                              evaluate the accomplishment of a preventive
   (b) The holder of a mechanic certificate may         maintenance item that requires a decision con-
perform maintenance, preventive maintenance,           cerning the airworthiness of the rotorcraft; and
and alterations as provided in part 65 of this chap-       (5) The items of preventive maintenance autho-
ter.                                                   rized by this section are those listed in paragraph
   (c) The holder of a repairman certificate may        (c) of Appendix A of this part.
perform maintenance, preventive maintenance,               (i) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph
and alterations as provided in part 65 of this chap-   (g) of this section, in accordance with an approval
ter.                                                   issued to the holder of a certificate issued under
   (d) A person working under the supervision of       part 135 of this chapter, a pilot of an aircraft type-
a holder of a mechanic or repairman certificate         certificated for 9 or fewer passenger seats, ex-
may perform the maintenance, preventive mainte-        cluding any pilot seat, may perform the removal
nance, and alterations that his supervisor is au-      and reinstallation of approved aircraft cabin seats,
thorized to perform, if the supervisor personally      approved cabin-mounted stretchers, and when no
observes the work being done to the extent nec-        tools are required, approved cabin-mounted med-
                                                       ical oxygen bottles, provided —


16
Part 43: Maintenance, Rebuilding & Alteration                                                          §43.7


   (1) The pilot has satisfactorily completed an ap-     §43.7 Persons authorized to approve
proved training program and is authorized in writ-         aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines,
ing by the certificate holder to perform each task;         propellers, appliances, or component
and                                                        parts for return to service after




                                                                                                                  43
   (2) The certificate holder has written proce-
dures available to the pilot to evaluate the accom-
                                                           maintenance, preventive
plishment of the task.                                     maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.
   (j) A manufacturer may —                                 (a) Except as provided in this section and
   (1) Rebuild or alter any aircraft, aircraft engine,   §43.17, no person, other than the Administrator,
propeller, or appliance manufactured by him un-          may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine,
der a type or production certificate;                     propeller, appliance, or component part for return
   (2) Rebuild or alter any appliance or part of air-    to service after it has undergone maintenance,
craft, aircraft engines, propellers, or appliances       preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.
manufactured by him under a Technical Standard              (b) The holder of a mechanic certificate or an
Order Authorization, an FAA-Parts Manufacturer           inspection authorization may approve an aircraft,
Approval, or Product and Process Specification            airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or
issued by the Administrator; and                         component part for return to service as provided
   (3) Perform any inspection required by part 91        in part 65 of this chapter.
or part 125 of this chapter on aircraft it manufac-         (c) The holder of a repair station certificate may
tured under a type certificate, or currently manu-        approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, pro-
factures under a production certificate.                  peller, appliance, or component part for return to
[Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, Apr. 23, 1964; as          service as provided in part 145 of this chapter.
amended by Amdt. 43–4, 31 FR 5249, April 1, 1966;           (d) A manufacturer may approve for return to
Amdt. 43–23, 47 FR 41084, Sept. 16, 1982; Amdt. 43–      service any aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, pro-
25, 51 FR 40702, Nov. 7, 1986; Amdt. 43–36, 61 FR        peller, appliance, or component part which that
19501, May 1, 1996; Amdt. 43–37, 66 FR 21066, April      manufacturer has worked on under §43.3(j). How-
27, 2001; Amdt. 43–39, 69 FR 44863, July 27, 2004;       ever, except for minor alterations, the work must
Amdt. 43–43, 74 FR 53394, Oct. 16, 2009]                 have been done in accordance with technical data
                                                         approved by the Administrator.
§43.5 Approval for return to service                        (e) The holder of an air carrier operating certifi-
  after maintenance, preventive                          cate or an operating certificate issued under part
  maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.                121 or 135, may approve an aircraft, airframe, air-
   No person may approve for return to service           craft engine, propeller, appliance, or component
any aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, or   part for return to service as provided in part 121
appliance, that has undergone maintenance, pre-          or 135 of this chapter, as applicable.
ventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration un-          (f) A person holding at least a private pilot cer-
less—                                                    tificate may approve an aircraft for return to ser-
   (a) The maintenance record entry required by          vice after performing preventive maintenance un-
§43.9 or §43.11, as appropriate, has been made;          der the provisions of §43.3(g).
   (b) The repair or alteration form authorized by          (g) The holder of a repairman certificate (light-
or furnished by the Administrator has been exe-          sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating may ap-
cuted in a manner prescribed by the Administra-          prove an aircraft issued a special airworthiness
tor; and                                                 certificate in light-sport category for return to ser-
   (c) If a repair or an alteration results in any       vice, as provided in part 65 of this chapter.
change in the aircraft operating limitations or flight       (h) The holder of at least a sport pilot certificate
data contained in the approved aircraft flight man-       may approve an aircraft owned or operated by
ual, those operating limitations or flight data are       that pilot and issued a special airworthiness certif-
appropriately revised and set forth as prescribed        icate in the light-sport category for return to ser-
in §91.9 of this chapter.                                vice after performing preventive maintenance un-
                                                         der the provisions of §43.3(g).
[Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964; as
amended by Amdt. 43–23, 47 FR 41084, Sept. 16, 1982;     [Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964; as
Amdt. 43–31, 54 FR 34330, Aug. 18, 1989]                 amended by Amdt. 43–23, 47 FR 41084, Sept. 16, 1982;
                                                         Amdt. 43–36, 61 FR 19501, May 1, 1996; Amdt. 43–37,
                                                         66 FR 21066, April 27, 2001; Amdt. 43–39, 69 FR
                                                         44863, July 27, 2004]




                                                                                                           17
§43.9                                                                   Federal Aviation Regulations


§43.9 Content, form, and disposition                     §43.10 Disposition of life-limited
  of maintenance, preventive                               aircraft parts.
  maintenance, rebuilding, and                              (a) Definitions used in this section. For the
  alteration records (except inspections                 purposes of this section the following definitions
  performed in accordance with Part 91,                  apply.
  Part 125, §135.411(a)(1), and §135.419                    Life-limited part means any part for which a
  of this chapter).                                      mandatory replacement limit is specified in the
                                                         type design, the Instructions for Continued Air-
    (a) Maintenance record entries. Except as            worthiness, or the maintenance manual.
provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section,         Life status means the accumulated cycles,
each person who maintains, performs preventive           hours, or any other mandatory replacement limit
maintenance, rebuilds, or alters an aircraft, air-       of a life-limited part.
frame, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or            (b) Temporary removal of parts from type-
component part shall make an entry in the main-          certificated products. When a life-limited part is
tenance record of that equipment containing the          temporarily removed and reinstalled for the pur-
following information:                                   pose of performing maintenance, no disposition
    (1) A description (or reference to data accept-      under paragraph (c) of this section is required if—
able to the Administrator) of work performed.               (1) The life status of the part has not changed;
    (2) The date of completion of the work per-             (2) The removal and reinstallation is performed
formed.                                                  on the same serial numbered product; and
    (3) The name of the person performing the               (3) That product does not accumulate time in
work if other than the person specified in para-          service while the part is removed.
graph (a)(4) of this section.                               (c) Disposition of parts removed from type-
    (4) If the work performed on the aircraft, air-      certificated products. Except as provided in
frame, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or         paragraph (b) of this section, after April 15, 2002
component part has been performed satisfacto-            each person who removes a life-limited part from
rily, the signature, certificate number, and kind of      a type-certificated product must ensure that the
certificate held by the person approving the work.        part is controlled using one of the methods in this
The signature constitutes the approval for return        paragraph. The method must deter the installation
to service only for the work performed.                  of the part after it has reached its life limit. Accept-
    (b) Each holder of an air carrier operating cer-     able methods include:
tificate or an operating certificate issued under             (1) Record keeping system. The part may be
part 121 or 135, that is required by its approved        controlled using a record keeping system that
operations specifications to provide for a continu-       substantiates the part number, serial number, and
ous airworthiness maintenance program, shall             current life status of the part. Each time the part is
make a record of the maintenance, preventive             removed from a type certificated product, the
maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration, on air-         record must be updated with the current life sta-
craft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appli-   tus. This system may include electronic, paper, or
ances, or component parts which it operates in           other means of record keeping.
accordance with the applicable provisions of part           (2) Tag or record attached to part. A tag or
121 or 135 of this chapter, as appropriate.              other record may be attached to the part. The tag
    (c) This section does not apply to persons per-      or record must include the part number, serial
forming inspections in accordance with part 91,          number, and current life status of the part. Each
125, §135.411(a)(1), or §135.419 of this chapter.        time the part is removed from a type certificated
    (d) In addition to the entry required by para-
                                                         product, either a new tag or record must be cre-
graph (a) of this section, major repairs and major
                                                         ated, or the existing tag or record must be up-
alterations shall be entered on a form, and the
                                                         dated with the current life status.
form disposed of, in the manner prescribed in ap-
                                                            (3) Non-permanent marking. The part may be
pendix B, by the person performing the work.
                                                         legibly marked using a non-permanent method
[Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964; as         showing its current life status. The life status must
amended by Amdt. 43–23, 47 FR 41085, Sept. 16, 1982;     be updated each time the part is removed from a
Amdt. 43–37, 66 FR 21066, April 27, 2001; Amdt. 43–39,
                                                         type certificated product, or if the mark is re-
69 FR 44863, July 27, 2004]
                                                         moved, another method in this section may be
                                                         used. The mark must be accomplished in accor-
                                                         dance with the instructions under §45.16 of this
                                                         chapter in order to maintain the integrity of the
                                                         part.




18
Part 43: Maintenance, Rebuilding & Alteration                                                          §43.11


   (4) Permanent marking. The part may be legi-               (4) Except for progressive inspections, if the air-
bly marked using a permanent method showing               craft is found to be airworthy and approved for re-
its current life status. The life status must be up-      turn to service, the following or a similarly worded
dated each time the part is removed from a type           statement — “I certify that this aircraft has been in-




                                                                                                                    43
certificated product. Unless the part is perma-            spected in accordance with (insert type) inspection
nently removed from use on type certificated               and was determined to be in airworthy condition.”
products, this permanent mark must be accom-                  (5) Except for progressive inspections, if the
plished in accordance with the instructions under         aircraft is not approved for return to service be-
§45.16 of this chapter in order to maintain the in-       cause of needed maintenance, noncompliance
tegrity of the part.                                      with applicable specifications, airworthiness di-
   (5) Segregation. The part may be segregated            rectives, or other approved data, the following or a
using methods that deter its installation on a type-      similarly worded statement — “I certify that this
certificated product. These methods must include,          aircraft has been inspected in accordance with
at least—                                                 (insert type) inspection and a list of discrepancies
   (i) Maintaining a record of the part number, se-       and unairworthy items dated (date) has been pro-
rial number, and current life status, and                 vided for the aircraft owner or operator.”
   (ii) Ensuring the part is physically stored sepa-          (6) For progressive inspections, the following or
rately from parts that are currently eligible for in-     a similarly worded statement — “I certify that in
stallation.                                               accordance with a progressive inspection pro-
   (6) Mutilation. The part may be mutilated to de-       gram, a routine inspection of (identify whether air-
ter its installation in a type certificated produce.       craft or components) and a detailed inspection of
The mutilation must render the part beyond repair         (identify components) were performed and the
and incapable of being reworked to appear to be           (aircraft or components) are (approved or disap-
airworthy.                                                proved) for return to service.” If disapproved, the
   (7) Other methods. Any other method approved           entry will further state “and a list of discrepancies
or accepted by the FAA.                                   and unairworthy items dated (date) has been pro-
   (d) Transfer of life-limited parts. Each person        vided to the aircraft owner or operator.”
who removes a life-limited part from a type certifi-           (7) If an inspection is conducted under an in-
cated product and later sells or otherwise trans-         spection program provided for in part 91, 125, or
fers that part must transfer with the part the mark,      §135.411(a)(1), the entry must identify the in-
tag, or other record used to comply with this sec-        spection program, that part of the inspection pro-
tion, unless the part is mutilated before it is sold or   gram accomplished, and contain a statement that
transferred.                                              the inspection was performed in accordance with
[Docket No. FAA–2000–8017, 67 FR 2110, Jan. 15,           the inspections and procedures for that particular
2002]                                                     program.
                                                              (b) Listing of discrepancies and placards. If
§43.11 Content, form, and disposition of                  the person performing any inspection required by
  records for inspections conducted                       part 91 or 125 or §135.411(a)(1) of this chapter
                                                          finds that the aircraft is unairworthy or does not
  under Parts 91 and 125 and                              meet the applicable type certificate data, airwor-
  §§135.411(a)(1) and 135.419 of                          thiness directives, or other approved data upon
  this chapter.                                           which its airworthiness depends, that persons
   (a) Maintenance record entries. The person             must give the owner or lessee a signed and dated
approving or disapproving for return to service an        list of those discrepancies. For those items per-
aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appli-    mitted to be inoperative under §91.213(d)(2) of
ance, or component part after any inspection per-         this chapter, that person shall place a placard,
formed in accordance with part 91, 125,                   that meets the aircraft’s airworthiness certification
§135.411(a)(1), or §135.419 shall make an entry           regulations, on each inoperative instrument and
in the maintenance record of that equipment con-          the cockpit control of each item of inoperative
taining the following information:                        equipment, marking it “Inoperative,” and shall add
   (1) The type of inspection and a brief descrip-        the items to the signed and dated list of discrep-
tion of the extent of the inspection.                     ancies given to the owner or lessee.
   (2) The date of the inspection and aircraft total      [Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964; as
time in service.                                          amended by Amdt. 43–23, 47 FR 41085, Sept. 16, 1982;
   (3) The signature, the certificate number, and          Amdt. 43–30, 53 FR 50195, Dec. 13, 1988; Amdt. 43–
kind of certificate held by the person approving or        36, 61 FR 19501, May 1, 1996; 71 FR 44188, Aug. 4,
disapproving for return to service the aircraft, air-     2006]
frame, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, com-
ponent part, or portions thereof.



                                                                                                             19
§43.12                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


§43.12 Maintenance records:                             an air carrier operating certificate or an operating
  Falsification, reproduction,                           certificate under part 121 or 135 and part 129 op-
  or alteration.                                        erators holding operations specifications (that is
                                                        required by its operating specifications to provide
   (a) No person may make or cause to be made:          a continuous airworthiness maintenance and in-
   (1) Any fraudulent or intentionally false entry in   spection program) constitute acceptable means
any record or report that is required to be made,       of compliance with this section.
kept, or used to show compliance with any re-
quirement under this part;                              [Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964; as
                                                        amended by Amdt. 43–20, 45 FR 60182, Sept. 11, 1980;
   (2) Any reproduction, for fraudulent purpose, of
                                                        Amdt. 43–23, 47 FR 41085, Sept. 16, 1982; Amdt. 43–
any record or report under this part; or                28, 52 FR 20028, June 16, 1987; Amdt. 43–37, 66 FR
   (3) Any alteration, for fraudulent purpose, of       21066, April 27, 2001]
any record or report under this part.
   (b) The commission by any person of an act           §43.15 Additional performance rules
prohibited under paragraph (a) of this section is a
basis for suspending or revoking the applicable
                                                          for inspections.
airman, operator, or production certificate, Techni-        (a) General. Each person performing an in-
cal Standard Order Authorization, FAA-Parts             spection required by part 91, 125, or 135 of this
Manufacturer Approval, or Product and Process           chapter, shall —
Specification issued by the Administrator and held          (1) Perform the inspection so as to determine
by that person.                                         whether the aircraft, or portion(s) thereof under
                                                        inspection, meets all applicable airworthiness re-
[Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964; as
                                                        quirements; and
amended by Amdt. 43–19, 43 FR 22639, May 25, 1978;
Amdt. 43–23, 47 FR 41085, Sept. 16, 1982]                  (2) If the inspection is one provided for in part
                                                        125, 135, or §91.409(e) of this chapter, perform
                                                        the inspection in accordance with the instructions
§43.13 Performance rules (general).                     and procedures set forth in the inspection pro-
   (a) Each person performing maintenance, al-          gram for the aircraft being inspected.
teration, or preventive maintenance on an aircraft,        (b) Rotorcraft. Each person performing an in-
engine, propeller, or appliance shall use the meth-     spection required by part 91 on a rotorcraft shall
ods, techniques, and practices prescribed in the        inspect the following systems in accordance with
current manufacturer’s maintenance manual or            the maintenance manual or Instructions for Con-
Instructions for Continued Airworthiness prepared       tinued Airworthiness of the manufacturer con-
by its manufacturer, or other methods, tech-            cerned:
niques, and practices acceptable to the Adminis-           (1) The drive shafts or similar systems.
trator, except as noted in §43.16. He shall use the        (2) The main rotor transmission gear box for
tools, equipment, and test apparatus necessary          obvious defects.
to assure completion of the work in accordance             (3) The main rotor and center section (or the
with accepted industry practices. If special equip-     equivalent area).
ment or test apparatus is recommended by the               (4) The auxiliary rotor on helicopters.
manufacturer involved, he must use that equip-             (c) Annual and 100-hour inspections.
ment or apparatus or its equivalent acceptable to          (1) Each person performing an annual or 100-
the Administrator.                                      hour inspection shall use a checklist while per-
   (b) Each person maintaining or altering, or per-     forming the inspection. The checklist may be of
forming preventive maintenance, shall do that           the person’s own design, one provided by the
work in such a manner and use materials of such         manufacturer of the equipment being inspected or
a quality, that the condition of the aircraft, air-     one obtained from another source. This checklist
frame, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance         must include the scope and detail of the items
worked on will be at least equal to its original or     contained in Appendix D to this part and para-
properly altered condition (with regard to aerody-      graph (b) of this section.
namic function, structural strength, resistance to         (2) Each person approving a reciprocating-en-
vibration and deterioration, and other qualities af-    gine-powered aircraft for return to service after an
fecting airworthiness).                                 annual or 100-hour inspection shall, before that
   (c) Special provisions for holders of air carrier    approval, run the aircraft engine or engines to de-
operating certificates and operating certificates         termine satisfactory performance in accordance
issued under the provisions of part 121 or 135          with the manufacturer’s recommendations of —
and part 129 operators holding operations specifi-          (i) Power output (static and idle r.p.m.);
cations. Unless otherwise notified by the adminis-          (ii) Magnetos;
trator, the methods, techniques, and practices             (iii) Fuel and oil pressure; and
contained in the maintenance manual or the                 (iv) Cylinder and oil temperature.
maintenance part of the manual of the holder of


20
Part 43: Maintenance, Rebuilding & Alteration                                                       §43.17


   (3) Each person approving a turbine-engine-            §43.17 Maintenance, preventive
powered aircraft for return to service after an an-         maintenance, and alterations
nual, 100-hour, or progressive inspection shall,            performed on U.S. aeronautical
before that approval, run the aircraft engine or en-        products by certain Canadian




                                                                                                                43
gines to determine satisfactory performance in
accordance with the manufacturer’s recommen-
                                                            persons.
dations.                                                     (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section:
   (d) Progressive inspection.                               Aeronautical product means any civil aircraft or
   (1) Each person performing a progressive in-           airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance,
spection shall, at the start of a progressive in-         component, or part to be installed thereon.
spection system, inspect the aircraft completely.            Canadian aeronautical product means any
After this initial inspection, routine and detailed in-   aeronautical product under airworthiness regula-
spections must be conducted as prescribed in the          tion by Transport Canada Civil Aviation.
progressive inspection schedule. Routine inspec-             U.S. aeronautical product means any aero-
tions consist of visual examination or check of the       nautical product under airworthiness regulation
appliances, the aircraft, and its components and          by the FAA.
systems, insofar as practicable without disassem-            (b) Applicability. This section does not apply
bly. Detailed inspections consist of a thorough ex-       to any U.S. aeronautical products maintained or
amination of the appliances, the aircraft, and its        altered under any bilateral agreement made be-
components and systems, with such disassembly             tween Canada and any country other than the
as is necessary. For the purposes of this subpara-        United States.
graph, the overhaul of a component or system is              (c) Authorized persons.
considered to be a detailed inspection.                      (1) A person holding a valid Transport Canada
   (2) If the aircraft is away from the station where     Civil Aviation Maintenance Engineer license and
inspections are normally conducted, an appropri-          appropriate ratings may, with respect to a U.S.-
ately rated mechanic, a certificated repair station,       registered aircraft located in Canada, perform
or the manufacturer of the aircraft may perform in-       maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alter-
spections in accordance with the procedures and           ations in accordance with the requirements of
using the forms of the person who would other-            paragraph (d) of this section and approve the af-
wise perform the inspection.                              fected aircraft for return to service in accordance
                                                          with the requirements of paragraph (e) of this sec-
[Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964; as
amended by Amdt. 43–23, 47 FR 41086, Sept. 16, 1982;      tion.
Amdt. 43–25, 51 FR 40702, Nov. 7, 1986; Amdt. 43–31,         (2) A Transport Canada Civil Aviation Approved
54 FR 34330, Aug. 18, 1989; 71 FR 44188, Aug. 4,          Maintenance Organization (AMO) holding appro-
2006]                                                     priate ratings may, with respect to a U.S.-regis-
                                                          tered aircraft or other U.S. aeronautical products
§43.16 Airworthiness Limitations.                         located in Canada, perform maintenance, preven-
   Each person performing an inspection or other          tive maintenance, and alterations in accordance
maintenance specified in an Airworthiness Limita-          with the requirements of paragraph (d) of this sec-
tions section of a manufacturer’s maintenance             tion and approve the affected products for return
manual or Instructions for Continued Airworthi-           to service in accordance with the requirements of
ness shall perform the inspection or other mainte-        paragraph (e) of this section.
nance in accordance with that section, or in ac-             (d) Performance requirements. A person au-
cordance with operations specifications approved           thorized in paragraph (c) of this section may per-
by the Administrator under parts 121 or 135, or an        form maintenance (including any inspection re-
inspection program approved under §91.409(e).             quired by §91.409 of this chapter, except an
                                                          annual inspection), preventive maintenance, and
[71 FR 44188, Aug. 4, 2006]                               alterations, provided—
                                                             (1) The person performing the work is autho-
                                                          rized by Transport Canada Civil Aviation to per-
                                                          form the same type of work with respect to Cana-
                                                          dian aeronautical products;




                                                                                                          21
§43.17                                                                  Federal Aviation Regulations


   (2) The maintenance, preventive maintenance,              (vi) Landing gear.
or alteration is performed in accordance with a Bi-          (vii) Hull or floats.
lateral Aviation Safety Agreement between the                (viii) Elements of an airframe including spars,
United States and Canada and associated Main-            ribs, fittings, shock absorbers, bracing, cowling,
tenance Implementation Procedures that provide           fairings, and balance weights.
a level of safety equivalent to that provided by the         (ix) Hydraulic and electrical actuating system of
provisions of this chapter;                              components.
   (3) The maintenance, preventive maintenance,              (x) Rotor blades.
or alteration is performed such that the affected            (xi) Changes to the empty weight or empty bal-
product complies with the applicable require-            ance which result in an increase in the maximum
ments of part 36 of this chapter; and                    certificated weight or center of gravity limits of the
   (4) The maintenance, preventive maintenance,          aircraft.
or alteration is recorded in accordance with a Bi-           (xii) Changes to the basic design of the fuel, oil,
lateral Aviation Safety Agreement between the            cooling, heating, cabin pressurization, electrical,
United States and Canada and associated Main-            hydraulic, de-icing, or exhaust systems.
tenance Implementation Procedures that provide               (xiii) Changes to the wing or to fixed or movable
a level of safety equivalent to that provided by the     control surfaces which affect flutter and vibration
provisions of this chapter.                              characteristics.
   (e) Approval requirements.                                (2) Powerplant major alterations. The following
   (1) To return an affected product to service, a       alterations of a powerplant when not listed in the
person authorized in paragraph (c) of this section       engine specifications issued by the FAA, are pow-
must approve (certify) maintenance, preventive           erplant major alterations.
maintenance, and alterations performed under                 (i) Conversion of an aircraft engine from one
this section, except that an Aircraft Maintenance        approved model to another, involving any
Engineer may not approve a major repair or major         changes in compression ratio, propeller reduction
alteration.                                              gear, impeller gear ratios or the substitution of
   (2) An AMO whose system of quality control for        major engine parts which requires extensive re-
the maintenance, preventive maintenance, alter-          work and testing of the engine.
ation, and inspection of aeronautical products has           (ii) Changes to the engine by replacing aircraft
been approved by Transport Canada Civil Avia-            engine structural parts with parts not supplied by
tion, or an authorized employee performing work          the original manufacturer or parts not specifically
for such an AMO, may approve (certify) a major           approved by the Administrator.
repair or major alteration performed under this              (iii) Installation of an accessory which is not ap-
section if the work was performed in accordance          proved for the engine.
with technical data approved by the FAA.                     (iv) Removal of accessories that are listed as
   (f) No person may operate in air commerce an          required equipment on the aircraft or engine
aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, or ap-   specification.
pliance on which maintenance, preventive main-               (v) Installation of structural parts other than the
tenance, or alteration has been performed under          type of parts approved for the installation.
this section unless it has been approved for return          (vi) Conversions of any sort for the purpose of
to service by a person authorized in this section.       using fuel of a rating or grade other than that
[Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964; as         listed in the engine specifications.
amended by Amdt. 43–33, 56 FR 57571, Nov. 12, 1991;          (3) Propeller major alterations. The following al-
Amdt. 43–40, 70 FR 40877, July 14, 2005]                 terations of a propeller when not authorized in the
                                                         propeller specifications issued by the FAA are
                                                         propeller major alterations:
          APPENDIX A TO PART 43                              (i) Changes in blade design.
 MAJOR ALTERATIONS, MAJOR REPAIRS, AND                       (ii) Changes in hub design.
        PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE                               (iii) Changes in the governor or control design.
                                                             (iv) Installation of a propeller governor or feath-
   (a) Major alterations —                               ering system.
   (1) Airframe major alterations. Alterations of the        (v) Installation of propeller de-icing system.
following parts and alterations of the following             (vi) Installation of parts not approved for the
types, when not listed in the aircraft specifications     propeller.
issued by the FAA, are airframe major alterations:           (4) Appliance major alterations. Alterations of
   (i) Wings.                                            the basic design not made in accordance with
   (ii) Tail surfaces.                                   recommendations of the appliance manufacturer
   (iii) Fuselage.                                       or in accordance with an FAA Airworthiness Di-
   (iv) Engine mounts.                                   rective are appliance major alterations. In addi-
   (v) Control system.                                   tion, changes in the basic design of radio commu-


22
Part 43: Maintenance, Rebuilding & Alteration                                       Appendix A to Part 43


nication and navigation equipment approved                      (xxviii) Repairing, including rebottoming, of re-
under type certification or a Technical Standard             movable or integral fuel tanks and oil tanks.
Order that have an effect on frequency stability,               (2) Powerplant major repairs. Repairs of the fol-
noise level, sensitivity, selectivity, distortion, spuri-   lowing parts of an engine and repairs of the fol-




                                                                                                                      43
ous radiation, AVC characteristics, or ability to           lowing types, are powerplant major repairs:
meet environmental test conditions and other                    (i) Separation or disassembly of a crankcase or
changes that have an effect on the performance              crankshaft of a reciprocating engine equipped
of the equipment are also major alterations.                with an integral supercharger.
   (b) Major repairs —                                          (ii) Separation or disassembly of a crankcase
   (1) Airframe major repairs. Repairs to the fol-          or crankshaft of a reciprocating engine equipped
lowing parts of an airframe and repairs of the fol-         with other than spur-type propeller reduction
lowing types, involving the strengthening, rein-            gearing.
forcing, splicing, and manufacturing of primary                 (iii) Special repairs to structural engine parts by
structural members or their replacement, when               welding, plating, metalizing, or other methods.
replacement is by fabrication such as riveting or               (3) Propeller major repairs. Repairs of the fol-
welding, are airframe major repairs.                        lowing types to a propeller are propeller major re-
   (i) Box beams.                                           pairs:
   (ii) Monocoque or semimonocoque wings or                     (i) Any repairs to, or straightening of steel
control surfaces.                                           blades.
   (iii) Wing stringers or chord members.                       (ii) Repairing or machining of steel hubs.
   (iv) Spars.                                                  (iii) Shortening of blades.
   (v) Spar flanges.                                             (iv) Retipping of wood propellers.
   (vi) Members of truss-type beams.                            (v) Replacement of outer laminations on fixed
   (vii) Thin sheet webs of beams.                          pitch wood propellers.
   (viii) Keel and chine members of boat hulls or               (vi) Repairing elongated bolt holes in the hub of
floats.                                                      fixed pitch wood propellers.
   (ix) Corrugated sheet compression members                    (vii) Inlay work on wood blades.
which act as flange material of wings or tail sur-               (viii) Repairs to composition blades.
faces.                                                          (ix) Replacement of tip fabric.
   (x) Wing main ribs and compression members.                  (x) Replacement of plastic covering.
   (xi) Wing or tail surface brace struts.                      (xi) Repair of propeller governors.
   (xii) Engine mounts.                                         (xii) Overhaul of controllable pitch propellers.
   (xiii) Fuselage longerons.                                   (xiii) Repairs to deep dents, cuts, scars, nicks,
   (xiv) Members of the side truss, horizontal              etc., and straightening of aluminum blades.
truss, or bulkheads.                                            (xiv) The repair or replacement of internal ele-
   (xv) Main seat support braces and brackets.              ments of blades.
   (xvi) Landing gear brace struts.                             (4) Appliance major repairs. Repairs of the fol-
   (xvii) Axles.                                            lowing types to appliances are appliance major
   (xviii) Wheels.                                          repairs:
   (xix) Skis, and ski pedestals.                               (i) Calibration and repair of instruments.
   (xx) Parts of the control system such as control             (ii) Calibration of radio equipment.
columns, pedals, shafts, brackets, or horns.                    (iii) Rewinding the field coil of an electrical ac-
   (xxi) Repairs involving the substitution of ma-          cessory.
terial.                                                         (iv) Complete disassembly of complex hydrau-
   (xxii) The repair of damaged areas in metal or           lic power valves.
plywood stressed covering exceeding six inches                  (v) Overhaul of pressure type carburetors, and
in any direction.                                           pressure type fuel, oil and hydraulic pumps.
   (xxiii) The repair of portions of skin sheets by             (c) Preventive maintenance. Preventive main-
making additional seams.                                    tenance is limited to the following work, provided it
   (xxiv) The splicing of skin sheets.                      does not involve complex assembly operations:
   (xxv) The repair of three or more adjacent wing              (1) Removal, installation, and repair of landing
or control surface ribs or the leading edge of              gear tires.
wings and control surfaces, between such adja-                  (2) Replacing elastic shock absorber cords on
cent ribs.                                                  landing gear.
   (xxvi) Repair of fabric covering involving an                (3) Servicing landing gear shock struts by add-
area greater than that required to repair two adja-         ing oil, air, or both.
cent ribs.                                                      (4) Servicing landing gear wheel bearings,
   (xxvii) Replacement of fabric on fabric covered          such as cleaning and greasing.
parts such as wings, fuselages, stabilizers, and                (5) Replacing defective safety wiring or cotter
control surfaces.                                           keys.


                                                                                                               23
Appendix A to Part 43                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


   (6) Lubrication not requiring disassembly other        (25) Cleaning of balloon burner pilot and main
than removal of nonstructural items such as cover      nozzles in accordance with the balloon manufac-
plates, cowlings, and fairings.                        turer’s instructions.
   (7) Making simple fabric patches not requiring         (26) Replacement or adjustment of nonstruc-
rib stitching or the removal of structural parts or    tural standard fasteners incidental to operations.
control surfaces. In the case of balloons, the mak-       (27) The interchange of balloon baskets and
ing of small fabric repairs to envelopes (as de-       burners on envelopes when the basket or burner
fined in, and in accordance with, the balloon man-      is designated as interchangeable in the balloon
ufacturers’ instructions) not requiring load tape      type certificate data and the baskets and burners
repair or replacement.                                 are specifically designed for quick removal and in-
   (8) Replenishing hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic    stallation.
reservoir.                                                (28) The installations of anti-misfueling devices
   (9) Refinishing decorative coating of fuselage,      to reduce the diameter of fuel tank filler openings
balloon baskets, wings tail group surfaces (ex-        provided the specific device has been made a
cluding balanced control surfaces), fairings, cowl-    part of the aircraft type certificate data by the air-
ings, landing gear, cabin, or cockpit interior when    craft manufacturer, the aircraft manufacturer has
removal or disassembly of any primary structure        provided FAA-approved instructions for installa-
or operating system is not required.                   tion of the specific device, and installation does
   (10) Applying preservative or protective mate-      not involve the disassembly of the existing tank
rial to components where no disassembly of any         filler opening.
primary structure or operating system is involved         (29) Removing, checking, and replacing mag-
and where such coating is not prohibited or is not     netic chip detectors.
contrary to good practices.                               (30) The inspection and maintenance tasks
   (11) Repairing upholstery and decorative fur-       prescribed and specifically identified as preven-
nishings of the cabin, cockpit, or balloon basket      tive maintenance in a primary category aircraft
interior when the repairing does not require disas-    type certificate or supplemental type certificate
sembly of any primary structure or operating sys-      holder’s approved special inspection and preven-
tem or interfere with an operating system or affect    tive maintenance program when accomplished on
the primary structure of the aircraft.                 a primary category aircraft provided:
   (12) Making small simple repairs to fairings,          (i) They are performed by the holder of at least
nonstructural cover plates, cowlings, and small        a private pilot certificate issued under part 61
patches and reinforcements not changing the            who is the registered owner (including co-own-
contour so as to interfere with proper air flow.        ers) of the affected aircraft and who holds a certif-
   (13) Replacing side windows where that work         icate of competency for the affected aircraft (1) is-
does not interfere with the structure or any oper-     sued by a school approved under §147.21(e) of
ating system such as controls, electrical equip-       this chapter; (2) issued by the holder of the pro-
ment, etc.                                             duction certificate for that primary category air-
   (14) Replacing safety belts.                        craft that has a special training program approved
   (15) Replacing seats or seat parts with replace-    under §21.24 of this subchapter; or (3) issued by
ment parts approved for the aircraft, not involving    another entity that has a course approved by the
disassembly of any primary structure or operating      Administrator; and
system.                                                   (ii) The inspections and maintenance tasks are
   (16) Trouble shooting and repairing broken cir-     performed in accordance with instructions con-
cuits in landing light wiring circuits.                tained by the special inspection and preventive
   (17) Replacing bulbs, reflectors, and lenses of      maintenance program approved as part of the air-
position and landing lights.                           craft’s type design or supplemental type design.
   (18) Replacing wheels and skis where no                (31) Removing and replacing self-contained,
weight and balance computation is involved.            front instrument panel-mounted navigation and
   (19) Replacing any cowling not requiring re-        communication devices that employ tray-mounted
moval of the propeller or disconnection of flight       connectors that connect the unit when the unit is
controls.                                              installed into the instrument panel, (excluding au-
   (20) Replacing or cleaning spark plugs and set-     tomatic flight control systems, transponders, and
ting of spark plug gap clearance.                      microwave frequency distance measuring equip-
   (21) Replacing any hose connection except hy-       ment (DME)). The approved unit must be de-
draulic connections.                                   signed to be readily and repeatedly removed and
   (22) Replacing prefabricated fuel lines.            replaced, and pertinent instructions must be pro-
   (23) Cleaning or replacing fuel and oil strainers   vided. Prior to the unit’s intended use, an opera-
or filter elements.                                     tional check must be performed in accordance
   (24) Replacing and servicing batteries.             with the applicable sections of part 91 of this
                                                       chapter.


24
Part 43: Maintenance, Rebuilding & Alteration                                     Appendix B to Part 43


   (32) Updating self-contained, front instrument            (iii) If an airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, or
panel-mounted Air Traffic Control (ATC) naviga-            appliance, give the manufacturer’s name, name of
tional software data bases (excluding those of au-        the part, model, and serial numbers (if any); and
tomatic flight control systems, transponders, and             (4) Include the following or a similarly worded




                                                                                                                    43
microwave frequency distance measuring equip-             statement —
ment (DME)) provided no disassembly of the unit
                                                             “The aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propel-
is required and pertinent instructions are pro-
                                                          ler, or appliance identified above was repaired
vided. Prior to the unit’s intended use, an opera-
                                                          and inspected in accordance with current Regula-
tional check must be performed in accordance
                                                          tions of the Federal Aviation Agency and is ap-
with applicable sections of part 91 of this chapter.
                                                          proved for return to service.
(Secs. 313, 601 through 610, and 1102, Federal Aviation
Act of 1958 as amended (49 U.S.C. 1354, 1421 through      Pertinent details of the repair are on file at this re-
1430 and 1502); (49 U.S.C. 106(g) (Revised Pub. L. 97–    pair station under Order No. _______________
449, Jan. 21, 1983); and 14 CFR 11.45)                    Date __________________________________
[Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, Apr. 23, 1964; as           Signed ________________________________
amended by Amdt. 43–14, 37 FR 14291, June 19, 1972;       (For signature of authorized representative)
Amdt. 43–23, 47 FR 41086, Sept. 16, 1982; Amdt. 43–
24, 49 FR 44602, Nov. 7, 1984; Amdt. 43–25, 51 FR         (Repair station name)
40703, Nov. 7, 1986; Amdt. 43–27, 52 FR 17277, May 6,
                                                          (Certificate No.) ________________________ .”
1987; Amdt. 43–34, 57 FR 41369, Sept. 9, 1992; Amdt.
43–36, 61 FR 19501, May 1, 1996]                          (Address)

                                                             (c) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this
          APPENDIX B TO PART 43                           appendix, for a major repair or major alteration
     RECORDING OF MAJOR REPAIRS AND                       made by a person authorized in §43.17, the per-
                                                          son who performs the major repair or major alter-
          MAJOR ALTERATIONS                               ation and the person authorized by §43.17 to ap-
   (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c),         prove that work shall execute an FAA Form 337 at
and (d) of this appendix, each person performing          least in duplicate. A completed copy of that form
a major repair or major alteration shall —                shall be—
   (1) Execute FAA Form 337 at least in duplicate;           (1) Given to the aircraft owner; and
   (2) Give a signed copy of that form to the air-           (2) Forwarded to the Federal Aviation Adminis-
craft owner; and                                          tration, Aircraft Registration Branch, AFS-750,
   (3) Forward a copy of that form to the FAA Air-        Post Office Box 25504, Oklahoma City, OK
craft Registration Branch in Oklahoma City, Okla-         73125, within 48 hours after the work is in-
homa, within 48 hours after the aircraft, airframe,       spected.
aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance is ap-              (d) For extended-range fuel tanks installed
proved for return to service.                             within the passenger compartment or a baggage
   (b) For major repairs made in accordance with          compartment, the person who performs the work
a manual or specifications acceptable to the Ad-           and the person authorized to approve the work by
ministrator, a certificated repair station may, in         §43.7 shall execute an FAA Form 337 in at least
place of the requirements of paragraph (a) —              triplicate. A completed copy of that form shall
   (1) Use the customer’s work order upon which           be—
the repair is recorded;                                      (1) Placed on board the aircraft as specified in
   (2) Give the aircraft owner a signed copy of the       §91.417 of this chapter;
work order and retain a duplicate copy for at least          (2) Given to the aircraft owner; and
two years from the date of approval for return to            (3) Forwarded to the Federal Aviation Adminis-
service of the aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine,       tration, Aircraft Registration Branch, AFS-751,
propeller, or appliance;                                  Post Office Box 25724, Oklahoma City, OK
   (3) Give the aircraft owner a maintenance re-          73125, within 48 hours after the work is in-
lease signed by an authorized representative of           spected.
the repair station and incorporating the following        (Secs. 101, 610, 72 Stat. 737, 780, 49 U.S.C. 1301,
information:                                              1430)
   (i) Identity of the aircraft, airframe, aircraft en-   [Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964; as
gine, propeller or appliance.                             amended by Amdt. 43–10, 33 FR 15989, Oct. 31, 1968;
   (ii) If an aircraft, the make, model, serial num-      Amdt. 43–29, 52 FR 34101, Sept. 9, 1987; Amdt. 43–31,
ber, nationality and registration marks, and loca-        54 FR 34330, Aug. 18, 1989; 71 FR 58495, Oct. 4, 2006;
tion of the repaired area.                                Amdt. 43–41, 72 FR 53680, Sept. 20, 2007]




                                                                                                             25
Appendix D to Part 43                                                 Federal Aviation Regulations


     APPENDIX C TO PART 43 — [RESERVED]                 cylinder compression, for improper internal condi-
                                                        tion and improper internal tolerances.
                                                            (4) Engine mount — for cracks, looseness of
          APPENDIX D TO PART 43                         mounting, and looseness of engine to mount.
SCOPE AND DETAIL OF ITEMS (AS APPLICABLE                    (5) Flexible vibration dampeners — for poor
                                                        condition and deterioration.
      TO THE PARTICULAR AIRCRAFT)
                                                            (6) Engine controls — for defects, improper
     TO BE INCLUDED IN ANNUAL AND                       travel, and improper safetying.
         100-HOUR INSPECTIONS                               (7) Lines, hoses, and clamps — for leaks, im-
                                                        proper condition and looseness.
   (a) Each person performing an annual or 100-             (8) Exhaust stacks — for cracks, defects, and
hour inspection shall, before that inspection, re-      improper attachment.
move or open all necessary inspection plates, ac-           (9) Accessories — for apparent defects in secu-
cess doors, fairing, and cowling. He shall thor-        rity of mounting.
oughly clean the aircraft and aircraft engine.              (10) All systems — for improper installation,
   (b) Each person performing an annual or 100-         poor general condition, defects, and insecure at-
hour inspection shall inspect (where applicable)        tachment.
the following components of the fuselage and hull           (11) Cowling — for cracks, and defects.
group:                                                      (e) Each person performing an annual or 100-
   (1) Fabric and skin — for deterioration, distor-     hour inspection shall inspect (where applicable)
tion, other evidence of failure, and defective or in-   the following components of the landing gear
secure attachment of fittings.                           group:
   (2) Systems and components — for improper                (1) All units — for poor condition and insecurity
installation, apparent defects, and unsatisfactory      of attachment.
operation.                                                  (2) Shock absorbing devices — for improper
   (3) Envelope, gas bags, ballast tanks, and re-       oleo fluid level.
lated parts — for poor condition.                           (3) Linkages, trusses, and members — for un-
   (c) Each person performing an annual or 100-         due or excessive wear fatigue, and distortion.
hour inspection shall inspect (where applicable)            (4) Retracting and locking mechanism — for im-
the following components of the cabin and cockpit       proper operation.
group:                                                      (5) Hydraulic lines — for leakage.
   (1) Generally — for uncleanliness and loose              (6) Electrical system — for chafing and im-
equipment that might foul the controls.                 proper operation of switches.
   (2) Seats and safety belts — for poor condition          (7) Wheels — for cracks, defects, and condition
and apparent defects.                                   of bearings.
   (3) Windows and windshields — for deteriora-             (8) Tires — for wear and cuts.
tion and breakage.                                          (9) Brakes — for improper adjustment.
   (4) Instruments — for poor condition, mounting,          (10) Floats and skis — for insecure attachment
marking, and (where practicable) improper opera-        and obvious or apparent defects.
tion.                                                       (f) Each person performing an annual or 100-
   (5) Flight and engine controls — for improper        hour inspection shall inspect (where applicable)
installation and improper operation.                    all components of the wing and center section as-
   (6) Batteries — for improper installation and im-    sembly for poor general condition, fabric or skin
proper charge.                                          deterioration, distortion, evidence of failure, and
   (7) All systems — for improper installation, poor    insecurity of attachment.
general condition, apparent and obvious defects,            (g) Each person performing an annual or 100-
and insecurity of attachment.                           hour inspection shall inspect (where applicable)
   (d) Each person performing an annual or 100-         all components and systems that make up the
hour inspection shall inspect (where applicable)        complete empennage assembly for poor general
components of the engine and nacelle group as           condition, fabric or skin deterioration, distortion,
follows:                                                evidence of failure, insecure attachment, im-
   (1) Engine section — for visual evidence of ex-      proper component installation, and improper
cessive oil, fuel, or hydraulic leaks, and sources of   component operation.
such leaks.                                                 (h) Each person performing an annual or 100-
   (2) Studs and nuts — for improper torquing and       hour inspection shall inspect (where applicable)
obvious defects.                                        the following components of the propeller group:
   (3) Internal engine — for cylinder compression           (1) Propeller assembly — for cracks, nicks,
and for metal particles or foreign matter on            binds, and oil leakage.
screens and sump drain plugs. If there is weak              (2) Bolts — for improper torquing and lack of
                                                        safetying.


26
Part 43: Maintenance, Rebuilding & Alteration                                   Appendix E to Part 43


   (3) Anti-icing devices — for improper operations        (i) Scale error. With the barometric pressure
and obvious defects.                                    scale at 29.92 inches of mercury, the altimeter
   (4) Control mechanisms — for improper opera-         shall be subjected successively to pressures cor-
tion, insecure mounting, and restricted travel.         responding to the altitude specified in Table I up to




                                                                                                                 43
   (i) Each person performing an annual or 100-         the maximum normally expected operating alti-
hour inspection shall inspect (where applicable)        tude of the airplane in which the altimeter is to be
the following components of the radio group:            installed. The reduction in pressure shall be made
   (1) Radio and electronic equipment — for im-         at a rate not in excess of 20,000 feet per minute to
proper installation and insecure mounting.              within approximately 2,000 feet of the test point.
   (2) Wiring and conduits — for improper routing,      The test point shall be approached at a rate com-
insecure mounting, and obvious defects.                 patible with the test equipment. The altimeter
   (3) Bonding and shielding — for improper in-         shall be kept at the pressure corresponding to
stallation and poor condition.                          each test point for at least 1 minute, but not more
   (4) Antenna including trailing antenna — for         than 10 minutes, before a reading is taken. The
poor condition, insecure mounting, and improper         error at all test points must not exceed the toler-
operation.                                              ances specified in Table I.
   (j) Each person performing an annual or 100-            (ii) Hysteresis. The hysteresis test shall begin
hour inspection shall inspect (where applicable)        not more than 15 minutes after the altimeter’s ini-
each installed miscellaneous item that is not oth-      tial exposure to the pressure corresponding to the
erwise covered by this listing for improper installa-   upper limit of the scale error test prescribed in
tion and improper operation.                            subparagraph (i); and while the altimeter is at this
                                                        pressure, the hysteresis test shall commence.
                                                        Pressure shall be increased at a rate simulating a
          APPENDIX E TO PART 43                         descent in altitude at the rate of 5,000 to 20,000
  ALTIMETER SYSTEM TEST AND INSPECTION                  feet per minute until within 3,000 feet of the first
                                                        test point (50 percent of maximum altitude). The
   Each person performing the altimeter system          test point shall then be approached at a rate of
tests and inspections required by §91.411 shall         approximately 3,000 feet per minute. The altime-
comply with the following:                              ter shall be kept at this pressure for at least 5 min-
   (a) Static pressure system:                          utes, but not more than 15 minutes, before the
   (1) Ensure freedom from entrapped moisture           test reading is taken. After the reading has been
and restrictions.                                       taken, the pressure shall be increased further, in
   (2) Determine that leakage is within the toler-      the same manner as before, until the pressure
ances established in §23.1325 or §25.1325,              corresponding to the second test point (40 per-
whichever is applicable.                                cent of maximum altitude) is reached. The altime-
   (3) Determine that the static port heater, if in-    ter shall be kept at this pressure for at least 1
stalled, is operative.                                  minute, but not more than 10 minutes, before the
   (4) Ensure that no alterations or deformations       test reading is taken. After the reading has been
of the airframe surface have been made that             taken, the pressure shall be increased further, in
would affect the relationship between air pressure      the same manner as before, until atmospheric
in the static pressure system and true ambient          pressure is reached. The reading of the altimeter
static air pressure for any flight condition.            at either of the two test points shall not differ by
   (b) Altimeter:                                       more than the tolerance specified in Table II from
   (1) Test by an appropriately rated repair facility   the reading of the altimeter for the corresponding
in accordance with the following subparagraphs.         altitude recorded during the scale error test pre-
Unless otherwise specified, each test for perfor-        scribed in paragraph (b)(i).
mance may be conducted with the instrument                 (iii) After effect. Not more than 5 minutes after
subjected to vibration. When tests are conducted        the completion of the hysteresis test prescribed in
with the temperature substantially different from       paragraph (b)(ii), the reading of the altimeter (cor-
ambient temperature of approximately 25 de-             rected for any change in atmospheric pressure)
grees C., allowance shall be made for the varia-        shall not differ from the original atmospheric pres-
tion from the specified condition.                       sure reading by more than the tolerance specified
                                                        in Table II.
                                                           (iv) Friction. The altimeter shall be subjected to
                                                        a steady rate of decrease of pressure approximat-
                                                        ing 750 feet per minute. At each altitude listed in
                                                        Table III, the change in reading of the pointers af-
                                                        ter vibration shall not exceed the corresponding
                                                        tolerance listed in Table III.



                                                                                                          27
Appendix E to Part 43                                                     Federal Aviation Regulations


   (v) Case leak. The leakage of the altimeter                                     Table I
case, when the pressure within it corresponds to
an altitude of 18,000 feet, shall not change the al-                  Equivalent pressure           Tolerance
                                                        Altitude
timeter reading by more than the tolerance shown                      (inches of mercury)           ± (feet)
in Table II during an interval of 1 minute.             -1,000            31.018                     20
   (vi) Barometric scale error. At constant atmo-            0            29.921                     20
spheric pressure, the barometric pressure scale            500            29.385                     20
shall be set at each of the pressures (falling within
                                                         1,000            28.856                     20
its range of adjustment) that are listed in Table IV,
                                                         1,500            28.335                     25
and shall cause the pointer to indicate the equiva-
lent altitude difference shown in Table IV with a        2,000            27.821                     30
tolerance of 25 feet.                                    3,000            26.817                     30
   (2) Altimeters which are the air data computer        4,000            25.842                     35
type with associated computing systems, or               6,000            23.978                     40
which incorporate air data correction internally,        8,000            22.225                     60
may be tested in a manner and to specifications          10,000            20.577                     80
developed by the manufacturer which are accept-         12,000            19.029                     90
able to the Administrator.
                                                        14,000            17.577                    100
   (c) Automatic Pressure Altitude Reporting
                                                        16,000            16.216                    110
Equipment and ATC Transponder System Integra-
tion Test. The test must be conducted by an appro-      18,000            14.942                    120
priately rated person under the conditions speci-       20,000            13.750                    130
fied in paragraph (a). Measure the automatic             22,000            12.636                    140
pressure altitude at the output of the installed ATC    25,000            11.104                    155
transponder when interrogated on Mode C at a            30,000             8.885                    180
sufficient number of test points to ensure that the      35,000             7.041                    205
altitude reporting equipment, altimeters, and ATC       40,000             5.538                    230
transponders perform their intended functions as
                                                        45,000             4.355                    255
installed in the aircraft. The difference between the
                                                        50,000             3.425                    280
automatic reporting output and the altitude dis-
played at the altimeter shall not exceed 125 feet.
   (d) Records: Comply with the provisions of                      Table II — Test Tolerances
§43.9 of this chapter as to content, form, and dis-
                                                        Test                                 Tolerance (feet)
position of the records. The person performing the
altimeter tests shall record on the altimeter the       Case Leak Test                       ±100
date and maximum altitude to which the altimeter        Hysteresis Test:
has been tested and the persons approving the             First Test Point (50 percent of
airplane for return to service shall enter that data        maximum altitude)                  75
in the airplane log or other permanent record.            Second Test Point (40 percent
                                                            of maximum altitude)               75
                                                        After Effect Test                      30

                                                                          Table III — Friction

                                                        Altitude (feet)                      Tolerance (feet)
                                                         1,000                                ±70
                                                         2,000                                 70
                                                         3,000                                 70
                                                         5,000                                 70
                                                        10,000                                 80
                                                        15,000                                 90
                                                        20,000                                100
                                                        25,000                                120
                                                        30,000                                140
                                                        35,000                                160
                                                        40,000                                180
                                                        50,000                                250




28
Part 43: Maintenance, Rebuilding & Alteration                                     Appendix F to Part 43


    Table IV — Pressure-Altitude Difference                   (b) Suppression: When Classes 1B and 2B
                                                           ATCRBS Transponders, or Classes 1B, 2B, and
                                  Altitude difference      3B Mode S transponders are interrogated Mode
 Pressure (inches of Hg)
                                  (feet)                   3/A at an interrogation rate between 230 and




                                                                                                                 43
 28.10                            -1,727                   1,000 interrogations per second; or when
 28.50                            -1,340                   Classes 1A and 2A ATCRBS Transponders, or
 29.00                              -863                   Classes 1B, 2A, 3A, and 4 Mode S transponders
 29.50                              -392                   are interrogated at a rate between 230 and 1,200
 29.92                                 0                   Mode 3/A interrogations per second:
 30.50                             +531                       (1) Verify that the transponder does not re-
 30.90                             +893                    spond to more than 1 percent of ATCRBS interro-
 30.99                             +974                    gations when the amplitude of P2 pulse is equal to
                                                           the P1 pulse.
(Secs. 313, 314, and 601 through 610 of the Federal Avi-      (2) Verify that the transponder replies to at
ation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. 1354, 1355, and 1421          least 90 percent of ATCRBS interrogations when
through 1430) and sec. 6(c), Dept. of Transportation Act
                                                           the amplitude of the P2 pulse is 9 dB less than
(49 U.S.C. 1655(c)))
                                                           the P1 pulse. If the test is conducted with a radi-
[Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964; as           ated test signal, the interrogation rate shall be
amended by Amdt. 43–2, 30 FR 8262, June 29, 1965;
                                                           235±5 interrogations per second unless a higher
Amdt. 43–7, 32 FR 7587, May 24, 1967; Amdt. 43–19,
43 FR 22639, May 25, 1978; Amdt. 43–23, 47 FR 41086,       rate has been approved for the test equipment
Sept. 16, 1982; Amdt. 43–31, 54 FR 34330, Aug. 18,         used at that location.
1989]                                                         (c) Receiver Sensitivity:
                                                              (1) Verify that for any class of ATCRBS Tran-
                                                           sponder, the receiver minimum triggering level
           APPENDIX F TO PART 43                           (MTL) of the system is –73 ±4 dbm, or that for any
ATC TRANSPONDER TESTS AND INSPECTIONS                      class of Mode S transponder the receiver MTL for
                                                           Mode S format (P6 type) interrogations is –74 ±3
   The ATC transponder tests required by                   dbm by use of a test set either:
§91.413 of this chapter may be conducted using a              (i) Connected to the antenna end of the trans-
bench check or portable test equipment and must            mission line;
meet the requirements prescribed in paragraphs                (ii) Connected to the antenna terminal of the
(a) through (j) of this appendix. If portable test         transponder with a correction for transmission line
equipment with appropriate coupling to the air-            loss; or
craft antenna system is used, operate the test                (iii) Utilized radiated signal.
equipment for ATCRBS transponders at a nomi-                  (2) Verify that the difference in Mode 3/A and
nal rate of 235 interrogations per second to avoid         Mode C receiver sensitivity does not exceed 1 db
possible ATCRBS interference. Operate the test             for either any class of ATCRBS transponder or
equipment at a nominal rate of 50 Mode S interro-          any class of Mode S transponder.
gations per second for Mode S. An additional 3                (d) Radio Frequency (RF) Peak Output Power:
dB loss is allowed to compensate for antenna                  (1) Verify that the transponder RF output power
coupling errors during receiver sensitivity mea-           is within specifications for the class of transpon-
surements conducted in accordance with para-               der. Use the same conditions as described in
graph (c)(1) when using portable test equipment.           (c)(1) (i), (ii), and (iii) above.
   (a) Radio Reply Frequency:                                 (i) For Class 1A and 2A ATCRBS transponders,
   (1) For all classes of ATCRBS transponders, in-         verify that the minimum RF peak output power is
terrogate the transponder and verify that the reply        at least 21.0 dbw (125 watts).
frequency is 1090±3 Megahertz (MHz).                          (ii) For Class 1B and 2B ATCRBS Transpon-
   (2) For classes 1B, 2B, and 3B Mode S tran-             ders, verify that the minimum RF peak output
sponders, interrogate the transponder and verify           power is at least 18.5 dbw (70 watts).
that the reply frequency is 1090±3 MHz.                       (iii) For Class 1A, 2A, 3A, and 4 and those
   (3) For classes 1B, 2B, and 3B Mode S tran-             Class 1B, 2B, and 3B Mode S transponders that
sponders that incorporate the optional 1090±1              include the optional high RF peak output power,
MHz reply frequency, interrogate the transponder           verify that the minimum RF peak output power is
and verify that the reply frequency is correct.            at least 21.0 dbw (125 watts).
   (4) For classes 1A, 2A, 3A, and 4 Mode S tran-             (iv) For Classes 1B, 2B, and 3B Mode S tran-
sponders, interrogate the transponder and verify           sponders, verify that the minimum RF peak output
that the reply frequency is 1090±1 MHz.                    power is at least 18.5 dbw (70 watts).




                                                                                                           29
Appendix F to Part 43                                                  Federal Aviation Regulations


  (v) For any class of ATCRBS or any class of               (h) Mode S All-Call Interrogations: Interrogate
Mode S transponders, verify that the maximum             the Mode S transponder with the Mode S-only all-
RF peak output power does not exceed 27.0 dbw            call format UF=11, and the ATCRBS/Mode S all-
(500 watts).                                             call formats (1.6 microsecond P4 pulse) and verify
                                                         that the correct address and capability are re-
  Note: The tests in (e) through (j) apply only to
                                                         ported in the replies (downlink format DF=11).
Mode S transponders.
                                                            (i) ATCRBS-Only All-Call Interrogation: Interro-
    (e) Mode S Diversity Transmission Channel            gate the Mode S transponder with the ATCRBS-
Isolation: For any class of Mode S transponder           only all-call interrogation (0.8 microsecond P4
that incorporates diversity operation, verify that       pulse) and verify that no reply is generated.
the RF peak output power transmitted from the               (j) Squitter: Verify that the Mode S transponder
selected antenna exceeds the power transmitted           generates a correct squitter approximately once
from the nonselected antenna by at least 20 db.          per second.
    (f) Mode S Address: Interrogate the Mode S              (k) Records: Comply with the provisions of
transponder and verify that it replies only to its as-   §43.9 of this chapter as to content, form, and dis-
signed address. Use the correct address and at           position of the records.
least two incorrect addresses. The interrogations        [Docket No. 1993, 29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964; as
should be made at a nominal rate of 50 interroga-        amended by Amdt. 43–26, 52 FR 3390, Feb. 3, 1987; 52
tions per second.                                        FR 6651, March 4, 1987; Amdt. 43–31, 54 FR 34330,
    (g) Mode S Formats: Interrogate the Mode S           Aug. 18, 1989]
transponder with uplink formats (UF) for which it is
equipped and verify that the replies are made in
the correct format. Use the surveillance formats
UF=4 and 5. Verify that the altitude reported in the
replies to UF=4 are the same as that reported in a
valid ATCRBS Mode C reply. Verify that the iden-
tity reported in the replies to UF=5 are the same
as that reported in a valid ATCRBS Mode 3/A re-
ply. If the transponder is so equipped, use the
communication formats UF=20, 21, and 24.




30
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                               Part 61


         SUBCHAPTER D                              61.37 Knowledge tests: Cheating or other
                                                            unauthorized conduct.
                                                   *61.39 Prerequisites for practical tests.
                 AIRMEN                            61.41 Flight training received from flight
                                                            instructors not certificated by the FAA.
                                                   *61.43 Practical tests: General procedures.
                 PART 61                           *61.45 Practical tests:




                                                                                                        61
         CERTIFICATION:                                     Required aircraft and equipment.
                                                   61.47 Status of an examiner who is authorized
  PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS,                               by the Administrator to conduct
   AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS                                   practical tests.
                                                   61.49 Retesting after failure.
 SPECIAL FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS              *61.51 Pilot logbooks.
                                                   *61.52 Use of aeronautical experience
SFAR No. 73
                                                            obtained in ultralight vehicles.
*SFAR No. 100–1 [Removed]
                                                   *61.53 Prohibition on operations during
*SFAR No. 100–2
                                                            medical deficiency.
SFAR No. 108 [Note]
                                                   *61.55 Second in command qualifications.
                                                   *61.56 Flight review.
               Subpart A—General
                                                   *61.57 Recent flight experience:
Sec.
                                                            Pilot in command.
*61.1 Applicability and definitions.
                                                   61.58 Pilot-in-command proficiency check:
*61.2 Exercise of Privilege.
                                                            Operation of aircraft requiring more than
*61.3 Requirement for certificates, ratings,
                                                            one pilot flight crewmember.
         and authorizations.
                                                   61.59 Falsification, reproduction, or alteration of
61.4 Qualification and approval of flight
                                                            applications, certificates, logbooks,
         simulators and flight training devices.
                                                            reports, or records.
61.5 Certificates and ratings issued under
                                                   61.60 Change of address.
         this part.
61.7 Obsolete certificates and ratings.
                                                                     Subpart B—
61.9 [Reserved]
                                                      Aircraft Ratings and Pilot Authorizations
*61.11 Expired pilot certificates and
         reissuance.                               61.61 Applicability.
61.13 Issuance of airman certificates, ratings,     *61.63 Additional aircraft ratings (other than
         and authorizations.                                for ratings at the airline transport
61.14 [Reserved]                                            pilot certification level).
61.15 Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.         *61.64 Use of a flight simulator and flight
61.16 Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to            training device.
         furnish test results.                     *61.65 Instrument rating requirements.
61.17 Temporary certificate.                        61.67 Category II pilot authorization
61.18 Security disqualification.                             requirements.
*61.19 Duration of pilot and instructor            61.68 Category III pilot authorization
         certificates.                                       requirements.
61.21 Duration of a Category II and a Category     *61.69 Glider and unpowered ultralight
         III pilot authorization (for other than            vehicle towing: Experience and
         Part 121 and Part 135 use).                        training requirements.
*61.23 Medical certificates:                        61.71 Graduates of an approved training
         Requirement and duration.                          program other than under this part:
*61.25 Change of name.                                      Special rules.
61.27 Voluntary surrender or exchange of           *61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots:
         certificate.                                        Special rules.
*61.29 Replacement of a lost or destroyed          *61.75 Private pilot certificate issued on the
         airman or medical certificate or                    basis of a foreign pilot license.
         knowledge test report.                    *61.77 Special purpose pilot authorization:
*61.31 Type rating requirements, additional                 Operation of a civil aircraft of the
         training, and authorization                        United States and leased by a
         requirements.                                      non-U.S. citizen.
61.33 Tests: General procedure.
*61.35 Knowledge test:
         Prerequisites and passing grades.



                                                                                                  31
Part 61                                                             Federal Aviation Regulations


           Subpart C—Student Pilots                       Subpart G—Airline Transport Pilots
61.81 Applicability.                                 61.151   Applicability.
61.83 Eligibility requirements for student pilots.   *61.153  Eligibility requirements: General.
61.85 Application.                                   61.155   Aeronautical knowledge.
*61.87Solo requirements for student pilots.          *61.157  Flight proficiency.
*61.89General limitations.                           61.158   [Reserved]
61.91 [Reserved]                                     *61.159  Aeronautical experience:
*61.93Solo cross-country flight                                  Airplane category rating.
        requirements.                                61.161 Aeronautical experience: Rotorcraft
61.94 Student pilot seeking a sport pilot                       category and helicopter class rating.
        certificate or a recreational pilot           61.163 Aeronautical experience:
        certificate: Operations at airports within,              Powered-lift category rating.
        and in airspace located within, Class B,     61.165 Additional aircraft category and
        C, and D airspace, or at airports with an               class ratings.
        operational control tower in other           *61.167 Privileges.
        airspace.                                    61.169 – 61.171 [Reserved]
61.95 Operations in Class B airspace and at
        airports located within Class B airspace.      Subpart H—Flight Instructors Other Than
                                                       Flight Instructors with a Sport Pilot Rating
         Subpart D—Recreational Pilots               61.181  Applicability.
*61.96  Applicability and eligibility                *61.183 Eligibility requirements.
          requirements: General.                     61.185  Aeronautical knowledge.
61.97   Aeronautical knowledge.                      *61.187 Flight proficiency.
61.98   Flight proficiency.                           61.189  Flight instructor records.
*61.99 Aeronautical experience.                      61.191  Additional flight instructor ratings.
61.100 Pilots based on small islands.                *61.193 Flight instructor privileges.
*61.101 Recreational pilot privileges and            *61.195 Flight instructor limitations and
          limitations.                                         qualifications.
                                                     *61.197 Renewal requirements for flight
            Subpart E—Private Pilots                           instructor certification.
61.102   Applicability.                              *61.199 Reinstatement requirements of an
*61.103  Eligibility requirements: General.                    expired flight instructor certificate.
61.105   Aeronautical knowledge.                     61.201 [Reserved]
61.107   Flight proficiency.
*61.109  Aeronautical experience.                              Subpart I — Ground Instructors
61.110   Night flying exceptions.                     61.211     Applicability.
61.111   Cross-country flights:                       *61.213    Eligibility requirements.
           Pilots based on small islands.            *61.215    Ground instructor privileges.
*61.113 Private pilot privileges and                 *61.217    Recent experience requirements.
           limitations: Pilot in command.
61.115 Balloon rating: Limitations.                               Subpart J — Sport Pilots
61.117 Private pilot privileges and limitations:
                                                     *61.301 What is the purpose of this subpart
           Second in command of aircraft
                                                                and to whom does it apply?
           requiring more than one pilot.
                                                     *61.303 If I want to operate a light-sport
61.118 – 61.120 [Reserved]
                                                                aircraft, what operating limits and
                                                                endorsement requirements in this
          Subpart F—Commercial Pilots
                                                                subpart must I comply with?
61.121   Applicability.                              61.305 What are the age and language
61.123   Eligibility requirements: General.                     requirements for a sport pilot
61.125   Aeronautical knowledge.                                certificate?
*61.127  Flight proficiency.                          61.307 What tests do I have to take to obtain a
*61.129  Aeronautical experience.                               sport pilot certificate?
61.131   Exceptions to the night flying               *61.309 What aeronautical knowledge must I
           requirements.                                        have to apply for a sport pilot
61.133 Commercial pilot privileges and                          certificate?
           limitations.                              *61.311 What flight proficiency requirements
61.135 – 61.141 [Reserved]                                      must I meet to apply for a sport
                                                                pilot certificate?


32
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                SFAR No. 73 to Part 61


*61.313 What aeronautical experience must I            *61.423 What are the recordkeeping
          have to apply for a sport pilot                        requirements for a flight instructor
          certificate?                                            with a sport pilot rating?
*61.315 What are the privileges and limits of          61.425 How do I renew my flight instructor
          my sport pilot certificate?                             certificate?
*61.317 Is my sport pilot certificate issued            61.427 What must I do if my flight instructor
          with aircraft category and class                       certificate with a sport pilot rating




                                                                                                               61
          ratings?                                               expires?
*61.319 [Removed and Reserved]                         *61.429 May I exercise the privileges of a
61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an                  flight instructor certificate with a
          additional category or class of light-                 sport pilot rating if I hold a flight
          sport aircraft?                                        instructor certificate with another
*61.323 [Removed and Reserved]                                   rating?
61.325 How do I obtain privileges to operate a         *61.431 [Removed]
          light-sport aircraft at an airport within,
          or in airspace within, Class B, C, and       Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701–44703,
          D airspace, or in other airspace with        44707, 44709–44711, 45102–45103, 45301–45302.
          an airport having an operational             Source: Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997,
          control tower?                               unless otherwise noted.
*61.327 Are there specific endorsement
          requirements to operate a light-
          sport aircraft based on VH?                    SPECIAL FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS
*61.329 [Removed]
                                                                SFAR NO. 73 TO PART 61
                  Subpart K —                            ROBINSON R-22 / R-44 SPECIAL TRAINING
  Flight Instructors with a Sport Pilot Rating              AND EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS
*61.401 What is the purpose of this subpart?           Sections
*61.403 What are the age, language, and pilot            1. Applicability.
         certificate requirements for a flight             2. Required training, aeronautical experience,
         instructor certificate with a sport            endorsements, and flight review.
         pilot rating?                                   3. Expiration date.
61.405 What tests do I have to take to obtain a
         flight instructor certificate with a sport         1. Applicability. Under the procedures pre-
         pilot rating?                                 scribed herein, this SFAR applies to all persons
*61.407 What aeronautical knowledge must I             who seek to manipulate the controls or act as pilot
         have to apply for a flight instructor          in command of a Robinson model R-22 or R-44
         certificate with a sport pilot rating?         helicopter. The requirements stated in this SFAR
61.409 What flight proficiency requirements              are in addition to the current requirements of part
         must I meet to apply for a flight              61.
         instructor certificate with a sport pilot         2. Required training, aeronautical experi-
         rating?                                       ence, endorsements, and flight review.
61.411 What aeronautical experience must I                (a) Awareness Training:
         have to apply for a flight instructor             (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of
         certificate with a sport pilot rating?         this section, no person may manipulate the con-
*61.413 What are the privileges of my flight            trols of a Robinson model R-22 or R-44 helicopter
         instructor certificate with a sport            after March 27, 1995, for the purpose of flight un-
         pilot rating?                                 less the awareness training specified in para-
*61.415 What are the limits of a flight                 graph (a)(3) of this section is completed and the
         instructor certificate with a sport            person’s logbook has been endorsed by a certi-
         pilot rating?                                 fied flight instructor authorized under paragraph
61.417 Will my flight instructor certificate with a      (b)(5) of this section.
         sport pilot rating list aircraft category        (2) A person who holds a rotorcraft category
         and class ratings?                            and helicopter class rating on that person’s pilot
61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide           certificate and meets the experience require-
         training in an additional category or         ments of paragraph (b)(1) or paragraph (b)(2) of
         class of light-sport aircraft?                this section may not manipulate the controls of a
61.421 May I give myself an endorsement?               Robinson model R-22 or R-44 helicopter for the
                                                       purpose of flight after April 26, 1995, unless the
                                                       awareness training specified in paragraph (a)(3)


                                                                                                        33
SFAR No. 73 to Part 61                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


of this section is completed and the person’s log-         (ii) Has had at least 10 hours dual instruction in
book has been endorsed by a certified flight in-          a Robinson helicopter, at least 5 hours of which
structor authorized under paragraph (b)(5) of this      must have been accomplished in the Robinson
section.                                                R-44 helicopter and has received an endorse-
   (3) Awareness training must be conducted by a        ment from a certified flight instructor authorized
certified flight instructor who has been endorsed         under paragraph (b)(5) of this section that the in-
under paragraph (b)(5) of this section and con-         dividual has been given the training required by
sists of instruction in the following general subject   this paragraph and is proficient to act as pilot in
areas:                                                  command of an R-44. Beginning 12 calendar
   (i) Energy management;                               months after the date of the endorsement, the in-
   (ii) Mast bumping;                                   dividual may not act as pilot in command unless
   (iii) Low rotor RPM (blade stall);                   the individual has completed a flight review in a
   (iv) Low G hazards; and                              Robinson R-44 within the preceding 12 calendar
   (v) Rotor RPM decay.                                 months and obtained an endorsement for that
   (4) A person who can show satisfactory com-          flight review. The dual instruction must include at
pletion of the manufacturer’s safety course after       least the following abnormal and emergency pro-
January 1, 1994, may obtain an endorsement              cedures flight training—
from an FAA aviation safety inspector in lieu of           (A) Enhanced training in autorotation proce-
completing the awareness training required in           dures;
paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section.              (B) Engine rotor RPM control without the use of
   (b) Aeronautical Experience:                         the governor;
   (1) No person may act as pilot in command of a          (C) Low rotor RPM recognition and recovery;
Robinson model R-22 unless that person:                 and
   (i) Has had at least 200 flight hours in helicop-        (D) Effects of low G maneuvers and proper re-
ters, at least 50 flight hours of which were in the      covery procedures.
Robinson R-22; or                                          (3) A person who does not hold a rotorcraft cat-
   (ii) Has had at least 10 hours dual instruction in   egory and helicopter class rating must have had
the Robinson R-22 and has received an endorse-          at least 20 hours of dual instruction in a Robinson
ment from a certified flight instructor authorized        R-22 helicopter prior to operating it in solo flight.
under paragraph (b)(5) of this section that the in-     In addition, the person must obtain an endorse-
dividual has been given the training required by        ment from a certified flight instructor authorized
this paragraph and is proficient to act as pilot in      under paragraph (b)(5) of this section that instruc-
command of an R-22. Beginning 12 calendar               tion has been given in those maneuvers and pro-
months after the date of the endorsement, the in-       cedures, and the instructor has found the appli-
dividual may not act as pilot in command unless         cant proficient to solo a Robinson R-22. This en-
the individual has completed a flight review in an       dorsement is valid for a period of 90 days. The
R-22 within the preceding 12 calendar months            dual instruction must include at least the following
and obtained an endorsement for that flight re-          abnormal and emergency procedures flight train-
view. The dual instruction must include at least        ing:
the following abnormal and emergency proce-                (i) Enhanced training in autorotation proce-
dures flight training:                                   dures,
   (A) Enhanced training in autorotation proce-            (ii) Engine rotor RPM control without the use of
dures,                                                  the governor,
   (B) Engine rotor RPM control without the use of         (iii) Low rotor RPM recognition and recovery,
the governor,                                           and
   (C) Low rotor RPM recognition and recovery,             (iv) Effects of low G maneuvers and proper re-
and                                                     covery procedures.
   (D) Effects of low G maneuvers and proper re-           (4) A person who does not hold a rotorcraft cat-
covery procedures.                                      egory and helicopter class rating must have had
   (2) No person may act as pilot in command of a       at least 20 hours of dual instruction in a Robinson
Robinson R-44 unless that person—                       R-44 helicopter prior to operating it in solo flight.
   (i) Has had at least 200 flight hours in helicop-     In addition, the person must obtain an endorse-
ters, at least 50 flight hours of which were in the      ment from a certified flight instructor authorized
Robinson R-44. The pilot in command may credit          under paragraph (b)(5) of this section that instruc-
up to 25 flight hours in the Robinson R-22 toward        tion has been given in those maneuvers and pro-
the 50 hour requirement in the Robinson R-44; or        cedures, and the instructor has found the appli-
                                                        cant proficient to solo a Robinson R-44. This en-
                                                        dorsement is valid for a period of 90 days. The
                                                        dual instruction must include at least the following



34
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                             SFAR No. 100 –2 to Part 61


abnormal and emergency procedures flight train-          R-44 helicopter carrying passengers unless the
ing:                                                    pilot in command has met the recency of flight ex-
   (i) Enhanced training in autorotation proce-         perience requirements of §61.57 in an R-22 or
dures,                                                  R-44, as appropriate.
   (ii) Engine rotor RPM control without the use of        3. Expiration date. This SFAR number 73 shall
the governor,                                           remain in effect until it is revised or rescinded.
   (iii) Low rotor RPM recognition and recovery,        [Docket No. 28095, 63 FR 666, Jan. 7, 1998; as




                                                                                                                  61
and                                                     amended by Docket No. FAA–2002–13744; SFAR No.
   (iv) Effects of low G maneuvers and proper re-       73–1, 68 FR 43, Jan. 2, 2003; Amdt. 61–120, 73 FR
covery procedures.                                      17246, April 1, 2008; Amdt. SFAR 73–2, 74 FR 25650,
   (5) No certificated flight instructor may provide      May 29, 2009]
instruction or conduct a flight review in a Robin-
son R-22 or R-44 unless that instructor—                        SFAR NO. 100 –1 [REMOVED]
   (i) Completes the awareness training in para-        [Docket No. FAA–2009–0923, 75 FR 9766, March 4, 2010]
graph (2)(a) of this SFAR.
   (ii) For the Robinson R-22, has had at least 200
flight hours in helicopters, at least 50 flight hours           SFAR NO. 100 –2 TO PART 61
of which were in the Robinson R-22, or for the
Robinson R-44, has had at least 200 flight hours
                                                          RELIEF FOR U.S. MILITARY AND CIVILIAN
in helicopters, 50 flight hours of which were in              PERSONNEL WHO ARE ASSIGNED
Robinson helicopters. Up to 25 flight hours of           OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES IN SUPPORT OF
Robinson R-22 flight time may be credited toward             U.S. ARMED FORCES OPERATIONS
the 50 hour requirement.
   (iii) Has completed flight training in a Robinson         1. Applicability. Flight Standards District Of-
R-22, R-44, or both, on the following abnormal          fices are authorized to accept from an eligible per-
and emergency procedures—                               son, as described in paragraph 2 of this SFAR,
   (A) Enhanced training in autorotation proce-         the following:
dures;                                                      (a) An expired flight instructor certificate to
   (B) Engine rotor RPM control without the use of      show eligibility for renewal of a flight instructor
the governor;                                           certificate under §61.197, or an expired written
   (C) Low rotor RPM recognition and recovery;          test report to show eligibility under part 61 to take
and                                                     a practical test;
   (D) Effects of low G maneuvers and proper re-            (b) An expired written test report to show eligi-
covery procedures.                                      bility under §§63.33 and 63.57 to take a practical
   (iv) Has been authorized by endorsement from         test; and
an FAA aviation safety inspector or authorized              (c) An expired written test report to show eligi-
designated examiner that the instructor has com-        bility to take a practical test required under part 65
pleted the appropriate training, meets the experi-      or an expired inspection authorization to show eli-
ence requirements and has satisfactorily demon-         gibility for renewal under §65.93.
strated an ability to provide instruction on the gen-       2. Eligibility. A person is eligible for the relief
eral subject areas of paragraph 2(a)(3) of this         described in paragraph 1 of this SFAR if:
SFAR, and the flight training identified in para-             (a) The person served in a U.S. military or civil-
graph 2(b)(5)(iii) of this SFAR.                        ian capacity outside the United States in support
   (c) Flight Review:                                   of the U.S. Armed Forces’ operation during some
   (1) No flight review completed to satisfy §61.56      period of time from September 11, 2001, to termi-
by an individual after becoming eligible to function    nation of SFAR 100–2;
as pilot in command in a Robinson R-22 helicop-             (b) The person’s flight instructor certificate, air-
ter shall be valid for the operation of R-22 helicop-   man written test report, or inspection authoriza-
ter unless that flight review was taken in an R-22.      tion expired some time between September 11,
   (2) No flight review completed to satisfy §61.56      2001, and 6 calendar months after returning to
by an individual after becoming eligible to function    the United States or termination of SFAR 100–2,
as pilot in command in a Robinson R-44 helicop-         whichever is earlier; and
ter shall be valid for the operation of R-44 helicop-       (c) The person complies with §61.197 or
ter unless that flight review was taken in the R-44.     §65.93 of this chapter, as appropriate, or com-
   (3) The flight review will include a review of the    pletes the appropriate practical test within 6 cal-
awareness training subject areas of paragraph           endar months after returning to the United States,
2(a)(3) of this SFAR and the flight training identi-     or upon termination of SFAR 100–2, whichever is
fied in paragraph 2(b) of this SFAR.                     earlier.
   (d) Currency Requirements: No person may act
as pilot in command of a Robinson model R-22 or


                                                                                                           35
SFAR No. 100 –2 to Part 61                                             Federal Aviation Regulations


   3. Required documents. The person must                     Subpart A—General
send the Airman Certificate and/or Rating Appli-
cation (FAA Form 8710–1) to the appropriate
Flight Standards District Office. The person must        §61.1 Applicability and definitions.
include with the application one of the following          (a) This part prescribes:
documents, which must show the date of assign-             (1) The requirements for issuing pilot, flight in-
ment outside the United States and the date of re-      structor, and ground instructor certificates and
turn to the United States:                              ratings; the conditions under which those certifi-
   (a) An official U.S. Government notification of        cates and ratings are necessary; and the privi-
personnel action, or equivalent document, show-         leges and limitations of those certificates and rat-
ing the person was a civilian on official duty for the   ings.
U.S. Government outside the United States and              (2) The requirements for issuing pilot, flight in-
was assigned to a U.S. Armed Forces’ operation          structor, and ground instructor authorizations; the
some time between September 11, 2001, to ter-           conditions under which those authorizations are
mination of SFAR 100–2;                                 necessary; and the privileges and limitations of
   (b) Military orders showing the person was as-       those authorizations.
signed to duty outside the United States and was           (3) The requirements for issuing pilot, flight in-
assigned to a U.S. Armed Forces’ operation some         structor, and ground instructor certificates and
time between September 11, 2001, to termination         ratings for persons who have taken courses ap-
of SFAR 100–2; or                                       proved by the Administrator under other parts of
   (c) A letter from the person’s military com-         this chapter.
mander or civilian supervisor providing the dates          (b) For the purpose of this part:
during which the person served outside the                 (1) Aeronautical experience means pilot time
United States and was assigned to a U.S. Armed          obtained in an aircraft, flight simulator, or flight
Forces’ operation some time between September           training device for meeting the appropriate train-
11, 2001, to termination of SFAR 100–2.                 ing and flight time requirements for an airman cer-
   4. Expiration date. This Special Federal Avia-       tificate, rating, flight review, or recency of flight ex-
tion Regulation No. 100–2 is effective until further    perience requirements of this part.
notice.                                                    (2) Authorized instructor means—
[Docket No. FAA–2009–0923, SFAR No. 100–2, 75 FR           (i) A person who holds a ground instructor cer-
9766, March 4, 2010]                                    tificate issued under part 61 of this chapter and is
                                                        in compliance with §61.217, when conducting
                                                        ground training in accordance with the privileges
        SFAR NO. 108 TO PART 61                         and limitations of his or her ground instructor cer-
     MITSUBISHI MU–2B SERIES AIRPLANE                   tificate;
                                                           (ii) A person who holds a flight instructor certifi-
     SPECIAL TRAINING, EXPERIENCE, AND                  cate issued under part 61 of this chapter and is in
         OPERATING REQUIREMENTS                         compliance with §61.197, when conducting
     Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 108,      ground training or flight training in accordance
                  go to www. faa.gov                    with the privileges and limitations of his or her
                                                        flight instructor certificate; or
                                                           (iii) A person authorized by the Administrator to
                                                        provide ground training or flight training under
                                                        SFAR No. 58, or part 61, 121, 135, or 142 of this
                                                        chapter when conducting ground training or flight
                                                        training in accordance with that authority.
                                                           (3) Cross-country time means—
                                                           (i) Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(3)(ii)
                                                        through (b)(3)(vi) of this section, time acquired
                                                        during flight—
                                                           (A) Conducted by a person who holds a pilot
                                                        certificate;
                                                           (B) Conducted in an aircraft;
                                                           (C) That includes a landing at a point other than
                                                        the point of departure; and
                                                           (D) That involves the use of dead reckoning, pi-
                                                        lotage, electronic navigation aids, radio aids, or
                                                        other navigation systems to navigate to the land-
                                                        ing point.



36
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                           §61.1


   (ii) For the purpose of meeting the aeronautical     port pilot certificate (except with a rotorcraft cate-
experience requirements (except for a rotorcraft        gory rating), time acquired during a flight—
category rating), for a private pilot certificate (ex-      (A) Conducted in an appropriate aircraft;
cept for a powered parachute category rating), a           (B) That is at least a straight-line distance of
commercial pilot certificate, or an instrument rat-      more than 50 nautical miles from the original point
ing, or for the purpose of exercising recreational      of departure; and
pilot privileges (except in a rotorcraft) under            (C) That involves the use of dead reckoning, pi-




                                                                                                                   61
§61.101(c), time acquired during a flight—               lotage, electronic navigation aids, radio aids, or
   (A) Conducted in an appropriate aircraft;            other navigation systems.
   (B) That includes a point of landing that was at        (vii) For a military pilot who qualifies for a com-
least a straight-line distance of more than 50 nau-     mercial pilot certificate (except with a rotorcraft
tical miles from the original point of departure;       category rating) under §61.73 of this part, time
and                                                     acquired during a flight—
   (C) That involves the use of dead reckoning, pi-        (A) Conducted in an appropriate aircraft;
lotage, electronic navigation aids, radio aids, or         (B) That is at least a straight-line distance of
other navigation systems to navigate to the land-       more than 50 nautical miles from the original point
ing point.                                              of departure; and
   (iii) For the purpose of meeting the aeronautical       (C) That involves the use of dead reckoning, pi-
experience requirements for a sport pilot certifi-       lotage, electronic navigation aids, radio aids, or
cate (except for powered parachute privileges),         other navigation systems.
time acquired during a flight conducted in an ap-           (4) Examiner means any person who is autho-
propriate aircraft that—                                rized by the Administrator to conduct a pilot profi-
   (A) Includes a point of landing at least a           ciency test or a practical test for an airman certifi-
straight line distance of more than 25 nautical         cate or rating issued under this part, or a person
miles from the original point of departure; and         who is authorized to conduct a knowledge test un-
   (B) Involves, as applicable, the use of dead         der this part.
reckoning; pilotage; electronic navigation aids; ra-       (5) Flight simulator means a device that—
dio aids; or other navigation systems to navigate          (i) is a full-size aircraft cockpit replica of a spe-
to the landing point.                                   cific type of aircraft, or make, model, and series of
   (iv) For the purpose of meeting the aeronauti-       aircraft;
cal experience requirements for a sport pilot cer-         (ii) Includes the hardware and software neces-
tificate with powered parachute privileges or a pri-     sary to represent the aircraft in ground operations
vate pilot certificate with a powered parachute          and flight operations;
category rating, time acquired during a flight con-         (iii) Uses a force cueing system that provides
ducted in an appropriate aircraft that—                 cues at least equivalent to those cues provided by
   (A) Includes a point of landing at least a           a 3 degree freedom of motion system;
straight line distance of more than 15 nautical            (iv) Uses a visual system that provides at least
miles from the original point of departure; and         a 45 degree horizontal field of view and a 30 de-
   (B) Involves, as applicable, the use of dead         gree vertical field of view simultaneously for each
reckoning; pilotage; electronic navigation aids; ra-    pilot; and
dio aids; or other navigation systems to navigate          (v) Has been evaluated, qualified, and ap-
to the landing point.                                   proved by the Administrator.
   (v) For the purpose of meeting the aeronautical         (6) Flight training means that training, other
experience requirements for any pilot certificate        than ground training, received from an authorized
with a rotorcraft category rating or an instrument-     instructor in flight in an aircraft.
helicopter rating, or for the purpose of exercising        (7) Flight training device means a device that—
recreational pilot privileges, in a rotorcraft, under      (i) Is a full-size replica of the instruments,
§61.101(c), time acquired during a flight—               equipment, panels, and controls of an aircraft, or
   (A) Conducted in an appropriate aircraft;            set of aircraft, in an open flight deck area or in an
   (B) That includes a point of landing that was at     enclosed cockpit, including the hardware and
least a straight-line distance of more than 25 nau-     software for the systems installed, that is neces-
tical miles from the original point of departure;       sary to simulate the aircraft in ground and flight
and                                                     operations;
   (C) That involves the use of dead reckoning, pi-        (ii) Need not have a force (motion) cueing or vi-
lotage, electronic navigation aids, radio aids, or      sual system; and
other navigation systems to navigate to the land-          (iii) Has been evaluated, qualified, and ap-
ing point.                                              proved by the Administrator.
   (vi) For the purpose of meeting the aeronauti-          (8) Ground training means that training, other
cal experience requirements for an airline trans-       than flight training, received from an authorized
                                                        instructor.


                                                                                                            37
§61.1                                                                    Federal Aviation Regulations


   (9) Instrument approach means an approach              §61.2 Exercise of Privilege
procedure defined in part 97 of this chapter.                 (a) Validity. No person may:
   (10) Instrument training means that time in               (1) Exercise privileges of a certificate, rating,
which instrument training is received from an au-         endorsement, or authorization issued under this
thorized instructor under actual or simulated in-         part if the certificate, rating or authorization is sur-
strument conditions.                                      rendered, suspended, revoked or expired.
   (11) Knowledge test means a test on the aero-             (2) Exercise privileges of a flight instructor cer-
nautical knowledge areas required for an airman           tificate if that flight instructor certificate is surren-
certificate or rating that can be administered in          dered, suspended, revoked or expired.
written form or by a computer.                               (3) Exercise privileges of a foreign pilot certifi-
   (12) Night vision goggles means an appliance           cate to operate an aircraft of foreign registry un-
worn by a pilot that enhances the pilot’s ability to      der §61.3(b) if the certificate is surrendered, sus-
maintain visual surface reference at night.               pended, revoked or expired.
   (13) Night vision goggle operation means the              (4) Exercise privileges of a pilot certificate is-
portion of a flight that occurs during the time per-       sued under §61.75, or an authorization issued un-
iod from 1 hour after sunset to 1 hour before sun-        der §61.77, if the foreign pilot certificate relied
rise where the pilot maintains visual surface refer-      upon for the issuance of the U.S. pilot certificate
ence using night vision goggles in an aircraft that       or authorization is surrendered, suspended, re-
is approved for such an operation.                        voked or expired.
   (14) Pilot time means that time in which a                (5) Exercise privileges of a medical certificate
person—                                                   issued under part 67 to meet any requirements of
   (i) Serves as a required pilot flight crewmem-          part 61 if the medical certificate is surrendered,
ber;                                                      suspended, revoked or expired according to the
   (ii) Receives training from an authorized in-          duration standards set forth in §61.23(d).
structor in an aircraft, flight simulator, or flight           (6) Use an official government issued driver’s li-
training device; or                                       cense to meet any requirements of part 61 related
   (iii) Gives training as an authorized instructor in    to holding that driver’s license, if the driver’s li-
an aircraft, flight simulator, or flight training de-       cense is surrendered, suspended, revoked or ex-
vice.                                                     pired.
   (15) Practical test means a test on the areas of          (b) Currency. No person may:
operations for an airman certificate, rating, or au-          (1) Exercise privileges of an airman certificate,
thorization that is conducted by having the appli-        rating, endorsement, or authorization issued un-
cant respond to questions and demonstrate ma-             der this part unless that person meets the appro-
neuvers in flight, in a flight simulator, or in a flight     priate airman and medical recency requirements
training device.                                          of this part, specific to the operation or activity.
   (16) Set of aircraft means aircraft that share            (2) Exercise privileges of a foreign pilot license
similar performance characteristics, such as simi-        within the United States to conduct an operation
lar airspeed and altitude operating envelopes,            described in §61.3(b), unless that person meets
similar handling characteristics, and the same            the appropriate airman and medical recency re-
number and type of propulsion systems.                    quirements of the country that issued the license,
   (17) Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certifi-       specific to the operation.
cate means a person who has received an en-
                                                          [Docket No. FAA–2006–26661, 74 FR 42546, Aug. 21,
dorsement—
                                                          2009]
   (i) To exercise student pilot privileges from a
certificated flight instructor with a sport pilot rat-
ing; or                                                   §61.3 Requirement for certificates,
   (ii) That includes a limitation for the operation of     ratings, and authorizations.
a light-sport aircraft specified in §61.89(c) issued          (a) Pilot certificate. No person may serve as a
by a certificated flight instructor with other than a       required pilot flight crewmember of a civil aircraft
sport pilot rating.                                       of the United States, unless that person—
   (18) Training time means training received—               (1) Has a pilot certificate or special purpose
   (i) In flight from an authorized instructor;            pilot authorization issued under this part in that
   (ii) On the ground from an authorized instructor,      person’s physical possession or readily accessi-
or                                                        ble in the aircraft when exercising the privileges of
   (iii) In a flight simulator or flight training device    that pilot certificate or authorization. However,
from an authorized instructor.                            when the aircraft is operated within a foreign
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as         country, a pilot license issued by that country may
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40893, July 30, 1997;      be used; and
Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44864, July 27, 2004; Amdt. 61–          (2) Has a photo identification that is in that per-
124, 74 FR 42546, Aug. 21, 2009]                          son’s physical possession or readily accessible in


38
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                              §61.3


the aircraft when exercising the privileges of that         may exercise the privileges of a sport pilot certifi-
pilot certificate or authorization. The photo identi-        cate using a U.S. driver’s license only if that per-
fication must be a:                                          son—
    (i) Driver’s license issued by a State, the Dis-           (A) Has been found eligible for the issuance of
trict of Columbia, or territory or possession of the        at least a third-class airman medical certificate at
United States;                                              the time of his or her most recent application; and
    (ii) Government identification card issued by               (B) Has not had his or her most recently issued




                                                                                                                      61
the Federal government, a State, the District of            medical certificate suspended or revoked or most
Columbia, or a territory or possession of the               recent Authorization for a Special Issuance of a
United States;                                              Medical Certificate withdrawn.
    (iii) U.S. Armed Forces’ identification card;               (vi) Is holding a pilot certificate with a balloon
    (iv) Official passport;                                  class rating and is piloting or providing training in
    (v) Credential that authorizes unescorted ac-           a balloon as appropriate;
cess to a security identification display area at an            (vii) Is holding a pilot certificate or a flight in-
airport regulated under 49 CFR part 1542; or                structor certificate with a glider category rating,
    (vi) Other form of identification that the Admin-        and is piloting or providing training in a glider, as
istrator finds acceptable.                                   appropriate;
    (b) Required pilot certificate for operating a              (viii) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(vii)
foreign-registered aircraft. No person may                  of this section, is exercising the privileges of a
serve as a required pilot flight crewmember of a             flight instructor certificate, provided the person is
civil aircraft of foreign registry within the United        not acting as pilot in command or as a required
States, unless that person’s pilot certificate—              pilot flight crewmember;
    (1) Is in that person’s physical possession, or            (ix) Is exercising the privileges of a ground in-
readily accessible in the aircraft when exercising          structor certificate;
the privileges of that pilot certificate; and                   (x) Is operating an aircraft within a foreign
    (2) Has been issued under this part, or has             country using a pilot license issued by that coun-
been issued or validated by the country in which            try and possesses evidence of current medical
the aircraft is registered.                                 qualification for that license; or
    (c) Medical certificate.                                    (xi) Is operating an aircraft with a U.S. pilot cer-
    (1) A person may serve as a required pilot flight        tificate, issued on the basis of a foreign pilot li-
crewmember of an aircraft only if that person               cense, issued under §61.75, and holds a medical
holds the appropriate medical certificate issued             certificate issued by the foreign country that is-
under part 67 of this chapter, or other documenta-          sued the foreign pilot license, which is in that per-
tion acceptable to the FAA, that is in that person’s        son’s physical possession or readily accessible in
physical possession or readily accessible in the            the aircraft when exercising the privileges of that
aircraft. Paragraph (c)(2) of this section provides         airman certificate.
certain exceptions to the requirement to hold a                (xii) Is a pilot of the U.S. Armed Forces, has an
medical certificate.                                         up-to-date U.S. military medical examination, and
    (2) A person is not required to meet the re-            holds military pilot flight status.
quirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section if              (d) Flight instructor certificate.
that person—                                                   (1) A person who holds a flight instructor certif-
    (i) Is exercising the privileges of a student pilot     icate issued under this part must have that certifi-
certificate while seeking a pilot certificate with a          cate, or other documentation acceptable to the
glider category rating, a balloon class rating, or          Administrator, in that person’s physical posses-
glider or balloon privileges;                               sion or readily accessible in the aircraft when ex-
    (ii) Is exercising the privileges of a student pilot    ercising the privileges of that flight instructor cer-
certificate while seeking a sport pilot certificate           tificate.
with other than glider or balloon privileges and               (2) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(3) of
holds a U.S. driver’s license;                              this section, no person other than the holder of a
    (iii) Is exercising the privileges of a student pilot   flight instructor certificate issued under this part
certificate while seeking a pilot certificate with a          with the appropriate rating on that certificate
weight-shift-control aircraft category rating or a          may—
powered parachute category rating and holds a                  (i) Give training required to qualify a person for
U.S. driver’s license;                                      solo flight and solo cross-country flight;
    (iv) Is exercising the privileges of a sport pilot         (ii) Endorse an applicant for a—
certificate with glider or balloon privileges;                  (A) Pilot certificate or rating issued under this
    (v) Is exercising the privileges of a sport pilot       part;
certificate with other than glider or balloon privi-            (B) Flight instructor certificate or rating issued
leges and holds a U.S. driver’s license. A person           under this part; or
who has applied for or held a medical certificate


                                                                                                               39
§61.3                                                                       Federal Aviation Regulations


   (C) Ground instructor certificate or rating is-              (i) Holds a Category II pilot authorization for
sued under this part;                                       that category or class of aircraft, and the type of
   (iii) Endorse a pilot logbook to show training           aircraft, if applicable; or
given; or                                                      (ii) In the case of a civil aircraft of foreign regis-
   (iv) Endorse a student pilot certificate and log-         try, is authorized by the country of registry to act
book for solo operating privileges.                         as pilot in command of that aircraft in Category II
   (3) A flight instructor certificate issued under           operations.
this part is not necessary—                                    (2) Act as second in command of a civil aircraft
   (i) Under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, if the       during Category II operations unless that per-
training is given by the holder of a commercial             son—
pilot certificate with a lighter-than-air rating, pro-          (i) Holds a pilot certificate with category and
vided the training is given in accordance with the          class ratings for that aircraft and an instrument
privileges of the certificate in a lighter-than-air air-     rating for that category aircraft;
craft;                                                         (ii) Holds an airline transport pilot certificate
   (ii) Under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, if the      with category and class ratings for that aircraft; or
training is given by the holder of an airline trans-           (iii) In the case of a civil aircraft of foreign regis-
port pilot certificate with a rating appropriate to          try, is authorized by the country of registry to act
the aircraft in which the training is given, provided       as second in command of that aircraft during Cat-
the training is given in accordance with the privi-         egory II operations.
leges of the certificate and conducted in accor-                (g) Category III pilot authorization. Except
dance with an approved air carrier training pro-            for a pilot conducting Category III operations un-
gram approved under part 121 or part 135 of this            der part 121 or part 135, a person may not:
chapter;                                                       (1) Act as pilot in command of a civil aircraft
   (iii) Under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, if the     during Category III operations unless that per-
training is given by a person who is qualified in ac-        son—
cordance with subpart C of part 142 of this chap-              (i) Holds a Category III pilot authorization for
ter, provided the training is conducted in accor-           that category or class of aircraft, and the type of
dance with an approved part 142 training pro-               aircraft, if applicable; or
gram;                                                          (ii) In the case of a civil aircraft of foreign regis-
   (iv) Under paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (d)(2)(ii)(C),          try, is authorized by the country of registry to act
and (d)(2)(iii) of this section, if the training is given   as pilot in command of that aircraft in Category III
by the holder of a ground instructor certificate in          operations.
accordance with the privileges of the certificate;              (2) Act as second in command of a civil aircraft
or                                                          during Category III operations unless that per-
   (v) Under paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section, if      son—
the training is given by an authorized flight in-               (i) Holds a pilot certificate with category and
structor under §61.41 of this part.                         class ratings for that aircraft and an instrument
   (e) Instrument rating. No person may act as              rating for that category aircraft;
pilot in command of a civil aircraft under IFR or in           (ii) Holds an airline transport pilot certificate
weather conditions less than the minimums pre-              with category and class ratings for that aircraft; or
scribed for VFR flight unless that person holds:                (iii) In the case of a civil aircraft of foreign regis-
   (1) The appropriate aircraft category, class,            try, is authorized by the country of registry to act
type (if required), and instrument rating on that           as second in command of that aircraft during Cat-
person’s pilot certificate for any airplane, helicop-        egory III operations.
ter, or powered-lift being flown;                               (h) Category A aircraft pilot authorization.
   (2) An airline transport pilot certificate with the       The Administrator may issue a certificate of au-
appropriate aircraft category, class, and type rat-         thorization for a Category II or Category III opera-
ing (if required) for the aircraft being flown;              tion to the pilot of a small aircraft that is a Cate-
   (3) For a glider, a pilot certificate with a glider       gory A aircraft, as identified in §97.3(b)(1) of this
category rating and an airplane instrument rating;          chapter if:
or                                                             (1) The Administrator determines that the Cate-
   (4) For an airship, a commercial pilot certificate        gory II or Category III operation can be performed
with a lighter-than-air category rating and airship         safely by that pilot under the terms of the certifi-
class rating.                                               cate of authorization; and
   (f) Category II pilot authorization. Except for             (2) The Category II or Category III operation
a pilot conducting Category II operations under             does not involve the carriage of persons or prop-
part 121 or part 135, a person may not:                     erty for compensation or hire.
   (1) Act as pilot in command of a civil aircraft
during Category II operations unless that per-
son—


40
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                           §61.3


   (i) Ground instructor certificate.                         (ii) Scheduled international air services carry-
   (1) Each person who holds a ground instructor          ing passengers in airplanes having a passenger-
certificate issued under this part or part 143 must        seat configuration of more than nine passenger
have that certificate in that person’s physical pos-       seats, excluding each crewmember seat;
session or immediately accessible when exercis-              (iii) Nonscheduled international air transporta-
ing the privileges of that certificate.                    tion for compensation or hire in airplanes having a
   (2) Except as provided in paragraph (i)(3) of          passenger-seat configuration of more than 30




                                                                                                                   61
this section, no person other than the holder of a        passenger seats, excluding each crewmember
ground instructor certificate, issued under this           seat; or
part or part 143, with the appropriate rating on             (iv) Scheduled international air services, or
that certificate may—                                      nonscheduled international air transportation for
   (i) Give ground training required to qualify a         compensation or hire, in airplanes having a pay-
person for solo flight and solo cross-country flight;       load capacity of more than 7,500 pounds.
   (ii) Endorse an applicant for a knowledge test            (2) Age Pairing Requirement. No person who
required for a pilot, flight instructor, or ground in-     has attained the age of 60 but who has not at-
structor certificate or rating issued under this part;     tained the age of 65 may serve as a pilot in com-
or                                                        mand in any of the operations described in para-
   (iii) Endorse a pilot logbook to show ground           graphs (j)(1)(i) through (iv) of this section unless
training given.                                           there is another pilot in the flight deck crew who
   (3) A ground instructor certificate issued under        has not yet attained 60 years of age.
this part is not necessary—                                  (3) Definitions.
   (i) Under paragraph (i)(2) of this section, if the        (i) “International air service,” as used in this
training is given by the holder of a flight instructor     paragraph (j), means scheduled air service per-
certificate issued under this part in accordance           formed in airplanes for the public transport of pas-
with the privileges of that certificate;                   sengers, mail, or cargo, in which the service
   (ii) Under paragraph (i)(2) of this section, if the    passes through the airspace over the territory of
training is given by the holder of a commercial           more than one country.
pilot certificate with a lighter-than-air rating, pro-        (ii) “International air transportation,” as used in
vided the training is given in accordance with the        this paragraph (j), means air transportation per-
privileges of the certificate in a lighter-than-air air-   formed in airplanes for the public transport of pas-
craft;                                                    sengers, mail, or cargo, in which the service
   (iii) Under paragraph (i)(2) of this section, if the   passes through the airspace over the territory of
training is given by the holder of an airline trans-      more than one country.
port pilot certificate with a rating appropriate to           (k) Special purpose pilot authorization. Any
the aircraft in which the training is given, provided     person that is required to hold a special purpose
the training is given in accordance with the privi-       pilot authorization, issued in accordance with
leges of the certificate and conducted in accor-           §61.77 of this part, must have that authorization
dance with an approved air carrier training pro-          and the person’s foreign pilot license in that per-
gram approved under part 121 or part 135 of this          son’s physical possession or have it readily ac-
chapter;                                                  cessible in the aircraft when exercising the privi-
   (iv) Under paragraph (i)(2) of this section, if the    leges of that authorization.
training is given by a person who is qualified in ac-         (l) Inspection of certificate. Each person who
cordance with subpart C of part 142 of this chap-         holds an airman certificate, medical certificate,
ter, provided the training is conducted in accor-         authorization, or license required by this part must
dance with an approved part 142 training pro-             present it for inspection upon a request from:
gram; or                                                     (1) The Administrator;
   (v) Under paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section, if       (2) An authorized representative of the Na-
the training is given by an authorized flight in-          tional Transportation Safety Board; or
structor under §61.41 of this part.                          (3) Any Federal, State, or local law enforce-
   (j) Age limitation for certain operations.             ment officer.
   (1) Age limitation. No person who holds a pilot           (4) An authorized representative of the Trans-
certificate issued under this part may serve as a          portation Security Administration.
pilot on a civil airplane of U.S. registry in the fol-    [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
lowing operations if the person has reached his or        amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40894, July 30, 1997;
her 65th birthday:                                        Amdt. 61–110, 67 FR 65861, Oct. 28, 2002; Amdt. 61–
   (i) Scheduled international air services carrying      110, 69 FR 44864, July 27, 2004; Amdt. 61–123, 74 FR
passengers in turbojet-powered airplanes;                 34234, July 15, 2009; Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42546, Aug.
                                                          21, 2009; Amdt. 61–124A, 74 FR 53644, Oct. 20, 2009]




                                                                                                            41
§61.4                                                                 Federal Aviation Regulations


§61.4 Qualification and approval of flight                  (vi) Powered parachute.
  simulators and flight training devices.                  (vii) Weight-shift-control aircraft.
    (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) or (c)        (2) Airplane class ratings—
of this section, each flight simulator and flight           (i) Single-engine land.
training device used for training, and for which an       (ii) Multiengine land.
airman is to receive credit to satisfy any training,      (iii) Single-engine sea.
testing, or checking requirement under this chap-         (iv) Multiengine sea.
ter, must be qualified and approved by the Admin-          (3) Rotorcraft class ratings—
istrator for—                                             (i) Helicopter.
    (1) The training, testing, and checking for which     (ii) Gyroplane.
it is used;                                               (4) Lighter-than-air class ratings—
    (2) Each particular maneuver, procedure, or           (i) Airship.
crewmember function performed; and                        (ii) Balloon.
    (3) The representation of the specific category        (5) Weight-shift-control aircraft class ratings—
and class of aircraft, type of aircraft, particular       (i) Weight-shift-control aircraft land.
variation within the type of aircraft, or set of air-     (ii) Weight-shift-control aircraft sea.
craft for certain flight training devices.
    (b) Any device used for flight training, testing,      (6) Powered parachute class ratings—
or checking that has been determined to be ac-            (i) Powered parachute land.
ceptable to or approved by the Administrator prior        (ii) Powered parachute sea.
to August 1, 1996, which can be shown to func-            (7) Aircraft type ratings—
tion as originally designed, is considered to be a        (i) Large aircraft other than lighter-than-air.
flight training device, provided it is used for the        (ii) Turbojet-powered airplanes.
same purposes for which it was originally ac-             (iii) Other aircraft type ratings specified by the
cepted or approved and only to the extent of such         Administrator through the aircraft type
acceptance or approval.                                   certification procedures.
    (c) The Administrator may approve a device            (iv) Second-in-command pilot type rating for
other than a flight simulator or flight training de-        aircraft that is certificated for operations with a
vice for specific purposes.                                minimum crew of at least two pilots.
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as         (8) Instrument ratings (on private and
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40894, July 30, 1997]      commercial pilot certificates only)—
                                                          (i) Instrument—Airplane.
§61.5 Certificates and ratings issued                      (ii) Instrument—Helicopter.
  under this part.                                        (iii) Instrument—Powered-lift.
   (a) The following certificates are issued under           (c) The following ratings are placed on a flight
this part to an applicant who satisfactorily accom-     instructor certificate when an applicant satisfacto-
plishes the training and certification requirements      rily accomplishes the training and certification re-
for the certificate sought:                              quirements for the rating sought:
   (1) Pilot certificates—                                   (1) Aircraft category ratings—
   (i) Student pilot.                                       (i) Airplane.
   (ii) Sport pilot.                                        (ii) Rotorcraft.
   (iii) Recreational pilot.                                (iii) Glider.
   (iv) Private pilot.                                      (iv) Powered-lift.
   (v) Commercial pilot.                                    (2) Airplane class ratings—
   (vi) Airline transport pilot.                            (i) Single-engine.
   (2) Flight instructor certificates.                       (ii) Multiengine.
   (3) Ground instructor certificates.                       (3) Rotorcraft class ratings—
   (b) The following ratings are placed on a pilot          (i) Helicopter.
certificate (other than student pilot) when an ap-           (ii) Gyroplane.
plicant satisfactorily accomplishes the training            (4) Instrument ratings—
and certification requirements for the rating                (i) Instrument—Airplane.
sought:                                                     (ii) Instrument—Helicopter.
   (1) Aircraft category ratings—                           (iii) Instrument—Powered-lift.
   (i) Airplane.                                            (5) Sport pilot rating.
   (ii) Rotorcraft.                                         (d) The following ratings are placed on a
   (iii) Glider.                                        ground instructor certificate when an applicant
   (iv) Lighter-than-air.                               satisfactorily accomplishes the training and certifi-
   (v) Powered-lift.                                    cation requirements for the rating sought:


42
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                           §61.13


  (1) Basic.                                             §61.13 Issuance of airman certificates,
  (2) Advanced.                                            ratings, and authorizations.
  (3) Instrument.                                            (a) Application.
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as            (1) An applicant for an airman certificate, rat-
amended by Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44864, July 27, 2004;     ing, or authorization under this part must make
Amdt. 61–113, 70 FR 45271, Aug. 4, 2005]
                                                         that application on a form and in a manner ac-




                                                                                                                     61
                                                         ceptable to the Administrator.
§61.7 Obsolete certificates and ratings.                      (2) An applicant—
   (a) The holder of a free-balloon pilot certificate         (i) Must show evidence that the appropriate fee
issued before November 1, 1973, may not exer-            prescribed in Appendix A to part 187 of this chap-
cise the privileges of that certificate.                  ter has been paid when that person applies for
   (b) The holder of a pilot certificate that bears       airman certification services administered outside
any of the following category ratings without an         the United States.
associated class rating may not exercise the priv-           (ii) May be refused issuance of any U.S. airman
ileges of that category rating:                          certificate, rating, or authorization by the Adminis-
   (1) Rotorcraft.                                       trator.
   (2) Lighter-than-air.                                     (3) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of
   (3) Helicopter.                                       this section, an applicant who satisfactorily ac-
   (4) Autogyro.                                         complishes the training and certification require-
                                                         ments for the certificate, rating, or authorization
§61.9 [Reserved]                                         sought is entitled to receive that airman certifi-
                                                         cate, rating, or authorization.
                                                             (b) Limitations.
§61.11 Expired pilot certificates and
                                                             (1) An applicant who cannot comply with cer-
  reissuance.                                            tain areas of operation required on the practical
   (a) No person who holds an expired pilot certif-      test because of physical limitations may be issued
icate or rating may act as pilot in command or as        an airman certificate, rating, or authorization with
a required pilot flight crewmember of an aircraft of      the appropriate limitation placed on the appli-
the same category or class that is listed on that        cant’s airman certificate provided the—
expired pilot certificate or rating.                          (i) Applicant is able to meet all other certifica-
   (b) The following pilot certificates and ratings       tion requirements for the airman certificate, rating,
have expired and will not be issued:                     or authorization sought;
   (1) An airline transport pilot certificate issued          (ii) Physical limitation has been recorded with
before May 1, 1949, or an airline transport pilot        the FAA on the applicant’s medical records; and
certificate that contains a horsepower limitation.            (iii) Administrator determines that the appli-
   (2) A private or commercial pilot certificate is-      cant’s inability to perform the particular area of
sued before July 1, 1945.                                operation will not adversely affect safety.
   (3) A pilot certificate with a lighter-than-air or         (2) A limitation placed on a person’s airman
free-balloon rating issued before July 1, 1945.          certificate may be removed, provided that person
   (c) An airline transport pilot certificate that was    demonstrates for an examiner satisfactory profi-
issued after April 30, 1949, and that bears an ex-       ciency in the area of operation appropriate to the
piration date but does not contain a horsepower          airman certificate, rating, or authorization sought.
limitation, may have that airline transport pilot cer-       (c) Additional requirements for Category II
tificate re-issued without an expiration date.            and Category III pilot authorizations.
   (d) A private or commercial pilot certificate that         (1) A Category II or Category III pilot authoriza-
was issued after June 30, 1945, and that bears an        tion is issued by a letter of authorization as part of
expiration date, may have that pilot certificate re-      an applicant’s instrument rating or airline trans-
issued without an expiration date.                       port pilot certificate.
   (e) A pilot certificate with a lighter-than-air or         (2) Upon original issue, the authorization con-
free-balloon rating that was issued after June 30,       tains the following limitations:
1945, and that bears an expiration date, may have            (i) For Category II operations, the limitation is
that pilot certificate reissued without an expiration     1,600 feet RVR and a 150-foot decision height;
date.                                                    and
[Docket No. FAA–2006–26661, 74 FR 42547, Aug. 21,            (ii) For Category III operations, each initial limi-
2009]                                                    tation is specified in the authorization document.
                                                             (3) The limitations on a Category II or Category
                                                         III pilot authorization may be removed as follows:
                                                             (i) In the case of Category II limitations, a limita-
                                                         tion is removed when the holder shows that, since



                                                                                                              43
§61.15                                                                   Federal Aviation Regulations


the beginning of the sixth preceding month, the               (2) The cancellation, suspension, or revocation
holder has made three Category II ILS approaches           of a license to operate a motor vehicle after No-
with a 150-foot decision height to a landing under         vember 29, 1990, for a cause related to the opera-
actual or simulated instrument conditions.                 tion of a motor vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol
   (ii) In the case of Category III limitations, a limi-   or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or
tation is removed as specified in the authorization.        while under the influence of alcohol or a drug; or
   (4) To meet the experience requirements of                 (3) The denial after November 29, 1990, of an
paragraph (c)(3) of this section, and for the practi-      application for a license to operate a motor vehi-
cal test required by this part for a Category II or a      cle for a cause related to the operation of a motor
Category III pilot authorization, a flight simulator        vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug,
or flight training device may be used if it is ap-          while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while un-
proved by the Administrator for such use.                  der the influence of alcohol or a drug.
   (d) Application during suspension or revo-                 (d) Except for a motor vehicle action that re-
cation.                                                    sults from the same incident or arises out of the
   (1) Unless otherwise authorized by the Admin-           same factual circumstances, a motor vehicle ac-
istrator, a person whose pilot, flight instructor, or       tion occurring within 3 years of a previous motor
ground instructor certificate has been suspended            vehicle action is grounds for:
may not apply for any certificate, rating, or autho-           (1) Denial of an application for any certificate,
rization during the period of suspension.                  rating, or authorization issued under this part for a
   (2) Unless otherwise authorized by the Admin-           period of up to 1 year after the date of the last mo-
istrator, a person whose pilot, flight instructor, or       tor vehicle action; or
ground instructor certificate has been revoked                 (2) Suspension or revocation of any certificate,
may not apply for any certificate, rating, or autho-        rating, or authorization issued under this part.
rization for 1 year after the date of revocation.             (e) Each person holding a certificate issued un-
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 40895, July 30, 1997; as          der this part shall provide a written report of each
amended by Amdt. 61–116, 72 FR 18558, April 12, 2007]      motor vehicle action to the FAA, Civil Aviation Se-
                                                           curity Division (AMC–700), P.O. Box 25810, Okla-
§61.14 [Reserved]                                          homa City, OK 73125, not later than 60 days after
                                                           the motor vehicle action. The report must include:
                                                              (1) The person’s name, address, date of birth,
§61.15 Offenses involving alcohol                          and airman certificate number;
  or drugs.                                                   (2) The type of violation that resulted in the
    (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal      conviction or the administrative action;
or State statute relating to the growing, process-            (3) The date of the conviction or administrative
ing, manufacture, sale, disposition, possession,           action;
transportation, or importation of narcotic drugs,             (4) The State that holds the record of conviction
marijuana, or depressant or stimulant drugs or             or administrative action; and
substances is grounds for:                                    (5) A statement of whether the motor vehicle
    (1) Denial of an application for any certificate,       action resulted from the same incident or arose
rating, or authorization issued under this part for a      out of the same factual circumstances related to a
period of up to 1 year after the date of final convic-      previously reported motor vehicle action.
tion; or                                                      (f) Failure to comply with paragraph (e) of this
    (2) Suspension or revocation of any certificate,        section is grounds for:
rating, or authorization issued under this part.              (1) Denial of an application for any certificate,
    (b) Committing an act prohibited by §91.17(a)          rating, or authorization issued under this part for a
or §91.19(a) of this chapter is grounds for:               period of up to 1 year after the date of the motor
    (1) Denial of an application for a certificate, rat-    vehicle action; or
ing, or authorization issued under this part for a            (2) Suspension or revocation of any certificate,
period of up to 1 year after the date of that act; or      rating, or authorization issued under this part.
    (2) Suspension or revocation of any certificate,
rating, or authorization issued under this part.           §61.16 Refusal to submit to an alcohol
    (c) For the purposes of paragraph (d), (e), and          test or to furnish test results.
(f) of this section, a motor vehicle action means:
    (1) A conviction after November 29, 1990, for             A refusal to submit to a test to indicate the per-
the violation of any Federal or State statute relat-       centage by weight of alcohol in the blood, when
ing to the operation of a motor vehicle while intox-       requested by a law enforcement officer in accor-
icated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by al-         dance with §91.17(c) of this chapter, or a refusal
cohol or a drug, or while under the influence of al-        to furnish or authorize the release of the test re-
cohol or a drug;                                           sults requested by the Administrator in accor-




44
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                       §61.19


dance with §91.17(c) or (d) of this chapter, is          §61.19 Duration of pilot and instructor
grounds for:                                               certificates.
   (a) Denial of an application for any certificate,         (a) General. The holder of a certificate with an
rating, or authorization issued under this part for a    expiration date may not, after that date, exercise
period of up to 1 year after the date of that refusal;   the privileges of that certificate.
or                                                          (b) Student pilot certificate.
   (b) Suspension or revocation of any certificate,




                                                                                                                 61
                                                            (1) For student pilots who have not reached
rating, or authorization issued under this part.         their 40th birthday, the student pilot certificate
                                                         does not expire until 60 calendar months after the
§61.17 Temporary certificate.                             month of the date of examination shown on the
   (a) A temporary pilot, flight instructor, or ground    medical certificate.
instructor certificate or rating is issued for up to         (2) For student pilots who have reached their
120 days, at which time a permanent certificate           40th birthday, the student pilot certificate does not
will be issued to a person whom the Administrator        expire until 24 calendar months after the month of
finds qualified under this part.                           the date of examination shown on the medical
   (b) A temporary pilot, flight instructor, or ground    certificate.
instructor certificate or rating expires:                    (3) For student pilots seeking a glider rating,
   (1) On the expiration date shown on the certifi-       balloon rating, or a sport pilot certificate, the stu-
cate;                                                    dent pilot certificate does not expire until 60 cal-
   (2) Upon receipt of the permanent certificate;         endar months after the month of the date issued,
or                                                       regardless of the person’s age.
   (3) Upon receipt of a notice that the certificate         (c) Other pilot certificates. A pilot certificate
or rating sought is denied or revoked.                   (other than a student pilot certificate) issued un-
                                                         der this part is issued without a specific expiration
§61.18 Security disqualification.                         date. The holder of a pilot certificate issued on the
   (a) Eligibility standard. No person is eligible       basis of a foreign pilot license may exercise the
to hold a certificate, rating, or authorization issued    privileges of that certificate only while that per-
under this part when the Transportation Security         son’s foreign pilot license is effective.
Administration (TSA) has notified the FAA in writ-           (d) Flight instructor certificate. Except as
ing that the person poses a security threat.             specified in §61.197(b), a flight instructor certifi-
   (b) Effect of the issuance by the TSA of an           cate expires 24 calendar months from the month
Initial Notification of Threat Assessment.                in which it was issued, renewed, or reinstated, as
   (1) The FAA will hold in abeyance pending the         appropriate.
outcome of the TSA’s final threat assessment re-             (e) Ground instructor certificate. A ground
view an application for any certificate, rating, or       instructor certificate is issued without a specific
authorization under this part by any person who          expiration date.
has been issued an Initial Notification of Threat            (f) Return of certificates. The holder of any
Assessment by the TSA.                                   airman certificate that is issued under this part,
   (2) The FAA will suspend any certificate, rating,      and that has been suspended or revoked, must
or authorization issued under this part after the        return that certificate to the FAA when requested
TSA issues to the holder an Initial Notification of       to do so by the Administrator.
Threat Assessment.                                          (g) Duration of pilot certificates. Except for a
   (c) Effect of the issuance by the TSA of a Fi-        temporary certificate issued under §61.17 or a
nal Notification of Threat Assessment.                    student pilot certificate issued under paragraph
   (1) The FAA will deny an application for any          (b) of this section, the holder of a paper pilot cer-
certificate, rating, or authorization under this part     tificate issued under this part may not exercise the
to any person who has been issued a Final Notifi-         privileges of that certificate after March 31, 2010.
cation of Threat Assessment.                             [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
   (2) The FAA will revoke any certificate, rating,       amended by Amdt. 61–118, 73 FR 10668, Feb. 28, 2008;
                                                         Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42547, Aug. 21, 2009; Amdt. 61–
or authorization issued under this part after the
                                                         124A, 74 FR 53644, Oct. 20, 2009]
TSA has issued to the holder a Final Notification
of Threat Assessment.
[Docket No. FAA–2003–14293, 68 FR 3774, Jan. 24,
2003]




                                                                                                          45
§61.21                                                                   Federal Aviation Regulations


§61.21 Duration of a Category II and a                       (vii) When performing the duties as an Exam-
  Category III pilot authorization (for                   iner in an aircraft when administering a practical
  other than Part 121 and Part 135 use).                  test or proficiency check for an airman certificate,
                                                          rating, or authorization.
    (a) A Category II pilot authorization or a Cate-         (b) Operations not requiring a medical cer-
gory III pilot authorization expires at the end of the    tificate. A person is not required to hold a medi-
sixth calendar month after the month in which it          cal certificate—
was issued or renewed.                                       (1) When exercising the privileges of a student
    (b) Upon passing a practical test for a Category      pilot certificate while seeking—
II or Category III pilot authorization, the authoriza-       (i) A sport pilot certificate with glider or balloon
tion may be renewed for each type of aircraft for         privileges; or
which the authorization is held.                             (ii) A pilot certificate with a glider category rat-
    (c) A Category II or Category III pilot authoriza-    ing or balloon class rating;
tion for a specific type aircraft for which an autho-         (2) When exercising the privileges of a sport
rization is held will not be renewed beyond 12 cal-       pilot certificate with privileges in a glider or balloon;
endar months from the month the practical test               (3) When exercising the privileges of a pilot cer-
was accomplished in that type aircraft.                   tificate with a glider category rating or balloon
    (d) If the holder of a Category II or Category III    class rating in a glider or a balloon, as appropri-
pilot authorization passes the practical test for a       ate;
renewal in the month before the authorization ex-            (4) When exercising the privileges of a flight in-
pires, the holder is considered to have passed it         structor certificate with—
during the month the authorization expired.                  (i) A sport pilot rating in a glider or balloon; or
                                                             (ii) A glider category rating;
§61.23 Medical certificates:                                  (5) When exercising the privileges of a flight in-
  Requirement and duration.                               structor certificate if the person is not acting as
   (a) Operations requiring a medical certifi-             pilot in command or serving as a required pilot
cate. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and            flight crewmember;
(c) of this section, a person—                               (6) When exercising the privileges of a ground
   (1) Must hold a first-class medical certificate:         instructor certificate;
   (i) When exercising the privileges of an airline          (7) When serving as an Examiner or check air-
transport pilot certificate; or                            man and administering a practical test or profi-
   (ii) If that person has reached his or her 60th        ciency check for an airman certificate, rating, or
birthday and serves as a pilot in 14 CFR part 121         authorization conducted in a glider, balloon, flight
operations. Notwithstanding the provisions of             simulator, or flight training device;
§61.23(d)(1)(iii), that person’s first-class medical          (8) When taking a practical test or a proficiency
certificate expires, for 14 CFR part 121 opera-            check for a certificate, rating, authorization or op-
tions, at the end of the last day of the 6th month        erating privilege conducted in a glider, balloon,
after the month of the date of examination shown          flight simulator, or flight training device; or
on the medical certificate.                                   (9) When a military pilot of the U.S. Armed
   (2) Must hold at least a second-class medical          Forces can show evidence of an up-to-date medi-
certificate when exercising the privileges of a            cal examination authorizing pilot flight status is-
commercial pilot certificate; or                           sued by the U.S. Armed Forces and—
   (3) Must hold at least a third-class medical              (i) The flight does not require higher than a
certificate—                                               third-class medical certificate; and
   (i) When exercising the privileges of a private           (ii) The flight conducted is a domestic flight op-
pilot certificate;                                         eration within U.S. airspace.
   (ii) When exercising the privileges of a recre-           (c) Operations requiring either a medical
ational pilot certificate;                                 certificate or U.S. driver’s license.
   (iii) When exercising the privileges of a student         (1) A person must hold and possess either a
pilot certificate;                                         medical certificate issued under part 67 of this
   (iv) When exercising the privileges of a flight in-     chapter or a U.S. driver’s license when exercising
structor certificate and acting as the pilot in com-       the privileges of—
mand;                                                        (i) A student pilot certificate while seeking sport
   (v) When exercising the privileges of a flight in-      pilot privileges in a light-sport aircraft other than a
structor certificate and serving as a required pilot       glider or balloon;
flight crewmember;                                            (ii) A sport pilot certificate in a light-sport air-
   (vi) When taking a practical test in an aircraft for   craft other than a glider or balloon; or
a recreational pilot, private pilot, commercial pilot,
or airline transport pilot certificate, or for a flight
instructor certificate; or


46
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                   §61.23


   (iii) A flight instructor certificate with a sport    the time of his or her most recent application (if
pilot rating while acting as pilot in command or       the person has applied for a medical certificate);
serving as a required flight crewmember of a light-        (iii) Not have had his or her most recently is-
sport aircraft other than a glider or balloon.         sued medical certificate (if the person has held a
   (2) A person using a U.S. driver’s license to       medical certificate) suspended or revoked or most
meet the requirements of this paragraph must—          recent Authorization for a Special Issuance of a
   (i) Comply with each restriction and limitation     Medical Certificate withdrawn; and




                                                                                                            61
imposed by that person’s U.S. driver’s license and        (iv) Not know or have reason to know of any
any judicial or administrative order applying to the   medical condition that would make that person
operation of a motor vehicle;                          unable to operate a light-sport aircraft in a safe
   (ii) Have been found eligible for the issuance of   manner.
at least a third-class airman medical certificate at                   [See following Table.]




                                                                                                      47
§61.23                                                                                      Federal Aviation Regulations


   (d) Duration of a medical certificate. Use the following table to determine duration for each class
of medical certificate:
                                     Medical Certificates: Requirement and Duration
                            And on the date of
                                                                                                       Then your medical certificate
                            examination for your And you are conducting an operation
If you hold                                                                                            expires, for that operation, at the
                            most recent medical requiring
                                                                                                       end of the last day of the
                            certificate you were
(1) A first-class medical    (i) Under age 40        an airline transport pilot certificate              12th month after the month of the
  certificate                                                                                            date of examination shown on the
                                                                                                        medical certificate
                            (ii) Age 40 or older    an airline transport pilot certificate              6th month after the month of the
                                                                                                         date of examination shown on the
                                                                                                         medical certificate
                            (iii) Any age           a commercial pilot certificate or an air traffic     12th month after the month of the
                                                      control tower operator certificate                  date of examination shown on the
                                                                                                         medical certificate
                            (iv) Under age 40       a recreational pilot certificate, a private pilot   60th month after the month of the
                                                      certificate, a flight instructor certificate          date of examination shown on the
                                                      (when acting as pilot in command or a              medical certificate
                                                      required pilot flight crewmember in
                                                      operations other than glider or balloon), a
                                                      student pilot certificate, or a sport pilot
                                                      certificate (when not using a U.S. driver’s
                                                      license as medical qualification)
                            (v) Age 40 or older     a recreational pilot certificate, a private pilot   24th month after the month of the
                                                      certificate, a flight instructor certificate          date of examination shown on the
                                                      (when acting as pilot in command or a              medical certificate
                                                      required pilot flight crewmember in
                                                      operations other than glider or balloon), a
                                                      student pilot certificate, or a sport pilot
                                                      certificate (when not using a U.S. driver’s
                                                      license as medical qualification)
(2) A second-class          (i) Any age             a commercial pilot certificate or an air traffic     12th month after the month of the
  medical certificate                                  control tower operator certificate                  date of examination shown on the
                                                                                                         medical certificate
                            (ii) Under age 40       a recreational pilot certificate, a private pilot   60th month after the month of the
                                                      certificate, a flight instructor certificate          date of examination shown on the
                                                      (when acting as pilot in command or a              medical certificate
                                                      required pilot flight crewmember in
                                                      operations other than glider or balloon), a
                                                      student pilot certificate, or a sport pilot
                                                      certificate (when not using a U.S. driver’s
                                                      license as medical qualification)
                            (iii) Age 40 or older   a recreational pilot certificate, a private pilot   24th month after the month of the
                                                      certificate, a flight instructor certificate          date of examination shown on the
                                                      (when acting as pilot in command or a              medical certificate
                                                      required pilot flight crewmember in
                                                      operations other than glider or balloon), a
                                                      student pilot certificate, or a sport pilot
                                                      certificate (when not using a U.S. driver’s
                                                      license as medical qualification)
(3) A third-class medical   (i) Under age 40        a recreational pilot certificate, a private pilot   60th month after the month of the
  certificate                                          certificate, a flight instructor certificate          date of examination shown on the
                                                      (when acting as pilot in command or a              medical certificate
                                                      required pilot flight crewmember in
                                                      operations other than glider or balloon), a
                                                      student pilot certificate, or a sport pilot
                                                      certificate (when not using a U.S. driver’s
                                                      license as medical qualification)
                            (ii) Age 40 or older    a recreational pilot certificate, a private pilot   24th month after the month of the
                                                      certificate, a flight instructor certificate          date of examination shown on the
                                                      (when acting as pilot in command or a              medical certificate
                                                      required pilot flight crewmember in
                                                      operations other than glider or balloon), a
                                                      student pilot certificate, or a sport pilot
                                                      certificate (when not using a U.S. driver’s
                                                      license as medical qualification)
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40895, July 30, 1997; Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44864, July
27, 2004; Amdt. 61–121, 73 FR 43064, July 24, 2008; Amdt. 61–121, 73 FR 48125, Aug. 18, 2008; Amdt. 61–123, 74 FR
34234, July 15, 2009; Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42547, Aug. 21, 2009]



48
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                     §61.31


§61.25 Change of name.                                    (2) The permanent mailing address (including
   (a) An application to change the name on a          ZIP code), or if the permanent mailing address in-
certificate issued under this part must be accom-       cludes a post office box number, then the per-
panied by the applicant’s:                             son’s current residential address;
   (1) Airman certificate; and                             (3) The certificate holder’s date and place of
   (2) A copy of the marriage license, court order,    birth; and
or other document verifying the name change.              (4) Any information regarding the—




                                                                                                               61
   (b) The documents in paragraph (a) of this sec-        (i) Grade, number, and date of issuance of the
tion will be returned to the applicant after inspec-   airman certificate and ratings, if appropriate;
tion.                                                     (ii) Class of medical certificate, the place and
                                                       date of the medical exam, name of the Airman
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
                                                       Medical Examiner (AME), and the circumstances
amended by Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42547, Aug. 21,
2009]                                                  concerning the loss of the original medical certifi-
                                                       cate, as appropriate; and
                                                          (iii) Date the knowledge test was taken, if ap-
§61.27 Voluntary surrender or exchange                 propriate.
  of certificate.                                          (e) A person who has lost an airman certificate,
   (a) The holder of a certificate issued under this    medical certificate, or knowledge test report may
part may voluntarily surrender it for:                 obtain a facsimile from the FAA Aeromedical Cer-
   (1) Cancellation;                                   tification Branch or the Airman Certification
   (2) Issuance of a lower grade certificate; or        Branch, as appropriate, confirming that it was is-
   (3) Another certificate with specific ratings de-     sued and the:
leted.                                                    (1) Facsimile may be carried as an airman cer-
   (b) Any request made under paragraph (a) of         tificate, medical certificate, or knowledge test re-
this section must include the following signed         port, as appropriate, for up to 60 days pending the
statement or its equivalent: “This request is made     person’s receipt of a duplicate under paragraph
for my own reasons, with full knowledge that my        (a), (b), or (c) of this section, unless the person
(insert name of certificate or rating, as appropri-     has been notified that the certificate has been
ate) may not be reissued to me unless I again          suspended or revoked.
pass the tests prescribed for its issuance.”              (2) Request for such a facsimile must include
                                                       the date on which a duplicate certificate or knowl-
§61.29 Replacement of a lost or                        edge test report was previously requested.
  destroyed airman or medical                          [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
  certificate or knowledge test report.                 amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40896, July 30, 1997;
                                                       Amdt. 61–121, 73 FR 43064, July 24, 2008; Amdt. 61–
   (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or      124, 74 FR 42548, Aug. 21, 2009]
destroyed airman certificate issued under this
part must be made by letter to the Department of
Transportation, FAA, Airman Certification Branch,
                                                       §61.31 Type rating requirements,
P.O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125, and             additional training, and authorization
must be accompanied by a check or money order            requirements.
for the appropriate fee payable to the FAA.               (a) Type ratings required. A person who acts
   (b) A request for the replacement of a lost or      as a pilot in command of any of the following air-
destroyed medical certificate must be made by           craft must hold a type rating for that aircraft:
letter to the Department of Transportation, FAA,          (1) Large aircraft (except lighter-than-air).
Aerospace Medical Certification Division, P.O.             (2) Turbojet-powered airplanes.
Box 26200, Oklahoma City, OK 73125, and must              (3) Other aircraft specified by the Administrator
be accompanied by a check or money order for           through aircraft type certificate procedures.
the appropriate fee payable to the FAA.                   (b) Authorization in lieu of a type rating. A
   (c) A request for the replacement of a lost or      person may be authorized to operate without a
destroyed knowledge test report must be made by        type rating for up to 60 days an aircraft requiring a
letter to the Department of Transportation, FAA,       type rating, provided—
Airman Certification Branch, P.O. Box 25082,               (1) The Administrator has authorized the flight
Oklahoma City, OK 73125, and must be accom-            or series of flights;
panied by a check or money order for the appro-           (2) The Administrator has determined that an
priate fee payable to the FAA.                         equivalent level of safety can be achieved through
   (d) The letter requesting replacement of a lost     the operating limitations on the authorization;
or destroyed airman certificate, medical certifi-           (3) The person shows that compliance with
cate, or knowledge test report must state:             paragraph (a) of this section is impracticable for
   (1) The name of the person;                         the flight or series of flights; and



                                                                                                        49
§61.31                                                                    Federal Aviation Regulations


   (4) The flight—                                          the person has logged flight time as pilot in com-
   (i) Involves only a ferry flight, training flight, test   mand of a complex airplane, or in a flight simula-
flight, or practical test for a pilot certificate or rat-    tor or flight training device that is representative of
ing;                                                       a complex airplane prior to August 4, 1997.
   (ii) Is within the United States;                          (f) Additional training required for operating
   (iii) Does not involve operations for compensa-         high-performance airplanes.
tion or hire unless the compensation or hire in-              (1) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of
volves payment for the use of the aircraft for train-      this section, no person may act as pilot in com-
ing or taking a practical test; and                        mand of a high-performance airplane (an airplane
   (iv) Involves only the carriage of flight crew-          with an engine of more than 200 horsepower), un-
members considered essential for the flight.                less the person has—
   (5) If the flight or series of flights cannot be ac-         (i) Received and logged ground and flight train-
complished within the time limit of the authoriza-         ing from an authorized instructor in a high-perfor-
tion, the Administrator may authorize an addi-             mance airplane, or in a flight simulator or flight
tional period of up to 60 days to accomplish the           training device that is representative of a high-
flight or series of flights.                                 performance airplane, and has been found profi-
   (c) Aircraft category, class, and type rat-             cient in the operation and systems of the airplane;
ings: Limitations on the carriage of persons, or           and
operating for compensation or hire. Unless a per-             (ii) Received a one-time endorsement in the
son holds a category, class, and type rating (if a         pilot’s logbook from an authorized instructor who
class and type rating is required) that applies to         certifies the person is proficient to operate a high-
the aircraft, that person may not act as pilot in          performance airplane.
command of an aircraft that is carrying another               (2) The training and endorsement required by
person, or is operated for compensation or hire.           paragraph (f)(1) of this section is not required if
That person also may not act as pilot in command           the person has logged flight time as pilot in com-
of that aircraft for compensation or hire.                 mand of a high-performance airplane, or in a flight
   (d) Aircraft category, class, and type rat-             simulator or flight training device that is represen-
ings: Limitations on operating an aircraft as the          tative of a high-performance airplane prior to Au-
pilot in command. To serve as the pilot in com-            gust 4, 1997.
mand of an aircraft, a person must—                           (g) Additional training required for operat-
   (1) Hold the appropriate category, class, and           ing pressurized aircraft capable of operating
type rating (if a class or type rating is required) for    at high altitudes.
the aircraft to be flown; or                                   (1) Except as provided in paragraph (g)(3) of
   (2) Have received training required by this part        this section, no person may act as pilot in com-
that is appropriate to the pilot certification level,       mand of a pressurized aircraft (an aircraft that has
aircraft category, class, and type rating (if a class      a service ceiling or maximum operating altitude,
or type rating is required) for the aircraft to be         whichever is lower, above 25,000 feet MSL), un-
flown, and have received an endorsement for solo            less that person has received and logged ground
flight in that aircraft from an authorized instructor.      training from an authorized instructor and ob-
   (e) Additional training required for operat-            tained an endorsement in the person’s logbook or
ing complex airplanes.                                     training record from an authorized instructor who
   (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2) of           certifies the person has satisfactorily accom-
this section, no person may act as pilot in com-           plished the ground training. The ground training
mand of a complex airplane (an airplane that has           must include at least the following subjects:
a retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controlla-            (i) High-altitude aerodynamics and meteorol-
ble pitch propeller; or, in the case of a seaplane,        ogy;
flaps and a controllable pitch propeller), unless              (ii) Respiration;
the person has—                                               (iii) Effects, symptoms, and causes of hypoxia
   (i) Received and logged ground and flight train-         and any other high-altitude sickness;
ing from an authorized instructor in a complex air-           (iv) Duration of consciousness without supple-
plane, or in a flight simulator or flight training de-       mental oxygen;
vice that is representative of a complex airplane,            (v) Effects of prolonged usage of supplemental
and has been found proficient in the operation              oxygen;
and systems of the airplane; and                              (vi) Causes and effects of gas expansion and
   (ii) Received a one-time endorsement in the             gas bubble formation;
pilot’s logbook from an authorized instructor who             (vii) Preventive measures for eliminating gas
certifies the person is proficient to operate a com-         expansion, gas bubble formation, and high-alti-
plex airplane.                                             tude sickness;
   (2) The training and endorsement required by               (viii) Physical phenomena and incidents of de-
paragraph (e)(1) of this section is not required if        compression; and


50
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                           §61.31


   (ix) Any other physiological aspects of high-alti-      son proficient in the operation of a tailwheel air-
tude flight.                                                plane. The flight training must include at least the
   (2) Except as provided in paragraph (g)(3) of           following maneuvers and procedures:
this section, no person may act as pilot in com-               (i) Normal and crosswind takeoffs and land-
mand of a pressurized aircraft unless that person          ings;
has received and logged training from an autho-                (ii) Wheel landings (unless the manufacturer
rized instructor in a pressurized aircraft, or in a        has recommended against such landings); and




                                                                                                                     61
flight simulator or flight training device that is rep-          (iii) Go-around procedures.
resentative of a pressurized aircraft, and obtained            (2) The training and endorsement required by
an endorsement in the person’s logbook or train-           paragraph (i)(1) of this section is not required if
ing record from an authorized instructor who               the person logged pilot-in-command time in a tail-
found the person proficient in the operation of a           wheel airplane before April 15, 1991.
pressurized aircraft. The flight training must in-              (j) Additional training required for operating
clude at least the following subjects:                     a glider.
   (i) Normal cruise flight operations while operat-            (1) No person may act as pilot in command of a
ing above 25,000 feet MSL;                                 glider—
   (ii) Proper emergency procedures for simulated              (i) Using ground-tow procedures, unless that
rapid decompression without actually depressur-            person has satisfactorily accomplished ground
izing the aircraft; and                                    and flight training on ground-tow procedures and
   (iii) Emergency descent procedures.                     operations, and has received an endorsement
   (3) The training and endorsement required by            from an authorized instructor who certifies in that
paragraphs (g)(1) and (g)(2) of this section are           pilot’s logbook that the pilot has been found profi-
not required if that person can document satisfac-         cient in ground-tow procedures and operations;
tory accomplishment of any of the following in a               (ii) Using aerotow procedures, unless that per-
pressurized aircraft, or in a flight simulator or flight     son has satisfactorily accomplished ground and
training device that is representative of a pressur-       flight training on aerotow procedures and opera-
ized aircraft:                                             tions, and has received an endorsement from an
   (i) Serving as pilot in command before April 15,        authorized instructor who certifies in that pilot’s
1991;                                                      logbook that the pilot has been found proficient in
   (ii) Completing a pilot proficiency check for a          aerotow procedures and operations; or
pilot certificate or rating before April 15, 1991;              (iii) Using self-launch procedures, unless that
   (iii) Completing an official pilot-in-command            person has satisfactorily accomplished ground
check conducted by the military services of the            and flight training on self-launch procedures and
United States; or                                          operations, and has received an endorsement
   (iv) Completing a pilot-in-command proficiency           from an authorized instructor who certifies in that
check under part 121, 125, or 135 of this chapter          pilot’s logbook that the pilot has been found profi-
conducted by the Administrator or by an approved           cient in self-launch procedures and operations.
pilot check airman.                                            (2) The holder of a glider rating issued prior to
   (h) Additional aircraft type-specific training.          August 4, 1997, is considered to be in compliance
No person may serve as pilot in command of an              with the training and logbook endorsement re-
aircraft that the Administrator has determined re-         quirements of this paragraph for the specific oper-
quires aircraft type-specific training unless that          ating privilege for which the holder is already
person has—                                                qualified.
   (1) Received and logged type-specific training               (k) Additional training required for night vi-
in the aircraft, or in a flight simulator or flight train-   sion goggle operations.
ing device that is representative of that type of air-         (1) Except as provided under paragraph (k)(3)
craft; and                                                 of this section, a person may act as pilot in com-
   (2) Received a logbook endorsement from an              mand of an aircraft using night vision goggles only
authorized instructor who has found the person             if that person receives and logs ground training
proficient in the operation of the aircraft and its         from an authorized instructor and obtains a log-
systems.                                                   book or training record endorsement from an au-
   (i) Additional training required for operating          thorized instructor who certifies the person com-
tailwheel airplanes.                                       pleted the ground training. The ground training
   (1) Except as provided in paragraph (i)(2) of           must include the following subjects:
this section, no person may act as pilot in com-               (i) Applicable portions of this chapter that relate
mand of a tailwheel airplane unless that person            to night vision goggle limitations and flight opera-
has received and logged flight training from an             tions;
authorized instructor in a tailwheel airplane and              (ii) Aeromedical factors related to the use of
received an endorsement in the person’s logbook            night vision goggles, including how to protect
from an authorized instructor who found the per-           night vision, how the eyes adapt to night, self-im-


                                                                                                              51
§61.31                                                                 Federal Aviation Regulations


posed stresses that affect night vision, effects of         (iii) The holder of a pilot certificate when oper-
lighting on night vision, cues used to estimate dis-     ating an aircraft under the authority of—
tance and depth perception at night, and visual il-         (A) A provisional type certificate; or
lusions;                                                    (B) An experimental certificate, unless the op-
    (iii) Normal, abnormal, and emergency opera-         eration involves carrying a passenger;
tions of night vision goggle equipment;                     (iv) The holder of a pilot certificate with a
    (iv) Night vision goggle performance and scene       lighter-than-air category rating when operating a
interpretation; and                                      balloon;
    (v) Night vision goggle operation flight plan-           (v) The holder of a recreational pilot certificate
ning, including night terrain interpretation and fac-    operating under the provisions of §61.101(h); or
tors affecting terrain interpretation.                      (vi) The holder of a sport pilot certificate when
    (2) Except as provided under paragraph (k)(3)        operating a light-sport aircraft.
of this section, a person may act as pilot in com-       [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 40896, July 30, 1997; as
mand of an aircraft using night vision goggles only      amended by Amdt. 61–104, 63 FR 20286, April 23,
if that person receives and logs flight training from     1998; Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44865, July 27, 2004; Amdt.
an authorized instructor and obtains a logbook or        61–124, 74 FR 42548, Aug. 21, 2009]
training record endorsement from an authorized
instructor who found the person proficient in the         §61.33 Tests: General procedure.
use of night vision goggles. The flight training             Tests prescribed by or under this part are given
must include the following tasks:                        at times and places, and by persons designated
    (i) Preflight and use of internal and external air-   by the Administrator.
craft lighting systems for night vision goggle oper-
ations;
    (ii) Preflight preparation of night vision goggles
                                                         §61.35 Knowledge test:
for night vision goggle operations;                        Prerequisites and passing grades.
    (iii) Proper piloting techniques when using night       (a) An applicant for a knowledge test must
vision goggles during the takeoff, climb, enroute,       have:
descent, and landing phases of flight; and                   (1) Received an endorsement, if required by
    (iv) Normal, abnormal, and emergency flight           this part, from an authorized instructor certifying
operations using night vision goggles.                   that the applicant accomplished the appropriate
    (3) The requirements under paragraphs (k)(1)         ground-training or a home-study course required
and (2) of this section do not apply if a person can     by this part for the certificate or rating sought and
document satisfactory completion of any of the           is prepared for the knowledge test; and
following pilot proficiency checks using night vi-           (2) Proper identification at the time of applica-
sion goggles in an aircraft:                             tion that contains the applicant’s—
    (i) A pilot proficiency check on night vision gog-       (i) Photograph;
gle operations conducted by the U.S. Armed                  (ii) Signature;
Forces.                                                     (iii) Date of birth, which shows the applicant
    (ii) A pilot proficiency check on night vision gog-   meets or will meet the age requirements of this
gle operations under part 135 of this chapter con-       part for the certificate sought before the expiration
ducted by an Examiner or Check Airman.                   date of the airman knowledge test report; and
    (iii) A pilot proficiency check on night vision          (iv) If the permanent mailing is a post office box
goggle operations conducted by a night vision            number, then the applicant must provide a current
goggle manufacturer or authorized instructor,            residential address.
when the pilot—                                             (b) The Administrator shall specify the mini-
    (A) Is employed by a Federal, State, county, or      mum passing grade for the knowledge test.
municipal law enforcement agency; and                    [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 40896, July 30, 1997; as
    (B) Has logged at least 20 hours as pilot in         amended by Amdt. 61–104, 63 FR 20286, April 23,
command in night vision goggle operations.               1998; Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42548, Aug. 21, 2009]
    (l) Exceptions.
    (1) This section does not require a category         §61.37 Knowledge tests: Cheating or
and class rating for aircraft not type-certificated as      other unauthorized conduct.
airplanes, rotorcraft, gliders, lighter-than-air air-       (a) An applicant for a knowledge test may not:
craft, powered-lifts, powered parachutes, or                (1) Copy or intentionally remove any knowl-
weight-shift-control aircraft.                           edge test;
    (2) The rating limitations of this section do not       (2) Give to another applicant or receive from
apply to—                                                another applicant any part or copy of a knowledge
    (i) An applicant when taking a practical test        test;
given by an examiner;
    (ii) The holder of a student pilot certificate;


52
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                          §61.39


   (3) Give assistance on, or receive assistance              (7) Have a completed and signed application
on, a knowledge test during the period that test is        form.
being given;                                                  (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of para-
   (4) Take any part of a knowledge test on behalf         graphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section, an applicant
of another person;                                         for an airline transport pilot certificate or an addi-
   (5) Be represented by, or represent, another            tional rating to an airline transport certificate may
person for a knowledge test;                               take the practical test for that certificate or rating




                                                                                                                    61
   (6) Use any material or aid during the period           with an expired knowledge test report, provided
that the test is being given, unless specifically au-       that the applicant:
thorized to do so by the Administrator; and                   (1) Is employed as a flight crewmember by a
   (7) Intentionally cause, assist, or participate in      certificate holder under part 121, 125, or 135 of
any act prohibited by this paragraph.                      this chapter at the time of the practical test and
   (b) An applicant who the Administrator finds             has satisfactorily accomplished that operator’s
has committed an act prohibited by paragraph (a)           approved—
of this section is prohibited, for 1 year after the           (i) Pilot in command aircraft qualification train-
date of committing that act, from:                         ing program that is appropriate to the certificate
   (1) Applying for any certificate, rating, or autho-      and rating sought; and
rization issued under this chapter; and                       (ii) Qualification training requirements appropri-
   (2) Applying for and taking any test under this         ate to the certificate and rating sought; or
chapter.                                                      (2) Is employed by the U.S. Armed Forces as a
   (c) Any certificate or rating held by an applicant       flight crewmember in U.S. military air transport
may be suspended or revoked if the Administrator           operations at the time of the practical test and has
finds that person has committed an act prohibited           completed the pilot in command aircraft qualifica-
by paragraph (a) of this section.                          tion training program that is appropriate to the
                                                           pilot certificate and rating sought.
§61.39 Prerequisites for practical tests.                     (c) A person is not required to comply with the
                                                           provisions of paragraph (a)(6) of this section if
   (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and
                                                           that person:
(c) of this section, to be eligible for a practical test
                                                              (1) Holds a foreign pilot license issued by a
for a certificate or rating issued under this part, an
                                                           contracting State to the Convention on Interna-
applicant must:
                                                           tional Civil Aviation that authorizes at least the
   (1) Pass the required knowledge test within the
                                                           privileges of the pilot certificate sought;
24-calendar-month period preceding the month
                                                              (2) Is only applying for a type rating; or
the applicant completes the practical test, if a
                                                              (3) Is applying for an airline transport pilot cer-
knowledge test is required;
                                                           tificate or an additional rating to an airline trans-
   (2) Present the knowledge test report at the
                                                           port pilot certificate in an aircraft that does not re-
time of application for the practical test, if a knowl-
                                                           quire an aircraft type rating practical test.
edge test is required;
                                                              (d) If all increments of the practical test for a
   (3) Have satisfactorily accomplished the re-
                                                           certificate or rating are not completed on the
quired training and obtained the aeronautical ex-
                                                           same date, then all the remaining increments of
perience prescribed by this part for the certificate
                                                           the test must be completed within 2 calendar
or rating sought;
                                                           months after the month the applicant began the
   (4) Hold at least a third-class medical certifi-
                                                           test.
cate, if a medical certificate is required;
                                                              (e) If all increments of the practical test for a
   (5) Meet the prescribed age requirement of this
                                                           certificate or rating are not completed within 2 cal-
part for the issuance of the certificate or rating
                                                           endar months after the month the applicant began
sought;
                                                           the test, the applicant must retake the entire prac-
   (6) Have an endorsement, if required by this
                                                           tical test.
part, in the applicant’s logbook or training record
that has been signed by an authorized instructor           [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
who certifies that the applicant —                          amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40897, July 30, 1997;
                                                           Amdt. 61–104, 63 FR 20286, April 23, 1998; Amdt. 61–
   (i) Has received and logged training time within
                                                           124, 74 FR 42548, Aug. 21, 2009]
2 calendar months preceding the month of appli-
cation in preparation for the practical test;
   (ii) Is prepared for the required practical test;
and
   (iii) Has demonstrated satisfactory knowledge
of the subject areas in which the applicant was
deficient on the airman knowledge test; and




                                                                                                             53
§61.41                                                                  Federal Aviation Regulations


§61.41 Flight training received from                     the aircraft in which single-pilot privileges are
  flight instructors not certificated by                   sought.
  the FAA.                                                  (c) If an applicant fails any area of operation,
                                                         that applicant fails the practical test.
   (a) A person may credit flight training toward            (d) An applicant is not eligible for a certificate
the requirements of a pilot certificate or rating is-     or rating sought until all the areas of operation are
sued under this part, if that person received the        passed.
training from:                                              (e) The examiner or the applicant may discon-
   (1) A flight instructor of an Armed Force in a         tinue a practical test at any time:
program for training military pilots of either—             (1) When the applicant fails one or more of the
   (i) The United States; or                             areas of operation; or
   (ii) A foreign contracting State to the Conven-          (2) Due to inclement weather conditions, air-
tion on International Civil Aviation.                    craft airworthiness, or any other safety-of-flight
   (2) A flight instructor who is authorized to give      concern.
such training by the licensing authority of a for-          (f) If a practical test is discontinued, the appli-
eign contracting State to the Convention on Inter-       cant is entitled credit for those areas of operation
national Civil Aviation, and the flight training is       that were passed, but only if the applicant:
given outside the United States.                            (1) Passes the remainder of the practical test
   (b) A flight instructor described in paragraph (a)     within the 60-day period after the date the practi-
of this section is only authorized to give endorse-      cal test was discontinued;
ments to show training given.                               (2) Presents to the examiner for the retest the
                                                         original notice of disapproval form or the letter of
§61.43 Practical tests:                                  discontinuance form, as appropriate;
  General procedures.                                       (3) Satisfactorily accomplishes any additional
   (a) Completion of the practical test for a certifi-    training needed and obtains the appropriate in-
cate or rating consists of—                              structor endorsements, if additional training is re-
   (1) Performing the tasks specified in the areas        quired; and
of operation for the airman certificate or rating            (4) Presents to the examiner for the retest a
sought within the approved practical test stan-          properly completed and signed application.
dards;                                                   [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
   (2) Demonstrating mastery of the aircraft by          amended by Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42549, Aug. 21,
performing each task successfully;                       2009]
   (3) Demonstrating proficiency and competency
within the approved standards; and                       §61.45 Practical tests:
   (4) Demonstrating sound judgment.                       Required aircraft and equipment.
   (b) The pilot flight crew complement required             (a) General. Except as provided in paragraph
during the practical test is based on one of the fol-    (a)(2) of this section or when permitted to accom-
lowing requirements that applies to the aircraft         plish the entire flight increment of the practical
being used on the practical test:                        test in a flight simulator or a flight training device,
   (1) If the aircraft’s FAA-approved flight manual       an applicant for a certificate or rating issued under
requires the pilot flight crew complement be a sin-       this part must furnish:
gle pilot, then the applicant must demonstrate sin-         (1) An aircraft of U.S. registry for each required
gle pilot proficiency on the practical test.              test that—
   (2) If the aircraft’s type certification data sheet       (i) Is of the category, class, and type, if applica-
requires the pilot flight crew complement be a sin-       ble, for which the applicant is applying for a certif-
gle pilot, then the applicant must demonstrate sin-      icate or rating; and
gle pilot proficiency on the practical test.                 (ii) Has a standard airworthiness certificate or
   (3) If the FAA Flight Standardization Board re-       special airworthiness certificate in the limited, pri-
port, FAA-approved aircraft flight manual, or air-        mary, or light-sport category.
craft type certification data sheet allows the pilot         (2) At the discretion of the examiner who ad-
flight crew complement to be either a single pilot,       ministers the practical test, the applicant may
or a pilot and a copilot, then the applicant may         furnish—
demonstrate single pilot proficiency or have a co-           (i) An aircraft that has an airworthiness certifi-
pilot on the practical test. If the applicant performs   cate other than a standard airworthiness certifi-
the practical test with a copilot, the limitation of     cate or special airworthiness certificate in the lim-
“Second in Command Required’’ will be placed on          ited, primary, or light-sport category, but that
the applicant’s pilot certificate. The limitation may     otherwise meets the requirements of paragraph
be removed if the applicant passes the practical         (a)(1) of this section;
test by demonstrating single-pilot proficiency in



54
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                       §61.47


   (ii) An aircraft of the same category, class, and        (e) Aircraft with single controls. A practical
type, if applicable, of foreign registry that is prop-   test may be conducted in an aircraft having a sin-
erly certificated by the country of registry; or          gle set of controls, provided the:
   (iii) A military aircraft of the same category,          (1) Examiner agrees to conduct the test;
class, and type, if aircraft class and type are ap-         (2) Test does not involve a demonstration of in-
propriate, for which the applicant is applying for a     strument skills; and
certificate or rating, and provided—                         (3) Proficiency of the applicant can be ob-




                                                                                                                 61
   (A) The aircraft is under the direct operational      served by an examiner who is in a position to ob-
control of the U.S. Armed Forces;                        serve the applicant.
   (B) The aircraft is airworthy under the mainte-          (f) Light-sport aircraft with a single seat. A
nance standards of the U.S. Armed Forces; and            practical test for a sport pilot certificate may be
   (C) The applicant has a letter from his or her        conducted in a light-sport aircraft having a single
commanding officer authorizing the use of the air-        seat provided that the—
craft for the practical test.                               (1) Examiner agrees to conduct the test;
   (b) Required equipment (other than controls).            (2) Examiner is in a position to observe the op-
   (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of         eration of the aircraft and evaluate the proficiency
this section, an aircraft used for a practical test      of the applicant; and
must have —                                                 (3) Pilot certificate of an applicant successfully
   (i) The equipment for each area of operation re-      passing the test is issued a pilot certificate with a
quired for the practical test;                           limitation “No passenger carriage and flight in a
   (ii) No prescribed operating limitations that pro-    single-seat light-sport aircraft only.”
hibit its use in any of the areas of operation re-       [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
quired for the practical test;                           amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40897, July 30, 1997;
   (iii) Except as provided in paragraphs (e) and        Amdt. 61–104, 63 FR 20286, April 23, 1998; Amdt. 61–
(f) of this section, at least two pilot stations with    110, 69 FR 44865, July 27, 2004; Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR
adequate visibility for each person to operate the       42549, Aug. 21, 2009]
aircraft safely; and
   (iv) Cockpit and outside visibility adequate to       §61.47 Status of an examiner who is
evaluate the performance of the applicant when             authorized by the Administrator to
an additional jump seat is provided for the exam-          conduct practical tests.
iner.                                                       (a) An examiner represents the Administrator
   (2) An applicant for a certificate or rating may       for the purpose of conducting practical tests for
use an aircraft with operating characteristics that      certificates and ratings issued under this part and
preclude the applicant from performing all of the        to observe an applicant’s ability to perform the
tasks required for the practical test. However, the      areas of operation on the practical test.
applicant’s certificate or rating, as appropriate, will      (b) The examiner is not the pilot in command of
be issued with an appropriate limitation.                the aircraft during the practical test unless the ex-
   (c) Required controls. Except for lighter-than-       aminer agrees to act in that capacity for the flight
air aircraft, and a glider without an engine, an air-    or for a portion of the flight by prior arrangement
craft used for a practical test must have engine         with:
power controls and flight controls that are easily           (1) The applicant; or
reached and operable in a conventional manner               (2) A person who would otherwise act as pilot
by both pilots, unless the Examiner determines           in command of the flight or for a portion of the
that the practical test can be conducted safely in       flight.
the aircraft without the controls easily reached by         (c) Notwithstanding the type of aircraft used
the Examiner.                                            during the practical test, the applicant and the ex-
   (d) Simulated instrument flight equipment.             aminer (and any other occupants authorized to be
An applicant for a practical test that involves ma-      on board by the examiner) are not subject to the
neuvering an aircraft solely by reference to instru-     requirements or limitations for the carriage of pas-
ments must furnish:                                      sengers that are specified in this chapter.
   (1) Equipment on board the aircraft that per-
mits the applicant to pass the areas of operation        [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
                                                         amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40897, July 30, 1997]
that apply to the rating sought; and
   (2) A device that prevents the applicant from
having visual reference outside the aircraft, but
does not prevent the examiner from having visual
reference outside the aircraft, and is otherwise ac-
ceptable to the Administrator.




                                                                                                          55
§61.49                                                                  Federal Aviation Regulations


§61.49 Retesting after failure.                             (v) Training received in a flight simulator, flight
   (a) An applicant for a knowledge or practical         training device, or aviation training device from an
test who fails that test may reapply for the test        authorized instructor.
only after the applicant has received:                      (3) Conditions of flight—
   (1) The necessary training from an authorized            (i) Day or night.
instructor who has determined that the applicant            (ii) Actual instrument.
is proficient to pass the test; and                          (iii) Simulated instrument conditions in flight, a
   (2) An endorsement from an authorized in-             flight simulator, flight training device, or aviation
structor who gave the applicant the additional           training device.
training.                                                   (iv) Use of night vision goggles in an aircraft in
   (b) An applicant for a flight instructor certificate    flight, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training de-
with an airplane category rating or, for a flight in-     vice.
structor certificate with a glider category rating,          (c) Logging of pilot time. The pilot time de-
who has failed the practical test due to deficien-        scribed in this section may be used to:
cies in instructional proficiency on stall aware-            (1) Apply for a certificate or rating issued under
ness, spin entry, spins, or spin recovery must:          this part or a privilege authorized under this part;
   (1) Comply with the requirements of paragraph         or
(a) of this section before being retested;                  (2) Satisfy the recent flight experience require-
   (2) Bring an aircraft to the retest that is of the    ments of this part.
appropriate aircraft category for the rating sought         (d) Logging of solo flight time. Except for a
and is certificated for spins; and                        student pilot performing the duties of pilot in com-
   (3) Demonstrate satisfactory instructional profi-      mand of an airship requiring more than one pilot
ciency on stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and        flight crewmember, a pilot may log as solo flight
spin recovery to an examiner during the retest.          time only that flight time when the pilot is the sole
                                                         occupant of the aircraft.
                                                            (e) Logging pilot-in-command flight time.
§61.51 Pilot logbooks.                                      (1) A sport, recreational, private, commercial,
   (a) Training time and aeronautical experi-            or airline transport pilot may log pilot in command
ence. Each person must document and record               flight time for flights—
the following time in a manner acceptable to the            (i) When the pilot is the sole manipulator of the
Administrator:                                           controls of an aircraft for which the pilot is rated,
   (1) Training and aeronautical experience used         or has sport pilot privileges for that category and
to meet the requirements for a certificate, rating,       class of aircraft, if the aircraft class rating is ap-
or flight review of this part.                            propriate;
   (2) The aeronautical experience required for             (ii) When the pilot is the sole occupant in the
meeting the recent flight experience requirements         aircraft;
of this part.                                               (iii) When the pilot, except for a holder of a
   (b) Logbook entries. For the purposes of              sport or recreational pilot certificate, acts as pilot
meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) of this        in command of an aircraft for which more than
section, each person must enter the following in-        one pilot is required under the type certification of
formation for each flight or lesson logged:               the aircraft or the regulations under which the
   (1) General—                                          flight is conducted; or
   (i) Date.                                                (iv) When the pilot performs the duties of pilot
   (ii) Total flight time or lesson time.                 in command while under the supervision of a
   (iii) Location where the aircraft departed and        qualified pilot in command provided—
arrived, or for lessons in a flight simulator or a           (A) The pilot performing the duties of pilot in
flight training device, the location where the les-       command holds a commercial or airline transport
son occurred.                                            pilot certificate and aircraft rating that is appropri-
   (iv) Type and identification of aircraft, flight sim-   ate to the category and class of aircraft being
ulator, flight training device, or aviation training      flown, if a class rating is appropriate;
device, as appropriate.                                     (B) The pilot performing the duties of pilot in
   (v) The name of a safety pilot, if required by        command is undergoing an approved pilot in com-
§91.109(b) of this chapter.                              mand training program that includes ground and
   (2) Type of pilot experience or training—             flight training on the following areas of opera-
   (i) Solo.                                             tion—
   (ii) Pilot in command.                                   (1) Preflight preparation;
   (iii) Second in command.                                 (2) Preflight procedures;
   (iv) Flight and ground training received from an         (3) Takeoff and departure;
authorized instructor.                                      (4) In-flight maneuvers;
                                                            (5) Instrument procedures;


56
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                        §61.51


   (6) Landings and approaches to landings;                 (2) An authorized instructor may log instrument
   (7) Normal and abnormal procedures;                   time when conducting instrument flight instruction
   (8) Emergency procedures; and                         in actual instrument flight conditions.
   (9) Postflight procedures;                                (3) For the purposes of logging instrument time
   (C) The supervising pilot in command holds—           to meet the recent instrument experience require-
   (1) A commercial pilot certificate and flight in-       ments of §61.57(c) of this part, the following infor-
structor certificate, and aircraft rating that is ap-     mation must be recorded in the person’s




                                                                                                                  61
propriate to the category, class, and type of air-       logbook—
craft being flown, if a class or type rating is re-          (i) The location and type of each instrument ap-
quired; or                                               proach accomplished; and
   (2) An airline transport pilot certificate and air-       (ii) The name of the safety pilot, if required.
craft rating that is appropriate to the category,           (4) A person can use time in a flight simulator,
class, and type of aircraft being flown, if a class or    flight training device, or aviation training device for
type rating is required; and                             acquiring instrument aeronautical experience for
   (D) The supervising pilot in command logs the         a pilot certificate, rating, or instrument recency ex-
pilot in command training in the pilot’s logbook,        perience, provided an authorized instructor is
certifies the pilot in command training in the pilot’s    present to observe that time and signs the per-
logbook and attests to that certification with his or     son’s logbook or training record to verify the time
her signature, and flight instructor certificate num-      and the content of the training session.
ber.                                                        (h) Logging training time.
   (2) If rated to act as pilot in command of the air-      (1) A person may log training time when that
craft, an airline transport pilot may log all flight      person receives training from an authorized in-
time while acting as pilot in command of an oper-        structor in an aircraft, flight simulator, or flight
ation requiring an airline transport pilot certificate.   training device.
   (3) A certificated flight instructor may log pilot in      (2) The training time must be logged in a log-
command flight time for all flight time while serv-        book and must:
ing as the authorized instructor in an operation if         (i) Be endorsed in a legible manner by the au-
the instructor is rated to act as pilot in command       thorized instructor; and
of that aircraft.                                           (ii) Include a description of the training given,
   (4) A student pilot may log pilot-in-command          the length of the training lesson, and the autho-
time only when the student pilot—                        rized instructor’s signature, certificate number,
   (i) Is the sole occupant of the aircraft or is per-   and certificate expiration date.
forming the duties of pilot in command of an air-           (i) Presentation of required documents.
ship requiring more than one pilot flight crew-              (1) Persons must present their pilot certificate,
member;                                                  medical certificate, logbook, or any other record
   (ii) Has a solo flight endorsement as required         required by this part for inspection upon a reason-
under §61.87 of this part; and                           able request by—
   (iii) Is undergoing training for a pilot certificate      (i) The Administrator;
or rating.                                                  (ii) An authorized representative from the Na-
   (f) Logging second-in-command flight time.             tional Transportation Safety Board; or
A person may log second-in-command time only                (iii) Any Federal, State, or local law enforce-
for that flight time during which that person:            ment officer.
   (1) Is qualified in accordance with the second-           (2) A student pilot must carry the following
in-command requirements of §61.55 of this part,          items in the aircraft on all solo cross-country
and occupies a crewmember station in an aircraft         flights as evidence of the required authorized in-
that requires more than one pilot by the aircraft’s      structor clearances and endorsements—
type certificate; or                                         (i) Pilot logbook;
   (2) Holds the appropriate category, class, and           (ii) Student pilot certificate; and
instrument rating (if an instrument rating is re-           (iii) Any other record required by this section.
quired for the flight) for the aircraft being flown,          (3) A sport pilot must carry his or her logbook
and more than one pilot is required under the type       or other evidence of required authorized instruc-
certification of the aircraft or the regulations under    tor endorsements on all flights.
which the flight is being conducted.                         (4) A recreational pilot must carry his or her
   (g) Logging instrument time.                          logbook with the required authorized instructor
   (1) A person may log instrument time only for         endorsements on all solo flights—
that flight time when the person operates the air-           (i) That exceed 50 nautical miles from the air-
craft solely by reference to instruments under ac-       port at which training was received;
tual or simulated instrument flight conditions.              (ii) Within airspace that requires communica-
                                                         tion with air traffic control;
                                                            (iii) Conducted between sunset and sunrise; or


                                                                                                           57
§61.51                                                                   Federal Aviation Regulations


   (iv) In an aircraft for which the pilot does not       §61.52 Use of aeronautical experience
hold an appropriate category or class rating.               obtained in ultralight vehicles.
   (5) A flight instructor with a sport pilot rating          (a) Before January 31, 2012, a person may use
must carry his or her logbook or other evidence of        aeronautical experience obtained in an ultralight
required authorized instructor endorsements on            vehicle to meet the requirements for the following
all flights when providing flight training.                 certificates and ratings issued under this part:
   (j) Aircraft requirements for logging flight               (1) A sport pilot certificate.
time. For a person to log flight time, the time must          (2) A flight instructor certificate with a sport
be acquired in an aircraft that is identified as an        pilot rating;
aircraft under §61.5(b), and is—                             (3) A private pilot certificate with a weight-shift-
   (1) An aircraft of U.S. registry with either a stan-   control or powered parachute category rating.
dard or special airworthiness certificate;                    (b) Before January 31, 2012, a person may use
   (2) An aircraft of foreign registry with an airwor-    aeronautical experience obtained in an ultralight
thiness certificate that is approved by the aviation       vehicle to meet the provisions of §61.69.
authority of a foreign country that is a Member              (c) A person using aeronautical experience ob-
State to the Convention on International Civil Avi-       tained in an ultralight vehicle to meet the require-
ation Organization;                                       ments for a certificate or rating specified in para-
   (3) A military aircraft under the direct opera-        graph (a) of this section or the requirements of
tional control of the U.S. Armed Forces; or               paragraph (b) of this section must—
   (4) A public aircraft under the direct operational        (1) Have been a registered ultralight pilot with
control of a Federal, State, county, or municipal         an FAA-recognized ultralight organization when
law enforcement agency, if the flight time was ac-         that aeronautical experience was obtained;
quired by the pilot while engaged on an official              (2) Document and log that aeronautical experi-
law enforcement flight for a Federal, State,               ence in accordance with the provisions for logging
County, or Municipal law enforcement agency.              aeronautical experience specified by an FAA-rec-
   (k) Logging night vision goggle time.                  ognized ultralight organization and in accordance
   (1) A person may log night vision goggle time          with provisions for logging pilot time in aircraft as
only for the time the person uses night vision gog-       specified in §61.51;
gles as the primary visual reference of the surface          (3) Obtain the aeronautical experience in a cat-
and operates:                                             egory and class of vehicle corresponding to the
   (i) An aircraft during a night vision goggle oper-     rating or privileges sought; and
ation; or                                                    (4) Provide the FAA with a certified copy of his
   (ii) A flight simulator or flight training device        or her ultralight pilot records from an FAA-recog-
with the lighting system adjusted to represent the        nized ultralight organization, that—
period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1            (i) Document that he or she is a registered ul-
hour before sunrise.                                      tralight pilot with that FAA-recognized ultralight or-
   (2) An authorized instructor may log night vi-         ganization; and
sion goggle time when that person conducts train-            (ii) Indicate that he or she is recognized to op-
ing using night vision goggles as the primary vi-         erate the category and class of aircraft for which
sual reference of the surface and operates:               sport pilot privileges are sought.
   (i) An aircraft during a night goggle operation;
or                                                        [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44865, July 27,
                                                          2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5220, Feb.
   (ii) A flight simulator or flight training device
                                                          1, 2010]
with the lighting system adjusted to represent the
period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1
hour before sunrise.                                      §61.53 Prohibition on operations during
   (3) To log night vision goggle time to meet the          medical deficiency.
recent night vision goggle experience require-               (a) Operations that require a medical certifi-
ments under §61.57(f), a person must log the in-          cate. Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of
formation required under §61.51(b).                       this section, no person who holds a medical certif-
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as         icate issued under part 67 of this chapter may act
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40897, July 30, 1997;      as pilot in command, or in any other capacity as a
Amdt. 61–104, 63 FR 20286, April 23, 1998; Amdt. 61–      required pilot flight crewmember, while that per-
110, 69 FR 44865, July 27, 2004; Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR      son:
42549, Aug. 21, 2009]                                        (1) Knows or has reason to know of any medi-
                                                          cal condition that would make the person unable
                                                          to meet the requirements for the medical certifi-
                                                          cate necessary for the pilot operation; or




58
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                          §61.55


   (2) Is taking medication or receiving other treat-         (2) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this
ment for a medical condition that results in the          section, performed and logged pilot time in the
person being unable to meet the requirements for          type of aircraft or in a flight simulator that repre-
the medical certificate necessary for the pilot op-        sents the type of aircraft for which second-in-com-
eration.                                                  mand privileges are requested, which includes—
   (b) Operations that do not require a medical               (i) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full
certificate. For operations provided for in                stop as the sole manipulator of the flight controls;




                                                                                                                    61
§61.23(b) of this part, a person shall not act as             (ii) Engine-out procedures and maneuvering
pilot in command, or in any other capacity as a re-       with an engine out while executing the duties of
quired pilot flight crewmember, while that person          pilot in command; and
knows or has reason to know of any medical con-               (iii) Crew resource management training.
dition that would make the person unable to oper-             (c) If a person complies with the requirements
ate the aircraft in a safe manner.                        in paragraph (b) of this section in the calendar
   (c) Operations requiring a medical certifi-             month before or the calendar month after the
cate or a U.S. driver’s license. For operations           month in which compliance with this section is re-
provided for in §61.23(c), a person must meet the         quired, then that person is considered to have ac-
provisions of—                                            complished the training and practice in the month
   (1) Paragraph (a) of this section if that person       it is due.
holds a medical certificate issued under part 67 of            (d) A person may receive a second-in-com-
this chapter and does not hold a U.S. driver’s li-        mand pilot type rating for an aircraft after satisfac-
cense.                                                    torily completing the second-in-command famil-
   (2) Paragraph (b) of this section if that person       iarization training requirements under paragraph
holds a U.S. driver’s license.                            (b) of this section in that type of aircraft provided
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as         the training was completed within the 12 calendar
amended by Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44866, July 27, 2004;      months before the month of application for the
Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42550, Aug. 21, 2009]                 SIC pilot type rating. The person must comply
                                                          with the following application and pilot certification
§61.55 Second-in-command                                  procedures:
  qualifications.                                              (1) The person who provided the training must
                                                          sign the applicant’s logbook or training record af-
   (a) A person may serve as a second-in-com-
                                                          ter each lesson in accordance with §61.51(h)(2)
mand of an aircraft type certificated for more than
                                                          of this part. In lieu of the trainer, it is permissible
one required pilot flight crewmember or in opera-
                                                          for a qualified management official within the or-
tions requiring a second-in-command pilot flight
                                                          ganization to sign the applicant’s training records
crewmember only if that person holds:
                                                          or logbook and make the required endorsement.
   (1) At least a private pilot certificate with the ap-
                                                          The qualified management official must hold the
propriate category and class rating; and
                                                          position of Chief Pilot, Director of Training, Direc-
   (2) An instrument rating or privilege that ap-
                                                          tor of Operations, or another comparable man-
plies to the aircraft being flown if the flight is under
                                                          agement position within the organization that pro-
IFR; and
                                                          vided the training and must be in a position to ver-
   (3) The appropriate pilot type rating for the air-
                                                          ify the applicant’s training records and that the
craft unless the flight will be conducted as domes-
                                                          training was given.
tic flight operations within United States airspace.
                                                              (2) The trainer or qualified management official
   (b) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this
                                                          must make an endorsement in the applicant’s log-
section, no person may serve as a second-in-
                                                          book that states “[Applicant’s Name and Pilot Cer-
command of an aircraft type certificated for more
                                                          tificate Number] has demonstrated the skill and
than one required pilot flight crewmember or in
                                                          knowledge required for the safe operation of the
operations requiring a second-in-command un-
                                                          [Type of Aircraft], relevant to the duties and re-
less that person has within the previous 12 calen-
                                                          sponsibilities of a second in command.”
dar months:
                                                              (3) If the applicant’s flight experience and/or
   (1) Become familiar with the following informa-
                                                          training records are in an electronic form, the ap-
tion for the specific type aircraft for which second-
                                                          plicant must present a paper copy of those
in-command privileges are requested—
                                                          records containing the signature of the trainer or
   (i) Operational procedures applicable to the
                                                          qualified management official to an FAA Flight
powerplant, equipment, and systems.
                                                          Standards District Office or Examiner.
   (ii) Performance specifications and limitations.
                                                              (4) The applicant must complete and sign an
   (iii) Normal, abnormal, and emergency operat-
                                                          Airman Certificate and/or Rating Application, FAA
ing procedures.
                                                          Form 8710-1, and present the application to an
   (iv) Flight manual.
                                                          FAA Flight Standards District Office or to an Ex-
   (v) Placards and markings.
                                                          aminer.


                                                                                                             59
§61.55                                                                   Federal Aviation Regulations


   (5) The person who provided the ground and             aminer or to an authorized Aircrew Program Des-
flight training to the applicant must sign the “In-        ignee.
structor’s Recommendation” section of the Air-               (5) The person who provided the ground and
man Certificate and/or Rating Application, FAA             flight training to the applicant must sign the “In-
Form 8710-1. In lieu of the trainer, it is permissible    structor’s Recommendation” section of the Air-
for a qualified management official within the or-          man Certificate and/or Rating Application, FAA
ganization to sign the applicant’s FAA Form               Form 8710-1. In lieu of the trainer, it is permissible
8710-1.                                                   for a qualified management official within the or-
   (6) The applicant must appear in person at a           ganization to sign the applicant’s FAA Form
FAA Flight Standards District Office or to an Ex-          8710-1.
aminer with his or her logbook/training records              (6) The applicant must appear in person at an
and with the completed and signed FAA Form                FAA Flight Standards District Office or to an Ex-
8710-1.                                                   aminer or to an authorized Aircrew Program Des-
   (7) There is no practical test required for the is-    ignee with his or her logbook/training records and
suance of the “SIC Privileges Only” pilot type rat-       with the completed and signed FAA Form 8710-1.
ing.                                                         (7) There is no practical test required for the is-
   (e) A person may receive a second-in-com-              suance of the “SIC Privileges Only” pilot type rat-
mand pilot type rating for the type of aircraft after     ing.
satisfactorily completing an approved second-in-             (f) The familiarization training requirements of
command training program, proficiency check, or            paragraph (b) of this section do not apply to a per-
competency check under subpart K of part 91,              son who is:
part 121, part 125, or part 135, as appropriate, in          (1) Designated and qualified as pilot in com-
that type of aircraft provided the training was com-      mand under subpart K of part 91, part 121, 125,
pleted within the 12 calendar months before the           or 135 of this chapter in that specific type of air-
month of application for the SIC pilot type rating.       craft;
The person must comply with the following appli-             (2) Designated as the second in command un-
cation and pilot certification procedures:                 der subpart K of part 91, part 121, 125, or 135 of
   (1) The person who provided the training must          this chapter in that specific type of aircraft;
sign the applicant’s logbook or training record af-          (3) Designated as the second in command in
ter each lesson in accordance with §61.51(h)(2)           that specific type of aircraft for the purpose of re-
of this part. In lieu of the trainer, it is permissible   ceiving flight training required by this section, and
for a qualified management official within the or-          no passengers or cargo are carried on the air-
ganization to sign the applicant’s training records       craft; or
or logbook and make the required endorsement.                (4) Designated as a safety pilot for purposes
The qualified management official must hold the             required by §91.109(b) of this chapter.
position of Chief Pilot, Director of Training, Direc-        (g) The holder of a commercial or airline trans-
tor of Operations, or another comparable man-             port pilot certificate with the appropriate category
agement position within the organization that pro-        and class rating is not required to meet the re-
vided the training and must be in a position to ver-      quirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section,
ify the applicant’s training records and that the         provided the pilot:
training was given.                                          (1) Is conducting a ferry flight, aircraft flight test,
   (2) The trainer or qualified management official         or evaluation flight of an aircraft’s equipment; and
must make an endorsement in the applicant’s log-             (2) Is not carrying any person or property on
book that states “[Applicant’s Name and Pilot Cer-        board the aircraft, other than necessary for con-
tificate Number] has demonstrated the skill and            duct of the flight.
knowledge required for the safe operation of the             (h) For the purpose of meeting the require-
[Type of Aircraft], relevant to the duties and re-        ments of paragraph (b) of this section, a person
sponsibilities of a second in command.”                   may serve as second in command in that specific
   (3) If the applicant’s flight experience and/or         type aircraft, provided:
training records are in an electronic form, the ap-          (1) The flight is conducted under day VFR or
plicant must provide a paper copy of those                day IFR; and
records containing the signature of the trainer or           (2) No person or property is carried on board
qualified management official to an FAA Flight              the aircraft, other than necessary for conduct of
Standards District Office, an Examiner, or an Air-         the flight.
crew Program Designee.                                       (i) The training under paragraphs (b) and (d) of
   (4) The applicant must complete and sign an            this section and the training, proficiency check,
Airman Certificate and/or Rating Application, FAA          and competency check under paragraph (e) of
Form 8710-1, and present the application to an            this section may be accomplished in a flight simu-
FAA Flight Standards District Office or to an Ex-          lator that is used in accordance with an approved
                                                          training course conducted by a training center


60
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                          §61.57


certificated under part 142 of this chapter or un-         not accomplish the flight review required by this
der subpart K of part 91, part 121 or part 135 of         section.
this chapter.                                                (f) A person who holds a flight instructor certifi-
   (j) When an applicant for an initial second-in-        cate and who has, within the period specified in
command qualification for a particular type of air-        paragraph (c) of this section, satisfactorily com-
craft receives all the training in a flight simulator,     pleted a renewal of a flight instructor certificate
that applicant must satisfactorily complete one           under the provisions in §61.197 need not accom-




                                                                                                                    61
takeoff and one landing in an aircraft of the same        plish the one hour of ground training specified in
type for which the qualification is sought. This re-       paragraph (a) of this section.
quirement does not apply to an applicant who                 (g) A student pilot need not accomplish the
completes a proficiency check under part 121 or            flight review required by this section provided the
competency check under subpart K, part 91, part           student pilot is undergoing training for a certificate
125, or part 135 for the particular type of aircraft.     and has a current solo flight endorsement as re-
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as         quired under §61.87 of this part.
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40898, July 30, 1997;         (h) The requirements of this section may be ac-
Amdt. 61–109, 68 FR 54559, Sept. 17, 2003; Amdt. 61–      complished in combination with the requirements
113, 70 FR 45271, Aug. 4, 2005; Amdt. 61–109, 70 FR       of §61.57 and other applicable recent experience
61889, Oct. 27, 2005; Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42550, Aug.     requirements at the discretion of the authorized
21, 2009]                                                 instructor conducting the flight review.
                                                             (i) A flight simulator or flight training device may
§61.56 Flight review.                                     be used to meet the flight review requirements of
   (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f)       this section subject to the following conditions:
of this section, a flight review consists of a mini-          (1) The flight simulator or flight training device
mum of 1 hour of flight training and 1 hour of             must be used in accordance with an approved
ground training. The review must include:                 course conducted by a training center certificated
   (1) A review of the current general operating          under part 142 of this chapter.
and flight rules of part 91 of this chapter; and              (2) Unless the flight review is undertaken in a
   (2) A review of those maneuvers and proce-             flight simulator that is approved for landings, the
dures that, at the discretion of the person giving        applicant must meet the takeoff and landing re-
the review, are necessary for the pilot to demon-         quirements of §61.57(a) or §61.57(b) of this part.
strate the safe exercise of the privileges of the            (3) The flight simulator or flight training device
pilot certificate.                                         used must represent an aircraft or set of aircraft
   (b) Glider pilots may substitute a minimum of          for which the pilot is rated.
three instructional flights in a glider, each of which     [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
includes a flight to traffic pattern altitude, in lieu of   amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40898, July 30, 1997;
the 1 hour of flight training required in paragraph        Amdt. 61–104, 63 FR 20287, April 23, 1998; Amdt. 61–
(a) of this section.                                      124, 74 FR 42550, Aug. 21, 2009]
   (c) Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e),
and (g) of this section, no person may act as pilot       §61.57 Recent flight experience:
in command of an aircraft unless, since the begin-          Pilot in command.
ning of the 24th calendar month before the month             (a) General experience.
in which that pilot acts as pilot in command, that           (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this
person has —                                              section, no person may act as a pilot in command
   (1) Accomplished a flight review given in an air-       of an aircraft carrying passengers or of an aircraft
craft for which that pilot is rated by an authorized      certificated for more than one pilot flight crew-
instructor; and                                           member unless that person has made at least
   (2) A logbook endorsed from an authorized in-          three takeoffs and three landings within the pre-
structor who gave the review certifying that the          ceding 90 days, and—
person has satisfactorily completed the review.              (i) The person acted as the sole manipulator of
   (d) A person who has, within the period speci-         the flight controls; and
fied in paragraph (c) of this section, passed a pilot         (ii) The required takeoffs and landings were
proficiency check conducted by an examiner, an             performed in an aircraft of the same category,
approved pilot check airman, or a U.S. Armed              class, and type (if a type rating is required), and, if
Force, for a pilot certificate, rating, or operating       the aircraft to be flown is an airplane with a tail-
privilege need not accomplish the flight review re-        wheel, the takeoffs and landings must have been
quired by this section.                                   made to a full stop in an airplane with a tailwheel.
   (e) A person who has, within the period speci-            (2) For the purpose of meeting the require-
fied in paragraph (c) of this section, satisfactorily      ments of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a per-
accomplished one or more phases of an FAA-                son may act as a pilot in command of an aircraft
sponsored pilot proficiency award program need


                                                                                                             61
§61.57                                                                 Federal Aviation Regulations


under day VFR or day IFR, provided no persons           flight, that person performed and logged at least
or property are carried on board the aircraft, other    the following tasks and iterations in a flight simula-
than those necessary for the conduct of the flight.      tor or flight training device, provided the flight sim-
   (3) The takeoffs and landings required by para-      ulator or flight training device represents the cate-
graph (a)(1) of this section may be accomplished        gory of aircraft for the instrument rating privileges
in a flight simulator or flight training device that      to be maintained and involves having performed
is —                                                    the following—
   (i) Approved by the Administrator for landings;         (i) Six instrument approaches.
and                                                        (ii) Holding procedures and tasks.
   (ii) Used in accordance with an approved                (iii) Intercepting and tracking courses through
course conducted by a training center certificated       the use of navigational electronic systems.
under part 142 of this chapter.                            (3) Use of an aviation training device for main-
   (b) Night takeoff and landing experience.            taining instrument experience. Within the 2 calen-
   (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this      dar months preceding the month of the flight, that
section, no person may act as pilot in command of       person performed and logged at least the follow-
an aircraft carrying passengers during the period       ing tasks, iterations, and time in an aviation train-
beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour         ing device and has performed the following—
before sunrise, unless within the preceding 90             (i) Three hours of instrument experience.
days that person has made at least three takeoffs          (ii) Holding procedures and tasks.
and three landings to a full stop during the period        (iii) Six instrument approaches.
beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour            (iv) Two unusual attitude recoveries while in a
before sunrise, and—                                    descending, VNE airspeed condition and two un-
   (i) That person acted as sole manipulator of the     usual attitude recoveries while in an ascending,
flight controls; and                                     stall speed condition.
   (ii) The required takeoffs and landings were            (v) Interception and tracking courses through
performed in an aircraft of the same category,          the use of navigational electronic systems.
class, and type (if a type rating is required).            (4) Combination of completing instrument ex-
   (2) The takeoffs and landings required by para-      perience in an aircraft and a flight simulator, flight
graph (b)(1) of this section may be accomplished        training device, and aviation training device. A
in a flight simulator that is —                          person who elects to complete the instrument ex-
   (i) Approved by the Administrator for takeoffs       perience with a combination of an aircraft, flight
and landings, if the visual system is adjusted to       simulator or flight training device, and aviation
represent the period described in paragraph             training device must have performed and logged
(b)(1) of this section; and                             the following within the 6 calendar months pre-
   (ii) Used in accordance with an approved             ceding the month of the flight—
course conducted by a training center certificated          (i) Instrument experience in an airplane, pow-
under part 142 of this chapter.                         ered-lift, helicopter, or airship, as appropriate, for
   (c) Instrument experience. Except as pro-            the instrument rating privileges to be maintained,
vided in paragraph (e) of this section, a person        performed in actual weather conditions, or under
may act as pilot in command under IFR or                simulated weather conditions while using a view-
weather conditions less than the minimums pre-          limiting device, on the following instrument cur-
scribed for VFR only if:                                rency tasks:
   (1) Use of an airplane, powered-lift, helicopter,       (A) Instrument approaches.
or airship for maintaining instrument experience.          (B) Holding procedures and tasks.
Within the 6 calendar months preceding the                 (C) Interception and tracking courses through
month of the flight, that person performed and           the use of navigational electronic systems.
logged at least the following tasks and iterations         (ii) Instrument experience in a flight simulator
in an airplane, powered-lift, helicopter, or airship,   or flight training device that represents the cate-
as appropriate, for the instrument rating privileges    gory of aircraft for the instrument rating privileges
to be maintained in actual weather conditions, or       to be maintained and involves performing at least
under simulated conditions using a view-limiting        the following tasks—
device that involves having performed the follow-          (A) Instrument approaches.
ing—                                                       (B) Holding procedures and tasks.
   (i) Six instrument approaches.                          (C) Interception and tracking courses through
   (ii) Holding procedures and tasks.                   the use of navigational electronic systems.
   (iii) Intercepting and tracking courses through         (iii) Instrument experience in an aviation train-
the use of navigational electronic systems.             ing device that represents the category of aircraft
   (2) Use of a flight simulator or flight training de-   for the instrument rating privileges to be main-
vice for maintaining instrument experience. Within      tained and involves performing at least the follow-
the 6 calendar months preceding the month of the        ing tasks—


62
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                      §61.57


   (A) Six instrument approaches.                          (A) Have logged and performed 2 hours of in-
   (B) Holding procedures and tasks.                    strument flight time in a glider within the 6 calen-
   (C) Interception and tracking courses through        dar months preceding the month of the flight.
the use of navigational electronic systems.                (B) Use a view-limiting-device while practicing
   (5) Combination of completing instrument ex-         performance maneuvers, performance airspeeds,
perience in a flight simulator or flight training de-     navigation, slow flight, and stalls.
vice, and an aviation training device. A person            (d) Instrument proficiency check. Except as




                                                                                                               61
who elects to complete the instrument experience        provided in paragraph (e) of this section, a person
with a combination of a flight simulator, flight train-   who does not meet the instrument experience re-
ing device, and aviation training device must have      quirements of paragraph (c) of this section within
performed the following within the 6 calendar           the 12 calendar months preceding the month of
months preceding the month of the flight—                the flight may not serve as pilot in command un-
   (i) Instrument recency experience in a flight         der IFR or in weather conditions less than the
simulator or flight training device that represents      minimums prescribed for VFR until having passed
the category of aircraft for the instrument rating      an instrument proficiency check that consists of
privileges to be maintained and involves having         the areas of operation and instrument tasks re-
performed the following tasks:                          quired in the instrument rating practical test stan-
   (A) Six instrument approaches.                       dards.
   (B) Holding procedures and tasks.                       (e) Exceptions.
   (C) Interception and tracking courses through           (1) Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section do not
the use of navigational electronic systems.             apply to a pilot in command who is employed by a
   (ii) Three hours of instrument experience in an      certificate holder under part 125 and engaged in
aviation training device that represents the cate-      a flight operation for that certificate holder if the
gory of aircraft for the instrument rating privileges   pilot is in compliance with §§125.281 and
to be maintained and involves performing at least       125.285 of this chapter.
the following tasks—                                       (2) This section does not apply to a pilot in
   (A) Six instrument approaches.                       command who is employed by an air carrier certif-
   (B) Holding procedures and tasks.                    icated under part 121 or 135 and is engaged in a
   (C) Interception and tracking courses through        flight operation under part 91, 121, or 135 for that
the use of navigational electronic systems.             air carrier if the pilot is in compliance with
   (D) Two unusual attitude recoveries while in a       §§121.437 and 121.439, or §§135.243 and
descending, VNE airspeed condition and two un-          135.247 of this chapter, as appropriate.
usual attitude recoveries while in an ascending,           (3) Paragraph (b) of this section does not apply
stall speed condition.                                  to a pilot in command of a turbine-powered air-
   (6) Maintaining instrument recent experience in      plane that is type certificated for more than one
a glider.                                               pilot crewmember, provided that pilot has com-
   (i) Within the 6 calendar months preceding the       plied with the requirements of paragraph (e)(3)(i)
month of the flight, that person must have per-          or (ii) of this section:
formed and logged at least the following instru-           (i) The pilot in command must hold at least a
ment currency tasks, iterations, and flight time,        commercial pilot certificate with the appropriate
and the instrument currency must have been per-         category, class, and type rating for each airplane
formed in actual weather conditions or under sim-       that is type certificated for more than one pilot
ulated weather conditions—                              crewmember that the pilot seeks to operate under
   (A) One hour of instrument flight time in a glider    this alternative, and:
or in a single engine airplane using a view-limiting       (A) That pilot must have logged at least 1,500
device while performing interception and tracking       hours of aeronautical experience as a pilot;
courses through the use of navigation electronic           (B) In each airplane that is type certificated for
systems.                                                more than one pilot crewmember that the pilot
   (B) Two hours of instrument flight time in a          seeks to operate under this alternative, that pilot
glider or a single engine airplane with the use of a    must have accomplished and logged the daytime
view-limiting device while performing straight          takeoff and landing recent flight experience of
glides, turns to specific headings, steep turns,         paragraph (a) of this section, as the sole manipu-
flight at various airspeeds, navigation, and slow        lator of the flight controls;
flight and stalls.                                          (C) Within the preceding 90 days prior to the
   (ii) Before a pilot is allowed to carry a passen-    operation of that airplane that is type certificated
ger in a glider under IFR or in weather conditions      for more than one pilot crewmember, the pilot
less than the minimums prescribed for VFR, that         must have accomplished and logged at least 15
pilot must—                                             hours of flight time in the type of airplane that the
                                                        pilot seeks to operate under this alternative; and



                                                                                                         63
§61.57                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


   (D) That pilot has accomplished and logged at        ating helicopters or powered-lifts during the hov-
least 3 takeoffs and 3 landings to a full stop, as      ering phase of flight).
the sole manipulator of the flight controls, in a tur-       (iii) Three area departure and area arrival
bine-powered airplane that requires more than           tasks.
one pilot crewmember. The pilot must have per-              (iv) Three tasks of transitioning from aided
formed the takeoffs and landings during the per-        night flight (aided night flight means that the pilot
iod beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1          uses night vision goggles to maintain visual sur-
hour before sunrise within the preceding 6              face reference) to unaided night flight (unaided
months prior to the month of the flight.                 night flight means that the pilot does not use night
   (ii) The pilot in command must hold at least a       vision goggles) and back to aided night flight.
commercial pilot certificate with the appropriate            (v) Three night vision goggle operations, or
category, class, and type rating for each airplane      when operating helicopters or powered-lifts, six
that is type certificated for more than one pilot        night vision goggle operations.
crewmember that the pilot seeks to operate under            (2) A person may act as pilot in command using
this alternative, and:                                  night vision goggles only if, within the 4 calendar
   (A) That pilot must have logged at least 1,500       months preceding the month of the flight, that per-
hours of aeronautical experience as a pilot;            son performs and logs the tasks listed in para-
   (B) In each airplane that is type certificated for    graph (f)(1)(i) through (v) of this section as the
more than one pilot crewmember that the pilot           sole manipulator of the controls during a night vi-
seeks to operate under this alternative, that pilot     sion goggle operation.
must have accomplished and logged the daytime               (g) Night vision goggle proficiency check. A
takeoff and landing recent flight experience of          person must either meet the night vision goggle
paragraph (a) of this section, as the sole manipu-      experience requirements of paragraphs (f)(1) or
lator of the flight controls;                            (f)(2) of this section or pass a night vision goggle
   (C) Within the preceding 90 days prior to the        proficiency check to act as pilot in command us-
operation of that airplane that is type certificated     ing night vision goggles. The proficiency check
for more than one pilot crewmember, the pilot           must be performed in the category of aircraft that
must have accomplished and logged at least 15           is appropriate to the night vision goggle operation
hours of flight time in the type of airplane that the    for which the person is seeking the night vision
pilot seeks to operate under this alternative; and      goggle privilege or in a flight simulator or flight
   (D) Within the preceding 12 months prior to the      training device that is representative of that cate-
month of the flight, the pilot must have completed       gory of aircraft. The check must consist of the
a training program that is approved under part          tasks listed in §61.31(k), and the check must be
142 of this chapter. The approved training pro-         performed by:
gram must have required and the pilot must have             (1) An Examiner who is qualified to perform
performed, at least 6 takeoffs and 6 landings to a      night vision goggle operations in that same air-
full stop as the sole manipulator of the controls in    craft category and class;
a flight simulator that is representative of a tur-          (2) A person who is authorized by the U.S.
bine-powered airplane that requires more than           Armed Forces to perform night vision goggle pro-
one pilot crewmember. The flight simulator’s vi-         ficiency checks, provided the person being ad-
sual system must have been adjusted to repre-           ministered the check is also a member of the U.S.
sent the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and       Armed Forces;
ending 1 hour before sunrise.                               (3) A company check pilot who is authorized to
   (f) Night vision goggle operating experi-            perform night vision goggle proficiency checks
ence.                                                   under parts 121, 125, or 135 of this chapter, pro-
   (1) A person may act as pilot in command in a        vided that both the check pilot and the pilot being
night vision goggle operation with passengers on        tested are employees of that operator;
board only if, within 2 calendar months preceding           (4) An authorized flight instructor who is quali-
the month of the flight, that person performs and        fied to perform night vision goggle operations in
logs the following tasks as the sole manipulator of     that same aircraft category and class;
the controls on a flight during a night vision gog-          (5) A person who is qualified as pilot in com-
gle operation—                                          mand for night vision goggle operations in accor-
   (i) Three takeoffs and three landings, with each     dance with paragraph (f) of this section; or
takeoff and landing including a climbout, cruise,           (6) A person approved by the FAA to perform
descent, and approach phase of flight (only re-          night vision goggle proficiency checks.
quired if the pilot wants to use night vision gog-      [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
gles during the takeoff and landing phases of the       amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40898, July 30, 1997;
flight).                                                 Amdt. 61–106, 64 FR 23529, April 30, 1999; Amdt. 61–
   (ii) Three hovering tasks (only required if the      109, 68 FR 54559, Sept. 17, 2003; Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR
pilot wants to use night vision goggles when oper-      42550, Aug. 21, 2009]



64
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                         §61.59


§61.58 Pilot-in-command proficiency                           (i) The training center must annotate, in the ap-
  check: Operation of aircraft requiring                  plicant’s training record, the maneuver or maneu-
  more than one pilot flight                               vers omitted; and
  crewmember.                                                (ii) Prior to acting as pilot in command, the pilot
                                                          must demonstrate proficiency in each omitted ma-
   (a) Except as otherwise provided in this sec-          neuver in an aircraft or flight simulator qualified
tion, to serve as pilot in command of an aircraft         and approved for each omitted maneuver.




                                                                                                                   61
that is type certificated for more than one required          (2) If the flight simulator used pursuant to para-
pilot flight crewmember, a person must—                    graph (e) of this section is not qualified and ap-
   (1) Within the preceding 12 calendar months,           proved for circling approaches—
complete a pilot-in-command proficiency check in              (i) The applicant’s record must include the
an aircraft that is type certificated for more than        statement, “Proficiency in circling approaches not
one required pilot flight crewmember; and                  demonstrated”; and
   (2) Within the preceding 24 calendar months,              (ii) The applicant may not perform circling ap-
complete a pilot-in-command proficiency check in           proaches as pilot in command when weather con-
the particular type of aircraft in which that person      ditions are less than the basic VFR conditions de-
will serve as pilot in command.                           scribed in §91.155 of this chapter, until profi-
   (b) This section does not apply to persons con-        ciency in circling approaches has been
ducting operations under subpart K of part 91,            successfully demonstrated in a flight simulator
part 121, 125, 133, 135, or 137 of this chapter, or       qualified and approved for circling approaches or
persons maintaining continuing qualification un-           in an aircraft to a person authorized by the Admin-
der an Advanced Qualification program approved             istrator to conduct the check required by this sec-
under Subpart Y of Part 121 of this chapter.              tion.
   (c) The pilot-in-command proficiency check                 (3) If the flight simulator used pursuant to para-
given in accordance with the provisions of subpart        graph (e) of this section is not qualified and ap-
K of part 91, part 121, 125, or 135 of this chapter       proved for landings, the applicant must—
may be used to satisfy the requirements of this              (i) Hold a type rating in the airplane repre-
section.                                                  sented by the simulator; and
   (d) The pilot-in-command proficiency check re-             (ii) Have completed within the preceding 90
quired by paragraph (a) of this section may be ac-        days at least three takeoffs and three landings
complished by satisfactory completion of one of           (one to a full stop) as the sole manipulator of the
the following:                                            flight controls in the type airplane for which the
   (1) A pilot-in-command proficiency check con-           pilot-in-command proficiency check is sought.
ducted by a person authorized by the Administra-             (f) For the purpose of meeting the pilot-in-com-
tor, consisting of the maneuvers and procedures           mand proficiency check requirements of para-
required for a type rating, in an aircraft type certif-   graph (a) of this section, a person may act as pilot
icated for more than one required pilot flight crew-       in command of a flight under day VFR conditions
member;                                                   or day IFR conditions if no person or property is
   (2) The practical test required for a type rating,     carried, other than as necessary to demonstrate
in an aircraft type certificated for more than one         compliance with this part.
required pilot flight crewmember;                             (g) If a pilot takes the pilot-in-command profi-
   (3) The initial or periodic practical test required    ciency check required by this section in the calen-
for the issuance of a pilot examiner or check air-        dar month before or the calendar month after the
man designation, in an aircraft type certificated for      month in which it is due, the pilot is considered to
more than one required pilot flight crewmember;            have taken it in the month in which it was due for
or                                                        the purpose of computing when the next pilot-in-
   (4) A military flight check required for a pilot in     command proficiency check is due.
command with instrument privileges, in an aircraft
                                                          [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 40898, July 30, 1997; as
that the military requires to be operated by more
                                                          amended by Amdt. 61–109, 68 FR 54559, Sept. 17,
than one pilot flight crewmember.                          2003; Amdt. 61–112, 70 FR 54814, Sept. 16, 2005]
   (e) A check or test described in paragraphs
(d)(1) through (d)(4) of this section may be ac-
complished in a flight simulator under part 142 of
                                                          §61.59 Falsification, reproduction, or
this chapter, subject to the following:                     alteration of applications, certificates,
   (1) Except as provided for in paragraphs (e)(2)          logbooks, reports, or records.
and (e)(3) of this section, if an otherwise qualified         (a) No person may make or cause to be made:
and approved flight simulator used for a pilot-in-            (1) Any fraudulent or intentionally false state-
command proficiency check is not qualified and              ment on any application for a certificate, rating,
approved for a specific required maneuver—                 authorization, or duplicate thereof, issued under
                                                          this part;



                                                                                                            65
§61.60                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


   (2) Any fraudulent or intentionally false entry in   propriate aeronautical knowledge areas and profi-
any logbook, record, or report that is required to      cient in the appropriate areas of operation.
be kept, made, or used to show compliance with              (3) Must pass the practical test.
any requirement for the issuance or exercise of             (4) Need not take an additional knowledge test,
the privileges of any certificate, rating, or authori-   provided the applicant holds an airplane, rotor-
zation under this part;                                 craft, powered-lift, weight-shift-control aircraft,
   (3) Any reproduction for fraudulent purpose of       powered parachute, or airship rating at that pilot
any certificate, rating, or authorization, under this    certificate level.
part; or                                                    (c) Additional aircraft class rating. A person
   (4) Any alteration of any certificate, rating, or     who applies for an additional class rating on a
authorization under this part.                          pilot certificate:
   (b) The commission of an act prohibited under            (1) Must have a logbook or training record en-
paragraph (a) of this section is a basis for sus-       dorsement from an authorized instructor attesting
pending or revoking any airman certificate, rating,      that the person was found competent in the ap-
or authorization held by that person.                   propriate aeronautical knowledge areas and profi-
                                                        cient in the appropriate areas of operation.
§61.60 Change of address.                                   (2) Must pass the practical test.
                                                            (3) Need not meet the specified training time
   The holder of a pilot, flight instructor, or ground
                                                        requirements prescribed by this part that apply to
instructor certificate who has made a change in
                                                        the pilot certificate for the aircraft class rating
permanent mailing address may not, after 30
                                                        sought; unless, the person only holds a lighter-
days from that date, exercise the privileges of the
                                                        than-air category rating with a balloon class rating
certificate unless the holder has notified in writing
                                                        and is seeking an airship class rating, then that
the FAA, Airman Certification Branch, P.O. Box
                                                        person must receive the specified training time re-
25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125, of the new per-
                                                        quirements and possess the appropriate aero-
manent mailing address, or if the permanent mail-
                                                        nautical experience.
ing address includes a post office box number,
                                                            (4) Need not take an additional knowledge test,
then the holder’s current residential address.
                                                        provided the applicant holds an airplane, rotor-
                                                        craft, powered-lift, weight-shift-control aircraft,
        Subpart B—                                      powered parachute, or airship rating at that pilot
                                                        certificate level.
      Aircraft Ratings                                      (d) Additional aircraft type rating. Except as
  and Pilot Authorizations                              provided under paragraph (d)(6) of this section, a
                                                        person who applies for an aircraft type rating or
                                                        an aircraft type rating to be completed concur-
§61.61 Applicability.                                   rently with an aircraft category or class rating—
   This subpart prescribes the requirements for             (1) Must hold or concurrently obtain an appro-
the issuance of additional aircraft ratings after a     priate instrument rating, except as provided in
pilot certificate is issued, and the requirements for    paragraph (e) of this section.
and limitations of pilot authorizations issued by           (2) Must have a logbook or training record en-
the Administrator.                                      dorsement from an authorized instructor attesting
                                                        that the person is competent in the appropriate
§61.63 Additional aircraft ratings                      aeronautical knowledge areas and proficient in
  (other than for ratings at the airline                the appropriate areas of operation at the airline
  transport pilot certification level).                  transport pilot certification level.
                                                            (3) Must pass the practical test at the airline
   (a) General. For an additional aircraft rating on    transport pilot certification level.
a pilot certificate, other than for an airline trans-        (4) Must perform the practical test in actual or
port pilot certificate, a person must meet the re-       simulated instrument conditions, except as pro-
quirements of this section appropriate to the addi-     vided in paragraph (e) of this section.
tional aircraft rating sought.                              (5) Need not take an additional knowledge test
   (b) Additional aircraft category rating. A per-      if the applicant holds an airplane, rotorcraft, pow-
son who applies to add a category rating to a pilot     ered-lift, or airship rating on the pilot certificate.
certificate:                                                 (6) In the case of a pilot employee of a part 121
   (1) Must complete the training and have the ap-      or part 135 certificate holder or of a fractional
plicable aeronautical experience.                       ownership program manager under subpart K of
   (2) Must have a logbook or training record en-       part 91 of this chapter, the pilot must—
dorsement from an authorized instructor attesting           (i) Meet the appropriate requirements under
that the person was found competent in the ap-          paragraphs (d)(1), (d)(3), and (d)(4) of this sec-
                                                        tion; and


66
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                           §61.64


   (ii) Receive a flight training record endorsement        mined the pilot’s proficiency to act as pilot in com-
from the certificate holder attesting that the per-         mand of the same category, class, make, and
son completed the certificate holder’s approved             model of aircraft.
ground and flight training program.                            (3) The flight time specified under paragraph
   (e) Aircraft not capable of instrument ma-              (h)(1) of this section was logged between Sep-
neuvers and procedures.                                    tember 1, 2004 and August 31, 2005.
   (1) An applicant for a type rating or a type rating        (i) Waiver authority. An Examiner who con-




                                                                                                                     61
in addition to an aircraft category and/or class rat-      ducts a practical test may waive any task for
ing who provides an aircraft that is not capable of        which the FAA has provided waiver authority.
the instrument maneuvers and procedures re-                [Docket No. FAA–2006–26661, 74 FR 42552, Aug. 21,
quired on the practical test:                              2009; as amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5220, Feb.
   (i) May apply for the type rating, but the rating       1, 2010]
will be limited to “VFR only.’’
   (ii) May have the “VFR only’’ limitation removed        §61.64 Use of a flight simulator and
for that aircraft type after the applicant:                  flight training device.
   (A) Passes a practical test in that type of air-
                                                              (a) Use of a flight simulator for the airplane
craft in actual or simulated instrument conditions;
                                                           rating. If an applicant uses a flight simulator for
   (B) Passes a practical test in that type of air-
                                                           training or the practical test for an airplane cate-
craft on the appropriate instrument maneuvers
                                                           gory, class, or type rating—
and procedures in §61.157; or
                                                              (1) The flight simulator—
   (C) Becomes qualified under §61.73(d) for that
                                                              (i) Must represent the category, class, and type
type of aircraft.
                                                           of airplane rating (if a type rating is applicable) for
   (2) When an instrument rating is issued to a
                                                           the rating sought;
person who holds one or more type ratings, the
                                                              (ii) Must be used in accordance with an ap-
amended pilot certificate must bear the “VFR
                                                           proved course of training under part 141 or part
only’’ limitation for each aircraft type rating that the
                                                           142 of this chapter; or under part 121 or part 135
person did not demonstrate instrument compe-
                                                           of this chapter, provided the applicant is a pilot
tency.
                                                           employee of that air carrier operator;
   (f) Multiengine airplane with a single-pilot
                                                              (iii) At a minimum, must be qualified and ap-
station. An applicant for a type rating, at other
                                                           proved as a Level C flight simulator if the appli-
than the ATP certification level, in a multiengine
                                                           cant performs the entire practical test in a flight
airplane with a single-pilot station must perform
                                                           simulator; and
the practical test in the multi-seat version of that
                                                              (iv) At a minimum, must be qualified and ap-
airplane, or the practical test may be performed in
                                                           proved as a Level A flight simulator if the applicant
the single-seat version of that airplane if the Ex-
                                                           uses the flight simulator for any training;
aminer is in a position to observe the applicant
                                                              (2) If the type rating is for a turbojet airplane,
during the practical test and there is no multi-seat
                                                           the applicant must—
version of that multiengine airplane.
                                                              (i) Hold a type rating in a turbojet airplane of the
   (g) Single engine airplane with a single-pilot
                                                           same class of airplane, and that type rating may
station. An applicant for a type rating, at other
                                                           not contain a supervised operating experience
than the ATP certification level, in a single engine
                                                           limitation;
airplane with a single-pilot station must perform
                                                              (ii) Have 1,000 hours of flight time in two differ-
the practical test in the multi-seat version of that
                                                           ent turbojet airplanes of the same class of air-
single engine airplane, or the practical test may
                                                           plane;
be performed in the single-seat version of that air-
                                                              (iii) Have been appointed by the U.S. Armed
plane if the Examiner is in a position to observe
                                                           Forces as pilot in command in a turbojet airplane
the applicant during the practical test and there is
                                                           of the same class of airplane;
no multi-seat version of that single engine air-
                                                              (iv) Have 500 hours of flight time in the same
plane.
                                                           type of airplane; or
   (h) Aircraft category and class rating for the
                                                              (v) Have logged at least 2,000 hours of flight
operation of aircraft with an experimental cer-
                                                           time, of which 500 hours were in turbine-powered
tificate. A person holding a recreational, private,
                                                           airplanes of the same class of airplane for which
or commercial pilot certificate may apply for a cat-
                                                           the type rating is sought.
egory and class rating limited to a specific make
                                                              (3) If the type rating is for a turbo propeller air-
and model of experimental aircraft, provided—
                                                           plane, the applicant must—
   (1) The person logged 5 hours flight time while
                                                              (i) Hold a type rating in a turbo-propeller air-
acting as pilot in command in the same category,
                                                           plane of the same class of airplane, and that type
class, make, and model of aircraft.
                                                           rating may not contain a supervised operating ex-
   (2) The person received a logbook endorse-
                                                           perience limitation;
ment from an authorized instructor who deter-


                                                                                                              67
§61.64                                                                   Federal Aviation Regulations


   (ii) Have 1,000 hours of flight time in two differ-        (1) Must represent the category, class, and
ent turbo-propeller airplanes of the same class of        type of airplane rating (if a type rating is applica-
airplane;                                                 ble) for the rating.
   (iii) Have been appointed by the U.S. Armed               (2) Must be used in accordance with an ap-
Forces as pilot in command in a turbo-propeller           proved course of training under part 141 or part
airplane of the same class of airplane;                   142 of this chapter, or under part 121 or part 135
   (iv) Have 500 hours of flight time in the same          of this chapter, provided the applicant is a pilot
type of airplane; or                                      employee of that air carrier operator.
   (v) Have logged at least 2,000 hours of flight             (3) Must be qualified and approved at or above
time, of which 500 hours were in turbine-powered          a Level 2 flight training device if the applicant
airplanes of the same class of airplane for which         completes the entire practical test in the airplane.
the type rating is sought.                                   (4) Must be qualified and approved at or above
   (4) If the applicant does not meet the require-        a Level 5 flight training device if the applicant uses
ments of paragraph (a)(2) or (a)(3) of this section       a flight simulator for any portion of the practical
as appropriate, then—                                     test.
   (i) The applicant must complete the following             (c) Use of a flight simulator for the helicop-
tasks on the practical test in the airplane of the        ter rating. If an applicant uses a flight simulator
category, class, and type of airplane rating (if a        for training or the practical test for the helicopter
type rating is applicable) for which the airplane         class or type rating,
rating applies: preflight inspection, normal takeoff,         (1) The flight simulator—
normal instrument landing system approach,                   (i) Must represent the class and type of heli-
missed approach, and normal landing; or                   copter rating (if a type rating is applicable) for the
   (ii) The applicant’s pilot certificate will be issued   rating;
with a limitation that states:                               (ii) Must be used in accordance with an ap-
   “The [name the category, class, and type of air-       proved course of training under part 141 or part
plane rating (if a type rating is applicable)] is sub-    142 of this chapter, or under part 135 of this chap-
ject to additional pilot in command limitations,”         ter, provided the applicant is a pilot employee of
and the applicant is restricted from serving as           that part 135 operator;
pilot in command in that category, class, and type           (iii) At a minimum, must be qualified and ap-
of airplane rating (if a type rating is applicable).      proved as a Level C flight simulator if the appli-
   (iii) The limitation described under paragraph         cant performs the entire practical test in a flight
(a)(4)(ii) of this section may be removed from the        simulator; and
applicant’s pilot certificate if the applicant—               (iv) At a minimum, must be qualified and ap-
   (A) Logs 25 hours of flight time in the category        proved as a Level A flight simulator if the applicant
and class of airplane for the rating sought, and if a     uses a flight simulator for any training.
type rating is being sought, the flight time must be          (2) The applicant must meet one of the follow-
performed in the same type of airplane for the            ing requirements—
type rating sought;                                          (i) Hold a type rating in a helicopter and that
   (B) Performs 25 hours of flight time under the          type rating may not contain the supervised oper-
direct observation of the pilot in command who            ating experience limitation;
holds the appropriate airplane category, class,              (ii) Have been appointed by the U.S. Armed
and type rating, without limitations, in the same         Forces as pilot in command of a helicopter;
category, class, and type of airplane rating, if a           (iii) Have 500 hours of flight time in the type of
type rating is applicable;                                helicopter; or
   (C) Logs each flight and the pilot in command              (iv) Have 1,000 hours of flight time in two differ-
who observed the flight attests to each flight;             ent types of helicopters.
   (D) Obtains the flight time while in the pilot in          (3) If the applicant does not meet any of the re-
command seat of the appropriate airplane cate-            quirements of paragraph (c)(2) of this section,
gory, class, and type, if a type rating is appropri-      then—
ate; and                                                     (i) The applicant must complete the following
   (E) Has an Examiner review the pilot logbook           tasks on the practical test in the helicopter class
and endorse that logbook, attesting to compliance         and type rating (if a type rating is applicable) for
with the required supervised operating experi-            which the rating applies: preflight inspection, nor-
ence.                                                     mal takeoff, normal instrument landing system
   (b) Use of a flight training device for the air-        approach, missed approach, and normal landing;
plane rating. If an applicant uses a flight training       or
device for training for the airplane category, class,        (ii) The applicant’s pilot certificate will be issued
or type rating, the applicant must meet the re-           with a limitation that states: “The [name the heli-
quirements of paragraph (a)(2), (a)(3) or (a)(4) of       copter class and type of helicopter rating (if a type
this section, and the flight training device—              rating is applicable)] is subject to additional pilot in


68
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                           §61.64


command limitations,” and the applicant is re-                (ii) Must be used in accordance with an ap-
stricted from serving as pilot in command in that         proved course of training under part 141 or part
helicopter class and type of helicopter rating (if a      142 of this chapter, or under part 121 or part 135
type rating is applicable).                               of this chapter, provided the applicant is a pilot
    (iii) The limitation described under paragraph        employee of that air carrier operator;
(c)(3)(ii) of this section may be removed from the            (iii) At a minimum, must be qualified and ap-
pilot certificate if the applicant complies with the       proved as a Level C flight simulator if the appli-




                                                                                                                     61
following—                                                cant performs the entire practical test in a flight
    (A) Logs 25 hours of flight time in the class of       simulator; and
helicopter for the rating sought, if the person ap-           (iv) At a minimum, must be qualified and ap-
plied for a type rating, the flight time must be per-      proved as a Level A flight simulator if the applicant
formed in the same type of helicopter for the type        uses a flight simulator for any training.
rating sought;                                                (2) The applicant must meet one of the follow-
    (B) Performs the 25 hours of flight time under         ing requirements—
the direct observation of the pilot in command                (i) Hold a type rating in a powered-lift without a
who holds the appropriate class and type of heli-         supervised operating experience limitation;
copter rating (if a type rating is applicable), with-         (ii) Have been appointed by the U.S. Armed
out limitations, in the same class, and type of heli-     Forces as pilot in command of a powered-lift;
copter rating, if a type rating is applicable;                (iii) Have 500 hours of flight time in the type of
    (C) Logs each flight and the pilot in command          powered-lift; or
who observed the flight attests to each flight;                 (iv) Have 1,000 hours of flight time in two differ-
    (D) Performs the flight time while in the pilot in     ent types of powered-lifts.
command seat of the appropriate class and type                (3) If the applicant does not meet any of the re-
of helicopter rating, if a type rating is appropriate;    quirements of paragraph (e)(2) of this section,
and                                                       then—
    (E) Has an Examiner review the pilot logbook              (i) The applicant must complete the following
and endorse that logbook, attesting to compliance         tasks on the practical test in the powered-lift of the
with the required supervised operating experi-            category and type of powered-lift rating (if a type
ence.                                                     rating is applicable) for which the rating applies:
    (d) Use of a flight training device for the            preflight inspection, normal takeoff, normal instru-
helicopter rating. If an applicant uses a flight           ment landing system approach, missed ap-
training device for training for the helicopter class     proach, and normal landing; or
or type rating, the applicant must meet the re-               (ii) The applicant’s pilot certificate will be issued
quirements of either paragraph (c)(2) or (3) of this      with a limitation that states: “The [name of the cat-
section and the flight training device—                    egory and powered-lift rating (if a type rating is
    (1) Must represent the class and type of heli-        applicable)] is subject to additional pilot in com-
copter rating (if a type rating is applicable) for the    mand limitations,” and the applicant is restricted
rating.                                                   from serving as pilot in command in that category
    (2) Must be used in accordance with an ap-            and type of powered-lift rating (if a type rating is
proved course of training under part 141 or part          applicable).
142 of this chapter, or under part 135 of this chap-          (iii) The limitation described under paragraph
ter, provided the applicant is a pilot employee of        (e)(3)(ii) of this section may be removed from the
that part 135 operator.                                   pilot certificate if the applicant complies with the
    (3) Must be qualified and approved at or above         following—
a Level 2 flight training device if the applicant              (A) Logs 25 hours of flight time in the powered-
completes the entire practical test in the helicop-       lift category for the rating sought, and if a type rat-
ter.                                                      ing is being sought, the flight time must be per-
    (4) Must be qualified and approved at or above         formed in the same type of powered-lift for the
a Level 5 flight training device if the applicant uses     type rating sought;
a flight simulator for any portion of the practical            (B) Performs the 25 hours flight time under the
test.                                                     direct observation of the pilot in command who
    (e) Use of a flight simulator for the powered-         holds the category and type of powered-lift rating
lift rating. If an applicant uses a flight simulator       (if a type rating is applicable), without limitations,
for training or the practical test for the powered-lift   in the same category and type of powered-lift rat-
category or type rating—                                  ing, if a type rating is applicable;
    (1) The flight simulator—                                  (C) Logs each flight and the pilot in command
    (i) Must represent the category and type of           who observed the flight attests to each flight;
powered-lift rating (if a type rating is applicable)          (D) Performs the flight time while in the pilot in
for the rating;                                           command seat of the appropriate category and



                                                                                                              69
§61.65                                                                  Federal Aviation Regulations


type of powered-lift rating, if a type rating is appro-   flight training device that represents an airplane,
priate; and                                               helicopter, or powered-lift appropriate to the in-
    (E) Has an Examiner review the pilot logbook          strument rating sought;
and endorse that logbook, attesting to compliance            (6) Receive a logbook or training record en-
with the required supervised operating experi-            dorsement from an authorized instructor certifying
ence.                                                     that the person is prepared to take the required
    (f) Use of a flight training device for the            practical test;
powered-lift rating. Whenever an applicant uses              (7) Pass the required knowledge test on the
a flight training device for training for the powered-     aeronautical knowledge areas of paragraph (b) of
lift category or type rating, the flight training de-      this section; however, an applicant is not required
vice must meet the following requirements, and            to take another knowledge test when that person
the applicant must meet the requirements of ei-           already holds an instrument rating; and
ther paragraph (e)(2) or (e)(3) of this section.             (8) Pass the required practical test on the areas
    (1) The flight training device must represent the      of operation in paragraph (c) of this section in—
class and type of powered-lift rating (if a type rat-        (i) An airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift ap-
ing is applicable) for the rating.                        propriate to the rating sought; or
    (2) The flight training device must be used in            (ii) A flight simulator or a flight training device
accordance with an approved course of training            appropriate to the rating sought and approved for
under part 141 or part 142 of this chapter; or un-        the specific maneuver or procedure performed. If
der part 121 or part 135 of this chapter, provided        a flight training device is used for the practical
the applicant is a pilot employee of that air carrier     test, the instrument approach procedures con-
operator.                                                 ducted in that flight training device are limited to
    (3) If the applicant completes the entire practi-     one precision and one nonprecision approach,
cal test in the powered-lift, the flight training de-      provided the flight training device is approved for
vice used for training must be qualified and ap-           the procedure performed.
proved at or above a Level 2 flight training device.          (b) Aeronautical knowledge. A person who
    (4) If an applicant uses a flight simulator for any    applies for an instrument rating must have re-
portion of the practical test, the flight training de-     ceived and logged ground training from an autho-
vice used for training must be qualified and ap-           rized instructor or accomplished a home-study
proved at or above a Level 5 flight training device.       course on the following aeronautical knowledge
[Docket No. FAA–2006–26661, 74 FR 42553, Aug. 21,         areas that apply to the instrument rating sought:
2009; as amended by Amdt. 61–124A, 74 FR 53644,              (1) Federal Aviation Regulations of this chapter
Oct. 20, 2009]                                            that apply to flight operations under IFR;
                                                             (2) Appropriate information that applies to flight
§61.65 Instrument rating requirements.                    operations under IFR in the “Aeronautical Infor-
                                                          mation Manual;”
   (a) General. A person who applies for an in-
                                                             (3) Air traffic control system and procedures for
strument rating must:
                                                          instrument flight operations;
   (1) Hold at least a private pilot certificate with
                                                             (4) IFR navigation and approaches by use of
an airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift rating ap-
                                                          navigation systems;
propriate to the instrument rating sought;
                                                             (5) Use of IFR en route and instrument ap-
   (2) Be able to read, speak, write, and under-
                                                          proach procedure charts;
stand the English language. If the applicant is un-
                                                             (6) Procurement and use of aviation weather
able to meet any of these requirements due to a
                                                          reports and forecasts and the elements of fore-
medical condition, the Administrator may place
                                                          casting weather trends based on that information
such operating limitations on the applicant’s pilot
                                                          and personal observation of weather conditions;
certificate as are necessary for the safe operation
                                                             (7) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft under
of the aircraft;
                                                          instrument flight rules and conditions;
   (3) Receive and log ground training from an au-
                                                             (8) Recognition of critical weather situations
thorized instructor or accomplish a home-study
                                                          and windshear avoidance;
course of training on the aeronautical knowledge
                                                             (9) Aeronautical decision making and judg-
areas of paragraph (b) of this section that apply to
                                                          ment; and
the instrument rating sought;
                                                             (10) Crew resource management, including
   (4) Receive a logbook or training record en-
                                                          crew communication and coordination.
dorsement from an authorized instructor certifying
                                                             (c) Flight proficiency. A person who applies
that the person is prepared to take the required
                                                          for an instrument rating must receive and log
knowledge test;
                                                          training from an authorized instructor in an air-
   (5) Receive and log training on the areas of op-
                                                          craft, or in a flight simulator or flight training de-
eration of paragraph (c) of this section from an au-
                                                          vice, in accordance with paragraph (e) of this sec-
thorized instructor in an aircraft, flight simulator, or



70
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                        §61.65


tion, that includes the following areas of opera-           (ii) Instrument flight training on cross country
tion:                                                   flight procedures, including one cross country
    (1) Preflight preparation;                           flight in a helicopter with an authorized instructor
    (2) Preflight procedures;                            that is performed under instrument flight rules and
    (3) Air traffic control clearances and proce-        a flight plan has been filed with an air traffic con-
dures;                                                  trol facility, and involves—
    (4) Flight by reference to instruments;                 (A) A flight of 100 nautical miles along airways




                                                                                                                  61
    (5) Navigation systems;                             or by directed routing from an air traffic control fa-
    (6) Instrument approach procedures;                 cility;
    (7) Emergency operations; and                           (B) An instrument approach at each airport;
    (8) Postflight procedures.                           and
    (d) Aeronautical experience for the instru-             (C) Three different kinds of approaches with
ment–airplane rating. A person who applies for          the use of navigation systems.
an instrument–airplane rating must have logged:             (f) Aeronautical experience for the instru-
    (1) Fifty hours of cross country flight time as      ment–powered-lift rating. A person who applies
pilot in command, of which 10 hours must have           for an instrument–powered-lift rating must have
been in an airplane; and                                logged:
    (2) Forty hours of actual or simulated instru-          (1) Fifty hours of cross country flight time as
ment time in the areas of operation listed in para-     pilot in command, of which 10 hours cross coun-
graph (c) of this section, of which 15 hours must       try must have been in a powered-lift; and
have been received from an authorized instructor            (2) Forty hours of actual or simulated instru-
who holds an instrument–airplane rating, and the        ment time in the areas of operation listed under
instrument time includes:                               paragraph (c) of this section, of which 15 hours
    (i) Three hours of instrument flight training from   must have been received from an authorized in-
an authorized instructor in an airplane that is ap-     structor who holds an instrument–powered-lift rat-
propriate to the instrument–airplane rating within      ing, and the instrument time includes:
2 calendar months before the date of the practical          (i) Three hours of instrument flight training from
test; and                                               an authorized instructor in a powered-lift that is
    (ii) Instrument flight training on cross country     appropriate to the instrument–powered-lift rating
flight procedures, including one cross country           within 2 calendar months before the date of the
flight in an airplane with an authorized instructor,     practical test; and
that is performed under instrument flight rules,             (ii) Instrument flight training on cross country
when a flight plan has been filed with an air traffic      flight procedures, including one cross country
control facility, and that involves—                    flight in a powered-lift with an authorized instruc-
    (A) A flight of 250 nautical miles along airways     tor that is performed under instrument flight rules,
or by directed routing from an air traffic control fa-   when a flight plan has been filed with an air traffic
cility;                                                 control facility, that involves—
    (B) An instrument approach at each airport;             (A) A flight of 250 nautical miles along airways
and                                                     or by directed routing from an air traffic control fa-
    (C) Three different kinds of approaches with        cility;
the use of navigation systems.                              (B) An instrument approach at each airport;
    (e) Aeronautical experience for the instru-         and
ment–helicopter rating. A person who applies                (C) Three different kinds of approaches with
for an instrument–helicopter rating must have           the use of navigation systems.
logged:                                                     (g) Use of flight simulators or flight training
    (1) Fifty hours of cross country flight time as      devices. If the instrument time was provided by
pilot in command, of which 10 hours must have           an authorized instructor in a flight simulator or
been in a helicopter; and                               flight training device—
    (2) Forty hours of actual or simulated instru-          (1) A maximum of 30 hours may be performed
ment time in the areas of operation listed under        in that flight simulator or flight training device if the
paragraph (c) of this section, of which 15 hours        instrument time was completed in accordance
must have been with an authorized instructor who        with part 142 of this chapter; or
holds an instrument–helicopter rating, and the in-          (2) A maximum of 20 hours may be performed
strument time includes:                                 in that flight simulator or flight training device if the
    (i) Three hours of instrument flight training from   instrument time was not completed in accordance
an authorized instructor in a helicopter that is ap-    with part 142 of this chapter.
propriate to the instrument–helicopter rating               (h) Use of an aviation training device. A
within 2 calendar months before the date of the         maximum of 10 hours of instrument time received
practical test; and                                     in an aviation training device may be credited for



                                                                                                           71
§61.67                                                                    Federal Aviation Regulations


the instrument time requirements of this section               (i) Meet the requirements of paragraphs (a)
if—                                                        and (b) of this section; and
   (1) The device is approved and authorized by                (ii) If the applicant has not passed a practical
the FAA;                                                   test for this authorization during the 12 calendar
   (2) An authorized instructor provides the instru-       months preceding the month of the test, then that
ment time in the device;                                   person must—
   (3) No more than 10 hours of instrument time in             (A) Meet the requirements of §61.57(c); and
a flight simulator or flight training device was cred-           (B) Have performed at least six ILS approaches
ited for the instrument time requirements of this          during the 6 calendar months preceding the
section;                                                   month of the test, of which at least three of the ap-
   (4) A view-limiting device was worn by the ap-          proaches must have been conducted without the
plicant when logging instrument time in the de-            use of an approach coupler.
vice; and                                                      (3) The approaches specified in paragraph
   (5) The FAA approved the instrument training            (c)(2)(ii)(B) of this section—
and instrument tasks performed in the device.                  (i) Must be conducted under actual or simu-
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as          lated instrument flight conditions;
amended by Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42554, Aug. 21,                 (ii) Must be conducted to the decision height for
2009]                                                      the ILS approach in the type aircraft in which the
                                                           practical test is to be conducted;
§61.67 Category II pilot authorization                         (iii) Need not be conducted to the decision
  requirements.                                            height authorized for Category II operations;
                                                               (iv) Must be conducted to the decision height
    (a) General. A person who applies for a Cate-          authorized for Category II operations only if con-
gory II pilot authorization must hold:                     ducted in a flight simulator or flight training device;
    (1) At least a private or commercial pilot certifi-     and
cate with an instrument rating or an airline trans-            (v) Must be accomplished in an aircraft of the
port pilot certificate;                                     same category and class, and type, as applicable,
    (2) A type rating for the aircraft for which the       as the aircraft in which the practical test is to be
authorization is sought if that aircraft requires a        conducted or in a flight simulator that—
type rating; and                                               (A) Represents an aircraft of the same cate-
    (3) A category and class rating for the aircraft       gory and class, and type, as applicable, as the air-
for which the authorization is sought.                     craft in which the authorization is sought; and
    (b) Experience requirements. An applicant                  (B) Is used in accordance with an approved
for a Category II pilot authorization must have at         course conducted by a training center certificated
least—                                                     under part 142 of this chapter.
    (1) 50 hours of night flight time as pilot in com-          (4) The flight time acquired in meeting the re-
mand.                                                      quirements of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B) of this sec-
    (2) 75 hours of instrument time under actual or        tion may be used to meet the requirements of
simulated instrument conditions that may include           paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section.
not more than—                                                 (d) Practical test procedures. The practical
    (i) A combination of 25 hours of simulated in-         test consists of an oral increment and a flight in-
strument flight time in a flight simulator or flight          crement.
training device; or                                            (1) Oral increment. In the oral increment of the
    (ii) 40 hours of simulated instrument flight time       practical test an applicant must demonstrate
if accomplished in an approved course conducted            knowledge of the following:
by an appropriately rated training center certifi-              (i) Required landing distance;
cated under part 142 of this chapter.                          (ii) Recognition of the decision height;
    (3) 250 hours of cross-country flight time as               (iii) Missed approach procedures and tech-
pilot in command.                                          niques using computed or fixed attitude guidance
    (c) Practical test requirements.                       displays;
    (1) A practical test must be passed by a person            (iv) Use and limitations of RVR;
who applies for—                                               (v) Use of visual clues, their availability or limi-
    (i) Issuance or renewal of a Category II pilot au-     tations, and altitude at which they are normally
thorization; and                                           discernible at reduced RVR readings;
    (ii) The addition of another type aircraft to the          (vi) Procedures and techniques related to tran-
applicant’s Category II pilot authorization.               sition from nonvisual to visual flight during a final
    (2) To be eligible for the practical test for an au-   approach under reduced RVR;
thorization under this section, an applicant                   (vii) Effects of vertical and horizontal winds-
must—                                                      hear;



72
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                          §61.68


   (viii) Characteristics and limitations of the ILS     §61.68 Category III pilot authorization
and runway lighting system;                                requirements.
   (ix) Characteristics and limitations of the flight         (a) General. A person who applies for a Cate-
director system, auto approach coupler (including        gory III pilot authorization must hold:
split axis type if equipped), auto throttle system (if       (1) At least a private pilot certificate or commer-
equipped), and other required Category II equip-         cial pilot certificate with an instrument rating or an
ment;




                                                                                                                    61
                                                         airline transport pilot certificate;
   (x) Assigned duties of the second in command              (2) A type rating for the aircraft for which the
during Category II approaches, unless the aircraft       authorization is sought if that aircraft requires a
for which authorization is sought does not require       type rating; and
a second in command; and                                     (3) A category and class rating for the aircraft
   (xi) Instrument and equipment failure warning         for which the authorization is sought.
systems.                                                     (b) Experience requirements. An applicant
   (2) Flight increment. The following require-          for a Category III pilot authorization must have at
ments apply to the flight increment of the practical      least—
test:                                                        (1) 50 hours of night flight time as pilot in com-
   (i) The flight increment must be conducted in an       mand.
aircraft of the same category, class, and type, as           (2) 75 hours of instrument flight time during ac-
applicable, as the aircraft in which the authoriza-      tual or simulated instrument conditions that may
tion is sought or in a flight simulator that—             include not more than—
   (A) Represents an aircraft of the same cate-              (i) A combination of 25 hours of simulated in-
gory and class, and type, as applicable, as the air-     strument flight time in a flight simulator or flight
craft in which the authorization is sought; and          training device; or
   (B) Is used in accordance with an approved                (ii) 40 hours of simulated instrument flight time
course conducted by a training center certificated        if accomplished in an approved course conducted
under part 142 of this chapter.                          by an appropriately rated training center certifi-
   (ii) The flight increment must consist of at least     cated under part 142 of this chapter.
two ILS approaches to 100 feet AGL including at              (3) 250 hours of cross-country flight time as
least one landing and one missed approach.               pilot in command.
   (iii) All approaches performed during the flight           (c) Practical test requirements.
increment must be made with the use of an ap-                (1) A practical test must be passed by a person
proved flight control guidance system, except if an       who applies for—
approved auto approach coupler is installed, at              (i) Issuance or renewal of a Category III pilot
least one approach must be hand flown using               authorization; and
flight director commands.                                     (ii) The addition of another type of aircraft to the
   (iv) If a multiengine airplane with the perfor-       applicant’s Category III pilot authorization.
mance capability to execute a missed approach                (2) To be eligible for the practical test for an au-
with one engine inoperative is used for the practi-      thorization under this section, an applicant
cal test, the flight increment must include the per-      must—
formance of one missed approach with an engine,              (i) Meet the requirements of paragraphs (a)
which shall be the most critical engine, if applica-     and (b) of this section; and
ble, set at idle or zero thrust before reaching the          (ii) If the applicant has not passed a practical
middle marker.                                           test for this authorization during the 12 calendar
   (v) If a multiengine flight simulator or multi-        months preceding the month of the test, then that
engine flight training device is used for the practi-     person must—
cal test, the applicant must execute a missed ap-            (A) Meet the requirements of §61.57(c); and
proach with the most critical engine, if applicable,         (B) Have performed at least six ILS approaches
failed.                                                  during the 6 calendar months preceding the
   (vi) For an authorization for an aircraft that re-    month of the test, of which at least three of the ap-
quires a type rating, the practical test must be per-    proaches must have been conducted without the
formed in coordination with a second in command          use of an approach coupler.
who holds a type rating in the aircraft in which the         (3) The approaches specified in paragraph
authorization is sought.                                 (c)(2)(ii)(B) of this section—
   (vii) Oral questioning may be conducted at any            (i) Must be conducted under actual or simu-
time during a practical test.                            lated instrument flight conditions;
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as            (ii) Must be conducted to the alert height or de-
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40900, July 30, 1997]     cision height for the ILS approach in the type air-
                                                         craft in which the practical test is to be conducted;




                                                                                                             73
§61.68                                                                    Federal Aviation Regulations


   (iii) Need not be conducted to the decision                (ix) Characteristics and limitations of the flight
height authorized for Category III operations;             director system auto approach coupler (including
   (iv) Must be conducted to the alert height or de-       split axis type if equipped), auto throttle system (if
cision height, as applicable, authorized for Cate-         equipped), and other Category III equipment;
gory III operations only if conducted in a flight              (x) Assigned duties of the second in command
simulator or flight training device; and                    during Category III operations, unless the aircraft
   (v) Must be accomplished in an aircraft of the          for which authorization is sought does not require
same category and class, and type, as applicable,          a second in command;
as the aircraft in which the practical test is to be          (xi) Recognition of the limits of acceptable air-
conducted or in a flight simulator that—                    craft position and flight path tracking during ap-
   (A) Represents an aircraft of the same cate-            proach, flare, and, if applicable, rollout; and
gory and class, and type, as applicable, as the air-          (xii) Recognition of, and reaction to, airborne or
craft for which the authorization is sought; and           ground system faults or abnormalities, particularly
   (B) Is used in accordance with an approved              after passing alert height or decision height, as
course conducted by a training center certificated          applicable.
under part 142 of this chapter.                               (2) Flight increment. The following require-
   (4) The flight time acquired in meeting the re-          ments apply to the flight increment of the practical
quirements of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B) of this sec-         test—
tion may be used to meet the requirements of                  (i) The flight increment may be conducted in an
paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section.                   aircraft of the same category and class, and type,
   (d) Practical test procedures. The practical            as applicable, as the aircraft for which the authori-
test consists of an oral increment and a flight in-         zation is sought, or in a flight simulator that—
crement.                                                      (A) Represents an aircraft of the same cate-
   (1) Oral increment. In the oral increment of the        gory and class, and type, as applicable, as the air-
practical test an applicant must demonstrate               craft in which the authorization is sought; and
knowledge of the following:                                   (B) Is used in accordance with an approved
   (i) Required landing distance;                          course conducted by a training center certificated
   (ii) Determination and recognition of the alert         under part 142 of this chapter.
height or decision height, as applicable, including           (ii) The flight increment must consist of at least
use of a radar altimeter;                                  two ILS approaches to 100 feet AGL, including
   (iii) Recognition of and proper reaction to signif-     one landing and one missed approach initiated
icant failures encountered prior to and after              from a very low altitude that may result in a touch-
reaching the alert height or decision height, as           down during the go-around maneuver;
applicable;                                                   (iii) All approaches performed during the flight
   (iv) Missed approach procedures and tech-               increment must be made with the approved auto-
niques using computed or fixed attitude guidance            matic landing system or an equivalent landing
displays and expected height loss as they relate           system approved by the Administrator;
to manual go-around or automatic go-around, and               (iv) If a multiengine aircraft with the perfor-
initiation altitude, as applicable;                        mance capability to execute a missed approach
   (v) Use and limitations of RVR, including deter-        with one engine inoperative is used for the practi-
mination of controlling RVR and required trans-            cal test, the flight increment must include the per-
missometers;                                               formance of one missed approach with the most
   (vi) Use, availability, or limitations of visual cues   critical engine, if applicable, set at idle or zero
and the altitude at which they are normally dis-           thrust before reaching the middle or outer marker;
cernible at reduced RVR readings including—                   (v) If a multiengine flight simulator or multi-
   (A) Unexpected deterioration of conditions to           engine flight training device is used, a missed ap-
less than minimum RVR during approach, flare,               proach must be executed with an engine, which
and rollout;                                               shall be the most critical engine, if applicable,
   (B) Demonstration of expected visual refer-             failed;
ences with weather at minimum conditions;                     (vi) For an authorization for an aircraft that re-
   (C) The expected sequence of visual cues dur-           quires a type rating, the practical test must be per-
ing an approach in which visibility is at or above         formed in coordination with a second in command
landing minima; and                                        who holds a type rating in the aircraft in which the
   (D) Procedures and techniques for making a              authorization is sought;
transition from instrument reference flight to visual          (vii) Oral questioning may be conducted at any
flight during a final approach under reduced RVR.            time during the practical test;
   (vii) Effects of vertical and horizontal wind-             (viii) Subject to the limitations of this paragraph,
shear;                                                     for Category IIIb operations predicated on the use
   (viii) Characteristics and limitations of the ILS       of a fail-passive rollout control system, at least
and runway lighting system;                                one manual rollout using visual reference or a


74
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                      §61.71


combination of visual and instrument references            (ii) Made at least three flights as pilot in com-
must be executed. The maneuver required by this         mand of a glider or unpowered ultralight vehicle
paragraph shall be initiated by a fail-passive dis-     towed by an aircraft.
connect of the rollout control system—                     (b) Any person who, before May 17, 1967, has
  (A) After main gear touchdown;                        made and logged 10 or more flights as pilot in
  (B) Prior to nose gear touchdown;                     command of an aircraft towing a glider or unpow-
  (C) In conditions representative of the most ad-      ered ultralight vehicle in accordance with a certifi-




                                                                                                                61
verse lateral touchdown displacement allowing a         cate of waiver need not comply with paragraphs
safe landing on the runway; and                         (a)(4) and (a)(5) of this section.
  (D) In weather conditions anticipated in Cate-           (c) The pilot, described in paragraph (a)(4) of
gory IIIb operations.                                   this section, who endorses the logbook of a per-
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as       son seeking towing privileges must have—
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40900, July 30, 1997]       (1) Met the requirements of this section prior to
                                                        endorsing the logbook of the person seeking tow-
§61.69 Glider and unpowered ultralight                  ing privileges; and
  vehicle towing: Experience and                           (2) Logged at least 10 flights as pilot in com-
                                                        mand of an aircraft while towing a glider or un-
  training requirements.                                powered ultralight vehicle.
   (a) No person may act as pilot in command for           (d) If the pilot described in paragraph (a)(4) of
towing a glider or unpowered ultralight vehicle un-     this section holds only a private pilot certificate,
less that person—                                       then that pilot must have—
   (1) Holds a private, commercial or airline trans-       (1) Logged at least 100 hours of pilot-in-com-
port pilot certificate with a category rating for pow-   mand time in airplanes, or 200 hours of pilot-in-
ered aircraft;                                          command time in a combination of powered and
   (2) Has logged at least 100 hours of pilot-in-       other-than-powered aircraft; and
command time in the aircraft category, class and           (2) Performed and logged at least three flights
type, if required, that the pilot is using to tow a     within the 12 calendar months preceding the
glider or unpowered ultralight vehicle;                 month that pilot accompanies or endorses the
   (3) Has a logbook endorsement from an autho-         logbook of a person seeking towing privileges—
rized instructor who certifies that the person has          (i) In an aircraft while towing a glider or unpow-
received ground and flight training in gliders or un-    ered ultralight vehicle accompanied by another
powered ultralight vehicles and is proficient in—        pilot who meets the requirements of this section;
   (i) The techniques and procedures essential to       or
the safe towing of gliders or unpowered ultralight         (ii) As pilot in command of a glider or unpow-
vehicles, including airspeed limitations;               ered ultralight vehicle being towed by another air-
   (ii) Emergency procedures;                           craft.
   (iii) Signals used; and
                                                        [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44866, July 27,
   (iv) Maximum angles of bank.                         2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42555, Aug.
   (4) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this      21, 2009]
section, has logged at least three flights as the
sole manipulator of the controls of an aircraft         §61.71 Graduates of an approved
while towing a glider or unpowered ultralight vehi-
cle, or has simulated towing flight procedures in
                                                          training program other than under this
an aircraft while accompanied by a pilot who              part: Special rules.
meets the requirements of paragraphs (c) and (d)           (a) A person who graduates from an approved
of this section.                                        training program under part 141 or part 142 of this
   (5) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this      chapter is considered to have met the applicable
section, has received a logbook endorsement             aeronautical experience, aeronautical knowledge,
from the pilot, described in paragraph (a)(4) of        and areas of operation requirements of this part if
this section, certifying that the person has accom-     that person presents the graduation certificate
plished at least 3 flights in an aircraft while towing   and passes the required practical test within the
a glider or unpowered ultralight vehicle, or while      60-day period after the date of graduation.
simulating towing flight procedures; and                    (b) A person may apply for an airline transport
   (6) Within 24 calendar months before the flight       pilot certificate, type rating, or both under this
has—                                                    part, and will be considered to have met the appli-
   (i) Made at least three actual or simulated tows     cable requirements under §61.157 of this part for
of a glider or unpowered ultralight vehicle while       that certificate and rating, if that person has:
accompanied by a qualified pilot who meets the              (1) Satisfactorily accomplished an approved
requirements of this section; or                        training program and the pilot-in-command profi-
                                                        ciency check for that airplane type, in accordance



                                                                                                         75
§61.73                                                                   Federal Aviation Regulations


with the pilot-in-command requirements under              U.S. Armed Forces, for purposes other than re-
subparts N and O of part 121 of this chapter; and         ceiving flight training, may apply for a commercial
   (2) Applied for the airline transport pilot certifi-    pilot certificate and ratings under paragraph (a) of
cate, type rating, or both within the 60-day period       this section, provided that person—
from the date the person satisfactorily accom-               (1) Presents evidentiary documents described
plished the approved training program and pilot-          under paragraph (h)(4) of this section that show
in-command proficiency check for that airplane             the person is a military pilot in the Armed Forces
type.                                                     of a foreign contracting State to the Convention
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as         on International Civil Aviation, and is assigned to
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40901, July 30, 1997]      pilot duties in the U.S. Armed Forces, for pur-
                                                          poses other than receiving flight training.
§61.73 Military pilots or former military                    (2) Has passed the military competency aero-
  pilots: Special rules.                                  nautical knowledge test on the appropriate parts
                                                          of this chapter for commercial pilot privileges and
   (a) General. Except for a person who has been          limitations, air traffic and general operating rules,
removed from flying status for lack of proficiency          and accident reporting rules.
or because of a disciplinary action involving air-           (3) Presents official U.S. military records that
craft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former mil-    show compliance with one of the following re-
itary pilot who meets the requirements of this sec-       quirements:
tion may apply, on the basis of his or her military          (i) Before the date of the application, passed an
pilot qualifications, for:                                 official U.S. military pilot and instrument profi-
   (1) A commercial pilot certificate with the ap-         ciency check in a military aircraft of the kind of air-
propriate aircraft category and class rating.             craft category, class, or type, if class or type of air-
   (2) An instrument rating with the appropriate          craft is applicable, for the ratings; or
aircraft rating.                                             (ii) Before the date of the application, logged 10
   (3) A type rating.                                     hours of pilot time as a military pilot in a U.S. mili-
   (b) Military pilots and former military pilots         tary aircraft of the kind of category, class, and
in the U.S. Armed Forces. A person who quali-             type of aircraft, if a class rating or type rating is
fies as a military pilot or former military pilot in the   applicable, for the aircraft rating.
U.S. Armed Forces may apply for a pilot certifi-              (d) Instrument rating. A person who is quali-
cate and ratings under paragraph (a) of this sec-         fied as a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot
tion if that person—                                      may apply for an instrument rating to be added to
   (1) Presents evidentiary documents described           a pilot certificate if that person—
under paragraphs (h)(1), (2), and (3) of this sec-           (1) Has passed an instrument proficiency
tion that show the person’s status in the U.S.            check in the U.S. Armed Forces in the aircraft cat-
Armed Forces.                                             egory for the instrument rating sought; and
   (2) Has passed the military competency aero-              (2) Has an official U.S. Armed Forces record
nautical knowledge test on the appropriate parts          that shows the person is instrument pilot qualified
of this chapter for commercial pilot privileges and       by the U.S. Armed Forces to conduct instrument
limitations, air traffic and general operating rules,      flying on Federal airways in that aircraft category
and accident reporting rules.                             and class for the instrument rating sought.
   (3) Presents official U.S. military records that           (e) Aircraft type rating. An aircraft type rating
show compliance with one of the following re-             may only be issued for a type of aircraft that has a
quirements—                                               comparable civilian type designation by the Ad-
   (i) Before the date of the application, passing        ministrator.
an official U.S. military pilot and instrument profi-          (f) Aircraft type rating placed on an airline
ciency check in a military aircraft of the kind of air-   transport pilot certificate. A person who is a
craft category, class, and type, if class or type of      military pilot or former military pilot of the U.S.
aircraft is applicable, for the ratings sought; or        Armed Forces and requests an aircraft type rating
   (ii) Before the date of application, logging 10        to be placed on an existing U.S. airline transport
hours of pilot time as a military pilot in a U.S. mili-   pilot certificate may be issued the rating at the air-
tary aircraft in the kind of aircraft category, class,    line transport pilot certification level, provided that
and type, if a class rating or type rating is applica-    person:
ble, for the aircraft rating sought.                         (1) Holds a category and class rating for that
   (c) A military pilot in the Armed Forces of a          type of aircraft at the airline transport pilot certifi-
foreign contracting State to the Convention on            cation level; and
International Civil Aviation. A person who is a              (2) Has passed an official U.S. military pilot
military pilot in the Armed Forces of a foreign con-      check and instrument proficiency check in that
tracting State to the Convention on International         type of aircraft.
Civil Aviation and is assigned to pilot duties in the



76
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                         §61.75


   (g) Flight instructor certificate and ratings.           applying for a pilot certificate and rating, that per-
A person who can show official U.S. military docu-          son must present the following:
mentation of being a U.S. military instructor pilot           (i) An official U.S. Armed Forces record that
or U.S. military pilot examiner, or a former instruc-      shows the person is a military pilot in the U.S.
tor pilot or pilot examiner may apply for and be is-       Armed Forces;
sued a flight instructor certificate with the appro-            (ii) An official U.S. Armed Forces record that
priate ratings if that person:                             shows the person is assigned as a military pilot in




                                                                                                                   61
   (1) Holds a commercial or airline transport pilot       the U.S. Armed Forces for purposes other than
certificate with the appropriate aircraft category          receiving flight training;
and class rating, if a class rating is appropriate,           (iii) An official record that shows the person
for the flight instructor rating sought;                    graduated from a military undergraduate pilot
   (2) Holds an instrument rating, or has instru-          training school from the Armed Forces from a for-
ment privileges, on the pilot certificate that is ap-       eign contracting State to the Convention on Inter-
propriate to the flight instructor rating sought; and       national Civil Aviation or from the U.S. Armed
   (3) Presents the following documents:                   Forces, and received a qualification as a military
   (i) A knowledge test report that shows the per-         pilot; and
son passed a knowledge test on the aeronautical               (iv) An official U.S. Armed Forces record that
knowledge areas listed under §61.185(a) appro-             shows that the person passed a pilot proficiency
priate to the flight instructor rating sought and the       check and instrument proficiency check in an air-
knowledge test was passed within the preceding             craft as a military pilot in the U.S. Armed Forces.
24 calendar months prior to the month of applica-          [Docket No. FAA–2006–26661, 74 FR 42555, Aug. 21,
tion. If the U.S. military instructor pilot or pilot ex-   2009]
aminer already holds a flight instructor certificate,
holding of a flight instructor certificate suffices for       §61.75 Private pilot certificate issued on
the knowledge test report.                                   the basis of a foreign pilot license.
   (ii) An official U.S. Armed Forces record or or-
der that shows the person is or was qualified as a             (a) General. A person who holds a foreign pilot
U.S. Armed Forces military instructor pilot or pilot       license at the private pilot level or higher that was
examiner for the flight instructor rating sought.           issued by a contracting State to the Convention
   (iii) An official U.S. Armed Forces record or or-        on International Civil Aviation may apply for and
der that shows the person completed a U.S.                 be issued a U.S. private pilot certificate with the
Armed Forces’ instructor pilot or pilot examiner           appropriate ratings if the foreign pilot license
training course and received an aircraft rating            meets the requirements of this section.
qualification as a military instructor pilot or pilot          (b) Certificate issued. A U.S. private pilot cer-
examiner that is appropriate to the flight instructor       tificate issued under this section must specify the
rating sought.                                             person’s foreign license number and country of is-
   (iv) An official U.S. Armed Forces record or or-         suance. A person who holds a foreign pilot li-
der that shows the person passed a U.S. Armed              cense issued by a contracting State to the Con-
Forces instructor pilot or pilot examiner profi-            vention on International Civil Aviation may be is-
ciency check in an aircraft as a military instructor       sued a U.S. private pilot certificate based on the
pilot or pilot examiner that is appropriate to the         foreign pilot license without any further showing of
flight instructor rating sought.                            proficiency, provided the applicant:
   (h) Documents for qualifying for a pilot cer-              (1) Meets the requirements of this section;
tificate and rating. The following documents are               (2) Holds a foreign pilot license, at the private
required for a person to apply for a pilot certificate      pilot license level or higher, that does not contain
and rating:                                                a limitation stating that the applicant has not met
   (1) An official U.S. Armed Forces record that            all of the standards of ICAO for that license;
shows the person is or was a military pilot.                  (3) Does not hold a U.S. pilot certificate other
   (2) An official U.S. Armed Forces record that            than a U.S. student pilot certificate;
shows the person graduated from a U.S. Armed                  (4) Holds a medical certificate issued under
Forces undergraduate pilot training school and re-         part 67 of this chapter or a medical license issued
ceived a rating qualification as a military pilot.          by the country that issued the person’s foreign
   (3) An official U.S. Armed Forces record that            pilot license; and
shows the pilot passed a pilot proficiency check
and instrument proficiency check in an aircraft as
a military pilot.
   (4) If a person is a military pilot in the Armed
Forces from a foreign contracting State to the
Convention on International Civil Aviation and is



                                                                                                            77
§ 61.75                                                                  Federal Aviation Regulations


    (5) Is able to read, speak, write, and under-         foreign pilot license, upon which the issuance of
stand the English language. If the applicant is un-       the U.S. pilot certificate was based, in the holder’s
able to meet one of these requirements due to             possession or readily accessible in the aircraft.
medical reasons, then the Administrator may               [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
place such operating limitations on that appli-           amended by Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42556, Aug. 21,
cant’s pilot certificate as are necessary for the          2009]
safe operation of the aircraft.
    (c) Aircraft ratings issued. Aircraft ratings         §61.77 Special purpose pilot
listed on a person’s foreign pilot license, in addi-        authorization: Operation of a civil
tion to any issued after testing under the provi-           aircraft of the United States and
sions of this part, may be placed on that person’s
U.S. pilot certificate for private pilot privileges
                                                            leased by a non-U.S. citizen.
only.                                                        (a) General. The holder of a foreign pilot li-
    (d) Instrument ratings issued. A person who           cense issued by a contracting State to the Con-
holds an instrument rating on the foreign pilot li-       vention on International Civil Aviation who meets
cense issued by a contracting State to the Con-           the requirements of this section may be issued a
vention on International Civil Aviation may be is-        special purpose pilot authorization by the Admin-
sued an instrument rating on a U.S. pilot certifi-         istrator for the purpose of performing pilot duties.
cate provided:                                               (1) On a civil aircraft of U.S. registry that is
    (1) The person’s foreign pilot license authorizes     leased to a person who is not a citizen of the
instrument privileges;                                    United States, and
    (2) Within 24 months preceding the month in              (2) For carrying persons or property for com-
which the person applies for the instrument rating,       pensation or hire for operations in—
the person passes the appropriate knowledge                  (i) Scheduled international air services in turbo-
test; and                                                 jet-powered airplanes of U.S. registry;
    (3) The person is able to read, speak, write,            (ii) Scheduled international air services in air-
and understand the English language. If the appli-        planes of U.S. registry having a configuration of
cant is unable to meet one of these requirements          more than nine passenger seats, excluding crew-
due to medical reasons, then the Administrator            member seats;
may place such operating limitations on that appli-          (iii) Nonscheduled international air transporta-
cant’s pilot certificate as are necessary for the          tion in airplanes of U.S. registry having a configu-
safe operation of the aircraft.                           ration of more than 30 passenger seats, excluding
    (e) Operating privileges and limitations. A           crewmember seats; or
person who receives a U.S. private pilot certificate          (iv) Scheduled international air services, or
that has been issued under the provisions of this         nonscheduled international air transportation, in
section:                                                  airplanes of U.S. registry having a payload capac-
    (1) May act as pilot in command of a civil air-       ity of more than 7,500 pounds.
craft of the United States in accordance with the            (b) Eligibility. To be eligible for the issuance or
pilot privileges authorized by this part and the lim-     renewal of a special purpose pilot authorization,
itations placed on that U.S. pilot certificate;            an applicant must present the following to an FAA
    (2) Is limited to the privileges placed on the cer-   Flight Standards District Office:
tificate by the Administrator;                                (1) A foreign pilot license issued by the aero-
    (3) Is subject to the limitations and restrictions    nautical authority of a contracting State to the
on the person’s U.S. certificate and foreign pilot li-     Convention on International Civil Aviation that
cense when exercising the privileges of that U.S.         contains the appropriate aircraft category, class,
pilot certificate in an aircraft of U.S. registry oper-    type rating, if appropriate, and instrument rating
ating within or outside the United States; and            for the aircraft to be flown;
    (f) Limitation on licenses used as the basis             (2) A certification by the lessee of the aircraft—
for a U.S. certificate. A person may use only one             (i) Stating that the applicant is employed by the
foreign pilot license as a basis for the issuance of      lessee;
a U.S. pilot certificate. The foreign pilot license           (ii) Specifying the aircraft type on which the ap-
and medical certification used as a basis for issu-        plicant will perform pilot duties; and
ing a U.S. pilot certificate under this section must          (iii) Stating that the applicant has received
be written in English or accompanied by an En-            ground and flight instruction that qualifies the ap-
glish transcription that has been signed by an offi-       plicant to perform the duties to be assigned on the
cial or representative of the foreign aviation au-        aircraft.
thority that issued the foreign pilot license.               (3) Documentation showing when the applicant
    (g) Limitation placed on a U.S. pilot certifi-         will reach the age of 65 years (an official copy of
cate. A U.S. pilot certificate issued under this sec-      the applicant’s birth certificate or other official
tion can only be exercised when the pilot has the         documentation);



78
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                       §61.77


   (4) Documentation the applicant meets the                (4) Scheduled international air services, or
medical standards for the issuance of the foreign        nonscheduled international air transportation for
pilot license from the aeronautical authority of that    compensation or hire, in airplanes having a pay-
contracting State to the Convention on Interna-          load capacity of more than 7,500 pounds.
tional Civil Aviation; and                                  (f) Definitions.
   (5) A statement that the applicant does not al-          (1) International air service, as used in para-
ready hold a special purpose pilot authorization;        graph (e) of this section, means scheduled air




                                                                                                                61
however, if the applicant already holds a special        service performed in airplanes for the public
purpose pilot authorization, then that special pur-      transport of passengers, mail, or cargo, in which
pose pilot authorization must be surrendered to          the service passes through the air space over the
either the FAA Flight Standards District Office that      territory of more than one country.
issued it, or the FAA Flight Standards District Of-         (2) International air transportation, as used in
fice processing the application for the authoriza-        paragraph (e) of this section, means air transpor-
tion, prior to being issued another special pur-         tation performed in airplanes for the public trans-
pose pilot authorization.                                port of passengers, mail, or cargo, in which ser-
   (c) Privileges. A person issued a special pur-        vice passes through the air space over the terri-
pose pilot authorization under this section—             tory of more than one country.
   (1) May exercise the privileges prescribed on            (g) Age Pairing Requirement. No person who
the special purpose pilot authorization; and             has attained the age of 60 but who has not at-
   (2) Must comply with the limitations specified in      tained the age of 65 may serve as a pilot in com-
this section and any additional limitations speci-       mand in any of the operations described in
fied on the special purpose pilot authorization.          §61.3(j)(1)(i) through (iv) unless there is another
   (d) General limitations. A special purpose            pilot in the flight deck crew who has not yet at-
pilot authorization may be used only—                    tained 60 years of age.
   (1) For flights between foreign countries or for          (h) Expiration date. Each special purpose
flights in foreign air commerce within the time per-      pilot authorization issued under this section
iod allotted on the authorization.                       expires—
   (2) If the foreign pilot license required by para-       (1) 60 calendar months from the month it was
graph (b)(1) of this section, the medical documen-       issued, unless sooner suspended or revoked;
tation required by paragraph (b)(4) of this section,        (2) When the lease agreement for the aircraft
and the special purpose pilot authorization issued       expires or the lessee terminates the employment
under this section are in the holder’s physical pos-     of the person who holds the special purpose pilot
session or immediately accessible in the aircraft.       authorization;
   (3) While the holder is employed by the person           (3) Whenever the person’s foreign pilot license
to whom the aircraft described in the certification       has been suspended, revoked, or is no longer
required by paragraph (b)(2) of this section is          valid; or
leased.                                                     (4) When the person no longer meets the med-
   (4) While the holder is performing pilot duties       ical standards for the issuance of the foreign pilot
on the U.S.-registered aircraft described in the         license.
certification required by paragraph (b)(2) of this           (i) Renewal. A person exercising the privileges
section.                                                 of a special purpose pilot authorization may apply
   (5) If the holder has only one special purpose        for a 60-calendar-month extension of that authori-
pilot authorization as provided in paragraph (b)(5)      zation, provided the person—
of this section.                                            (1) Continues to meet the requirements of this
   (e) Age limitation. No person who holds a             section; and
special purpose pilot authorization issued under            (2) Surrenders the expired special purpose
this part, may serve as a pilot on a civil airplane of   pilot authorization upon receipt of the new autho-
U.S. registry if the person has reached his or her       rization.
65th birthday, in the following operations:                 (j) Surrender. The holder of a special purpose
   (1) Scheduled international air services carry-       pilot authorization must surrender the authoriza-
ing passengers in turbojet-powered airplanes;            tion to the Administrator within 7 days after the
   (2) Scheduled international air services carry-       date the authorization terminates.
ing passengers in airplanes having a passenger-          [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 40901, July 30, 1997; as
seat configuration of more than nine passenger            amended by Amdt. 61–123, 74 FR 34234, July 15, 2009;
seats, excluding each crewmember seat;                   Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42557, Aug. 21, 2009]
   (3) Nonscheduled international air transporta-
tion for compensation or hire in airplanes having a
passenger-seat configuration of more than 30
passenger seats, excluding each crewmember
seat; or


                                                                                                          79
§61.81                                                                 Federal Aviation Regulations


Subpart C —Student Pilots                                  (iii) Flight characteristics and operational limita-
                                                        tions for the make and model of aircraft to be
                                                        flown.
§61.81 Applicability.                                      (2) The student’s authorized instructor must—
   This subpart prescribes the requirements for            (i) Administer the test; and
the issuance of student pilot certificates, the con-        (ii) At the conclusion of the test, review all in-
ditions under which those certificates are neces-        correct answers with the student before authoriz-
sary, and the general operating rules and limita-       ing that student to conduct a solo flight.
tions for the holders of those certificates.                (c) Pre-solo flight training. Prior to conduct-
                                                        ing a solo flight, a student pilot must have:
§61.83 Eligibility requirements for                        (1) Received and logged flight training for the
  student pilots.                                       maneuvers and procedures of this section that
   To be eligible for a student pilot certificate, an    are appropriate to the make and model of aircraft
applicant must:                                         to be flown; and
   (a) Be at least 16 years of age for other than          (2) Demonstrated satisfactory proficiency and
the operation of a glider or balloon.                   safety, as judged by an authorized instructor, on
   (b) Be at least 14 years of age for the operation    the maneuvers and procedures required by this
of a glider or balloon.                                 section in the make and model of aircraft or simi-
   (c) Be able to read, speak, write, and under-        lar make and model of aircraft to be flown.
stand the English language. If the applicant is un-        (d) Maneuvers and procedures for pre-solo
able to meet one of these requirements due to           flight training in a single-engine airplane. A
medical reasons, then the Administrator may             student pilot who is receiving training for a single-
place such operating limitations on that appli-         engine airplane rating or privileges must receive
cant’s pilot certificate as are necessary for the        and log flight training for the following maneuvers
safe operation of the aircraft.                         and procedures:
                                                           (1) Proper flight preparation procedures, in-
                                                        cluding preflight planning and preparation, power-
§61.85 Application.                                     plant operation, and aircraft systems;
  An application for a student pilot certificate is         (2) Taxiing or surface operations, including run-
made on a form and in a manner provided by the          ups;
Administrator and is submitted to:                         (3) Takeoffs and landings, including normal and
  (a) A designated aviation medical examiner if         crosswind;
applying for an FAA medical certificate under part          (4) Straight and level flight, and turns in both di-
67 of this chapter;                                     rections;
  (b) An examiner; or                                      (5) Climbs and climbing turns;
  (c) A Flight Standards District Office.                   (6) Airport traffic patterns, including entry and
                                                        departure procedures;
§61.87 Solo requirements for                               (7) Collision avoidance, windshear avoidance,
  student pilots.                                       and wake turbulence avoidance;
   (a) General. A student pilot may not operate an         (8) Descents, with and without turns, using high
aircraft in solo flight unless that student has met      and low drag configurations;
the requirements of this section. The term “solo           (9) Flight at various airspeeds from cruise to
flight” as used in this subpart means that flight         slow flight;
time during which a student pilot is the sole occu-        (10) Stall entries from various flight attitudes
pant of the aircraft or that flight time during which    and power combinations with recovery initiated at
the student performs the duties of a pilot in com-      the first indication of a stall, and recovery from a
mand of a gas balloon or an airship requiring           full stall;
more than one pilot flight crewmember.                      (11) Emergency procedures and equipment
   (b) Aeronautical knowledge. A student pilot          malfunctions;
must demonstrate satisfactory aeronautical                 (12) Ground reference maneuvers;
knowledge on a knowledge test that meets the re-           (13) Approaches to a landing area with simu-
quirements of this paragraph:                           lated engine malfunctions;
   (1) The test must address the student pilot’s           (14) Slips to a landing; and
knowledge of—                                              (15) Go-arounds.
   (i) Applicable sections of parts 61 and 91 of this      (e) Maneuvers and procedures for pre-solo
chapter;                                                flight training in a multiengine airplane. A stu-
   (ii) Airspace rules and procedures for the air-      dent pilot who is receiving training for a multi-
port where the solo flight will be performed; and        engine airplane rating must receive and log flight
                                                        training for the following maneuvers and proce-
                                                        dures:


80
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                        §61.87


   (1) Proper flight preparation procedures, in-             (17) Simulated one-engine-inoperative ap-
cluding preflight planning and preparation, power-        proaches and landings for multiengine helicop-
plant operation, and aircraft systems;                   ters.
   (2) Taxiing or surface operations, including run-        (g) Maneuvers and procedures for pre-solo
ups;                                                     flight training in a gyroplane. A student pilot
   (3) Takeoffs and landings, including normal and       who is receiving training for a gyroplane rating or
crosswind;                                               privileges must receive and log flight training for




                                                                                                                  61
   (4) Straight and level flight, and turns in both di-   the following maneuvers and procedures:
rections;                                                   (1) Proper flight preparation procedures, in-
   (5) Climbs and climbing turns;                        cluding preflight planning and preparation, power-
   (6) Airport traffic patterns, including entry and      plant operation, and aircraft systems;
departure procedures;                                       (2) Taxiing or surface operations, including run-
   (7) Collision avoidance, windshear avoidance,         ups;
and wake turbulence avoidance;                              (3) Takeoffs and landings, including normal and
   (8) Descents, with and without turns, using high      crosswind;
and low drag configurations;                                 (4) Straight and level flight, and turns in both di-
   (9) Flight at various airspeeds from cruise to        rections;
slow flight;                                                 (5) Climbs and climbing turns;
   (10) Stall entries from various flight attitudes          (6) Airport traffic patterns, including entry and
and power combinations with recovery initiated at        departure procedures;
the first indication of a stall, and recovery from a         (7) Collision avoidance, windshear avoidance,
full stall;                                              and wake turbulence avoidance;
   (11) Emergency procedures and equipment                  (8) Descents with and without turns;
malfunctions;                                               (9) Flight at various airspeeds;
   (12) Ground reference maneuvers;                         (10) Emergency procedures and equipment
   (13) Approaches to a landing area with simu-          malfunctions;
lated engine malfunctions; and                              (11) Ground reference maneuvers;
   (14) Go-arounds.                                         (12) Approaches to the landing area;
   (f) Maneuvers and procedures for pre-solo                (13) High rates of descent with power on and
flight training in a helicopter. A student pilot          with simulated power off, and recovery from those
who is receiving training for a helicopter rating        flight configurations;
must receive and log flight training for the follow-         (14) Go-arounds; and
ing maneuvers and procedures:                               (15) Simulated emergency procedures, includ-
   (1) Proper flight preparation procedures, in-          ing simulated power-off landings and simulated
cluding preflight planning and preparation, power-        power failure during departures.
plant operation, and aircraft systems;                      (h) Maneuvers and procedures for pre-solo
   (2) Taxiing or surface operations, including run-     flight training in a powered-lift. A student pilot
ups;                                                     who is receiving training for a powered-lift rating
   (3) Takeoffs and landings, including normal and       must receive and log flight training in the following
crosswind;                                               maneuvers and procedures:
   (4) Straight and level flight, and turns in both di-      (1) Proper flight preparation procedures, in-
rections;                                                cluding preflight planning and preparation, power-
   (5) Climbs and climbing turns;                        plant operation, and aircraft systems;
   (6) Airport traffic patterns, including entry and         (2) Taxiing or surface operations, including run-
departure procedures;                                    ups;
   (7) Collision avoidance, windshear avoidance,            (3) Takeoffs and landings, including normal and
and wake turbulence avoidance;                           crosswind;
   (8) Descents with and without turns;                     (4) Straight and level flight, and turns in both di-
   (9) Flight at various airspeeds;                      rections;
   (10) Emergency procedures and equipment                  (5) Climbs and climbing turns;
malfunctions;                                               (6) Airport traffic patterns, including entry and
   (11) Ground reference maneuvers;                      departure procedures;
   (12) Approaches to the landing area;                     (7) Collision avoidance, windshear avoidance,
   (13) Hovering and hovering turns;                     and wake turbulence avoidance;
   (14) Go-arounds;                                         (8) Descents with and without turns;
   (15) Simulated emergency procedures, includ-             (9) Flight at various airspeeds from cruise to
ing autorotational descents with a power recovery        slow flight;
and power recovery to a hover;                              (10) Stall entries from various flight attitudes
   (16) Rapid decelerations; and                         and power combinations with recovery initiated at



                                                                                                           81
§61.87                                                                  Federal Aviation Regulations


the first indication of a stall, and recovery from a         (2) Taxiing or surface operations, including run-
full stall;                                              ups;
   (11) Emergency procedures and equipment                  (3) Takeoffs and landings, including normal and
malfunctions;                                            crosswind;
   (12) Ground reference maneuvers;                         (4) Straight and level flight, and turns in both di-
   (13) Approaches to a landing with simulated           rections;
engine malfunctions;                                        (5) Climbs and climbing turns;
   (14) Go-arounds;                                         (6) Airport traffic patterns, including entry and
   (15) Approaches to the landing area;                  departure procedures;
   (16) Hovering and hovering turns; and                    (7) Collision avoidance, windshear avoidance,
   (17) For multiengine powered-lifts, simulated         and wake turbulence avoidance;
one-engine-inoperative approaches and landings.             (8) Descents with and without turns;
   (i) Maneuvers and procedures for pre-solo                (9) Flight at various airspeeds from cruise to
flight training in a glider. A student pilot who is       slow flight;
receiving training for a glider rating or privileges        (10) Emergency procedures and equipment
must receive and log flight training for the follow-      malfunctions;
ing maneuvers and procedures:                               (11) Ground reference maneuvers;
   (1) Proper flight preparation procedures, in-             (12) Rigging, ballasting, and controlling pres-
cluding preflight planning, preparation, aircraft         sure in the ballonets, and superheating; and
systems, and, if appropriate, powerplant opera-             (13) Landings with positive and with negative
tions;                                                   static trim.
   (2) Taxiing or surface operations, including run-        (k) Maneuvers and procedures for pre-solo
ups, if applicable;                                      flight training in a balloon. A student pilot who is
   (3) Launches, including normal and crosswind;         receiving training in a balloon must receive and
   (4) Straight and level flight, and turns in both di-   log flight training for the following maneuvers and
rections, if applicable;                                 procedures:
   (5) Airport traffic patterns, including entry pro-        (1) Layout and assembly procedures;
cedures;                                                    (2) Proper flight preparation procedures, in-
   (6) Collision avoidance, windshear avoidance,         cluding preflight planning and preparation, and
and wake turbulence avoidance;                           aircraft systems;
   (7) Descents with and without turns using high           (3) Ascents and descents;
and low drag configurations;                                 (4) Landing and recovery procedures;
   (8) Flight at various airspeeds;                         (5) Emergency procedures and equipment
   (9) Emergency procedures and equipment                malfunctions;
malfunctions;                                               (6) Operation of hot air or gas source, ballast,
   (10) Ground reference maneuvers, if applica-          valves, vents, and rip panels, as appropriate;
ble;                                                        (7) Use of deflation valves or rip panels for sim-
   (11) Inspection of towline rigging and review of      ulating an emergency;
signals and release procedures, if applicable;              (8) The effects of wind on climb and approach
   (12) Aerotow, ground tow, or self-launch proce-       angles; and
dures;                                                      (9) Obstruction detection and avoidance tech-
   (13) Procedures for disassembly and assembly          niques.
of the glider;                                              (l) Maneuvers and procedures for pre-solo
   (14) Stall entry, stall, and stall recovery;          flight training in a powered parachute. A stu-
   (15) Straight glides, turns, and spirals;             dent pilot who is receiving training for a powered
   (16) Landings, including normal and crosswind;        parachute rating or privileges must receive and
   (17) Slips to a landing;                              log flight training for the following maneuvers and
   (18) Procedures and techniques for ther-              procedures:
malling; and                                                (1) Proper flight preparation procedures, in-
   (19) Emergency operations, including towline          cluding preflight planning and preparation, pre-
break procedures.                                        flight assembly and rigging, aircraft systems, and
   (j) Maneuvers and procedures for pre-solo             powerplant operations.
flight training in an airship. A student pilot who           (2) Taxiing or surface operations, including run-
is receiving training for an airship rating or privi-    ups.
leges must receive and log flight training for the           (3) Takeoffs and landings, including normal and
following maneuvers and procedures:                      crosswind.
   (1) Proper flight preparation procedures, in-             (4) Straight and level flight, and turns in both di-
cluding preflight planning and preparation, power-        rections.
plant operation, and aircraft systems;                      (5) Climbs, and climbing turns in both direc-
                                                         tions.


82
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                        §61.89


   (6) Airport traffic patterns, including entry and         (2) An endorsement in the student’s logbook for
departure procedures.                                    the specific make and model aircraft to be flown
   (7) Collision avoidance, windshear avoidance,         by an authorized instructor, who gave the training
and wake turbulence avoidance.                           within the 90 days preceding the date of the flight.
   (8) Descents, and descending turns in both di-           (o) Limitations on student pilots operating
rections.                                                an aircraft in solo flight at night. A student pilot
   (9) Emergency procedures and equipment                may not operate an aircraft in solo flight at night




                                                                                                                  61
malfunctions.                                            unless that student pilot has received:
   (10) Ground reference maneuvers.                         (1) Flight training at night on night flying proce-
   (11) Straight glides, and gliding turns in both di-   dures that includes takeoffs, approaches, land-
rections.                                                ings, and go-arounds at night at the airport where
   (12) Go-arounds.                                      the solo flight will be conducted;
   (13) Approaches to landing areas with a simu-            (2) Navigation training at night in the vicinity of
lated engine malfunction.                                the airport where the solo flight will be conducted;
   (14) Procedures for canopy packing and air-           and
craft disassembly.                                          (3) An endorsement in the student’s logbook for
   (m) Maneuvers and procedures for pre-solo             the specific make and model aircraft to be flown
flight training in a weight-shift-control aircraft.       for night solo flight by an authorized instructor
A student pilot who is receiving training for a          who gave the training within the 90-day period
weight-shift-control aircraft rating or privileges       preceding the date of the flight.
must receive and log flight training for the follow-         (p) Limitations on flight instructors autho-
ing maneuvers and procedures:                            rizing solo flight. No instructor may authorize a
   (1) Proper flight preparation procedures, in-          student pilot to perform a solo flight unless that in-
cluding preflight planning and preparation, pre-          structor has—
flight assembly and rigging, aircraft systems, and           (1) Given that student pilot training in the make
powerplant operations.                                   and model of aircraft or a similar make and model
   (2) Taxiing or surface operations, including run-     of aircraft in which the solo flight is to be flown;
ups.                                                        (2) Determined the student pilot is proficient in
   (3) Takeoffs and landings, including normal and       the maneuvers and procedures prescribed in this
crosswind.                                               section;
   (4) Straight and level flight, and turns in both di-      (3) Determined the student pilot is proficient in
rections.                                                the make and model of aircraft to be flown;
   (5) Climbs, and climbing turns in both direc-            (4) Ensured that the student pilot’s certificate
tions.                                                   has been endorsed by an instructor authorized to
   (6) Airport traffic patterns, including entry and      provide flight training for the specific make and
departure procedures.                                    model aircraft to be flown; and
   (7) Collision avoidance, windshear avoidance,            (5) Endorsed the student pilot’s logbook for the
and wake turbulence avoidance.                           specific make and model aircraft to be flown, and
   (8) Descents, and descending turns in both di-        that endorsement remains current for solo flight
rections.                                                privileges, provided an authorized instructor up-
   (9) Flight at various airspeeds from maximum          dates the student’s logbook every 90 days there-
cruise to slow flight.                                    after.
   (10) Emergency procedures and equipment               [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
malfunctions.                                            amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40902, July 30, 1997;
   (11) Ground reference maneuvers.                      Amdt. 61–104, 63 FR 20287, April 23, 1998; Amdt. 61–
   (12) Stall entry, stall, and stall recovery.          110, 69 FR 44866, July 27, 2004; Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR
   (13) Straight glides, and gliding turns in both di-   42557, Aug. 21, 2009]
rections.
   (14) Go-arounds.                                      §61.89 General limitations.
   (15) Approaches to landing areas with a simu-            (a) A student pilot may not act as pilot in com-
lated engine malfunction.                                mand of an aircraft:
   (16) Procedures for disassembly.                         (1) That is carrying a passenger;
   (n) Limitations on student pilots operating              (2) That is carrying property for compensation
an aircraft in solo flight. A student pilot may not       or hire;
operate an aircraft in solo flight unless that stu-          (3) For compensation or hire;
dent pilot has received:                                    (4) In furtherance of a business;
   (1) An endorsement from an authorized in-                (5) On an international flight, except that a stu-
structor on his or her student pilot certificate for      dent pilot may make solo training flights from
the specific make and model aircraft to be flown;          Haines, Gustavus, or Juneau, Alaska, to White
and


                                                                                                           83
§ 61.89                                                                 Federal Aviation Regulations


Horse, Yukon, Canada, and return over the prov-          neuvers and procedures of this section that are
ince of British Columbia;                                appropriate to the make and model of aircraft for
   (6) With a flight or surface visibility of less than   which solo cross-country privileges are sought;
3 statute miles during daylight hours or 5 statute           (ii) Have demonstrated cross-country profi-
miles at night;                                          ciency on the appropriate maneuvers and proce-
   (7) When the flight cannot be made with visual         dures of this section to an authorized instructor;
reference to the surface; or                                 (iii) Have satisfactorily accomplished the pre-
   (8) In a manner contrary to any limitations           solo flight maneuvers and procedures required by
placed in the pilot’s logbook by an authorized in-       §61.87 of this part in the make and model of air-
structor.                                                craft or similar make and model of aircraft for
   (b) A student pilot may not act as a required         which solo cross-country privileges are sought;
pilot flight crewmember on any aircraft for which         and
more than one pilot is required by the type certifi-          (iv) Comply with any limitations included in the
cate of the aircraft or regulations under which the      authorized instructor’s endorsement that are re-
flight is conducted, except when receiving flight          quired by paragraph (c) of this section.
training from an authorized instructor on board an           (3) A student pilot who seeks solo cross-coun-
airship, and no person other than a required flight       try flight privileges must have received ground
crewmember is carried on the aircraft.                   and flight training from an authorized instructor on
   (c) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certifi-     the cross-country maneuvers and procedures
cate must comply with the provisions of para-            listed in this section that are appropriate to the air-
graphs (a) and (b) of this section and may not act       craft to be flown.
as pilot in command—                                         (b) Authorization to perform certain solo
   (1) Of an aircraft other than a light-sport air-      flights and cross-country flights. A student
craft;                                                   pilot must obtain an endorsement from an autho-
   (2) At night;                                         rized instructor to make solo flights from the air-
   (3) At an altitude of more than 10,000 feet MSL       port where the student pilot normally receives
or 2,000 feet AGL, whichever is higher;                  training to another location. A student pilot who
   (4) In Class B, C, and D airspace, at an airport      receives this endorsement must comply with the
located in Class B, C, or D airspace, and to, from,      requirements of this paragraph.
through, or on an airport having an operational              (1) Solo flights may be made to another airport
control tower without having received the ground         that is within 25 nautical miles from the airport
and flight training specified in §61.94 and an en-         where the student pilot normally receives training,
dorsement from an authorized instructor;                 provided—
   (5) Of a light-sport aircraft without having re-          (i) An authorized instructor has given the stu-
ceived the applicable ground training, flight train-      dent pilot flight training at the other airport, and
ing, and instructor endorsements specified in             that training includes flight in both directions over
§61.327 (a) and (b).                                     the route, entering and exiting the traffic pattern,
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as        and takeoffs and landings at the other airport;
amended by Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44867, July 27, 2004;         (ii) The authorized instructor who gave the
Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5220, Feb. 1, 2010]                  training endorses the student pilot’s logbook au-
                                                         thorizing the flight;
§61.91 [Reserved]                                            (iii) The student pilot has a solo flight endorse-
                                                         ment in accordance with §61.87 of this part;
                                                             (iv) The authorized instructor has determined
§61.93 Solo cross-country flight
                                                         that the student pilot is proficient to make the
  requirements.                                          flight; and
   (a) General.                                              (v) The purpose of the flight is to practice take-
   (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this       offs and landings at that other airport.
section, a student pilot must meet the require-              (2) Repeated specific solo cross-country flights
ments of this section before—                            may be made to another airport that is within 50
   (i) Conducting a solo cross-country flight, or         nautical miles of the airport from which the flight
any flight greater than 25 nautical miles from the        originated, provided—
airport from where the flight originated.                     (i) The authorized instructor has given the stu-
   (ii) Making a solo flight and landing at any loca-     dent flight training in both directions over the
tion other than the airport of origination.              route, including entering and exiting the traffic pat-
   (2) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this       terns, takeoffs, and landings at the airports to be
section, a student pilot who seeks solo cross-           used;
country flight privileges must:                               (ii) The authorized instructor who gave the
   (i) Have received flight training from an instruc-     training has endorsed the student’s logbook certi-
tor authorized to provide flight training on the ma-


84
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                      §61.93


fying that the student is proficient to make such            (e) Maneuvers and procedures for cross-
flights;                                                 country flight training in a single-engine air-
   (iii) The student has a solo flight endorsement       plane. A student pilot who is receiving training for
in accordance with §61.87 of this part; and             cross-country flight in a single-engine airplane
   (iv) The student has a solo cross country flight      must receive and log flight training in the following
endorsement in accordance with paragraph (c) of         maneuvers and procedures:
this section; however, for repeated solo cross              (1) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR naviga-




                                                                                                                61
country flights to another airport within 50 nautical    tion using pilotage and dead reckoning with the
miles from which the flight originated, separate         aid of a magnetic compass;
endorsements are not required to be made for                (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertain-
each flight.                                             ing to cross-country flight;
   (c) Endorsements for solo cross-country                  (3) Procurement and analysis of aeronautical
flights. Except as specified in paragraph (b)(2) of       weather reports and forecasts, including recogni-
this section, a student pilot must have the en-         tion of critical weather situations and estimating
dorsements prescribed in this paragraph for each        visibility while in flight;
cross-country flight:                                        (4) Emergency procedures;
   (1) Student pilot certificate endorsement. A stu-         (5) Traffic pattern procedures that include area
dent pilot must have a solo cross-country en-           departure, area arrival, entry into the traffic pat-
dorsement from the authorized instructor who            tern, and approach;
conducted the training, and that endorsement                (6) Procedures and operating practices for col-
must be placed on that person’s student pilot cer-      lision avoidance, wake turbulence precautions,
tificate for the specific category of aircraft to be      and windshear avoidance;
flown.                                                       (7) Recognition, avoidance, and operational re-
   (2) Logbook endorsement.                             strictions of hazardous terrain features in the geo-
   (i) A student pilot must have a solo cross-coun-     graphical area where the cross-country flight will
try endorsement from an authorized instructor           be flown;
that is placed in the student pilot’s logbook for the       (8) Procedures for operating the instruments
specific make and model of aircraft to be flown.          and equipment installed in the aircraft to be flown,
   (ii) For each cross-country flight, the authorized    including recognition and use of the proper opera-
instructor who reviews the cross-country planning       tional procedures and indications;
must make an endorsement in the person’s log-               (9) Use of radios for VFR navigation and two-
book after reviewing that person’s cross-country        way communication, except that a student pilot
planning, as specified in paragraph (d) of this sec-     seeking a sport pilot certificate must only receive
tion. The endorsement must—                             and log flight training on the use of radios installed
   (A) Specify the make and model of aircraft to        in the aircraft to be flown;
be flown;                                                    (10) Takeoff, approach, and landing proce-
   (B) State that the student’s preflight planning       dures, including short-field, soft-field, and cross-
and preparation is correct and that the student is      wind takeoffs, approaches, and landings;
prepared to make the flight safely under the                 (11) Climbs at best angle and best rate; and
known conditions; and                                       (12) Control and maneuvering solely by refer-
   (C) State that any limitations required by the       ence to flight instruments, including straight and
student’s authorized instructor are met.                level flight, turns, descents, climbs, use of radio
   (d) Limitations on authorized instructors to         aids, and ATC directives. For student pilots seek-
permit solo cross-country flights. An autho-             ing a sport pilot certificate, the provisions of this
rized instructor may not permit a student pilot to      paragraph only apply when receiving training for
conduct a solo cross-country flight unless that in-      cross-country flight in an airplane that has a VH
structor has:                                           greater than 87 knots CAS.
   (1) Determined that the student’s cross-country          (f) Maneuvers and procedures for cross-
planning is correct for the flight;                      country flight training in a multiengine air-
   (2) Reviewed the current and forecast weather        plane. A student pilot who is receiving training for
conditions and has determined that the flight can        cross-country flight in a multiengine airplane must
be completed under VFR;                                 receive and log flight training in the following ma-
   (3) Determined that the student is proficient to      neuvers and procedures:
conduct the flight safely;                                   (1) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR naviga-
   (4) Determined that the student has the appro-       tion using pilotage and dead reckoning with the
priate solo cross-country endorsement for the           aid of a magnetic compass;
make and model of aircraft to be flown; and                  (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertain-
   (5) Determined that the student’s solo flight en-     ing to cross-country flight;
dorsement is current for the make and model air-            (3) Procurement and analysis of aeronautical
craft to be flown.                                       weather reports and forecasts, including recogni-


                                                                                                         85
§61.93                                                               Federal Aviation Regulations


tion of critical weather situations and estimating         (10) Takeoff, approach, and landing proce-
visibility while in flight;                             dures.
    (4) Emergency procedures;                              (h) Maneuvers and procedures for cross-
    (5) Traffic pattern procedures that include area    country flight training in a gyroplane. A stu-
departure, area arrival, entry into the traffic pat-    dent pilot who is receiving training for cross-coun-
tern, and approach;                                    try flight in a gyroplane must receive and log flight
    (6) Procedures and operating practices for col-    training in the following maneuvers and proce-
lision avoidance, wake turbulence precautions,         dures:
and windshear avoidance;                                   (1) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR naviga-
    (7) Recognition, avoidance, and operational re-    tion using pilotage and dead reckoning with the
strictions of hazardous terrain features in the geo-   aid of a magnetic compass;
graphical area where the cross-country flight will          (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertain-
be flown;                                               ing to cross-country flight;
    (8) Procedures for operating the instruments           (3) Procurement and analysis of aeronautical
and equipment installed in the aircraft to be flown,    weather reports and forecasts, including recogni-
including recognition and use of the proper opera-     tion of critical weather situations and estimating
tional procedures and indications;                     visibility while in flight;
    (9) Use of radios for VFR navigation and two-          (4) Emergency procedures;
way communications;                                        (5) Traffic pattern procedures that include area
    (10) Takeoff, approach, and landing proce-         departure, area arrival, entry into the traffic pat-
dures, including short-field, soft-field, and cross-     tern, and approach;
wind takeoffs, approaches, and landings;                   (6) Procedures and operating practices for col-
    (11) Climbs at best angle and best rate; and       lision avoidance, wake turbulence precautions,
    (12) Control and maneuvering solely by refer-      and windshear avoidance;
ence to flight instruments, including straight and          (7) Recognition, avoidance, and operational re-
level flight, turns, descents, climbs, use of radio     strictions of hazardous terrain features in the geo-
aids, and ATC directives.                              graphical area where the cross-country flight will
    (g) Maneuvers and procedures for cross-            be flown;
country flight training in a helicopter. A student          (8) Procedures for operating the instruments
pilot who is receiving training for cross-country      and equipment installed in the aircraft to be flown,
flight in a helicopter must receive and log flight       including recognition and use of the proper opera-
training for the following maneuvers and proce-        tional procedures and indications;
dures:                                                     (9) Use of radios for VFR navigation and two-
    (1) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR naviga-     way communication, except that a student pilot
tion using pilotage and dead reckoning with the        seeking a sport pilot certificate must only receive
aid of a magnetic compass;                             and log flight training on the use of radios installed
    (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertain-    in the aircraft to be flown; and
ing to cross-country flight;                                (10) Takeoff, approach, and landing proce-
    (3) Procurement and analysis of aeronautical       dures, including short-field and soft-field takeoffs,
weather reports and forecasts, including recogni-      approaches, and landings.
tion of critical weather situations and estimating         (i) Maneuvers and procedures for cross-
visibility while in flight;                             country flight training in a powered-lift. A stu-
    (4) Emergency procedures;                          dent pilot who is receiving training for cross-coun-
    (5) Traffic pattern procedures that include area    try flight training in a powered-lift must receive
departure, area arrival, entry into the traffic pat-    and log flight training in the following maneuvers
tern, and approach;                                    and procedures:
    (6) Procedures and operating practices for col-        (1) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR naviga-
lision avoidance, wake turbulence precautions,         tion using pilotage and dead reckoning with the
and windshear avoidance;                               aid of a magnetic compass;
    (7) Recognition, avoidance, and operational re-        (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertain-
strictions of hazardous terrain features in the geo-   ing to cross-country flight;
graphical area where the cross-country flight will          (3) Procurement and analysis of aeronautical
be flown;                                               weather reports and forecasts, including recogni-
    (8) Procedures for operating the instruments       tion of critical weather situations and estimating
and equipment installed in the aircraft to be flown,    visibility while in flight;
including recognition and use of the proper opera-         (4) Emergency procedures;
tional procedures and indications;                         (5) Traffic pattern procedures that include area
    (9) Use of radios for VFR navigation and two-      departure, area arrival, entry into the traffic pat-
way communications; and                                tern, and approach;



86
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                      §61.93


    (6) Procedures and operating practices for col-    flight in an airship must receive and log flight train-
lision avoidance, wake turbulence precautions,         ing for the following maneuvers and procedures:
and windshear avoidance;                                   (1) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR naviga-
    (7) Recognition, avoidance, and operational re-    tion using pilotage and dead reckoning with the
strictions of hazardous terrain features in the geo-   aid of a magnetic compass;
graphical area where the cross-country flight will          (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertain-
be flown;                                               ing to cross-country flight;




                                                                                                                61
    (8) Procedures for operating the instruments           (3) Procurement and analysis of aeronautical
and equipment installed in the aircraft to be flown,    weather reports and forecasts, including recogni-
including recognition and use of the proper opera-     tion of critical weather situations and estimating
tional procedures and indications;                     visibility while in flight;
    (9) Use of radios for VFR navigation and two-          (4) Emergency procedures;
way communications;                                        (5) Traffic pattern procedures that include area
    (10) Takeoff, approach, and landing procedures     departure, area arrival, entry into the traffic pat-
that include high-altitude, steep, and shallow take-   tern, and approach;
offs, approaches, and landings; and                        (6) Procedures and operating practices for col-
    (11) Control and maneuvering solely by refer-      lision avoidance, wake turbulence precautions,
ence to flight instruments, including straight and      and windshear avoidance;
level flight, turns, descents, climbs, use of radio         (7) Recognition, avoidance, and operational re-
aids, and ATC directives.                              strictions of hazardous terrain features in the geo-
    (j) Maneuvers and procedures for cross-            graphical area where the cross-country flight will
country flight training in a glider. A student pilot    be flown;
who is receiving training for cross-country flight in       (8) Procedures for operating the instruments
a glider must receive and log flight training in the    and equipment installed in the aircraft to be flown,
following maneuvers and procedures:                    including recognition and use of the proper opera-
    (1) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR naviga-     tional procedures and indications;
tion using pilotage and dead reckoning with the            (9) Use of radios for VFR navigation and two-
aid of a magnetic compass;                             way communication, except that a student pilot
    (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertain-    seeking a sport pilot certificate must only receive
ing to cross-country flight;                            and log flight training on the use of radios installed
    (3) Procurement and analysis of aeronautical       in the aircraft to be flown;
weather reports and forecasts, including recogni-          (10) Control of air pressure with regard to as-
tion of critical weather situations and estimating     cending and descending flight and altitude con-
visibility while in flight;                             trol;
    (4) Emergency procedures;                              (11) Control of the airship solely by reference to
    (5) Traffic pattern procedures that include area    flight instruments, except for a student pilot seek-
departure, area arrival, entry into the traffic pat-    ing a sport pilot certificate; and
tern, and approach;                                        (12) Recognition of weather and upper air con-
    (6) Procedures and operating practices for col-    ditions conducive for the direction of cross-coun-
lision avoidance, wake turbulence precautions,         try flight.
and windshear avoidance;                                   (l) Maneuvers and procedures for cross-
    (7) Recognition, avoidance, and operational re-    country flight training in a powered parachute.
strictions of hazardous terrain features in the geo-   A student pilot who is receiving training for cross-
graphical area where the cross-country flight will      country flight in a powered parachute must re-
be flown;                                               ceive and log flight training in the following ma-
    (8) Procedures for operating the instruments       neuvers and procedures:
and equipment installed in the aircraft to be flown,        (1) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR naviga-
including recognition and use of the proper opera-     tion using pilotage and dead reckoning with the
tional procedures and indications;                     aid of a magnetic compass, as appropriate.
    (9) Landings accomplished without the use of           (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertain-
the altimeter from at least 2,000 feet above the       ing to cross-country flight.
surface; and                                               (3) Procurement and analysis of aeronautical
    (10) Recognition of weather and upper air con-     weather reports and forecasts, including recog-
ditions favorable for cross-country soaring, as-       nizing critical weather situations and estimating
cending and descending flight, and altitude con-        visibility while in flight.
trol.                                                      (4) Emergency procedures.
    (k) Maneuvers and procedures for cross-                (5) Traffic pattern procedures that include area
country flight training in an airship. A student        departure, area arrival, entry into the traffic pat-
pilot who is receiving training for cross-country      tern, and approach.



                                                                                                         87
§61.93                                                                  Federal Aviation Regulations


    (6) Procedures and operating practices for col-      §61.94 Student pilot seeking a sport
lision avoidance, wake turbulence precautions,             pilot certificate or a recreational pilot
and windshear avoidance.                                   certificate: Operations at airports
    (7) Recognition, avoidance, and operational re-        within, and in airspace located within,
strictions of hazardous terrain features in the geo-
graphical area where the cross-country flight will
                                                           Class B, C, and D airspace, or at
be flown.                                                   airports with an operational control
    (8) Procedures for operating the instruments           tower in other airspace.
and equipment installed in the aircraft to be flown,         (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certifi-
including recognition and use of the proper opera-       cate or a recreational pilot certificate who wants
tional procedures and indications.                       to obtain privileges to operate in Class B, C, and
    (9) If equipped for flight with navigation radios,    D airspace, at an airport located in Class B, C, or
the use of radios for VFR navigation.                    D airspace, and to, from, through, or at an airport
    (10) Recognition of weather and upper air con-       having an operational control tower, must receive
ditions favorable for the cross-country flight.           and log ground and flight training from an autho-
    (11) Takeoff, approach and landing procedures.       rized instructor in the following aeronautical
    (m) Maneuvers and procedures for cross-              knowledge areas and areas of operation:
country flight training in a weight-shift-control            (1) The use of radios, communications, naviga-
aircraft. A student pilot who is receiving training      tion systems and facilities, and radar services.
for cross-country flight in a weight-shift-control           (2) Operations at airports with an operating
aircraft must receive and log flight training for the     control tower, to include three takeoffs and land-
following maneuvers and procedures:                      ings to a full stop, with each landing involving a
    (1) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR naviga-       flight in the traffic pattern, at an airport with an op-
tion using pilotage and dead reckoning with the          erating control tower.
aid of a magnetic compass, as appropriate.                  (3) Applicable flight rules of part 91 of this
    (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertain-      chapter for operations in Class B, C, and D air-
ing to cross-country flight.                              space and air traffic control clearances.
    (3) Procurement and analysis of aeronautical            (4) Ground and flight training for the specific
weather reports and forecasts, including recog-          Class B, C, or D airspace for which the solo flight
nizing critical weather situations and estimating        is authorized, if applicable, within the 90-day per-
visibility while in flight.                               iod preceding the date of the flight in that air-
    (4) Emergency procedures.                            space. The flight training must be received in the
    (5) Traffic pattern procedures that include area      specific airspace area for which solo flight is au-
departure, area arrival, entry into the traffic pat-      thorized.
tern, and approach.                                         (5) Ground and flight training for the specific
    (6) Procedures and operating practices for col-      airport located in Class B, C, or D airspace for
lision avoidance, wake turbulence precautions,           which the solo flight is authorized, if applicable,
and windshear avoidance.                                 within the 90-day period preceding the date of the
    (7) Recognition, avoidance, and operational re-      flight at that airport. The flight and ground training
strictions of hazardous terrain features in the geo-     must be received at the specific airport for which
graphical area where the cross-country flight will        solo flight is authorized.
be flown.                                                    (b) The authorized instructor who provides the
    (8) Procedures for operating the instruments         training specified in paragraph (a) of this section
and equipment installed in the aircraft to be flown,      must provide a logbook endorsement that certi-
including recognition and use of the proper opera-       fies the student has received that training and is
tional procedures and indications.                       proficient to conduct solo flight in that specific air-
    (9) If equipped for flight using navigation radios,   space or at that specific airport and in those aero-
the use of radios for VFR navigation.                    nautical knowledge areas and areas of operation
    (10) Recognition of weather and upper air con-       specified in this section.
ditions favorable for the cross-country flight.           [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44867, July 27,
    (11) Takeoff, approach and landing procedures,       2004]
including crosswind approaches and landings.
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40902, July 30, 1997;
Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44867, July 27, 2004; Amdt. 61–
124, 74 FR 42557, Aug. 21, 2009; Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR
5220, Feb. 1, 2010]




88
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                      §61.96


§61.95 Operations in Class B airspace                            Subpart D —
  and at airports located within
  Class B airspace.
                                                              Recreational Pilots
   (a) A student pilot may not operate an aircraft
on a solo flight in Class B airspace unless:
                                                       §61.96 Applicability and eligibility
   (1) The student pilot has received both ground        requirements: General.




                                                                                                                61
and flight training from an authorized instructor on       (a) This subpart prescribes the requirement for
that Class B airspace area, and the flight training     the issuance of recreational pilot certificates and
was received in the specific Class B airspace           ratings, the conditions under which those certifi-
area for which solo flight is authorized;               cates and ratings are necessary, and the general
   (2) The logbook of that student pilot has been      operating rules for persons who hold those certifi-
endorsed by the authorized instructor who gave         cates and ratings.
the student pilot flight training, and the endorse-        (b) To be eligible for a recreational pilot certifi-
ment is dated within the 90-day period preceding       cate, a person who applies for that certificate
the date of the flight in that Class B airspace area;   must:
and                                                       (1) Be at least 17 years of age;
   (3) The logbook endorsement specifies that the          (2) Be able to read, speak, write, and under-
student pilot has received the required ground         stand the English language. If the applicant is un-
and flight training, and has been found proficient       able to meet one of these requirements due to
to conduct solo flight in that specific Class B air-     medical reasons, then the Administrator may
space area.                                            place such operating limitations on that appli-
   (b) A student pilot may not operate an aircraft     cant’s pilot certificate as are necessary for the
on a solo flight to, from, or at an airport located     safe operation of the aircraft;
within Class B airspace pursuant to §91.131(b) of         (3) Receive a logbook endorsement from an
this chapter unless:                                   authorized instructor who—
   (1) The student pilot has received both ground         (i) Conducted the training or reviewed the appli-
and flight training from an instructor authorized to    cant’s home study on the aeronautical knowledge
provide training to operate at that airport, and the   areas listed in §61.97(b) of this part that apply to
flight and ground training has been received at         the aircraft category and class rating sought; and
the specific airport for which the solo flight is au-       (ii) Certified that the applicant is prepared for
thorized;                                              the required knowledge test.
   (2) The logbook of that student pilot has been         (4) Pass the required knowledge test on the
endorsed by an authorized instructor who gave          aeronautical knowledge areas listed in §61.97(b)
the student pilot flight training, and the endorse-     of this part;
ment is dated within the 90-day period preceding          (5) Receive flight training and a logbook en-
the date of the flight at that airport; and             dorsement from an authorized instructor who—
   (3) The logbook endorsement specifies that the          (i) Conducted the training on the areas of oper-
student pilot has received the required ground         ation listed in §61.98(b) of this part that apply to
and flight training, and has been found proficient       the aircraft category and class rating sought; and
to conduct solo flight operations at that specific          (ii) Certified that the applicant is prepared for
airport.                                               the required practical test.
   (c) This section does not apply to a student           (6) Meet the aeronautical experience require-
pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recre-     ments of §61.99 of this part that apply to the air-
ational pilot certificate.                              craft category and class rating sought before ap-
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as      plying for the practical test;
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40902, July 30, 1997;      (7) Pass the practical test on the areas of oper-
Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44868, July 27, 2004]              ation listed in §61.98(b) that apply to the aircraft
                                                       category and class rating;
                                                          (8) Comply with the sections of this part that
                                                       apply to the aircraft category and class rating; and
                                                          (9) Hold either a student pilot certificate or
                                                       sport pilot certificate.
                                                       [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
                                                       amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40902, July 30, 1997;
                                                       Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42558, Aug. 21, 2009]




                                                                                                         89
§61.97                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


§61.97 Aeronautical knowledge.                          §61.98 Flight proficiency.
   (a) General. A person who applies for a recre-          (a) General. A person who applies for a recre-
ational pilot certificate must receive and log           ational pilot certificate must receive and log
ground training from an authorized instructor or        ground and flight training from an authorized in-
complete a home-study course on the aeronauti-          structor on the areas of operation of this section
cal knowledge areas of paragraph (b) of this sec-       that apply to the aircraft category and class rating
tion that apply to the aircraft category and class      sought.
rating sought.                                             (b) Areas of operation.
   (b) Aeronautical knowledge areas.                       (1) For a single-engine airplane rating:
   (1) Applicable Federal Aviation Regulations of          (i) Preflight preparation;
this chapter that relate to recreational pilot privi-      (ii) Preflight procedures;
leges, limitations, and flight operations;                  (iii) Airport operations;
   (2) Accident reporting requirements of the Na-          (iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
tional Transportation Safety Board;                        (v) Performance maneuvers;
   (3) Use of the applicable portions of the “Aero-        (vi) Ground reference maneuvers;
nautical Information Manual” and FAA advisory              (vii) Navigation;
circulars;                                                 (viii) Slow flight and stalls;
   (4) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR naviga-          (ix) Emergency operations; and
tion using pilotage with the aid of a magnetic com-        (x) Postflight procedures.
pass;                                                      (2) For a helicopter rating:
   (5) Recognition of critical weather situations          (i) Preflight preparation;
from the ground and in flight, windshear avoid-             (ii) Preflight procedures;
ance, and the procurement and use of aeronauti-            (iii) Airport and heliport operations;
cal weather reports and forecasts;                         (iv) Hovering maneuvers;
   (6) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft, in-        (v) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
cluding collision avoidance, and recognition and           (vi) Performance maneuvers;
avoidance of wake turbulence;                              (vii) Ground reference maneuvers;
   (7) Effects of density altitude on takeoff and          (viii) Navigation;
climb performance;                                         (ix) Emergency operations; and
   (8) Weight and balance computations;                    (x) Postflight procedures.
   (9) Principles of aerodynamics, powerplants,            (3) For a gyroplane rating:
and aircraft systems;                                      (i) Preflight preparation;
   (10) Stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and            (ii) Preflight procedures;
spin recovery techniques, if applying for an air-          (iii) Airport operations;
plane single-engine rating;                                (iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
   (11) Aeronautical decision making and judg-             (v) Performance maneuvers;
ment; and                                                  (vi) Ground reference maneuvers;
   (12) Preflight action that includes—                     (vii) Navigation;
   (i) How to obtain information on runway lengths         (viii) Flight at slow airspeeds;
at airports of intended use, data on takeoff and           (ix) Emergency operations; and
landing distances, weather reports and forecasts,          (x) Postflight procedures.
and fuel requirements; and                              [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
   (ii) How to plan for alternatives if the planned     amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40902, July 30, 1997]
flight cannot be completed or delays are encoun-
tered.
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40902, July 30, 1997]




90
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                       §61.101


§61.99 Aeronautical experience.                          §61.101 Recreational pilot privileges
   A person who applies for a recreational pilot           and limitations.
certificate must receive and log at least 30 hours           (a) A person who holds a recreational pilot cer-
of flight time that includes at least—                    tificate may:
   (a) 15 hours of flight training from an authorized        (1) Carry no more than one passenger; and
instructor on the areas of operation listed in              (2) Not pay less than the pro rata share of the
§61.98 of this part that consists of at least:




                                                                                                                  61
                                                         operating expenses of a flight with a passenger,
   (1) Except as provided in §61.100 of this part,       provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, air-
2 hours of flight training en route to an airport that    port expenses, or aircraft rental fees.
is located more than 25 nautical miles from the             (b) A person who holds a recreational pilot cer-
airport where the applicant normally trains, which       tificate may act as pilot in command of an aircraft
includes at least three takeoffs and three landings      on a flight within 50 nautical miles from the depar-
at the airport located more than 25 nautical miles       ture airport, provided that person has—
from the airport where the applicant normally               (1) Received ground and flight training for take-
trains; and                                              off, departure, arrival, and landing procedures at
   (2) Three hours of flight training with an autho-      the departure airport;
rized instructor in the aircraft for the rating sought      (2) Received ground and flight training for the
in preparation for the practical test within the pre-    area, terrain, and aids to navigation that are in the
ceding 2 calendar months from the month of the           vicinity of the departure airport;
test.                                                       (3) Been found proficient to operate the aircraft
   (b) 3 hours of solo flying in the aircraft for the     at the departure airport and the area within 50
rating sought, on the areas of operation listed in       nautical miles from that airport; and
§61.98 of this part that apply to the aircraft cate-        (4) Received from an authorized instructor a
gory and class rating sought.                            logbook endorsement, which is carried in the per-
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as        son’s possession in the aircraft, that permits flight
amended by Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44868, July 27, 2004;     within 50 nautical miles from the departure air-
Amdt. 61–124A, 74 FR 53645, Oct. 20, 2009]               port.
                                                            (c) A person who holds a recreational pilot cer-
§61.100 Pilots based on small islands.                   tificate may act as pilot in command of an aircraft
   (a) An applicant located on an island from            on a flight that exceeds 50 nautical miles from the
which the flight training required in §61.99(a)(1) of     departure airport, provided that person has—
this part cannot be accomplished without flying              (1) Received ground and flight training from an
over water for more than 10 nautical miles from          authorized instructor on the cross-country training
the nearest shoreline need not comply with the re-       requirements of subpart E of this part that apply
quirements of that section. However, if other air-       to the aircraft rating held;
ports that permit civil operations are available to         (2) Been found proficient in cross-country fly-
which a flight may be made without flying over wa-         ing; and
ter for more than 10 nautical miles from the near-          (3) Received from an authorized instructor a
est shoreline, the applicant must show completion        logbook endorsement, which is carried on the
of a dual flight between two airports, which must         person’s possession in the aircraft, that certifies
include three landings at the other airport.             the person has received and been found profi-
   (b) An applicant who complies with paragraph          cient in the cross-country training requirements of
(a) of this section and meets all requirements for       subpart E of this part that apply to the aircraft rat-
the issuance of a recreational pilot certificate, ex-     ing held.
cept the requirements of §61.99(a)(1) of this part,         (d) A person who holds a recreational pilot cer-
will be issued a pilot certificate with an endorse-       tificate may act as pilot in command of an aircraft
ment containing the following limitation, “Passen-       in Class B, C, and D airspace, at an airport lo-
ger carrying prohibited on flights more than 10           cated in Class B, C, or D airspace, and to, from,
nautical miles from (the appropriate island).” The       through, or at an airport having an operational
limitation may be subsequently amended to in-            control tower, provided that person has—
clude another island if the applicant complies with         (1) Received and logged ground and flight
the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section        training from an authorized instructor on the fol-
for another island.                                      lowing aeronautical knowledge areas and areas
   (c) Upon meeting the requirements of                  of operation, as appropriate to the aircraft rating
§61.99(a)(1) of this part, the applicant may have        held:
the limitation(s) in paragraph (b) of this section re-      (i) The use of radios, communications, naviga-
moved.                                                   tion system and facilities, and radar services.
                                                            (ii) Operations at airports with an operating
                                                         control tower to include three takeoffs and land-



                                                                                                           91
§61.101                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


ings to a full stop, with each landing involving a          (2) No person other than a required flight crew-
flight in the traffic pattern at an airport with an op-   member is carried on the aircraft.
erating control tower.                                      (g) A person who holds a recreational pilot cer-
   (iii) Applicable flight rules of part 91 of this      tificate, has logged fewer than 400 flight hours,
chapter for operations in Class B, C, and D air-        and has not logged pilot-in-command time in an
space and air traffic control clearances;                aircraft within the 180 days preceding the flight
   (2) Been found proficient in those aeronautical       shall not act as pilot in command of an aircraft un-
knowledge areas and areas of operation specified         til the pilot receives flight training and a logbook
in paragraph (d)(1) of this section; and                endorsement from an authorized instructor, and
   (3) Received from an authorized instructor a         the instructor certifies that the person is proficient
logbook endorsement, which is carried on the            to act as pilot in command of the aircraft. This re-
person’s possession or readily accessible in the        quirement can be met in combination with the re-
aircraft, that certifies the person has received and     quirements of §§61.56 and 61.57 of this part, at
been found proficient in those aeronautical knowl-       the discretion of the authorized instructor.
edge areas and areas of operation specified in               (h) A recreational pilot certificate issued under
paragraph (d)(1) of this section.                       this subpart carries the notation, “Holder does not
   (e) Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (i)     meet ICAO requirements.”
of this section, a recreational pilot may not act as        (i) For the purpose of obtaining additional cer-
pilot in command of an aircraft—                        tificates or ratings while under the supervision of
   (1) That is certificated—                             an authorized instructor, a recreational pilot may
   (i) For more than four occupants;                    fly as the sole occupant of an aircraft:
   (ii) With more than one powerplant;                      (1) For which the pilot does not hold an appro-
   (iii) With a powerplant of more than 180 horse-      priate category or class rating;
power, except aircraft certificated in the rotorcraft        (2) Within airspace that requires communica-
category; or                                            tion with air traffic control; or
   (iv) With retractable landing gear;                      (3) Between sunset and sunrise, provided the
   (2) That is classified as a multiengine airplane,     flight or surface visibility is at least 5 statute miles.
powered-lift, glider, airship, balloon, powered             (j) In order to fly solo as provided in paragraph
parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft;            (i) of this section, the recreational pilot must meet
   (3) That is carrying a passenger or property for     the appropriate aeronautical knowledge and flight
compensation or hire;                                   training requirements of §61.87 for that aircraft.
   (4) For compensation or hire;                        When operating an aircraft under the conditions
   (5) In furtherance of a business;                    specified in paragraph (i) of this section, the rec-
   (6) Between sunset and sunrise;                      reational pilot shall carry the logbook that has
   (7) In Class A, B, C, and D airspace, at an air-     been endorsed for each flight by an authorized in-
port located in Class B, C, or D airspace, or to,       structor who:
from, through, or at an airport having an opera-            (1) Has given the recreational pilot training in
tional control tower;                                   the make and model of aircraft in which the solo
   (8) At an altitude of more than 10,000 feet MSL      flight is to be made;
or 2,000 feet AGL, whichever is higher;                     (2) Has found that the recreational pilot has
   (9) When the flight or surface visibility is less     met the applicable requirements of §61.87; and
than 3 statute miles;                                       (3) Has found that the recreational pilot is com-
   (10) Without visual reference to the surface;        petent to make solo flights in accordance with the
   (11) On a flight outside the United States, un-       logbook endorsement.
less authorized by the country in which the flight       [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
is conducted;                                           amended by Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44868, July 27, 2004;
   (12) To demonstrate that aircraft in flight as an     Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42558, Aug. 21, 2009]
aircraft salesperson to a prospective buyer;
   (13) That is used in a passenger-carrying airlift
and sponsored by a charitable organization; and
   (14) That is towing any object.
   (f) A recreational pilot may not act as a pilot
flight crewmember on any aircraft for which more
than one pilot is required by the type certificate of
the aircraft or the regulations under which the
flight is conducted, except when:
   (1) Receiving flight training from a person au-
thorized to provide flight training on board an air-
ship; and



92
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                     §61.105


 Subpart E—Private Pilots                               §61.105 Aeronautical knowledge.
                                                           (a) General. A person who is applying for a pri-
§61.102 Applicability.                                  vate pilot certificate must receive and log ground
                                                        training from an authorized instructor or complete
   This subpart prescribes the requirements for         a home-study course on the aeronautical knowl-
the issuance of private pilot certificates and rat-      edge areas of paragraph (b) of this section that
ings, the conditions under which those certificates      apply to the aircraft category and class rating




                                                                                                                61
and ratings are necessary, and the general oper-        sought.
ating rules for persons who hold those certificates         (b) Aeronautical knowledge areas.
and ratings.                                               (1) Applicable Federal Aviation Regulations of
                                                        this chapter that relate to private pilot privileges,
§61.103 Eligibility requirements:                       limitations, and flight operations;
  General.                                                 (2) Accident reporting requirements of the Na-
   To be eligible for a private pilot certificate, a     tional Transportation Safety Board;
person must:                                               (3) Use of the applicable portions of the “Aero-
   (a) Be at least 17 years of age for a rating in      nautical Information Manual” and FAA advisory
other than a glider or balloon.                         circulars;
   (b) Be at least 16 years of age for a rating in a       (4) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR naviga-
glider or balloon.                                      tion using pilotage, dead reckoning, and naviga-
   (c) Be able to read, speak, write, and under-        tion systems;
stand the English language. If the applicant is un-        (5) Radio communication procedures;
able to meet one of these requirements due to              (6) Recognition of critical weather situations
medical reasons, then the Administrator may             from the ground and in flight, windshear avoid-
place such operating limitations on that appli-         ance, and the procurement and use of aeronauti-
cant’s pilot certificate as are necessary for the        cal weather reports and forecasts;
safe operation of the aircraft.                            (7) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft, in-
   (d) Receive a logbook endorsement from an            cluding collision avoidance, and recognition and
authorized instructor who:                              avoidance of wake turbulence;
   (1) Conducted the training or reviewed the per-         (8) Effects of density altitude on takeoff and
son’s home study on the aeronautical knowledge          climb performance;
areas listed in §61.105(b) of this part that apply to      (9) Weight and balance computations;
the aircraft rating sought; and                            (10) Principles of aerodynamics, powerplants,
   (2) Certified that the person is prepared for the     and aircraft systems;
required knowledge test.                                   (11) Stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and
   (e) Pass the required knowledge test on the          spin recovery techniques for the airplane and
aeronautical knowledge areas listed in §61.105(b)       glider category ratings;
of this part.                                              (12) Aeronautical decision making and judg-
   (f) Receive flight training and a logbook en-         ment; and
dorsement from an authorized instructor who:               (13) Preflight action that includes—
   (1) Conducted the training in the areas of oper-        (i) How to obtain information on runway lengths
ation listed in §61.107(b) of this part that apply to   at airports of intended use, data on takeoff and
the aircraft rating sought; and                         landing distances, weather reports and forecasts,
   (2) Certified that the person is prepared for the     and fuel requirements; and
required practical test.                                   (ii) How to plan for alternatives if the planned
   (g) Meet the aeronautical experience require-        flight cannot be completed or delays are encoun-
ments of this part that apply to the aircraft rating    tered.
sought before applying for the practical test.          [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
   (h) Pass a practical test on the areas of opera-     amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40902, July 30, 1997]
tion listed in §61.107(b) of this part that apply to
the aircraft rating sought.
   (i) Comply with the appropriate sections of this
part that apply to the aircraft category and class
rating sought.
   (j) Hold a U.S. student pilot certificate, sport
pilot certificate, or recreational pilot certificate.
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
amended by Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42558, Aug. 21,
2009]




                                                                                                         93
§ 61.107                                                           Federal Aviation Regulations


§61.107 Flight proficiency.                             (vi) Ground reference maneuvers;
   (a) General. A person who applies for a private     (vii) Navigation;
pilot certificate must receive and log ground and       (viii) Flight at slow airspeeds;
flight training from an authorized instructor on the    (ix) Emergency operations;
areas of operation of this section that apply to the   (x) Night operations, except as provided in
aircraft category and class rating sought.             §61.110 of this part; and
   (b) Areas of operation.                             (xi) Postflight procedures.
   (1) For an airplane category rating with a sin-     (5) For a powered-lift category rating:
gle-engine class rating:                               (i) Preflight preparation;
   (i) Preflight preparation;                           (ii) Preflight procedures;
   (ii) Preflight procedures;                           (iii) Airport and heliport operations;
   (iii) Airport and seaplane base operations;         (iv) Hovering maneuvers;
   (iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;            (v) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
   (v) Performance maneuvers;                          (vi) Performance maneuvers;
   (vi) Ground reference maneuvers;                    (vii) Ground reference maneuvers;
   (vii) Navigation;                                   (viii) Navigation;
   (viii) Slow flight and stalls;                       (ix) Slow flight and stalls;
   (ix) Basic instrument maneuvers;                    (x) Basic instrument maneuvers;
   (x) Emergency operations;                           (xi) Emergency operations;
   (xi) Night operations, except as provided in        (xii) Night operations, except as provided in
   §61.110 of this part; and                           §61.110 of this part; and
   (xii) Postflight procedures.                         (xiii) Postflight procedures.
  (2) For an airplane category rating with a multi-    (6) For a glider category rating:
  engine class rating:                                 (i) Preflight preparation;
  (i) Preflight preparation;                            (ii) Preflight procedures;
  (ii) Preflight procedures;                            (iii) Airport and gliderport operations;
  (iii) Airport and seaplane base operations;          (iv) Launches and landings;
  (iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;             (v) Performance speeds;
  (v) Performance maneuvers;                           (vi) Soaring techniques;
  (vi) Ground reference maneuvers;                     (vii) Performance maneuvers;
  (vii) Navigation;                                    (viii) Navigation;
  (viii) Slow flight and stalls;                        (ix) Slow flight and stalls;
  (ix) Basic instrument maneuvers;                     (x) Emergency operations; and
  (x) Emergency operations;                            (xi) Postflight procedures.
  (xi) Multiengine operations;
                                                       (7) For a lighter-than-air category rating with an
  (xii) Night operations, except as provided in
                                                       airship class rating:
  §61.110 of this part; and
                                                       (i) Preflight preparation;
  (xiii) Postflight procedures.
                                                       (ii) Preflight procedures;
  (3) For a rotorcraft category rating with a heli-    (iii) Airport operations;
  copter class rating:                                 (iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
  (i) Preflight preparation;                            (v) Performance maneuvers;
  (ii) Preflight procedures;                            (vi) Ground reference maneuvers;
  (iii) Airport and heliport operations;               (vii) Navigation;
  (iv) Hovering maneuvers;                             (viii) Emergency operations; and
  (v) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;              (ix) Postflight procedures.
  (vi) Performance maneuvers;
                                                       (8) For a lighter-than-air category rating with a
  (vii) Navigation;
                                                       balloon class rating:
  (viii) Emergency operations;
                                                       (i) Preflight preparation;
  (ix) Night operations, except as provided in
                                                       (ii) Preflight procedures;
  §61.110 of this part; and
                                                       (iii) Airport operations;
  (x) Postflight procedures.
                                                       (iv) Launches and landings;
  (4) For a rotorcraft category rating with a gy-      (v) Performance maneuvers;
roplane class rating:                                  (vi) Navigation;
  (i) Preflight preparation;                            (vii) Emergency operations; and
  (ii) Preflight procedures;                            (viii) Postflight procedures.
  (iii) Airport operations;
                                                       (9) For a powered parachute category rating—
  (iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
                                                       (i) Preflight preparation;
  (v) Performance maneuvers;



94
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                    §61.109


  (ii) Preflight procedures;                               (4) 3 hours of flight training with an authorized
  (iii) Airport and seaplane base operations, as       instructor in a single-engine airplane in prepara-
  applicable;                                          tion for the practical test, which must have been
  (iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;             performed within the preceding 2 calendar
  (v) Performance maneuvers;                           months from the month of the test; and
  (vi) Ground reference maneuvers;                        (5) 10 hours of solo flight time in a single-engine
  (vii) Navigation;                                    airplane, consisting of at least—




                                                                                                                61
  (viii) Night operations, except as provided in          (i) 5 hours of solo cross-country time;
  §61.110;                                                (ii) One solo cross country flight of 150 nautical
  (ix) Emergency operations; and                       miles total distance, with full-stop landings at
  (x) Post-flight procedures.                           three points, and one segment of the flight con-
                                                       sisting of a straight-line distance of more than 50
  (10) For a weight-shift-control aircraft category
                                                       nautical miles between the takeoff and landing lo-
  rating—
                                                       cations; and
  (i) Preflight preparation;
                                                          (iii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full
  (ii) Preflight procedures;
                                                       stop (with each landing involving a flight in the
  (iii) Airport and seaplane base operations, as
                                                       traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating con-
  applicable;
                                                       trol tower.
  (iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
                                                          (b) For an airplane multiengine rating. Ex-
  (v) Performance maneuvers;
                                                       cept as provided in paragraph (k) of this section, a
  (vi) Ground reference maneuvers;
                                                       person who applies for a private pilot certificate
  (vii) Navigation;
                                                       with an airplane category and multiengine class
  (viii) Slow flight and stalls;
                                                       rating must log at least 40 hours of flight time that
  (ix) Night operations, except as provided in
                                                       includes at least 20 hours of flight training from an
  §61.110;
                                                       authorized instructor and 10 hours of solo flight
  (x) Emergency operations; and
                                                       training in the areas of operation listed in
  (xi) Post-flight procedures.
                                                       §61.107(b)(2) of this part, and the training must
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as      include at least—
amended by Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44868, July 27, 2004]
                                                          (1) 3 hours of cross-country flight training in a
                                                       multiengine airplane;
§61.109 Aeronautical experience.                          (2) Except as provided in §61.110 of this part,
   (a) For an airplane single-engine rating. Ex-       3 hours of night flight training in a multiengine air-
cept as provided in paragraph (k) of this section, a   plane that includes—
person who applies for a private pilot certificate         (i) One cross-country flight of over 100 nautical
with an airplane category and single-engine class      miles total distance; and
rating must log at least 40 hours of flight time that      (ii) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop
includes at least 20 hours of flight training from an   (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic
authorized instructor and 10 hours of solo flight       pattern) at an airport.
training in the areas of operation listed in              (3) 3 hours of flight training in a multiengine air-
§61.107(b)(1) of this part, and the training must      plane on the control and maneuvering of an air-
include at least—                                      plane solely by reference to instruments, includ-
   (1) 3 hours of cross-country flight training in a    ing straight and level flight, constant airspeed
single-engine airplane;                                climbs and descents, turns to a heading, recovery
   (2) Except as provided in §61.110 of this part,     from unusual flight attitudes, radio communica-
3 hours of night flight training in a single-engine     tions, and the use of navigation systems/facilities
airplane that includes—                                and radar services appropriate to instrument
   (i) One cross-country flight of over 100 nautical    flight;
miles total distance; and                                 (4) 3 hours of flight training with an authorized
   (ii) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop     instructor in a multiengine airplane in preparation
(with each landing involving a flight in the traffic     for the practical test, which must have been per-
pattern) at an airport.                                formed within the preceding 2 calendar months
   (3) 3 hours of flight training in a single-engine    from the month of the test; and
airplane on the control and maneuvering of an air-        (5) 10 hours of solo flight time in an airplane
plane solely by reference to instruments, includ-      consisting of at least—
ing straight and level flight, constant airspeed           (i) 5 hours of solo cross-country time;
climbs and descents, turns to a heading, recovery         (ii) One solo cross country flight of 150 nautical
from unusual flight attitudes, radio communica-         miles total distance, with full-stop landings at
tions, and the use of navigation systems/facilities    three points, and one segment of the flight con-
and radar services appropriate to instrument           sisting of a straight-line distance of more than 50
flight;


                                                                                                         95
§61.109                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


nautical miles between the takeoff and landing lo-         (ii) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop
cations; and                                            (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic
   (iii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full    pattern) at an airport.
stop (with each landing involving a flight in the           (3) 3 hours of flight training with an authorized
traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating con-    instructor in a gyroplane in preparation for the
trol tower.                                             practical test, which must have been performed
   (c) For a helicopter rating. Except as pro-          within the preceding 2 calendar months from the
vided in paragraph (k) of this section, a person        month of the test; and
who applies for a private pilot certificate with ro-        (4) 10 hours of solo flight time in a gyroplane,
torcraft category and helicopter class rating must      consisting of at least—
log at least 40 hours of flight time that includes at       (i) 3 hours of cross-country time;
least 20 hours of flight training from an authorized        (ii) One solo cross country flight of 100 nautical
instructor and 10 hours of solo flight training in the   miles total distance, with landings at three points,
areas of operation listed in §61.107(b)(3) of this      and one segment of the flight being a straight-line
part, and the training must include at least—           distance of more than 25 nautical miles between
   (1) 3 hours of cross-country flight training in a     the takeoff and landing locations; and
helicopter;                                                (iii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full
   (2) Except as provided in §61.110 of this part,      stop (with each landing involving a flight in the
3 hours of night flight training in a helicopter that    traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating con-
includes—                                               trol tower.
   (i) One cross-country flight of over 50 nautical         (e) For a powered-lift rating. Except as pro-
miles total distance; and                               vided in paragraph (k) of this section, a person
   (ii) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop      who applies for a private pilot certificate with a
(with each landing involving a flight in the traffic      powered-lift category rating must log at least 40
pattern) at an airport.                                 hours of flight time that includes at least 20 hours
   (3) 3 hours of flight training with an authorized     of flight training from an authorized instructor and
instructor in a helicopter in preparation for the       10 hours of solo flight training in the areas of op-
practical test, which must have been performed          eration listed in §61.107(b)(5) of this part, and the
within the preceding 2 calendar months from the         training must include at least—
month of the test; and                                     (1) 3 hours of cross-country flight training in a
   (4) 10 hours of solo flight time in a helicopter,     powered-lift;
consisting of at least—                                    (2) Except as provided in §61.110 of this part,
   (i) 3 hours cross-country time;                      3 hours of night flight training in a powered-lift that
   (ii) One solo cross country flight of 100 nautical    includes—
miles total distance, with landings at three points,       (i) One cross-country flight of over 100 nautical
and one segment of the flight being a straight-line      miles total distance; and
distance of more than 25 nautical miles between            (ii) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop
the takeoff and landing locations; and                  (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic
   (iii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full    pattern) at an airport.
stop (with each landing involving a flight in the           (3) 3 hours of flight training in a powered-lift on
traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating con-    the control and maneuvering of a powered-lift
trol tower.                                             solely by reference to instruments, including
   (d) For a gyroplane rating. Except as pro-           straight and level flight, constant airspeed climbs
vided in paragraph (k) of this section, a person        and descents, turns to a heading, recovery from
who applies for a private pilot certificate with ro-     unusual flight attitudes, radio communications,
torcraft category and gyroplane class rating must       and the use of navigation systems/facilities and
log at least 40 hours of flight time that includes at    radar services appropriate to instrument flight;
least 20 hours of flight training from an authorized        (4) 3 hours of flight training with an authorized
instructor and 10 hours of solo flight training in the   instructor in a powered-lift in preparation for the
areas of operation listed in §61.107(b)(4) of this      practical test, which must have been performed
part, and the training must include at least—           within the preceding 2 calendar months from the
   (1) 3 hours of cross-country flight training in a     month of the test; and
gyroplane;                                                 (5) 10 hours of solo flight time in an airplane or
   (2) Except as provided in §61.110 of this part,      powered-lift consisting of at least—
3 hours of night flight training in a gyroplane that        (i) 5 hours cross-country time;
includes—                                                  (ii) One solo cross country flight of 150 nautical
   (i) One cross-country flight of over 50 nautical      miles total distance, with full-stop landings at
miles total distance; and                               three points, and one segment of the flight con-
                                                        sisting of a straight-line distance of more than 50



96
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                        §61.109


nautical miles between the takeoff and landing lo-        use of navigation systems/facilities and radar ser-
cations; and                                              vices appropriate to instrument flight;
   (iii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full         (3) Three hours of flight training with an autho-
stop (with each landing involving a flight in the          rized instructor in an airship in preparation for the
traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating con-      practical test within the preceding 2 calendar
trol tower.                                               months from the month of the test; and
   (f) For a glider category rating.                         (4) 5 hours performing the duties of pilot in




                                                                                                                    61
   (1) If the applicant for a private pilot certificate    command in an airship with an authorized instruc-
with a glider category rating has not logged at           tor.
least 40 hours of flight time as a pilot in a heavier-        (h) For a balloon rating. A person who applies
than-air aircraft, the applicant must log at least 10     for a private pilot certificate with a lighter-than-air
hours of flight time in a glider in the areas of oper-     category and balloon class rating must log at least
ation listed in §61.107(b)(6) of this part, and that      10 hours of flight training that includes at least six
flight time must include at least—                         training flights with an authorized instructor in the
   (i) 20 flights in a glider in the areas of opera-       areas of operation listed in §61.107(b)(8) of this
tions listed in §61.107(b)(6) of this part, including     part, that includes —
at least 3 training flights with an authorized in-            (1) Gas balloon. If the training is being per-
structor in a glider in preparation for the practical     formed in a gas balloon, at least two flights of 2
test that must have been performed within the             hours each that consists of—
preceding 2 calendar months from the month of                (i) At least one training flight with an authorized
the test; and                                             instructor in a gas balloon in preparation for the
   (ii) 2 hours of solo flight time in a glider in the     practical test within the preceding 2 calendar
areas of operation listed in §61.107(b)(6) of this        months from the month of the test;
part, with not less than 10 launches and landings            (ii) At least one flight performing the duties of
being performed.                                          pilot in command in a gas balloon with an autho-
   (2) If the applicant has logged at least 40 hours      rized instructor; and
of flight time in a heavier-than-air aircraft, the ap-        (iii) At least one flight involving a controlled as-
plicant must log at least 3 hours of flight time in a      cent to 3,000 feet above the launch site.
glider in the areas of operation listed in                   (2) Balloon with an airborne heater. If the train-
§61.107(b)(6) of this part, and that flight time           ing is being performed in a balloon with an air-
must include at least —                                   borne heater, at least—
   (i) 10 solo flights in a glider in the areas of oper-      (i) At least two training flights of 1 hour each
ation listed in §61.107(b)(6) of this part; and           with an authorized instructor in a balloon with an
   (ii) 3 training flights with an authorized instruc-     airborne heater in preparation for the practical
tor in a glider in preparation for the practical test     test within the preceding 2 calendar months from
that must have been performed within the preced-          the month of the test;
ing 2 calendar months from the month of the test.            (ii) One solo flight in a balloon with an airborne
   (g) For an airship rating. A person who ap-            heater; and
plies for a private pilot certificate with a lighter-         (iii) At least one flight involving a controlled as-
than-air category and airship class rating must log       cent to 2,000 feet above the launch site.
at least:                                                    (i) For a powered parachute rating. A person
   (1) 25 hours of flight training in airships on the      who applies for a private pilot certificate with a
areas of operation listed in §61.107(b)(7) of this        powered parachute category rating must log at
part, which consists of at least:                         least 25 hours of flight time in a powered para-
   (i) 3 hours of cross-country flight training in an      chute that includes at least 10 hours of flight train-
airship;                                                  ing with an authorized instructor, including 30
   (ii) Except as provided in §61.110 of this part, 3     takeoffs and landings, and 10 hours of solo flight
hours of night flight training in an airship that in-      training in the areas of operation listed in
cludes:                                                   §61.107(b)(9) and the training must include at
   (A) A cross-country flight of over 25 nautical          least—
miles total distance; and                                    (1) One hour of cross-country flight training in a
   (B) Five takeoffs and five landings to a full stop      powered parachute that includes a 1-hour cross-
(with each landing involving a flight in the traffic        country flight with a landing at an airport at least
pattern) at an airport.                                   25 nautical miles from the airport of departure;
   (2) 3 hours of flight training in an airship on the        (2) Except as provided in §61.110, 3 hours of
control and maneuvering of an airship solely by           night flight training in a powered parachute that in-
reference to instruments, including straight and          cludes 10 takeoffs and landings (with each land-
level flight, constant airspeed climbs and de-             ing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an air-
scents, turns to a heading, recovery from unusual         port;
flight attitudes, radio communications, and the


                                                                                                             97
§61.109                                                                 Federal Aviation Regulations


   (3) Three hours of flight training with an autho-       senting the category, class, and type, if applica-
rized instructor in a powered parachute in prepa-         ble, of aircraft appropriate to the rating sought,
ration for the practical test, which must have been       may be credited toward the flight training time re-
performed within the preceding 2 calendar                 quired by this section, if received from an autho-
months from the month of the test;                        rized instructor.
   (4) Three hours of solo flight time in a powered            (2) A maximum of 5 hours of training in a flight
parachute, consisting of at least—                        simulator or flight training device representing the
   (i) One solo cross-country flight with a landing        category, class, and type, if applicable, of aircraft
at an airport at least 25 nautical miles from the         appropriate to the rating sought, may be credited
departure airport; and                                    toward the flight training time required by this sec-
   (ii) Twenty solo takeoffs and landings to a full       tion if the training is accomplished in a course
stop (with each landing involving a flight in a traffic     conducted by a training center certificated under
pattern) at an airport; and                               part 142 of this chapter.
   (5) Three takeoffs and landings (with each                 (3) Except when fewer hours are approved by
landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) in an    the Administrator, an applicant for a private pilot
aircraft at an airport with an operating control          certificate with an airplane, rotorcraft, or powered-
tower.                                                    lift rating, who has satisfactorily completed an ap-
   (j) For a weight-shift-control aircraft rating.        proved private pilot course conducted by a train-
A person who applies for a private pilot certificate       ing center certificated under part 142 of this chap-
with a weight-shift-control rating must log at least      ter, need only have a total of 35 hours of aeronau-
40 hours of flight time that includes at least 20          tical experience to meet the requirements of this
hours of flight training with an authorized instruc-       section.
tor and 10 hours of solo flight training in the areas      [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 40902, July 30, 1997; as
of operation listed in §61.107(b)(10) and the train-      amended by Amdt. 61–104, 63 FR 20287, April 23,
ing must include at least—                                1998; Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44868, July 27, 2004; Amdt.
   (1) Three hours of cross-country flight training        61–124, 74 FR 42558, Aug. 21, 2009; Amdt. 61–124A,
in a weight-shift-control aircraft;                       74 FR 53645, Oct. 20, 2009; Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5220,
   (2) Except as provided in §61.110, 3 hours of          Feb. 1, 2010]
night flight training in a weight-shift-control aircraft
that includes—                                            §61.110 Night flying exceptions.
   (i) One cross-country flight of over 75 nautical           (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of
miles total distance that includes a point of land-       this section, a person is not required to comply
ing that is a straight-line distance of more than 50      with the night flight training requirements of this
nautical miles from the original point of departure;      subpart if the person receives flight training in and
and                                                       resides in the State of Alaska.
   (ii) Ten takeoffs and landings (with each landing         (b) A person who receives flight training in and
involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport;   resides in the State of Alaska but does not meet
   (3) Three hours of flight training with an autho-       the night flight training requirements of this sec-
rized instructor in a weight-shift-control aircraft in    tion:
preparation for the practical test, which must have          (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limi-
been performed within the preceding 2 calendar            tation “Night flying prohibited”; and
months from the month of the test;                           (2) Must comply with the appropriate night
   (4) Ten hours of solo flight time in a weight-          flight training requirements of this subpart within
shift-control aircraft, consisting of at least—           the 12-calendar-month period after the issuance
   (i) Five hours of solo cross-country time; and         of the pilot certificate. At the end of that period,
   (ii) One solo cross-country flight over 100 nau-        the certificate will become invalid for use until the
tical miles total distance, with landings at a mini-      person complies with the appropriate night train-
mum of three points, and one segment of the               ing requirements of this subpart. The person may
flight being a straight line distance of at least 50       have the “Night flying prohibited” limitation re-
nautical miles between takeoff and landing loca-          moved if the person—
tions; and                                                   (i) Accomplishes the appropriate night flight
   (5) Three takeoffs and landings (with each             training requirements of this subpart; and
landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) in an       (ii) Presents to an examiner a logbook or train-
aircraft at an airport with an operating control          ing record endorsement from an authorized in-
tower.                                                    structor that verifies accomplishment of the ap-
   (k) Permitted credit for use of a flight simu-          propriate night flight training requirements of this
lator or flight training device.                           subpart.
   (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (k)(2) of            (c) A person who does not meet the night flying
this section, a maximum of 2.5 hours of training in       requirements in §61.109 (d)(2), (i)(2), or (j)(2) may
a flight simulator or flight training device repre-


98
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                      §61.115


be issued a private pilot certificate with the limita-       (1) The flight is only incidental to that business
tion “Night flying prohibited.” This limitation may       or employment; and
be removed by an examiner if the holder complies            (2) The aircraft does not carry passengers or
with the requirements of §61.109(d)(2), (i)(2), or       property for compensation or hire.
(j)(2), as appropriate.                                     (c) A private pilot may not pay less than the pro
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as        rata share of the operating expenses of a flight
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40904, July 30, 1997;     with passengers, provided the expenses involve




                                                                                                                 61
Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44869, July 27, 2004]                only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees.
                                                            (d) A private pilot may act as pilot in command
§61.111 Cross-country flights:                            of a charitable, nonprofit, or community event
  Pilots based on small islands.                         flight described in §91.146, if the sponsor and
                                                         pilot comply with the requirements of §91.146.
    (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this         (e) A private pilot may be reimbursed for air-
section, an applicant located on an island from          craft operating expenses that are directly related
which the cross-country flight training required in       to search and location operations, provided the
§61.109 of this part cannot be accomplished with-        expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport expendi-
out flying over water for more than 10 nautical           tures, or rental fees, and the operation is sanc-
miles from the nearest shoreline need not comply         tioned and under the direction and control of:
with the requirements of that section.                      (1) A local, State, or Federal agency; or
    (b) If other airports that permit civil operations      (2) An organization that conducts search and
are available to which a flight may be made with-         location operations.
out flying over water for more than 10 nautical              (f) A private pilot who is an aircraft salesman
miles from the nearest shoreline, the applicant          and who has at least 200 hours of logged flight
must show completion of two round-trip solo              time may demonstrate an aircraft in flight to a pro-
flights between those two airports that are far-          spective buyer.
thest apart, including a landing at each airport on         (g) A private pilot who meets the requirements
both flights.                                             of §61.69 may act as a pilot in command of an air-
    (c) An applicant who complies with paragraph         craft towing a glider or unpowered ultralight vehi-
(a) or paragraph (b) of this section, and meets all      cle.
requirements for the issuance of a private pilot            (h) A private pilot may act as pilot in command
certificate, except the cross-country training re-        for the purpose of conducting a production flight
quirements of §61.109 of this part, will be issued       test in a light-sport aircraft intended for certifica-
a pilot certificate with an endorsement containing        tion in the light-sport category under §21.190 of
the following limitation, “Passenger carrying pro-       this chapter, provided that—
hibited on flights more than 10 nautical miles from          (1) The aircraft is a powered parachute or a
(the appropriate island).” The limitation may be         weight-shift-control aircraft;
subsequently amended to include another island              (2) The person has at least 100 hours of pilot-
if the applicant complies with the requirements of       in-command time in the category and class of air-
paragraph (b) of this section for another island.        craft flown; and
    (d) Upon meeting the cross-country training re-         (3) The person is familiar with the processes
quirements of §61.109 of this part, the applicant        and procedures applicable to the conduct of pro-
may have the limitation in paragraph (c) of this         duction flight testing, to include operations con-
section removed.                                         ducted under a special flight permit and any asso-
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as        ciated operating limitations.
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40904, July 30, 1997]
                                                         [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
                                                         amended by Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44869, July 27, 2004;
§61.113 Private pilot privileges and                     Amdt. 61–115, 72 FR 6910, Feb. 13, 2007; Amdt. 61–
  limitations: Pilot in command.                         125, 75 FR 5220, Feb. 1, 2010]
   (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b)
through (h) of this section, no person who holds a       §61.115 Balloon rating: Limitations.
private pilot certificate may act as pilot in com-           (a) If a person who applies for a private pilot
mand of an aircraft that is carrying passengers or       certificate with a balloon rating takes a practical
property for compensation or hire; nor may that          test in a balloon with an airborne heater:
person, for compensation or hire, act as pilot in           (1) The pilot certificate will contain a limitation
command of an aircraft.                                  restricting the exercise of the privileges of that
   (b) A private pilot may, for compensation or          certificate to a balloon with an airborne heater;
hire, act as pilot in command of an aircraft in con-     and
nection with any business or employment if:                 (2) The limitation may be removed when the
                                                         person obtains the required aeronautical experi-



                                                                                                          99
§61.117                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


ence in a gas balloon and receives a logbook en-         cant’s pilot certificate as are necessary for the
dorsement from an authorized instructor who at-          safe operation of the aircraft.
tests to the person’s accomplishment of the re-             (c) Receive a logbook endorsement from an
quired aeronautical experience and ability to            authorized instructor who:
satisfactorily operate a gas balloon.                       (1) Conducted the required ground training or
   (b) If a person who applies for a private pilot       reviewed the person’s home study on the aero-
certificate with a balloon rating takes a practical       nautical knowledge areas listed in §61.125 of this
test in a gas balloon:                                   part that apply to the aircraft category and class
   (1) The pilot certificate will contain a limitation    rating sought; and
restricting the exercise of the privilege of that cer-      (2) Certified that the person is prepared for the
tificate to a gas balloon; and                            required knowledge test that applies to the aircraft
   (2) The limitation may be removed when the            category and class rating sought.
person obtains the required aeronautical experi-            (d) Pass the required knowledge test on the
ence in a balloon with an airborne heater and re-        aeronautical knowledge areas listed in §61.125 of
ceives a logbook endorsement from an autho-              this part;
rized instructor who attests to the person’s ac-            (e) Receive the required training and a logbook
complishment of the required aeronautical                endorsement from an authorized instructor who:
experience and ability to satisfactorily operate a          (1) Conducted the training on the areas of op-
balloon with an airborne heater.                         eration listed in §61.127(b) of this part that apply
                                                         to the aircraft category and class rating sought;
§61.117 Private pilot privileges and                     and
  limitations: Second in command of                         (2) Certified that the person is prepared for the
  aircraft requiring more than one pilot.                required practical test.
                                                            (f) Meet the aeronautical experience require-
   Except as provided in §61.113 of this part, no        ments of this subpart that apply to the aircraft cat-
private pilot may, for compensation or hire, act as      egory and class rating sought before applying for
second in command of an aircraft that is type cer-       the practical test;
tificated for more than one pilot, nor may that pilot        (g) Pass the required practical test on the
act as second in command of such an aircraft that        areas of operation listed in §61.127(b) of this part
is carrying passengers or property for compensa-         that apply to the aircraft category and class rating
tion or hire.                                            sought;
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as           (h) Hold at least a private pilot certificate is-
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40904, July 30, 1997]     sued under this part or meet the requirements of
                                                         §61.73; and
§61.118 – 61.120 [Reserved]                                 (i) Comply with the sections of this part that ap-
                                                         ply to the aircraft category and class rating
                                                         sought.
          Subpart F—
        Commercial Pilots                                §61.125 Aeronautical knowledge.
                                                            (a) General. A person who applies for a com-
§61.121 Applicability.
                                                         mercial pilot certificate must receive and log
   This subpart prescribes the requirements for          ground training from an authorized instructor, or
the issuance of commercial pilot certificates and         complete a home-study course, on the aeronauti-
ratings, the conditions under which those certifi-        cal knowledge areas of paragraph (b) of this sec-
cates and ratings are necessary, and the general         tion that apply to the aircraft category and class
operating rules for persons who hold those certifi-       rating sought.
cates and ratings.                                          (b) Aeronautical knowledge areas.
                                                            (1) Applicable Federal Aviation Regulations of
§61.123 Eligibility requirements:                        this chapter that relate to commercial pilot privi-
  General.                                               leges, limitations, and flight operations;
   To be eligible for a commercial pilot certificate,        (2) Accident reporting requirements of the Na-
a person must:                                           tional Transportation Safety Board;
   (a) Be at least 18 years of age;                         (3) Basic aerodynamics and the principles of
   (b) Be able to read, speak, write, and under-         flight;
stand the English language. If the applicant is un-         (4) Meteorology to include recognition of critical
able to meet one of these requirements due to            weather situations, windshear recognition and
medical reasons, then the Administrator may              avoidance, and the use of aeronautical weather
place such operating limitations on that appli-          reports and forecasts;
                                                            (5) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft;



100
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                     §61.127


   (6) Weight and balance computations;                (iv) Hovering maneuvers;
   (7) Use of performance charts;                      (v) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
   (8) Significance and effects of exceeding air-       (vi) Performance maneuvers;
craft performance limitations;                         (vii) Navigation;
   (9) Use of aeronautical charts and a magnetic       (viii) Emergency operations;
compass for pilotage and dead reckoning;               (ix) Special operations; and
   (10) Use of air navigation facilities;              (x) Postflight procedures.




                                                                                                            61
   (11) Aeronautical decision making and judg-         (4) For a rotorcraft category rating with a
ment;                                                  gyroplane class rating:
   (12) Principles and functions of aircraft sys-      (i) Preflight preparation;
tems;                                                  (ii) Preflight procedures;
   (13) Maneuvers, procedures, and emergency           (iii) Airport operations;
operations appropriate to the aircraft;                (iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
   (14) Night and high-altitude operations;            (v) Performance maneuvers;
   (15) Procedures for operating within the Na-        (vi) Ground reference maneuvers;
tional Airspace System; and                            (vii) Navigation;
   (16) Procedures for flight and ground training       (viii) Flight at slow airspeeds;
for lighter-than-air ratings.                          (ix) Emergency operations; and
                                                       (x) Postflight procedures.
§61.127 Flight proficiency.
                                                       (5) For a powered-lift category rating:
   (a) General. A person who applies for a com-
                                                       (i) Preflight preparation;
mercial pilot certificate must receive and log
                                                       (ii) Preflight procedures;
ground and flight training from an authorized in-
                                                       (iii) Airport and heliport operations;
structor on the areas of operation of this section
                                                       (iv) Hovering maneuvers;
that apply to the aircraft category and class rating
                                                       (v) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
sought.
                                                       (vi) Performance maneuvers;
   (b) Areas of operation.                             (vii) Navigation;
  (1) For an airplane category rating with a sin-      (viii) Slow flight and stalls;
  gle-engine class rating:                             (ix) Emergency operations;
  (i) Preflight preparation;                            (x) High-altitude operations;
  (ii) Preflight procedures;                            (xi) Special operations; and
  (iii) Airport and seaplane base operations;          (xii) Postflight procedures.
  (iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;             (6) For a glider category rating:
  (v) Performance maneuvers;                           (i) Preflight preparation;
  (vi) Ground reference maneuvers;                     (ii) Preflight procedures;
  (vii) Navigation;                                    (iii) Airport and gliderport operations;
  (viii) Slow flight and stalls;                        (iv) Launches and landings;
  (ix) Emergency operations;                           (v) Performance speeds;
  (x) High-altitude operations; and                    (vi) Soaring techniques;
  (xi) Postflight procedures.                           (vii) Performance maneuvers;
  (2) For an airplane category rating with a           (viii) Navigation;
  multiengine class rating:                            (ix) Slow flight and stalls;
  (i) Preflight preparation;                            (x) Emergency operations; and
  (ii) Preflight procedures;                            (xi) Postflight procedures.
  (iii) Airport and seaplane base operations;          (7) For a lighter-than-air category rating with an
  (iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;             airship class rating:
  (v) Performance maneuvers;                           (i) Fundamentals of instructing;
  (vi) Navigation;                                     (ii) Technical subjects;
  (vii) Slow flight and stalls;                         (iii) Preflight preparation;
  (viii) Emergency operations;                         (iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be
  (ix) Multiengine operations;                         performed in flight;
  (x) High-altitude operations; and                    (v) Preflight procedures;
  (xi) Postflight procedures.                           (vi) Airport operations;
  (3) For a rotorcraft category rating with a heli-    (vii) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
  copter class rating:                                 (viii) Performance maneuvers;
  (i) Preflight preparation;                            (ix) Navigation;
  (ii) Preflight procedures;                            (x) Emergency operations; and
  (iii) Airport and heliport operations;


                                                                                                      101
§61.129                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


  (xi) Postflight procedures.                                (v) Three hours in a single-engine airplane with
                                                         an authorized instructor in preparation for the
  (8) For a lighter-than-air category rating with a
                                                         practical test within the preceding 2 calendar
  balloon class rating:
                                                         months from the month of the test.
  (i) Fundamentals of instructing;
                                                            (4) Ten hours of solo flight time in a single en-
  (ii) Technical subjects;
                                                         gine airplane or 10 hours of flight time performing
  (iii) Preflight preparation;
                                                         the duties of pilot in command in a single engine
  (iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be
                                                         airplane with an authorized instructor on board
  performed in flight;
                                                         (either of which may be credited towards the flight
  (v) Preflight procedures;
                                                         time requirement under paragraph (a)(2) of this
  (vi) Airport operations;
                                                         section), on the areas of operation listed under
  (vii) Launches and landings;
                                                         §61.127(b)(1) that include—
  (viii) Performance maneuvers;
                                                            (i) One cross-country flight of not less than 300
  (ix) Navigation;
                                                         nautical miles total distance, with landings at a
  (x) Emergency operations; and
                                                         minimum of three points, one of which is a
  (xi) Postflight procedures.
                                                         straight-line distance of at least 250 nautical miles
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as        from the original departure point. However, if this
amended by Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42558, Aug. 21,
                                                         requirement is being met in Hawaii, the longest
2009]
                                                         segment need only have a straight-line distance
                                                         of at least 150 nautical miles; and
§61.129 Aeronautical experience.                            (ii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10
   (a) For an airplane single-engine rating. Ex-         takeoffs and 10 landings (with each landing in-
cept as provided in paragraph (i) of this section, a     volving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport
person who applies for a commercial pilot certifi-        with an operating control tower.
cate with an airplane category and single-engine            (b) For an airplane multiengine rating. Ex-
class rating must log at least 250 hours of flight        cept as provided in paragraph (i) of this section, a
time as a pilot that consists of at least:               person who applies for a commercial pilot certifi-
   (1) 100 hours in powered aircraft, of which 50        cate with an airplane category and multiengine
hours must be in airplanes.                              class rating must log at least 250 hours of flight
   (2) 100 hours of pilot-in-command flight time,         time as a pilot that consists of at least:
which includes at least—                                    (1) 100 hours in powered aircraft, of which 50
   (i) 50 hours in airplanes; and                        hours must be in airplanes.
   (ii) 50 hours in cross-country flight of which at         (2) 100 hours of pilot-in-command flight time,
least 10 hours must be in airplanes.                     which includes at least—
   (3) 20 hours of training on the areas of opera-          (i) 50 hours in airplanes; and
tion listed in §61.127(b)(1) of this part that in-          (ii) 50 hours in cross-country flight of which at
cludes at least—                                         least 10 hours must be in airplanes.
   (i) Ten hours of instrument training using a             (3) 20 hours of training on the areas of opera-
view-limiting device including attitude instrument       tion listed in §61.127(b)(2) of this part that in-
flying, partial panel skills, recovery from unusual       cludes at least—
flight attitudes, and intercepting and tracking navi-        (i) Ten hours of instrument training using a
gational systems. Five hours of the 10 hours re-         view-limiting device including attitude instrument
quired on instrument training must be in a single        flying, partial panel skills, recovery from unusual
engine airplane;                                         flight attitudes, and intercepting and tracking navi-
   (ii) 10 hours of training in an airplane that has a   gational systems. Five hours of the 10 hours re-
retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controllable       quired on instrument training must be in a multi-
pitch propeller, or is turbine-powered, or for an ap-    engine airplane;
plicant seeking a single-engine seaplane rating,            (ii) 10 hours of training in a multiengine air-
10 hours of training in a seaplane that has flaps         plane that has a retractable landing gear, flaps,
and a controllable pitch propeller;                      and controllable pitch propellers, or is turbine-
   (iii) One 2-hour cross country flight in a single      powered, or for an applicant seeking a multi-
engine airplane in daytime conditions that con-          engine seaplane rating, 10 hours of training in a
sists of a total straight-line distance of more than     multiengine seaplane that has flaps and a control-
100 nautical miles from the original point of de-        lable pitch propeller;
parture;                                                    (iii) One 2-hour cross country flight in a multi-
   (iv) One 2-hour cross country flight in a single       engine airplane in daytime conditions that con-
engine airplane in nighttime conditions that con-        sists of a total straight-line distance of more than
sists of a total straight-line distance of more than     100 nautical miles from the original point of de-
100 nautical miles from the original point of de-        parture;
parture; and


102
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                      §61.129


   (iv) One 2-hour cross country flight in a multi-      straight-line distance of more than 50 nautical
engine airplane in nighttime conditions that con-       miles from the original point of departure; and
sists of a total straight-line distance of more than       (iv) Three hours in a helicopter with an autho-
100 nautical miles from the original point of de-       rized instructor in preparation for the practical test
parture; and                                            within the preceding 2 calendar months from the
   (v) Three hours in a multiengine airplane with       month of the test.
an authorized instructor in preparation for the            (4) Ten hours of solo flight time in a helicopter




                                                                                                                 61
practical test within the preceding 2 calendar          or 10 hours of flight time performing the duties of
months from the month of the test.                      pilot in command in a helicopter with an autho-
   (4) 10 hours of solo flight time in a multiengine     rized instructor on board (either of which may be
airplane or 10 hours of flight time performing the       credited towards the flight time requirement under
duties of pilot in command in a multiengine air-        paragraph (c)(2) of this section), on the areas of
plane with an authorized instructor (either of          operation listed under §61.127(b)(3) that in-
which may be credited towards the flight time re-        cludes—
quirement in paragraph (b)(2) of this section), on         (i) One cross-country flight with landings at a
the areas of operation listed in §61.127(b)(2) of       minimum of three points, with one segment con-
this part that includes at least —                      sisting of a straight-line distance of at least 50
   (i) One cross-country flight of not less than 300     nautical miles from the original point of departure;
nautical miles total distance with landings at a        and
minimum of three points, one of which is a                 (ii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10
straight-line distance of at least 250 nautical miles   takeoffs and 10 landings (with each landing in-
from the original departure point. However, if this     volving a flight in the traffic pattern).
requirement is being met in Hawaii, the longest            (d) For a gyroplane rating. A person who ap-
segment need only have a straight-line distance         plies for a commercial pilot certificate with a rotor-
of at least 150 nautical miles; and                     craft category and gyroplane class rating must log
   (ii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10         at least 150 hours of flight time as a pilot (of which
takeoffs and 10 landings (with each landing in-         5 hours may have been accomplished in a flight
volving a flight with a traffic pattern) at an airport    simulator or flight training device that is represen-
with an operating control tower.                        tative of a gyroplane) that consists of at least:
   (c) For a helicopter rating. Except as pro-             (1) 100 hours in powered aircraft, of which 25
vided in paragraph (i) of this section, a person        hours must be in gyroplanes.
who applies for a commercial pilot certificate with         (2) 100 hours of pilot-in-command flight time,
a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating       which includes at least—
must log at least 150 hours of flight time as a pilot       (i) 10 hours in gyroplanes; and
that consists of at least:                                 (ii) 3 hours in cross-country flight in gyroplanes.
   (1) 100 hours in powered aircraft, of which 50          (3) 20 hours of training on the areas of opera-
hours must be in helicopters.                           tion listed in §61.127(b)(4) of this part that in-
   (2) 100 hours of pilot-in-command flight time,        cludes at least—
which includes at least—                                   (i) 2.5 hours on the control and maneuvering of
   (i) 35 hours in helicopters; and                     a gyroplane solely by reference to instruments us-
   (ii) 10 hours in cross-country flight in helicop-     ing a view-limiting device including attitude instru-
ters.                                                   ment flying, partial panel skills, recovery from un-
   (3) 20 hours of training on the areas of opera-      usual flight attitudes, and intercepting and track-
tion listed in §61.127(b)(3) of this part that in-      ing navigational systems. This aeronautical
cludes at least—                                        experience may be performed in an aircraft, flight
   (i) Five hours on the control and maneuvering        simulator, flight training device, or an aviation
of a helicopter solely by reference to instruments      training device;
using a view-limiting device including attitude in-        (ii) One 2-hour cross country flight in a gy-
strument flying, partial panel skills, recovery from     roplane in daytime conditions that consists of a to-
unusual flight attitudes, and intercepting and           tal straight-line distance of more than 50 nautical
tracking navigational systems. This aeronautical        miles from the original point of departure;
experience may be performed in an aircraft, flight          (iii) Two hours of flight training during nighttime
simulator, flight training device, or an aviation        conditions in a gyroplane at an airport, that in-
training device;                                        cludes 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop
   (ii) One 2-hour cross country flight in a helicop-    (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic
ter in daytime conditions that consists of a total      pattern); and
straight-line distance of more than 50 nautical            (iv) Three hours in a gyroplane with an autho-
miles from the original point of departure;             rized instructor in preparation for the practical test
   (iii) One 2-hour cross country flight in a helicop-   within the preceding 2 calendar months from the
ter in nighttime conditions that consists of a total    month of the test.


                                                                                                         103
§61.129                                                                 Federal Aviation Regulations


   (4) Ten hours of solo flight time in a gyroplane       straight-line distance of at least 250 nautical miles
or 10 hours of flight time performing the duties of       from the original departure point. However, if this
pilot in command in a gyroplane with an autho-           requirement is being met in Hawaii the longest
rized instructor on board (either of which may be        segment need only have a straight-line distance
credited towards the flight time requirement under        of at least 150 nautical miles; and
paragraph (d)(2) of this section), on the areas of          (ii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10
operation listed in §61.127(b)(4) that includes—         takeoffs and 10 landings (with each landing in-
   (i) One cross-country flight with landings at a        volving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport
minimum of three points, with one segment con-           with an operating control tower.
sisting of a straight-line distance of at least 50          (f) For a glider rating. A person who applies
nautical miles from the original point of departure;     for a commercial pilot certificate with a glider cat-
and                                                      egory rating must log at least —
   (ii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10             (1) 25 hours of flight time as a pilot in a glider
takeoffs and 10 landings (with each landing in-          and that flight time must include at least 100
volving a flight in the traffic pattern).                  flights in a glider as pilot in command, including at
   (e) For a powered-lift rating. Except as pro-         least —
vided in paragraph (i) of this section, a person            (i) Three hours of flight training in a glider with
who applies for a commercial pilot certificate with       an authorized instructor or 10 training flights in a
a powered-lift category rating must log at least         glider with an authorized instructor on the areas
250 hours of flight time as a pilot that consists of      of operation listed in §61.127(b)(6) of this part, in-
at least:                                                cluding at least 3 training flights in a glider with an
   (1) 100 hours in powered aircraft, of which 50        authorized instructor in preparation for the practi-
hours must be in a powered-lift.                         cal test within the preceding 2 calendar months
   (2) 100 hours of pilot-in-command flight time,         from the month of the test; and
which includes at least—                                    (ii) 2 hours of solo flight that include not less
   (i) 50 hours in a powered-lift; and                   than 10 solo flights in a glider on the areas of op-
   (ii) 50 hours in cross-country flight of which 10      eration listed in §61.127(b)(6) of this part; or
hours must be in a powered-lift.                            (2) 200 hours of flight time as a pilot in heavier-
   (3) 20 hours of training on the areas of opera-       than-air aircraft and at least 20 flights in a glider
tion listed in §61.127(b)(5) of this part that in-       as pilot in command, including at least —
cludes at least—                                            (i) Three hours of flight training in a glider or 10
   (i) Ten hours of instrument training using a          training flights in a glider with an authorized in-
view-limiting device including attitude instrument       structor on the areas of operation listed in
flying, partial panel skills, recovery from unusual       §61.127(b)(6) of this part including at least 3 train-
flight attitudes, and intercepting and tracking navi-     ing flights in a glider with an authorized instructor
gational systems. Five hours of the 10 hours re-         in preparation for the practical test within the pre-
quired on instrument training must be in a pow-          ceding 2 calendar months from the month of the
ered-lift;                                               test; and
   (ii) One 2-hour cross country flight in a pow-            (ii) 5 solo flights in a glider on the areas of oper-
ered-lift in daytime conditions that consists of a to-   ation listed in §61.127(b)(6) of this part.
tal straight-line distance of more than 100 nautical        (g) For an airship rating. A person who ap-
miles from the original point of departure;              plies for a commercial pilot certificate with a
   (iii) One 2-hour cross country flight in a pow-        lighter-than-air category and airship class rating
ered-lift in nighttime conditions that consists of a     must log at least 200 hours of flight time as a pilot,
total straight-line distance of more than 100 nauti-     which includes at least the following hours:
cal miles from the original point of departure; and         (1) 50 hours in airships.
   (iv) 3 hours in a powered-lift with an authorized        (2) Thirty hours of pilot in command flight time
instructor in preparation for the practical test         in airships or performing the duties of pilot in com-
within the preceding 2 calendar months from the          mand in an airship with an authorized instructor
month of the test.                                       aboard, which consists of—
   (4) Ten hours of solo flight time in a powered-lift       (i) 10 hours of cross-country flight time in air-
or 10 hours of flight time performing the duties of       ships; and
pilot in command in a powered-lift with an autho-           (ii) 10 hours of night flight time in airships.
rized instructor on board (either of which may be           (3) Forty hours of instrument time to include—
credited towards the flight time requirement under           (i) Instrument training using a view-limiting de-
paragraph (e)(2) of this section, on the areas of        vice for attitude instrument flying, partial panel
operation listed in §61.127(b)(5) that includes—         skills, recovery from unusual flight attitudes, and
   (i) One cross-country flight of not less than 300      intercepting and tracking navigational systems;
nautical miles total distance with landings at a         and
minimum of three points, one of which is a


104
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                     §61.129


   (ii) Twenty hours of instrument flight time, of       within the preceding 2 calendar months from the
which 10 hours must be in flight in airships.            month of the test;
   (4) 20 hours of flight training in airships on the       (B) Two solo flights in a balloon with an air-
areas of operation listed in §61.127(b)(7) of this      borne heater on the appropriate areas of opera-
part, which includes at least—                          tion; and
   (i) Three hours in an airship with an authorized        (C) One flight involving a controlled ascent to
instructor in preparation for the practical test        3,000 feet above the launch site.




                                                                                                                61
within the preceding 2 calendar months from the            (i) Permitted credit for use of a flight simula-
month of the test;                                      tor or flight training device.
   (ii) One hour cross country flight in an airship in      (1) Except as provided in paragraph (i)(2) of
daytime conditions that consists of a total straight-   this section, an applicant who has not accom-
line distance of more than 25 nautical miles from       plished the training required by this section in a
the point of departure; and                             course conducted by a training center certificated
   (iii) One hour cross country flight in an airship     under part 142 of this chapter may:
in nighttime conditions that consists of a total           (i) Credit a maximum of 50 hours toward the to-
straight-line distance of more than 25 nautical         tal aeronautical experience requirements for an
miles from the point of departure.                      airplane or powered-lift rating, provided the aero-
   (5) 10 hours of flight training performing the du-    nautical experience was obtained from an autho-
ties of pilot in command with an authorized in-         rized instructor in a flight simulator or flight train-
structor on the areas of operation listed in            ing device that represents that class of airplane or
§61.127(b)(7) of this part, which includes at           powered-lift category and type, if applicable, ap-
least —                                                 propriate to the rating sought; and
   (i) One cross-country flight with landings at a          (ii) Credit a maximum of 25 hours toward the
minimum of three points, with one segment con-          total aeronautical experience requirements of this
sisting of a straight-line distance of at least 25      section for a helicopter rating, provided the aero-
nautical miles from the original point of departure;    nautical experience was obtained from an autho-
and                                                     rized instructor in a flight simulator or flight train-
   (ii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10         ing device that represents a helicopter and type, if
takeoffs and 10 landings (with each landing in-         applicable, appropriate to the rating sought.
volving a flight in the traffic pattern).                    (2) An applicant who has accomplished the
   (h) For a balloon rating. A person who applies       training required by this section in a course con-
for a commercial pilot certificate with a lighter-       ducted by a training center certificated under part
than-air category and a balloon class rating must       142 of this chapter may:
log at least 35 hours of flight time as a pilot, which      (i) Credit a maximum of 100 hours toward the
includes at least the following requirements:           total aeronautical experience requirements of this
   (1) 20 hours in balloons;                            section for an airplane and powered-lift rating,
   (2) 10 flights in balloons;                           provided the aeronautical experience was ob-
   (3) Two flights in balloons as the pilot in com-      tained from an authorized instructor in a flight
mand; and                                               simulator or flight training device that represents
   (4) 10 hours of flight training that includes at      that class of airplane or powered-lift category and
least 10 training flights with an authorized instruc-    type, if applicable, appropriate to the rating
tor in balloons on the areas of operation listed in     sought; and
§61.127(b)(8) of this part, which consists of at           (ii) Credit a maximum of 50 hours toward the
least —                                                 total aeronautical experience requirements of this
   (i) For a gas balloon —                              section for a helicopter rating, provided the aero-
   (A) Two training flights of 2 hours each in a gas     nautical experience was obtained from an autho-
balloon with an authorized instructor in prepara-       rized instructor in a flight simulator or flight train-
tion for the practical test within the preceding 2      ing device that represents a helicopter and type, if
calendar months from the month of the test;             applicable, appropriate to the rating sought.
   (B) 2 flights performing the duties of pilot in          (3) Except when fewer hours are approved by
command in a gas balloon with an authorized in-         the FAA, an applicant for the commercial pilot cer-
structor on the appropriate areas of operation;         tificate with the airplane or powered-lift rating who
and                                                     has completed 190 hours of aeronautical experi-
   (C) One flight involving a controlled ascent to       ence is considered to have met the total aeronau-
5,000 feet above the launch site.                       tical experience requirements of this section, pro-
   (ii) For a balloon with an airborne heater—          vided the applicant satisfactorily completed an
   (A) Two training flights of 1 hour each in a bal-     approved commercial pilot course under part 142
loon with an airborne heater with an authorized         of this chapter and the approved course was ap-
instructor in preparation for the practical test



                                                                                                        105
§61.131                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


propriate to the commercial pilot certificate and        tificate with a lighter-than-air category rating
aircraft rating sought.                                 may—
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as           (i) For an airship —
amended by Amdt. 61–101, 62 FR 16892, April 8, 1997;        (A) Give flight and ground training in an airship
Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40904, July 30, 1997; Amdt. 61–     for the issuance of a certificate or rating;
104, 63 FR 20288, April 23, 1998; Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR       (B) Give an endorsement for a pilot certificate
42558, Aug. 21, 2009; Amdt. 61–124A, 74 FR 53646,       with an airship rating;
Oct. 20, 2009]                                              (C) Endorse a student pilot certificate or log-
                                                        book for solo operating privileges in an airship;
§61.131 Exceptions to the night flying                       (D) Act as pilot in command of an airship under
  requirements.                                         IFR or in weather conditions less than the mini-
   (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of   mum prescribed for VFR flight; and
this section, a person is not required to comply            (E) Give flight and ground training and en-
with the night flight training requirements of this      dorsements that are required for a flight review,
subpart if the person receives flight training in and    an operating privilege, or recency-of-experience
resides in the State of Alaska.                         requirements of this part.
   (b) A person who receives flight training in and          (ii) For a balloon—
resides in the State of Alaska but does not meet            (A) Give flight and ground training in a balloon
the night flight training requirements of this sec-      for the issuance of a certificate or rating;
tion:                                                       (B) Give an endorsement for a pilot certificate
   (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with the lim-   with a balloon rating;
itation “night flying prohibited.”                           (C) Endorse a student pilot certificate or log-
   (2) Must comply with the appropriate night           book for solo operating privileges in a balloon;
flight training requirements of this subpart within      and
the 12-calendar-month period after the issuance             (D) Give ground and flight training and en-
of the pilot certificate. At the end of that period,     dorsements that are required for a flight review,
the certificate will become invalid for use until the    an operating privilege, or recency-of-experience
person complies with the appropriate night flight        requirements of this part.
training requirements of this subpart. The person           (b) Limitations.
may have the “night flying prohibited” limitation re-        (1) A person who applies for a commercial pilot
moved if the person—                                    certificate with an airplane category or powered-
   (i) Accomplishes the appropriate night flight         lift category rating and does not hold an instru-
training requirements of this subpart; and              ment rating in the same category and class will be
   (ii) Presents to an examiner a logbook or train-     issued a commercial pilot certificate that contains
ing record endorsement from an authorized in-           the limitation, “The carriage of passengers for hire
structor that verifies accomplishment of the ap-         in (airplanes) (powered-lifts) on cross-country
propriate night flight training requirements of this     flights in excess of 50 nautical miles or at night is
subpart.                                                prohibited.” The limitation may be removed when
                                                        the person satisfactorily accomplishes the re-
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40905, July 30, 1997]    quirements listed in §61.65 of this part for an in-
                                                        strument rating in the same category and class of
                                                        aircraft listed on the person’s commercial pilot
§61.133 Commercial pilot privileges                     certificate.
  and limitations.                                          (2) If a person who applies for a commercial
   (a) Privileges.                                      pilot certificate with a balloon rating takes a prac-
   (1) General. A person who holds a commercial         tical test in a balloon with an airborne heater—
pilot certificate may act as pilot in command of an          (i) The pilot certificate will contain a limitation
aircraft—                                               restricting the exercise of the privileges of that
   (i) Carrying persons or property for compensa-       certificate to a balloon with an airborne heater.
tion or hire, provided the person is qualified in ac-        (ii) The limitation specified in paragraph (b)(2)(i)
cordance with this part and with the applicable         of this section may be removed when the person
parts of this chapter that apply to the operation;      obtains the required aeronautical experience in a
and                                                     gas balloon and receives a logbook endorsement
   (ii) For compensation or hire, provided the per-     from an authorized instructor who attests to the
son is qualified in accordance with this part and        person’s accomplishment of the required aero-
with the applicable parts of this chapter that apply    nautical experience and ability to satisfactorily op-
to the operation.                                       erate a gas balloon.
   (2) Commercial pilots with lighter-than-air cate-        (3) If a person who applies for a commercial
gory ratings. A person with a commercial pilot cer-     pilot certificate with a balloon rating takes a prac-
                                                        tical test in a gas balloon—


106
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                         §61.155


   (i) The pilot certificate will contain a limitation         (ii) Contains no geographical limitations.
restricting the exercise of the privileges of that            (e) Meet the aeronautical experience require-
certificate to a gas balloon.                               ments of this subpart that apply to the aircraft cat-
   (ii) The limitation specified in paragraph (b)(3)(i)     egory and class rating sought before applying for
of this section may be removed when the person             the practical test;
obtains the required aeronautical experience in a             (f) Pass a knowledge test on the aeronautical
balloon with an airborne heater and receives a             knowledge areas of §61.155(c) of this part that




                                                                                                                    61
logbook endorsement from an authorized instruc-            apply to the aircraft category and class rating
tor who attests to the person’s accomplishment of          sought;
the required aeronautical experience and ability              (g) Pass the practical test on the areas of oper-
to satisfactorily operate a balloon with an airborne       ation listed in §61.157(e) of this part that apply to
heater.                                                    the aircraft category and class rating sought; and
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as             (h) Comply with the sections of this subpart
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40905, July 30, 1997]       that apply to the aircraft category and class rating
                                                           sought.
§61.135 – 61.141 [Reserved]                                [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
                                                           amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40905, July 30, 1997;
                                                           Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42559, Aug. 21, 2009]
         Subpart G—
   Airline Transport Pilots                                §61.155 Aeronautical knowledge.
                                                              (a) General. The knowledge test for an airline
§61.151 Applicability.                                     transport pilot certificate is based on the aeronau-
   This subpart prescribes the requirements for            tical knowledge areas listed in paragraph (c) of
the issuance of airline transport pilot certificates        this section that are appropriate to the aircraft cat-
and ratings, the conditions under which those cer-         egory and class rating sought.
tificates and ratings are necessary, and the gen-              (b) Aircraft type rating. A person who is ap-
eral operating rules for persons who hold those            plying for an additional aircraft type rating to be
certificates and ratings.                                   added to an airline transport pilot certificate is not
                                                           required to pass a knowledge test if that person’s
                                                           airline transport pilot certificate lists the aircraft
§61.153 Eligibility requirements:
                                                           category and class rating that is appropriate to
  General.                                                 the type rating sought.
   To be eligible for an airline transport pilot certif-      (c) Aeronautical knowledge areas.
icate, a person must:                                         (1) Applicable Federal Aviation Regulations of
   (a) Be at least 23 years of age;                        this chapter that relate to airline transport pilot
   (b) Be able to read, speak, write, and under-           privileges, limitations, and flight operations;
stand the English language. If the applicant is un-           (2) Meteorology, including knowledge of and ef-
able to meet one of these requirements due to              fects of fronts, frontal characteristics, cloud forma-
medical reasons, then the Administrator may                tions, icing, and upper-air data;
place such operating limitations on that appli-               (3) General system of weather and NOTAM col-
cant’s pilot certificate as are necessary for the           lection, dissemination, interpretation, and use;
safe operation of the aircraft;                               (4) Interpretation and use of weather charts,
   (c) Be of good moral character;                         maps, forecasts, sequence reports, abbrevia-
   (d) Meet at least one of the following require-         tions, and symbols;
ments:                                                        (5) National Weather Service functions as they
   (1) Holds a commercial pilot certificate with an         pertain to operations in the National Airspace
instrument rating issued under this part;                  System;
   (2) Meet the military experience requirements              (6) Windshear and microburst awareness,
under §61.73 of this part to qualify for a commer-         identification, and avoidance;
cial pilot certificate, and an instrument rating if the        (7) Principles of air navigation under instrument
person is a rated military pilot or former rated mil-      meteorological conditions in the National Air-
itary pilot of an Armed Force of the United States;        space System;
or                                                            (8) Air traffic control procedures and pilot re-
   (3) Holds either a foreign airline transport pilot      sponsibilities as they relate to en route opera-
license with instrument privileges, or a foreign           tions, terminal area and radar operations, and in-
commercial pilot license with an instrument rating,        strument departure and approach procedures;
that—                                                         (9) Aircraft loading, weight and balance, use of
   (i) Was issued by a contracting State to the            charts, graphs, tables, formulas, and computa-
Convention on International Civil Aviation; and            tions, and their effect on aircraft performance;



                                                                                                            107
§61.157                                                               Federal Aviation Regulations


   (10) Aerodynamics relating to an aircraft’s flight    who completes an airline transport pilot practical
characteristics and performance in normal and           test will be included at the airline transport pilot
abnormal flight regimes;                                 certification level, provided the applicant passes
   (11) Human factors;                                  the practical test in the same category and class
   (12) Aeronautical decision making and judg-          of aircraft for which the applicant holds the type
ment; and                                               rating(s).
   (13) Crew resource management to include                (e) Areas of operation.
crew communication and coordination.                       (1) For an airplane category—single engine
                                                        class rating:
§61.157 Flight proficiency.                                 (i) Preflight preparation;
                                                           (ii) Preflight procedures;
   (a) General.
                                                           (iii) Takeoff and departure phase;
   (1) The practical test for an airline transport
                                                           (iv) In-flight maneuvers;
pilot certificate is given for—
                                                           (v) Instrument procedures;
   (i) An airplane category and single engine
                                                           (vi) Landings and approaches to landings;
class rating.
                                                           (vii) Normal and abnormal procedures;
   (ii) An airplane category and multiengine class
                                                           (viii) Emergency procedures; and
rating.
                                                           (ix) Postflight procedures.
   (iii) A rotorcraft category and helicopter class
rating.                                                    (2) For an airplane category—multiengine
   (iv) A powered-lift category rating.                 class rating:
   (v) An aircraft type rating.                            (i) Preflight preparation;
   (2) A person who is applying for an airline             (ii) Preflight procedures;
transport pilot practical test must meet—                  (iii) Takeoff and departure phase;
   (i) The eligibility requirements of §61.153; and        (iv) In-flight maneuvers;
   (ii) The aeronautical knowledge and aeronauti-          (v) Instrument procedures;
cal experience requirements of this subpart that           (vi) Landings and approaches to landings;
apply to the aircraft category and class rating            (vii) Normal and abnormal procedures;
sought.                                                    (viii) Emergency procedures; and
   (b) Aircraft type rating. Except as provided in         (ix) Postflight procedures.
paragraph (c) of this section, a person who ap-            (3) For a powered-lift category rating:
plies for an aircraft type rating to be added to an        (i) Preflight preparation;
airline transport pilot certificate or applies for a        (ii) Preflight procedures;
type rating to be concurrently completed with an           (iii) Takeoff and departure phase;
airline transport pilot certificate:                        (iv) In-flight maneuvers;
   (1) Must receive and log ground and flight train-        (v) Instrument procedures;
ing from an authorized instructor on the areas of          (vi) Landings and approaches to landings;
operation under this section that apply to the air-        (vii) Normal and abnormal procedures;
craft type rating;                                         (viii) Emergency procedures; and
   (2) Must receive a logbook endorsement from             (ix) Postflight procedures.
an authorized instructor that certifies the appli-
                                                           (4) For a rotorcraft category—helicopter class
cant completed the training on the areas of opera-
                                                        rating:
tion listed under paragraph (e) of this section that
                                                           (i) Preflight preparation;
apply to the aircraft type rating; and
                                                           (ii) Preflight procedures;
   (3) Must perform the practical test in actual or
                                                           (iii) Takeoff and departure phase;
simulated instrument conditions, except as pro-
                                                           (iv) In-flight maneuvers;
vided under paragraph (g) of this section.
                                                           (v) Instrument procedures;
   (c) Exceptions. A person who applies for an
                                                           (vi) Landings and approaches to landings;
aircraft type rating to be added to an airline trans-
                                                           (vii) Normal and abnormal procedures;
port pilot certificate or an aircraft type rating con-
                                                           (viii) Emergency procedures; and
currently with an airline transport pilot certificate,
                                                           (ix) Postflight procedures.
and who is an employee of a certificate holder op-
erating under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter,        (f) Proficiency and competency checks con-
does not need to comply with the requirements of        ducted under part 121, part 135, or subpart K
paragraph (b) of this section if the applicant pre-     of part 91.
sents a training record that shows completion of           (1) Successful completion of any of the follow-
that certificate holder’s approved pilot in com-         ing checks satisfies the flight proficiency require-
mand training program for the aircraft type rating.     ments of this section for the issuance of an airline
   (d) Upgrading type ratings. Any type rating(s)       transport pilot certificate and/or the appropriate
and limitations on a pilot certificate of an applicant   aircraft rating:



108
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                          §61.159


    (i) A proficiency check under §121.441 of this          during the practical test in the case where there is
chapter.                                                   no multi-seat version of that single engine air-
    (ii) Both a competency check under §135.293            plane.
(a)(2) and §135.293(b) of this chapter and pilot-in-          (j) Waiver authority. An Examiner who con-
command instrument proficiency check under                  ducts a practical test may waive any task for
§135.297 of this chapter.                                  which the FAA has provided waiver authority.
    (iii) Both a competency check under §91.1065           [Docket No. FAA–2006–26661, 74 FR 42560, Aug. 21,




                                                                                                                      61
of this chapter and a pilot-in-command instrument          2009; as amended by Amdt. 61–124A, 74 FR 53647,
proficiency check under §91.1069 of this chapter.           Oct. 20, 2009]
    (2) The checks specified in paragraph (f)(1) of
this section must be conducted by one of the fol-          §61.158 [Reserved]
lowing:
    (i) An FAA Aviation Safety Inspector.
                                                           §61.159 Aeronautical experience:
    (ii) An Aircrew Program Designee who is autho-
rized to perform proficiency and/or competency                Airplane category rating.
checks for the air carrier whose approved training            (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c),
program has been satisfactorily completed by the           and (d) of this section, a person who is applying
pilot applicant.                                           for an airline transport pilot certificate with an air-
    (iii) A Training Center Evaluator with appropri-       plane category and class rating must have at
ate certification authority who is also authorized          least 1,500 hours of total time as a pilot that in-
to perform the portions of the competency and/or           cludes at least:
proficiency checks required by paragraph (f)(1) of             (1) 500 hours of cross-country flight time.
this section for the air carrier whose approved               (2) 100 hours of night flight time.
training program has been satisfactorily com-                 (3) 75 hours of instrument flight time, in actual
pleted by the pilot applicant.                             or simulated instrument conditions, subject to the
    (g) Aircraft not capable of instrument ma-             following:
neuvers and procedures. An applicant may add                  (i) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of
a type rating to an airline transport pilot certificate     this section, an applicant may not receive credit
with an aircraft that is not capable of the instru-        for more than a total of 25 hours of simulated in-
ment maneuvers and procedures required on the              strument time in a flight simulator or flight training
practical test under the following circumstances—          device.
    (1) The rating is limited to “VFR only.’’                 (ii) A maximum of 50 hours of training in a flight
    (2) The type rating is added to an airline trans-      simulator or flight training device may be credited
port pilot certificate that has instrument privileges       toward the instrument flight time requirements of
in that category and class of aircraft.                    paragraph (a)(3) of this section if the training was
    (3) The “VFR only’’ limitation may be removed          accomplished in a course conducted by a training
for that aircraft type after the applicant:                center certificated under part 142 of this chapter.
    (i) Passes a practical test in that type of aircraft      (iii) Training in a flight simulator or flight training
on the appropriate instrument maneuvers and                device must be accomplished in a flight simulator
procedures in §61.157; or                                  or flight training device, representing an airplane.
    (ii) Becomes qualified in §61.73(d) for that type          (4) 250 hours of flight time in an airplane as a
of aircraft.                                               pilot in command, or as second in command per-
    (h) Multiengine airplane with a single-pilot           forming the duties of pilot in command while un-
station. An applicant for a type rating, at the ATP        der the supervision of a pilot in command, or any
certification level, in a multiengine airplane with a       combination thereof, which includes at least —
single-pilot station must perform the practical test          (i) 100 hours of cross-country flight time; and
in the multi-seat version of that airplane. The               (ii) 25 hours of night flight time.
practical test may be performed in the single-seat            (5) Not more than 100 hours of the total aero-
version of that airplane if the Examiner is in a po-       nautical experience requirements of paragraph
sition to observe the applicant during the practical       (a) of this section may be obtained in a flight sim-
test in the case where there is no multi-seat ver-         ulator or flight training device that represents an
sion of that multiengine airplane.                         airplane, provided the aeronautical experience
    (i) Single engine airplane with a single-pilot         was obtained in an approved course conducted
station. An applicant for a type rating, at the ATP        by a training center certificated under part 142 of
certification level, in a single engine airplane with       this chapter.
a single-pilot station must perform the practical             (b) A person who has performed at least 20
test in the multi-seat version of that single engine       night takeoffs and landings to a full stop may sub-
airplane. The practical test may be performed in           stitute each additional night takeoff and landing to
the single-seat version of that airplane if the Ex-        a full stop for 1 hour of night flight time to satisfy
aminer is in a position to observe the applicant           the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this sec-


                                                                                                              109
§61.159                                                                 Federal Aviation Regulations


tion; however, not more than 25 hours of night           aeronautical experience requirements of this sec-
flight time may be credited in this manner.               tion.
   (c) A commercial pilot may credit the following       [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
second-in-command flight time or flight-engineer           amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40906, July 30, 1997;
flight time toward the 1,500 hours of total time as       Amdt. 61–104, 63 FR 20288, April 23, 1998; Amdt. 61–
a pilot required by paragraph (a) of this section:       109, 68 FR 54560, Sept. 17, 2003; Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR
   (1) Second-in-command time, provided the              42561, Aug. 21, 2009]
time is acquired in an airplane—
   (i) Required to have more than one pilot flight        §61.161 Aeronautical experience:
crewmember by the airplane’s flight manual, type            Rotorcraft category and helicopter
certificate, or the regulations under which the             class rating.
flight is being conducted;                                   (a) A person who is applying for an airline
   (ii) Engaged in operations under subpart K of         transport pilot certificate with a rotorcraft category
part 91, part 121, or part 135 of this chapter for       and helicopter class rating, must have at least
which a second in command is required; or                1,200 hours of total time as a pilot that includes at
   (iii) That is required by the operating rules of      least:
this chapter to have more than one pilot flight              (1) 500 hours of cross-country flight time;
crewmember.                                                 (2) 100 hours of night flight time, of which 15
   (2) Flight-engineer time, provided the time—          hours are in helicopters;
   (i) Is acquired in an airplane required to have a        (3) 200 hours of flight time in helicopters, which
flight engineer by the airplane’s flight manual or         includes at least 75 hours as a pilot in command,
type certificate;                                         or as second in command performing the duties
   (ii) Is acquired while engaged in operations un-      of a pilot in command under the supervision of a
der part 121 of this chapter for which a flight engi-     pilot in command, or any combination thereof;
neer is required;                                        and
   (iii) Is acquired while the person is participating      (4) 75 hours of instrument flight time in actual
in a pilot training program approved under part          or simulated instrument meteorological condi-
121 of this chapter; and                                 tions, of which at least 50 hours are obtained in
   (iv) Does not exceed more than 1 hour for each        flight with at least 25 hours in helicopters as a
3 hours of flight engineer flight time for a total         pilot in command, or as second in command per-
credited time of no more than 500 hours.                 forming the duties of a pilot in command under the
   (3) Flight-engineer time, provided the flight          supervision of a pilot in command, or any combi-
time—                                                    nation thereof.
   (i) Is acquired as a U.S. Armed Forces’ flight            (b) Training in a flight simulator or flight training
engineer crewmember in an airplane that requires         device may be credited toward the instrument
a flight engineer crewmember by the flight man-            flight time requirements of paragraph (a)(4) of this
ual;                                                     section, subject to the following:
   (ii) Is acquired while the person is participating       (1) Training in a flight simulator or a flight train-
in a flight engineer crewmember training program          ing device must be accomplished in a flight simu-
for the U.S. Armed Forces; and                           lator or flight training device that represents a ro-
   (iii) Does not exceed 1 hour for each 3 hours of      torcraft.
flight engineer flight time for a total credited time         (2) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3) of
of no more than 500 hours.                               this section, an applicant may receive credit for
   (d) An applicant is issued an airline transport       not more than a total of 25 hours of simulated in-
pilot certificate with the limitation, “Holder does       strument time in a flight simulator and flight train-
not meet the pilot in command aeronautical expe-         ing device.
rience requirements of ICAO,’’ as prescribed un-            (3) A maximum of 50 hours of training in a flight
der Article 39 of the Convention on International        simulator or flight training device may be credited
Civil Aviation, if the applicant does not meet the       toward the instrument flight time requirements of
ICAO requirements contained in Annex 1 “Per-             paragraph (a)(4) of this section if the aeronautical
sonnel Licensing’’ to the Convention on Interna-         experience is accomplished in an approved
tional Civil Aviation, but otherwise meets the aero-     course conducted by a training center certificated
nautical experience requirements of this section.        under part 142 of this chapter.
   (e) An applicant is entitled to an airline trans-
port pilot certificate without the ICAO limitation        [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
specified under paragraph (d) of this section             amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40906, July 30, 1997;
                                                         Amdt. 61–104, 63 FR 20289, April 23, 1998]
when the applicant presents satisfactory evidence
of having met the ICAO requirements under para-
graph (d) of this section and otherwise meets the



110
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                        §61.165


§61.163 Aeronautical experience:                              (4) Meet the applicable aeronautical experi-
  Powered-lift category rating.                            ence requirements of §61.161 of this part; and
                                                              (5) Pass the practical test on the areas of oper-
   (a) A person who is applying for an airline
                                                           ation of §61.157(e)(4) of this part.
transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift cate-
                                                              (b) Airplane category rating with a single-
gory rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total
                                                           engine class rating. A person applying for an air-
time as a pilot that includes at least:
                                                           line transport certificate with an airplane category




                                                                                                                   61
   (1) 500 hours of cross-country flight time;
                                                           and single-engine class rating who holds an air-
   (2) 100 hours of night flight time;
                                                           line transport pilot certificate with another aircraft
   (3) 250 hours in a powered-lift as a pilot in com-
                                                           category rating must:
mand, or as a second in command performing the
                                                              (1) Meet the eligibility requirements of §61.153
duties of a pilot in command under the supervi-
                                                           of this part;
sion of a pilot in command, or any combination
                                                              (2) Pass a knowledge test on the aeronautical
thereof, which includes at least —
                                                           knowledge areas of §61.155(c) of this part;
   (i) 100 hours of cross-country flight time; and
                                                              (3) Comply with the requirements in §61.157(b)
   (ii) 25 hours of night flight time.
                                                           of this part, if appropriate;
   (4) 75 hours of instrument flight time in actual
                                                              (4) Meet the applicable aeronautical experi-
or simulated instrument conditions, subject to the
                                                           ence requirements of §61.159 of this part; and
following:
                                                              (5) Pass the practical test on the areas of oper-
   (i) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of
                                                           ation of §61.157(e)(1) of this part.
this section, an applicant may not receive credit
                                                              (c) Airplane category rating with a multi-
for more than a total of 25 hours of simulated in-
                                                           engine class rating. A person applying for an air-
strument time in a flight simulator or flight training
                                                           line transport certificate with an airplane category
device.
                                                           and multiengine class rating who holds an airline
   (ii) A maximum of 50 hours of training in a flight
                                                           transport certificate with another aircraft category
simulator or flight training device may be credited
                                                           rating must:
toward the instrument flight time requirements of
                                                              (1) Meet the eligibility requirements of §61.153
paragraph (a)(4) of this section if the training was
                                                           of this part;
accomplished in a course conducted by a training
                                                              (2) Pass a knowledge test on the aeronautical
center certificated under part 142 of this chapter.
                                                           knowledge areas of §61.155(c) of this part;
   (iii) Training in a flight simulator or flight training
                                                              (3) Comply with the requirements in §61.157(b)
device must be accomplished in a flight simulator
                                                           of this part, if appropriate;
or flight training device that represents a pow-
                                                              (4) Meet the applicable aeronautical experi-
ered-lift.
                                                           ence requirements of §61.159 of this part; and
   (b) Not more than 100 hours of the total aero-
                                                              (5) Pass the practical test on the areas of oper-
nautical experience requirements of paragraph
                                                           ation of §61.157(e)(2) of this part.
(a) of this section may be obtained in a flight sim-
                                                              (d) Powered-lift category. A person applying
ulator or flight training device that represents a
                                                           for an airline transport pilot certificate with a pow-
powered-lift, provided the aeronautical experi-
                                                           ered-lift category rating who holds an airline
ence was obtained in an approved course con-
                                                           transport certificate with another aircraft category
ducted by a training center certificated under part
                                                           rating must:
142 of this chapter.
                                                              (1) Meet the eligibility requirements of §61.153
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as          of this part;
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40906, July 30, 1997;
                                                              (2) Pass a required knowledge test on the
Amdt. 61–104, 63 FR 20289, April 23, 1998]
                                                           aeronautical knowledge areas of §61.155(c) of
                                                           this part;
§61.165 Additional aircraft category and                      (3) Comply with the requirements in §61.157(b)
  class ratings.                                           of this part, if appropriate;
   (a) Rotorcraft category and helicopter class               (4) Meet the applicable aeronautical experi-
rating. A person applying for an airline transport         ence requirements of §61.163 of this part; and
certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicop-            (5) Pass the required practical test on the areas
ter class rating who holds an airline transport pilot      of operation of §61.157(e)(3) of this part.
certificate with another aircraft category rating              (e) Additional class rating within the same
must:                                                      aircraft category. A person applying for an airline
   (1) Meet the eligibility requirements of §61.153        transport certificate with an additional class rating
of this part;                                              who holds an airline transport certificate in the
   (2) Pass a knowledge test on the aeronautical           same aircraft category must—
knowledge areas of §61.155(c) of this part;                   (1) Meet the eligibility requirements of §61.153,
   (3) Comply with the requirements in §61.157(b)          except paragraph (f) of that section;
of this part, if appropriate;


                                                                                                           111
§61.167                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


   (2) Comply with the requirements in §61.157(b)       flight simulators, and flight training devices under
of this part, if applicable;                            this section—
   (3) Meet the applicable aeronautical experi-            (1) For more than 8 hours in any 24-consecu-
ence requirements of subpart G of this part; and        tive-hour period; or
   (4) Pass a practical test on the areas of opera-        (2) For more than 36 hours in any 7-consecu-
tion of §61.157(e) appropriate to the aircraft rating   tive-day period.
sought.                                                    (d) An airline transport pilot may not instruct in
   (f) Category class ratings for the operation         Category II or Category III operations unless he
of aircraft with experimental certificates. Not-         or she has been trained and successfully tested
withstanding the provisions of paragraphs (a)           under Category II or Category III operations, as
through (e) of this section, a person holding an        applicable.
airline transport certificate may apply for a cate-      [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
gory and class rating limited to a specific make         amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40907, July 30, 1997;
and model of experimental aircraft, provided—           Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42561, Aug. 21, 2009]
   (1) The person has logged at least 5 hours
flight time while acting as pilot in command in the      §61.169 – 61.171 [Reserved]
same category, class, make, and model of aircraft
that has been issued an experimental certificate;
   (2) The person has received a logbook en-                    Subpart H —
dorsement from an authorized instructor who has
determined that he or she is proficient to act as          Flight Instructors Other
pilot in command of the same category, class,             Than Flight Instructors
make, and model of aircraft for which application
is made; and                                              with a Sport Pilot Rating
   (3) The flight time specified in paragraph (f)(1)
of this section must be logged between Septem-          §61.181 Applicability.
ber 1, 2004 and August 31, 2005.                           This subpart prescribes the requirements for
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as       the issuance of flight instructor certificates and
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40906, July 30, 1997;    ratings (except for flight instructor certificates with
Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44869, July 27, 2004]               a sport pilot rating), the conditions under which
                                                        those certificates and ratings are necessary, and
§61.167 Privileges.                                     the limitations on those certificates and ratings.
   (a) A person who holds an airline transport pilot    [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44869, July 27,
certificate is entitled to the same privileges as a      2004]
person who holds a commercial pilot certificate
with an instrument rating.                              §61.183 Eligibility requirements.
   (b) An airline transport pilot may instruct—            To be eligible for a flight instructor certificate or
   (1) Other pilots in air transportation service in    rating a person must:
aircraft of the category, class, and type, as appli-       (a) Be at least 18 years of age;
cable, for which the airline transport pilot is rated      (b) Be able to read, speak, write, and under-
and endorse the logbook or other training record        stand the English language. If the applicant is un-
of the person to whom training has been given;          able to meet one of these requirements due to
   (2) In flight simulators, and flight training de-      medical reasons, then the Administrator may
vices representing the aircraft referenced in para-     place such operating limitations on that appli-
graph (b)(1) of this section, when instructing un-      cant’s flight instructor certificate as are neces-
der the provisions of this section and endorse the      sary;
logbook or other training record of the person to          (c) Hold either a commercial pilot certificate or
whom training has been given;                           airline transport pilot certificate with:
   (3) Only as provided in this section, except that       (1) An aircraft category and class rating that is
an airline transport pilot who also holds a flight in-   appropriate to the flight instructor rating sought;
structor certificate can exercise the instructor priv-   and
ileges under subpart H of this part for which he or        (2) An instrument rating or privileges on that
she is rated; and                                       person’s pilot certificate that are appropriate to
   (4) In an aircraft, only if the aircraft has func-   the flight instructor rating sought, if applying for—
tioning dual controls, when instructing under the          (i) A flight instructor certificate with an airplane
provisions of this section.                             category and single-engine class rating;
   (c) Excluding briefings and debriefings, an air-          (ii) A flight instructor certificate with an airplane
line transport pilot may not instruct in aircraft,      category and multiengine class rating;




112
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                       §61.185


    (iii) A flight instructor certificate with a powered-   result of deficiencies in the ability of an applicant
lift rating; or                                           to demonstrate knowledge or skill of stall aware-
    (iv) A flight instructor certificate with an instru-    ness, spin entry, spins, or spin recovery instruc-
ment rating.                                              tional procedures, the examiner must test the per-
    (d) Receive a logbook endorsement from an             son on stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin
authorized instructor on the fundamentals of in-          recovery instructional procedures in an airplane
structing listed in §61.185 of this part appropriate      or glider, as appropriate, that is certificated for




                                                                                                                  61
to the required knowledge test;                           spins;
    (e) Pass a knowledge test on the areas listed in         (j) Log at least 15 hours as pilot in command in
§61.185(a)(1) of this part, unless the applicant:         the category and class of aircraft that is appropri-
    (1) Holds a flight instructor certificate or ground     ate to the flight instructor rating sought; and
instructor certificate issued under this part;                (k) Comply with the appropriate sections of this
    (2) Holds a teacher’s certificate issued by a          part that apply to the flight instructor rating
State, county, city, or municipality that authorizes      sought.
the person to teach at an educational level of the        [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
7th grade or higher; or                                   amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40907, July 30, 1997;
    (3) Is employed as a teacher at an accredited         Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42561, Aug. 21, 2009]
college or university.
    (f) Pass a knowledge test on the aeronautical         §61.185 Aeronautical knowledge.
knowledge areas listed in §61.185(a)(2) and                  (a) A person who is applying for a flight instruc-
(a)(3) of this part that are appropriate to the flight     tor certificate must receive and log ground train-
instructor rating sought;                                 ing from an authorized instructor on:
    (g) Receive a logbook endorsement from an                (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this
authorized instructor on the areas of operation           section, the fundamentals of instructing, includ-
listed in §61.187(b) of this part, appropriate to the     ing:
flight instructor rating sought;                              (i) The learning process;
    (h) Pass the required practical test that is ap-         (ii) Elements of effective teaching;
propriate to the flight instructor rating sought in           (iii) Student evaluation and testing;
an:                                                          (iv) Course development;
    (1) Aircraft that is representative of the cate-         (v) Lesson planning; and
gory and class of aircraft for the aircraft rating           (vi) Classroom training techniques.
sought; or                                                   (2) The aeronautical knowledge areas for a rec-
    (2) Flight simulator or flight training device that    reational, private, and commercial pilot certificate
is representative of the category and class of air-       applicable to the aircraft category for which flight
craft for the rating sought, and used in accor-           instructor privileges are sought; and
dance with an approved course at a training cen-             (3) The aeronautical knowledge areas for the
ter certificated under part 142 of this chapter.           instrument rating applicable to the category for
    (i) Accomplish the following for a flight instruc-     which instrument flight instructor privileges are
tor certificate with an airplane or a glider rating:       sought.
    (1) Receive a logbook endorsement from an                (b) The following applicants do not need to
authorized instructor indicating that the applicant       comply with paragraph (a)(1) of this section:
is competent and possesses instructional profi-               (1) The holder of a flight instructor certificate or
ciency in stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and         ground instructor certificate issued under this
spin recovery procedures after providing the ap-          part;
plicant with flight training in those training areas in       (2) The holder of a current teacher’s certificate
an airplane or glider, as appropriate, that is certif-    issued by a State, county, city, or municipality that
icated for spins; and                                     authorizes the person to teach at an educational
    (2) Demonstrate instructional proficiency in           level of the 7th grade or higher; or
stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recov-          (3) A person employed as a teacher at an ac-
ery procedures. However, upon presentation of             credited college or university.
the endorsement specified in paragraph (i)(1) of
this section an examiner may accept that en-              [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
                                                          amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40907, July 30, 1997]
dorsement as satisfactory evidence of instruc-
tional proficiency in stall awareness, spin entry,
spins, and spin recovery procedures for the prac-
tical test, provided that the practical test is not a
retest as a result of the applicant failing the previ-
ous test for deficiencies in the knowledge or skill
of stall awareness, spin entry, spins, or spin re-
covery instructional procedures. If the retest is a


                                                                                                          113
§61.187                                                           Federal Aviation Regulations


§61.187 Flight proficiency.                             (x) Performance maneuvers;
   (a) General. A person who is applying for a         (xi) Emergency operations;
flight instructor certificate must receive and log       (xii) Special operations; and
flight and ground training from an authorized in-       (xiii) Postflight procedures.
structor on the areas of operation listed in this      (4) For a rotorcraft category rating with a gy-
section that apply to the flight instructor rating      roplane class rating:
sought. The applicant’s logbook must contain an        (i) Fundamentals of instructing;
endorsement from an authorized instructor certi-       (ii) Technical subject areas;
fying that the person is proficient to pass a practi-   (iii) Preflight preparation;
cal test on those areas of operation.                  (iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be
   (b) Areas of operation.                             performed in flight;
   (1) For an airplane category rating with a sin-     (v) Preflight procedures;
gle-engine class rating:                               (vi) Airport operations;
   (i) Fundamentals of instructing;                    (vii) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
   (ii) Technical subject areas;                       (viii) Fundamentals of flight;
   (iii) Preflight preparation;                         (ix) Performance maneuvers;
   (iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be            (x) Flight at slow airspeeds;
   performed in flight;                                 (xi) Ground reference maneuvers;
   (v) Preflight procedures;                            (xii) Emergency operations; and
   (vi) Airport and seaplane base operations;          (xiii) Postflight procedures.
   (vii) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
                                                       (5) For a powered-lift category rating:
   (viii) Fundamentals of flight;
                                                       (i) Fundamentals of instructing;
   (ix) Performance maneuvers;
                                                       (ii) Technical subject areas;
   (x) Ground reference maneuvers;
                                                       (iii) Preflight preparation;
   (xi) Slow flight, stalls, and spins;
                                                       (iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be
   (xii) Basic instrument maneuvers;
                                                       performed in flight;
   (xiii) Emergency operations; and
                                                       (v) Preflight procedures;
   (xiv) Postflight procedures.
                                                       (vi) Airport and heliport operations;
  (2) For an airplane category rating with a multi-    (vii) Hovering maneuvers;
  engine class rating:                                 (viii) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
  (i) Fundamentals of instructing;                     (ix) Fundamentals of flight;
  (ii) Technical subject areas;                        (x) Performance maneuvers;
  (iii) Preflight preparation;                          (xi) Ground reference maneuvers;
  (iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be             (xii) Slow flight and stalls;
  performed in flight;                                  (xiii) Basic instrument maneuvers;
  (v) Preflight procedures;                             (xiv) Emergency operations;
  (vi) Airport and seaplane base operations;           (xv) Special operations; and
  (vii) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;            (xvi) Postflight procedures.
  (viii) Fundamentals of flight;
                                                       (6) For a glider category rating:
  (ix) Performance maneuvers;
                                                       (i) Fundamentals of instructing;
  (x) Ground reference maneuvers;
                                                       (ii) Technical subject areas;
  (xi) Slow flight and stalls;
                                                       (iii) Preflight preparation;
  (xii) Basic instrument maneuvers;
                                                       (iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be
  (xiii) Emergency operations;
                                                       performed in flight;
  (xiv) Multiengine operations; and
                                                       (v) Preflight procedures;
  (xv) Postflight procedures.
                                                       (vi) Airport and gliderport operations;
  (3) For a rotorcraft category rating with a heli-    (vii) Launches and landings;
  copter class rating:                                 (viii) Fundamentals of flight;
  (i) Fundamentals of instructing;                     (ix) Performance speeds;
  (ii) Technical subject areas;                        (x) Soaring techniques;
  (iii) Preflight preparation;                          (xi) Performance maneuvers;
  (iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be             (xii) Slow flight, stalls, and spins;
  performed in flight;                                  (xiii) Emergency operations; and
  (v) Preflight procedures;                             (xiv) Postflight procedures.
  (vi) Airport and heliport operations;
                                                       (7) For an instrument rating with the appropri-
  (vii) Hovering maneuvers;
                                                       ate aircraft category and class rating:
  (viii) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
                                                       (i) Fundamentals of instructing;
  (ix) Fundamentals of flight;
                                                       (ii) Technical subject areas;


114
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                      §61.195


  (iii) Preflight preparation;                           §61.193 Flight instructor privileges.
  (iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be                 A person who holds a flight instructor certificate
  performed in flight;                                   is authorized within the limitations of that person’s
  (v) Air traffic control clearances and                 flight instructor certificate and ratings to train and
  procedures;                                           issue endorsements that are required for:
  (vi) Flight by reference to instruments;                 (a) A student pilot certificate;
  (vii) Navigation aids;                                   (b) A pilot certificate;




                                                                                                                  61
  (viii) Instrument approach procedures;                   (c) A flight instructor certificate;
  (ix) Emergency operations; and                           (d) A ground instructor certificate;
  (x) Postflight procedures.                                (e) An aircraft rating;
   (c) The flight training required by this section         (f) An instrument rating;
may be accomplished:                                       (g) A flight review, operating privilege, or re-
   (1) In an aircraft that is representative of the     cency of experience requirement of this part;
category and class of aircraft for the rating              (h) A practical test; and
sought; or                                                 (i) A knowledge test.
   (2) In a flight simulator or flight training device    [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
representative of the category and class of air-        amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40907, July 30, 1997;
craft for the rating sought, and used in accor-         Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42561, Aug. 21, 2009]
dance with an approved course at a training cen-
ter certificated under part 142 of this chapter.         §61.195 Flight instructor limitations
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as         and qualifications.
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40907, July 30, 1997;        (a) Hours of training. In any 24-consecutive-
Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42561, Aug. 21, 2009]
                                                        hour period, a flight instructor may not conduct
                                                        more than 8 hours of flight training.
§61.189 Flight instructor records.                          (b) Aircraft Ratings. A flight instructor may not
   (a) A flight instructor must sign the logbook of      conduct flight training in any aircraft for which the
each person to whom that instructor has given           flight instructor does not hold:
flight training or ground training.                          (1) A pilot certificate and flight instructor certifi-
   (b) A flight instructor must maintain a record in     cate with the applicable category and class rating;
a logbook or a separate document that contains          and
the following:                                              (2) If appropriate, a type rating.
   (1) The name of each person whose logbook or             (c) Instrument Rating. A flight instructor who
student pilot certificate that instructor has en-        provides instrument training for the issuance of an
dorsed for solo flight privileges, and the date of       instrument rating, a type rating not limited to VFR,
the endorsement; and                                    or the instrument training required for commercial
   (2) The name of each person that instructor          pilot and airline transport pilot certificates must
has endorsed for a knowledge test or practical          hold an instrument rating on his or her pilot certif-
test, and the record shall also indicate the kind of    icate and flight instructor certificate that is appro-
test, the date, and the results.                        priate to the category and class of aircraft used
   (c) Each flight instructor must retain the            for the training provided.
records required by this section for at least 3             (d) Limitations on endorsements. A flight in-
years.                                                  structor may not endorse a:
                                                            (1) Student pilot’s certificate or logbook for solo
§61.191 Additional flight instructor                     flight privileges, unless that flight instructor has—
  ratings.                                                  (i) Given that student the flight training required
                                                        for solo flight privileges required by this part; and
   (a) A person who applies for an additional flight
                                                            (ii) Determined that the student is prepared to
instructor rating on a flight instructor certificate
                                                        conduct the flight safely under known circum-
must meet the eligibility requirements listed in
                                                        stances, subject to any limitations listed in the stu-
§61.183 of this part that apply to the flight instruc-
                                                        dent’s logbook that the instructor considers nec-
tor rating sought.
                                                        essary for the safety of the flight.
   (b) A person who applies for an additional rat-
                                                            (2) Student pilot’s certificate and logbook for a
ing on a flight instructor certificate is not required
                                                        solo cross-country flight, unless that flight instruc-
to pass the knowledge test on the areas listed in
                                                        tor has determined the student’s flight prepara-
§61.185(a)(1) of this part.
                                                        tion, planning, equipment, and proposed proce-
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as       dures are adequate for the proposed flight under
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40907, July 30, 1997]    the existing conditions and within any limitations
                                                        listed in the logbook that the instructor considers
                                                        necessary for the safety of the flight;


                                                                                                          115
§61.195                                                                  Federal Aviation Regulations


   (3) Student pilot’s logbook for solo flight in a           (i) Holds a ground or flight instructor certificate
Class B airspace area or at an airport within             with the appropriate rating, has held that certifi-
Class B airspace unless that flight instructor             cate for at least 24 calendar months, and has
has—                                                      given at least 40 hours of ground training; or
   (i) Given that student ground and flight training          (ii) Holds a ground or flight instructor certificate
in that Class B airspace or at that airport; and          with the appropriate rating, and has given at least
   (ii) Determined that the student is proficient to       100 hours of ground training in an FAA-approved
operate the aircraft safely.                              course.
   (4) Logbook of a recreational pilot, unless that          (2) Except for an instructor who meets the re-
flight instructor has—                                     quirements of paragraph (h)(3)(ii) of this section,
   (i) Given that pilot the ground and flight training     a flight instructor who provides training to an initial
required by this part; and                                applicant for a flight instructor certificate must—
   (ii) Determined that the recreational pilot is pro-       (i) Meet the eligibility requirements prescribed
ficient to operate the aircraft safely.                    in §61.183 of this part;
   (5) Logbook of a pilot for a flight review, unless         (ii) Hold the appropriate flight instructor certifi-
that instructor has conducted a review of that pilot      cate and rating;
in accordance with the requirements of §61.56(a)             (iii) Have held a flight instructor certificate for at
of this part; or                                          least 24 months;
   (6) Logbook of a pilot for an instrument profi-            (iv) For training in preparation for an airplane,
ciency check, unless that instructor has tested           rotorcraft, or powered-lift rating, have given at
that pilot in accordance with the requirements of         least 200 hours of flight training as a flight instruc-
§61.57(d) of this part.                                   tor; and
   (e) Training in an aircraft that requires a type          (v) For training in preparation for a glider rating,
rating. A flight instructor may not give flight train-      have given at least 80 hours of flight training as a
ing in an aircraft that requires the pilot in com-        flight instructor.
mand to hold a type rating unless the flight in-              (3) A flight instructor who serves as a flight in-
structor holds a type rating for that aircraft on his     structor in an FAA-approved course for the issu-
or her pilot certificate.                                  ance of a flight instructor rating must hold a flight
   (f) Training received in a multiengine air-            instructor certificate with the appropriate rating
plane, a helicopter, or a powered-lift. A flight in-       and pass the required initial and recurrent flight
structor may not give training required for the is-       instructor proficiency tests, in accordance with the
suance of a certificate or rating in a multiengine         requirements of the part under which the FAA-ap-
airplane, a helicopter, or a powered-lift unless that     proved course is conducted, and must—
flight instructor has at least 5 flight hours of pilot-        (i) Meet the requirements of paragraph (h)(2) of
in-command time in the specific make and model             this section; or
of multiengine airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift,        (ii) Have trained and endorsed at least five ap-
as appropriate.                                           plicants for a practical test for a pilot certificate,
   (g) Position in aircraft and required pilot            flight instructor certificate, ground instructor certif-
stations for providing flight training.                    icate, or an additional rating, and at least 80 per-
   (1) A flight instructor must perform all training       cent of those applicants passed that test on their
from in an aircraft that complies with the require-       first attempt; and
ments of §91.109 of this chapter.                            (A) Given at least 400 hours of flight training as
   (2) A flight instructor who provides flight train-       a flight instructor for training in an airplane, a ro-
ing for a pilot certificate or rating issued under this    torcraft, or for a powered-lift rating; or
part must provide that flight training in an aircraft         (B) Given at least 100 hours of flight training as
that meets the following requirements—                    a flight instructor, for training in a glider rating.
   (i) The aircraft must have at least two pilot sta-        (i) Prohibition against self-endorsements. A
tions and be of the same category, class, and             flight instructor shall not make any self-endorse-
type, if appropriate, that applies to the pilot certifi-   ment for a certificate, rating, flight review, authori-
cate or rating sought.                                    zation, operating privilege, practical test, or
   (ii) For single-place aircraft, the pre-solo flight     knowledge test that is required by this part.
training must have been provided in an aircraft              (j) Additional qualifications required to give
that has two pilot stations and is of the same cat-       training in Category II or Category III opera-
egory, class, and type, if appropriate.                   tions. A flight instructor may not give training in
   (h) Qualifications of the flight instructor for          Category II or Category III operations unless the
training first-time flight instructor applicants.           flight instructor has been trained and tested in
   (1) The ground training provided to an initial ap-     Category II or Category III operations, pursuant to
plicant for a flight instructor certificate must be         §61.67 or §61.68 of this part, as applicable.
given by an authorized instructor who—                       (k) Training for night vision goggle opera-
                                                          tions. A flight instructor may not conduct training


116
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                       §61.199


for night vision goggle operations unless the flight      tor refresher course consisting of ground training
instructor:                                              or flight training, or a combination of both.
   (1) Has a pilot and flight instructor certificate          (iv) A record showing that, within the preceding
with the applicable category and class rating for        12 months from the month of application, the flight
the training;                                            instructor passed an official U.S. Armed Forces
   (2) If appropriate, has a type rating on his or       military instructor pilot proficiency check.
her pilot certificate for the aircraft;                      (b) The expiration month of a renewed flight in-




                                                                                                                   61
   (3) Is pilot in command qualified for night vision     structor certificate shall be 24 calendar months
goggle operations, in accordance with §61.31(k);         from —
   (4) Has logged 100 night vision goggle opera-            (1) The month the renewal requirements of
tions as the sole manipulator of the controls;           paragraph (a) of this section are accomplished; or
   (5) Has logged 20 night vision goggle opera-             (2) The month of expiration of the current flight
tions as the sole manipulator of the controls in the     instructor certificate provided —
category and class, and type of aircraft, if aircraft       (i) The renewal requirements of paragraph (a)
class and type is appropriate, that the training will    of this section are accomplished within the 3 cal-
be given in;                                             endar months preceding the expiration month of
   (6) Is qualified to act as pilot in command in         the current flight instructor certificate, and
night vision goggle operations under §61.57(f) or           (ii) If the renewal is accomplished under para-
(g); and                                                 graph (a)(2)(iii) of this section, the approved flight
   (7) Has a logbook endorsement from an FAA             instructor refresher course must be completed
Aviation Safety Inspector or a person who is au-         within the 3 calendar months preceding the expira-
thorized by the FAA to provide that logbook en-          tion month of the current flight instructor certificate.
dorsement that states the flight instructor is au-           (c) The practical test required by paragraph
thorized to perform the night vision goggle pilot in     (a)(1) of this section may be accomplished in a
command qualification and recent flight experi-            flight simulator or flight training device if the test is
ence requirements under §61.31(k) and §61.57(f)          accomplished pursuant to an approved course
and (g).                                                 conducted by a training center certificated under
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as        part 142 of this chapter.
amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40907, July 30, 1997;     [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42561, Aug. 21, 2009]                amended by Amdt. 61–103, 62 FR 40907, July 30, 1997;
                                                         Amdt. 61–104, 63 FR 20289, April 23, 1998; Amdt. 61–
§61.197 Renewal requirements for flight                   124, 74 FR 42562, Aug. 21, 2009]
  instructor certification.
    (a) A person who holds a flight instructor certif-
                                                         §61.199 Reinstatement requirements of
icate that has not expired may renew that flight in-        an expired flight instructor certificate.
structor certificate by—                                     (a) Flight instructor certificates. The holder
    (1) Passing a practical test for—                    of an expired flight instructor certificate who has
    (i) One of the ratings listed on the current flight   not complied with the flight instructor renewal re-
instructor certificate; or                                quirements of §61.197 may reinstate that flight in-
    (ii) An additional flight instructor rating; or       structor certificate and ratings by filing a com-
    (2) Submitting a completed and signed applica-       pleted and signed application with the FAA and
tion with the FAA and satisfactorily completing          satisfactorily completing one of the following rein-
one of the following renewal requirements—               statement requirements:
    (i) A record of training students showing that,         (1) A flight instructor certification practical test,
during the preceding 24 calendar months, the             as prescribed by §61.183(h), for one of the ratings
flight instructor has endorsed at least 5 students        held on the expired flight instructor certificate.
for a practical test for a certificate or rating and at      (2) A flight instructor certification practical test
least 80 percent of those students passed that           for an additional rating.
test on the first attempt.                                   (b) Flight instructor ratings.
    (ii) A record showing that, within the preceding        (1) A flight instructor rating or a limited flight in-
24 calendar months, the flight instructor has             structor rating on a pilot certificate is no longer
served as a company check pilot, chief flight in-         valid and may not be exchanged for a similar rat-
structor, company check airman, or flight instruc-        ing or a flight instructor certificate.
tor in a part 121 or part 135 operation, or in a po-        (2) The holder of a flight instructor rating or a
sition involving the regular evaluation of pilots.       limited flight instructor rating on a pilot certificate
    (iii) A graduation certificate showing that, within   may be issued a flight instructor certificate with
the preceding 3 calendar months, the person has          the current ratings, but only if the person passes
successfully completed an approved flight instruc-        the required knowledge and practical test pre-




                                                                                                           117
§61.211                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


scribed in this subpart for the issuance of the cur-      (3) Is employed as a teacher at an accredited
rent flight instructor certificate and rating.            college or university.
[Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as       [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
amended by Amdt. 61–104, 63 FR 20289, April 23,         amended by Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44869, July 27, 2004;
1998; Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42562, Aug. 21, 2009]         Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42562, Aug. 21, 2009]

§61.201 [Reserved]                                      §61.215 Ground instructor privileges.
                                                           (a) A person who holds a basic ground instruc-
                                                        tor rating is authorized to provide—
          Subpart I—                                       (1) Ground training in the aeronautical knowl-
       Ground Instructors                               edge areas required for the issuance of a sport
                                                        pilot certificate, recreational pilot certificate, pri-
                                                        vate pilot certificate, or associated ratings under
§61.211 Applicability.                                  this part;
   This subpart prescribes the requirements for            (2) Ground training required for a sport pilot,
the issuance of ground instructor certificates and       recreational pilot, and private pilot flight review;
ratings, the conditions under which those certifi-       and
cates and ratings are necessary, and the limita-           (3) A recommendation for a knowledge test re-
tions upon those certificates and ratings.               quired for the issuance of a sport pilot certificate,
                                                        recreational pilot certificate, or private pilot certifi-
§61.213 Eligibility requirements.                       cate under this part.
   (a) To be eligible for a ground instructor certifi-      (b) A person who holds an advanced ground
cate or rating a person must:                           instructor rating is authorized to provide:
   (1) Be at least 18 years of age;                        (1) Ground training on the aeronautical knowl-
   (2) Be able to read, write, speak, and under-        edge areas required for the issuance of any certif-
stand the English language. If the applicant is un-     icate or rating under this part except for the aero-
able to meet one of these requirements due to           nautical knowledge areas required for an instru-
medical reasons, then the Administrator may             ment rating.
place such operating limitations on that appli-            (2) The ground training required for any flight
cant’s ground instructor certificate as are neces-       review except for the training required for an in-
sary;                                                   strument rating.
   (3) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this         (3) A recommendation for a knowledge test re-
section, pass a knowledge test on the fundamen-         quired for the issuance of any certificate or rating
tals of instructing to include—                         under this part except for an instrument rating.
   (i) The learning process;                               (c) A person who holds an instrument ground
   (ii) Elements of effective teaching;                 instructor rating is authorized to provide:
   (iii) Student evaluation and testing;                   (1) Ground training in the aeronautical knowl-
   (iv) Course development;                             edge areas required for the issuance of an instru-
   (v) Lesson planning; and                             ment rating under this part;
   (vi) Classroom training techniques.                     (2) Ground training required for an instrument
   (4) Pass a knowledge test on the aeronautical        proficiency check; and
knowledge areas in—                                        (3) A recommendation for a knowledge test re-
   (i) For a basic ground instructor rating §§61.97,    quired for the issuance of an instrument rating un-
61.105, and 61.309;                                     der this part.
   (ii) For an advanced ground instructor rating           (d) A person who holds a ground instructor cer-
§§61.97, 61.105, 61.125, 61.155, and 61.309;            tificate is authorized, within the limitations of the
and                                                     ratings on the ground instructor certificate, to en-
   (iii) For an instrument ground instructor rating,    dorse the logbook or other training record of a
§61.65.                                                 person to whom the holder has provided the train-
   (b) The knowledge test specified in paragraph         ing or recommendation specified in paragraphs
(a)(3) of this section is not required if the appli-    (a) through (c) of this section.
cant:                                                   [Docket No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, April 4, 1997; as
   (1) Holds a ground instructor certificate or flight    amended by Amdt. 61–110, 69 FR 44869, July 27, 2004;
instructor certificate issued under this part;           Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42562, Aug. 21, 2009]
   (2) Holds a teacher’s certificate issued by a
State, county, city, or municipality that authorizes
the person to teach at an educational level of the
7th grade or higher; or




118
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                        §61.301


§61.217 Recent experience                                  Subpart J — Sport Pilots
  requirements.
   The holder of a ground instructor certificate          Source: Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44869,
may not perform the duties of a ground instructor        July 27, 2004, unless otherwise noted.
unless the person can show that one of the follow-
ing occurred during the preceding 12 calendar            §61.301 What is the purpose of this
                                                           subpart and to whom does it apply?




                                                                                                                   61
months:
   (a) Employment or activity as a ground instruc-          (a) This subpart prescribes the following re-
tor giving pilot, flight instructor, or ground instruc-   quirements that apply to a sport pilot certificate:
tor training;                                               (1) Eligibility.
   (b) Employment or activity as a flight instructor         (2) Aeronautical knowledge.
giving pilot, flight instructor, or ground instructor        (3) Flight proficiency.
ground or flight training;                                   (4) Aeronautical experience.
   (c) Completion of an approved flight instructor           (5) Endorsements.
refresher course and receipt of a graduation cer-           (6) Privileges and limits.
tificate for that course; or                                 (7) [Removed]
   (d) An endorsement from an authorized in-                (b) Other provisions of this part apply to the
structor certifying that the person has demon-           logging of flight time and testing.
strated knowledge in the subject areas prescribed           (c) This subpart applies to applicants for, and
under §61.213(a)(3) and (a)(4), as appropriate.          holders of, sport pilot certificates. It also applies to
[Docket No. FAA–2006–26661, 74 FR 42562, Aug. 21,        holders of recreational pilot certificates and
2009]                                                    higher, as provided in §61.303.
                                                         [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44869, July 27,
                                                         2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5221, Feb.
                                                         1, 2010]




                                                                                                           119
§61.303                                                                      Federal Aviation Regulations


§61.303 If I want to operate a light-sport                  in regards to currency and validity. If you hold a
  aircraft, what operating limits and                       recreational pilot certificate, but not a medical cer-
  endorsement requirements in this                          tificate, you must comply with cross country re-
  subpart must I comply with?                               quirements in §61.101(c), even if your flight does
                                                            not exceed 50 nautical miles from your departure
   (a) Use the following table to determine what            airport. You must also comply with requirements
operating limits and endorsement requirements in            in other subparts of this part that apply to your
this subpart, if any, apply to you when you operate         certificate and the operation you conduct.
a light-sport aircraft. The medical certificate spec-
ified in this table must be in compliance with §61.2

  If you hold               And you hold                    Then you may operate           And
(1) A medical certificate,   (i) A sport pilot certificate,   (A) Any light-sport aircraft (1) You must hold any other
                                                              for which you hold the       endorsements required
                                                              endorsements required        by this subpart, and
                                                              for its category and class,  comply with the
                                                                                           limitations in §61.315.
                            (ii) At least a recreational  (A) Any light-sport aircraft     (1) You do not have to hold
                               pilot certificate with a      in that category and             any of the endorsements
                               category and class rating, class,                             required by this subpart,
                                                                                             nor do you have to
                                                                                             comply with the
                                                                                             limitations in §61.315.
                            (iii) At least a recreational   (A) That light-sport aircraft, (1) You must comply with
                               pilot certificate but not a     only if you hold the           the limitations in §61.315,
                               rating for the category        endorsements required in       except §61.315 (c)(14)
                               and class of light-sport       §61.321 for its category       and, if a private pilot or
                               aircraft you operate,          and class,                     higher, §61.315(c)(7).
(2) Only a U.S. driver’s    (i) A sport pilot certificate,   (A) Any light-sport aircraft (1) You must hold any other
  license,                                                    for which you hold the       endorsements required
                                                              endorsements required        by this subpart, and
                                                              for its category and class,  comply with the
                                                                                           limitations in §61.315.
                            (ii) At least a recreational  (A) Any light-sport aircraft     (1) You do not have to hold
                               pilot certificate with a      in that category and             any of the endorsements
                               category and class rating, class,                             required by this subpart,
                                                                                             but you must comply with
                                                                                             the limitations in §61.315.
                            (iii) At least a recreational   (A) That light-sport aircraft, (1) You must comply with
                               pilot certificate but not a     only if you hold the           the limitations in §61.315,
                               rating for the category        endorsements required in       except §61.315(c)(14)
                               and class of light-sport       §61.321 for its category       and, if a private pilot or
                               aircraft you operate,          and class,                     higher, §61.315(c)(7).
(3) Neither a medical       (i) A sport pilot certificate,   (A) Any light-sport glider or (1) You must hold any other
  certificate nor a U.S.                                       balloon for which you hold    endorsements required
  driver’s license,                                           the endorsements              by this subpart, and
                                                              required for its category     comply with the
                                                              and class,                    limitations in §61.315.
                            (ii) At least a private pilot  (A) Any light-sport glider or (1) You do not have to hold
                               certificate with a category    balloon in that category      any of the endorsements
                               and class rating for glider   and class,                    required by this subpart,
                               or balloon,                                                 nor do you have to
                                                                                           comply with the
                                                                                           limitations in §61.315.
                            (iii) At least a private pilot (A) Any light-sport glider or (1) You must comply with
                               certificate but not a rating   balloon, only if you hold     the limitations in §61.315,
                               for glider or balloon,        the endorsements              except §61.315(c)(14)
                                                             required in §61.321 for its   and, if a private pilot or
                                                             category and class,           higher, §61.315(c)(7).




120
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                        §61.309


   (b) A person using a U.S. driver’s license to         cal test. This endorsement certifies that you meet
meet the requirements of this paragraph must—            the applicable aeronautical knowledge and expe-
   (1) Comply with each restriction and limitation       rience requirements and are prepared for the
imposed by that person’s U.S. driver’s license and       practical test.
any judicial or administrative order applying to the
operation of a motor vehicle;                            §61.309 What aeronautical knowledge
   (2) Have been found eligible for the issuance of        must I have to apply for a sport pilot




                                                                                                                   61
at least a third-class airman medical certificate at        certificate?
the time of his or her most recent application (if
the person has applied for a medical certificate);           To apply for a sport pilot certificate you must re-
   (3) Not have had his or her most recently is-         ceive and log ground training from an authorized
sued medical certificate (if the person has held a        instructor or complete a home-study course on
medical certificate) suspended or revoked or most         the following aeronautical knowledge areas:
recent Authorization for a Special Issuance of a            (a) Applicable regulations of this chapter that
Medical Certificate withdrawn; and                        relate to sport pilot privileges, limits, and flight op-
   (4) Not know or have reason to know of any            erations.
medical condition that would make that person               (b) Accident reporting requirements of the Na-
unable to operate a light-sport aircraft in a safe       tional Transportation Safety Board.
manner.                                                     (c) Use of the applicable portions of the aero-
                                                         nautical information manual and FAA advisory cir-
[Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44869, July 27,
                                                         culars.
2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42562, Aug.
21, 2009; Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5221, Feb. 1, 2010]           (d) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR naviga-
                                                         tion using pilotage, dead reckoning, and naviga-
                                                         tion systems, as appropriate.
§61.305 What are the age and language                       (e) Recognition of critical weather situations
  requirements for a sport pilot                         from the ground and in flight, windshear avoid-
  certificate?                                            ance, and the procurement and use of aeronauti-
   (a) To be eligible for a sport pilot certificate you   cal weather reports and forecasts.
must:                                                       (f) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft, in-
   (1) Be at least 17 years old (or 16 years old if      cluding collision avoidance, and recognition and
you are applying to operate a glider or balloon).        avoidance of wake turbulence.
   (2) Be able to read, speak, write, and under-            (g) Effects of density altitude on takeoff and
stand English. If you cannot read, speak, write,         climb performance.
and understand English because of medical rea-              (h) Weight and balance computations.
sons, the FAA may place limits on your certificate           (i) Principles of aerodynamics, powerplants,
as are necessary for the safe operation of light-        and aircraft systems.
sport aircraft.                                             (j) Stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin
                                                         recovery techniques, as applicable.
§61.307 What tests do I have to take to                     (k) Aeronautical decision making and risk man-
  obtain a sport pilot certificate?                       agement.
                                                            (l) Preflight actions that include—
   To obtain a sport pilot certificate, you must
                                                            (1) How to get information on runway lengths at
pass the following tests:
                                                         airports of intended use, data on takeoff and land-
   (a) Knowledge test. You must pass a knowl-
                                                         ing distances, weather reports and forecasts, and
edge test on the applicable aeronautical knowl-
                                                         fuel requirements; and
edge areas listed in §61.309. Before you may
                                                            (2) How to plan for alternatives if the planned
take the knowledge test for a sport pilot certifi-
                                                         flight cannot be completed or if you encounter de-
cate, you must receive a logbook endorsement
                                                         lays.
from the authorized instructor who trained you or
reviewed and evaluated your home-study course            [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44869, July 27,
                                                         2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5221, Feb.
on the aeronautical knowledge areas listed in
                                                         1, 2010]
§61.309 certifying you are prepared for the test.
   (b) Practical test. You must pass a practical
test on the applicable areas of operation listed in
§§61.309 and 61.311. Before you may take the
practical test for a sport pilot certificate, you must
receive a logbook endorsement from the autho-
rized instructor who provided you with flight train-
ing on the areas of operation specified in
§§61.309 and 61.311 in preparation for the practi-



                                                                                                           121
§61.311                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations


§61.311 What flight proficiency                              (g) Soaring techniques (applicable only to glid-
  requirements must I meet to apply for                 ers).
  a sport pilot certificate?                                (h) Navigation.
                                                           (i) Slow flight (not applicable to lighter-than-air
   To apply for a sport pilot certificate you must re-   aircraft and powered parachutes).
ceive and log ground and flight training from an            (j) Stalls (not applicable to lighter-than-air air-
authorized instructor on the following areas of op-     craft, gyroplanes, and powered parachutes).
eration, as appropriate, for airplane single-engine        (k) Emergency operations.
land or sea, glider, gyroplane, airship, balloon,          (l) Post-flight procedures.
powered parachute land or sea, and weight-shift-
control aircraft land or sea privileges:                [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44869, July 27,
                                                        2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5221, Feb.
   (a) Preflight preparation.
                                                        1, 2010]
   (b) Preflight procedures.
   (c) Airport, seaplane base, and gliderport oper-
ations, as applicable.
   (d) Takeoffs (or launches), landings, and go-
arounds.
   (e) Performance maneuvers, and for gliders,
performance speeds.
   (f) Ground reference maneuvers (not applica-
ble to gliders and balloons).




122
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                                  §61.313


§61.313 What aeronautical experience
  must I have to apply for a sport pilot
  certificate?
  Use the following table to determine the aero-
nautical experience you must have to apply for a
sport pilot certificate:




                                                                                                                              61
If you are applying for a
                          Then you must log at least…                 Which must include at least…
sport pilot certificate
with…
(a) Airplane category and (1) 20 hours of flight time, including       (i) 2 hours of cross-country flight training,
  single-engine land or     at least 15 hours of flight training       (ii) 10 takeoffs and landings to a full stop (with
  sea class privileges,     from an authorized instructor in a           each landing involving a flight in the traffic
                            single-engine airplane and at least          pattern) at an airport;
                            5 hours of solo flight training in the     (iii) One solo cross-country flight of at least 75
                            areas of operation listed in                 nautical miles total distance, with a full-stop
                            §61.311,                                     landing at a minimum of two points and one
                                                                         segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line
                                                                         distance of at least 25 nautical miles between
                                                                         the takeoff and landing locations, and
                                                                      (iv) 2 hours of flight training with an authorized
                                                                         instructor on those areas of operation specified
                                                                         in §61.311 in preparation for the practical test
                                                                         within the preceding 2 calendar months from
                                                                         the month of the test.
(b) Glider category         (1) 10 hours of flight time in a glider,   (i) Five solo launches and landings, and
  privileges, and you         including 10 flights in a glider         (ii) at least 3 training flights with an authorized
  have not logged at least    receiving flight training from an           instructor on those areas of operation specified
  20 hours of flight time in   authorized instructor and at least 2       in §61.311 in preparation for the practical test
  a heavier-than-air          hours of solo flight training in the        within the preceding 2 calendar months from
  aircraft,                   areas of operation listed in               the month of the test.
                              §61.311,
(c) Glider category          (1) 3 hours of flight time in a glider,   (i) Three solo launches and landings, and
  privileges, and you          including five flights in a glider while (ii) at least 3 training flights with an authorized
  have logged 20 hours         receiving flight training from an          instructor on those areas of operation specified
  flight time in a heavier-     authorized instructor and at least 1      in §61.311 in preparation for the practical test
  than-air aircraft,           hour of solo flight training in the        within the preceding 2 calendar months from
                               areas of operation listed in              the month of the test.
                               §61.311,
(d) Rotorcraft category      (1) 20 hours of flight time, including  (i) 2 hours of cross-country flight training,
  and gyroplane class          15 hours of flight training from an   (ii) 10 takeoffs and landings to a full stop (with
  privileges,                  authorized instructor in a gyroplane    each landing involving a flight in the traffic
                               and at least 5 hours of solo flight      pattern) at an airport,
                               training in the areas of operation   (iii) One solo cross-country flight of at least 50
                               listed in §61.311,                      nautical miles total distance, with a full-stop
                                                                       landing at a minimum of two points, and one
                                                                       segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line
                                                                       distance of at least 25 nautical miles between
                                                                       the takeoff and landing locations, and
                                                                    (iv) 2 hours of flight training with an authorized
                                                                       instructor on those areas of operation specified
                                                                       in §61.311 in preparation for the practical test
                                                                       within the preceding 2 calendar months from
                                                                       the month of the test.




                                                                                                                      123
§61.313                                                                         Federal Aviation Regulations


 (Continued)
If you are applying for a
                          Then you must log at least…                  Which must include at least…
sport pilot certificate
with…
(e) Lighter-than-air         (1) 20 hours of flight time, including     (i) 2 hours of cross-country flight training,
  category and airship         15 hours of flight training from an      (ii) Three takeoffs and landings to a full stop (with
  class privileges,            authorized instructor in an airship        each landing involving a flight in the traffic
                               and at least 3 hours performing the        pattern) at an airport,
                               duties of pilot in command in an        (iii) One cross-country flight of at least 25
                               airship with an authorized instructor      nautical miles between the takeoff and landing
                               in the areas of operation listed in        locations, and
                               §61.311,                                (iv) 2 hours of flight training with an authorized
                                                                          instructor on those areas of operation specified
                                                                          in §61.311 in preparation for the practical test
                                                                          within the preceding 2 calendar months from
                                                                          the month of the test.
(f) Lighter-than-air         (1) 7 hours of flight time in a balloon, (i) 2 hours of cross-country flight training and
  category and balloon         including three flights with an        (ii) 1 hour of flight training with an authorized
  class privileges,            authorized instructor and one flight      instructor on those areas of operation specified
                               performing the duties of pilot in        in §61.311 in preparation for the practical test
                               command in a balloon with an             within the preceding 2 calendar months from
                               authorized instructor in the areas of    the month of the test.
                               operation listed in §61.311,
(g) Powered parachute        (1) 12 hours of flight time in a           (i) 1 hour of cross-country flight training,
  category land or sea         powered parachute, including 10         (ii) 20 takeoffs and landings to a full stop in a
  class privileges,            hours of flight training from an            powered parachute with each landing involving
                               authorized instructor in a powered         flight in the traffic pattern at an airport;
                               parachute, and at least 2 hours of      (iii) 10 solo takeoffs and landings to a full stop
                               solo flight training in the areas of        (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic
                               operation listed in §61.311,               pattern) at an airport,
                                                                       (iv) One solo flight with a landing at a different
                                                                          airport and one segment of the flight consisting
                                                                          of a straight-line distance of at least 10 nautical
                                                                          miles between takeoff and landing locations,
                                                                          and
                                                                       (v) 1 hour of flight training with an authorized
                                                                          instructor on those areas of operation specified
                                                                          in §61.311 in preparation for the practical test
                                                                          within the preceding 2 calendar months from
                                                                          the month of the test.
(h) Weight-shift-control    (1) 20 hours of flight time, including      (i) 2 hours of cross-country flight training;
  aircraft category land or   15 hours of flight training from an       (ii) 10 takeoffs and landings to a full stop (with
  sea class privileges,       authorized instructor in a weight-          each landing involving a flight in the traffic
                              shift-control aircraft and at least 5       pattern) at an airport,
                              hours of solo flight training in the      (iii) One solo cross-country flight of at least 50
                              areas of operation listed in                nautical miles total distance, with a full-stop
                              §61.311,                                    landing at a minimum of two points, and one
                                                                          segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line
                                                                          distance of at least 25 nautical miles between
                                                                          takeoff and landing locations, and
                                                                       (iv) 2 hours of flight training with an authorized
                                                                          instructor on those areas of operation specified
                                                                          in §61.311 in preparation for the practical test
                                                                          within the preceding 2 calendar months from
                                                                          the month of the test.
[Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44869, July 27, 2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–124A, 74 FR 53647, Oct. 20,
2009; Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5221, Feb. 1, 2010]




124
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                        §61.321


§61.315 What are the privileges and                         (18) While towing any object.
  limits of my sport pilot certificate?                      (19) As a pilot flight crewmember on any air-
                                                         craft for which more than one pilot is required by
   (a) If you hold a sport pilot certificate you may
                                                         the type certificate of the aircraft or the regula-
act as pilot in command of a light-sport aircraft,
                                                         tions under which the flight is conducted.
except as specified in paragraph (c) of this sec-
tion.                                                    [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44869, July 27,
                                                         2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5222, Feb.




                                                                                                                   61
   (b) You may share the operating expenses of a
                                                         1, 2010; Amdt. 61–125A, 75 FR 15610, March 30, 2010]
flight with a passenger, provided the expenses in-
volve only fuel, oil, airport expenses, or aircraft
rental fees. You must pay at least half the operat-      §61.317 Is my sport pilot certificate
ing expenses of the flight.                                 issued with aircraft category and class
   (c) You may not act as pilot in command of a            ratings?
light-sport aircraft:                                       Your sport pilot certificate does not list aircraft
   (1) That is carrying a passenger or property for      category and class ratings. When you success-
compensation or hire.                                    fully pass the practical test for a sport pilot certifi-
   (2) For compensation or hire.                         cate, regardless of the light-sport aircraft privi-
   (3) In furtherance of a business.                     leges you seek, the FAA will issue you a sport
   (4) While carrying more than one passenger.           pilot certificate without any category and class
   (5) At night.                                         ratings. The FAA will provide you with a logbook
   (6) In Class A airspace.                              endorsement for the category and class of aircraft
   (7) In Class B, C, and D airspace, at an airport      in which you are authorized to act as pilot in com-
located in Class B, C, or D airspace, and to, from,      mand.
through, or at an airport having an operational
                                                         [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44869, July 27,
control tower unless you have met the require-           2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–125A, 75 FR 15610,
ments specified in §61.325.                               March 30, 2010]
   (8) Outside the United States, unless you have
prior authorization from the country in which you
                                                         §61.319 [Removed and Reserved]
seek to operate. Your sport pilot certificate carries
the limit “Holder does not meet ICAO require-            [As amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5222, Feb. 1, 2010]
ments.”
   (9) To demonstrate the aircraft in flight to a pro-    §61.321 How do I obtain privileges to
spective buyer if you are an aircraft salesperson.         operate an additional category or
   (10) In a passenger-carrying airlift sponsored          class of light-sport aircraft?
by a charitable organization.                               If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to
   (11) At an altitude of more than 10,000 feet          operate an additional category or class of light-
MSL or 2,000 feet AGL, whichever is higher.              sport aircraft, you must—
   (12) When the flight or surface visibility is less        (a) Receive a logbook endorsement from the
than 3 statute miles.                                    authorized instructor who trained you on the ap-
   (13) Without visual reference to the surface.         plicable aeronautical knowledge areas specified
   (14) If the aircraft:                                 in §61.309 and areas of operation specified in
   (i) Has a VH greater than 87 knots CAS, unless        §61.311. The endorsement certifies you have met
you have met the requirements of §61.327(b).             the aeronautical knowledge and flight proficiency
   (ii) Has a VH less than or equal to 87 knots          requirements for the additional light-sport aircraft
CAS, unless you have met the requirements of             privilege you seek;
§61.327(a) or have logged flight time as pilot in            (b) Successfully complete a proficiency check
command of an airplane with a VH less than or            from an authorized instructor other than the in-
equal to 87 knots CAS before April 2, 2010.              structor who trained you on the aeronautical
   (15) Contrary to any operating limitation placed      knowledge areas and areas of operation specified
on the airworthiness certificate of the aircraft be-      in §§61.309 and 61.311 for the additional light-
ing flown.                                                sport aircraft privilege you seek;
   (16) Contrary to any limit on your pilot certifi-         (c) Complete an application for those privileges
cate or airman medical certificate, or any other          on a form and in a manner acceptable to the FAA
limit or endorsement from an authorized instruc-         and present this application to the authorized in-
tor.                                                     structor who conducted the proficiency check
   (17) Contrary to any restriction or limitation on     specified in paragraph (b) of this section; and
your U.S. driver’s license or any restriction or limi-      (d) Receive a logbook endorsement from the
tation imposed by judicial or administrative order       instructor who conducted the proficiency check
when using your driver’s license to satisfy a re-        specified in paragraph (b) of this section certifying
quirement of this part.                                  you are proficient in the applicable areas of oper-


                                                                                                           125
§61.325                                                                 Federal Aviation Regulations


ation and aeronautical knowledge areas, and that            (2) Receive a logbook endorsement from the
you are authorized for the additional category and       authorized instructor who provided the training
class light-sport aircraft privilege.                    specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section certi-
                                                         fying that you are proficient in the operation of
§61.323 [Removed and Reserved]                           light-sport aircraft with a VH greater than 87 knots
                                                         CAS.
[As amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5222, Feb. 1, 2010]
                                                            (c) The training and endorsements required by
                                                         paragraph (a) of this section are not required if
§61.325 How do I obtain privileges to                    you have logged flight time as pilot in command of
  operate a light-sport aircraft at an                   an airplane with a VH less than or equal to 87
  airport within, or in airspace within,                 knots CAS prior to April 2, 2010.
  Class B, C, and D airspace, or in other                [Docket No. FAA–2007–29015, 75 FR 5222, Feb. 1,
  airspace with an airport having an                     2010; as amended by Amdt. 61–125A, 75 FR 15610,
  operational control tower?                             March 30, 2010]
   If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek
privileges to operate a light-sport aircraft in Class    §61.329 [Removed]
B, C, or D airspace, at an airport located in Class      [As amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5222, Feb. 1, 2010]
B, C, or D airspace, or to, from, through, or at an
airport having an operational control tower, you
must receive and log ground and flight training.                   Subpart K —
The authorized instructor who provides this train-         Flight Instructors with a
ing must provide a logbook endorsement that cer-
tifies you are proficient in the following aeronauti-            Sport Pilot Rating
cal knowledge areas and areas of operation:              Source: Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44875,
   (a) The use of radios, communications, naviga-        July 27, 2004 unless otherwise noted.
tion system/facilities, and radar services.
   (b) Operations at airports with an operating          §61.401 What is the purpose of this
control tower to include three takeoffs and land-
ings to a full stop, with each landing involving a
                                                           subpart?
flight in the traffic pattern, at an airport with an op-      (a) This part prescribes the following require-
erating control tower.                                   ments that apply to a flight instructor certificate
   (c) Applicable flight rules of part 91 of this         with a sport pilot rating:
chapter for operations in Class B, C, and D air-            (1) Eligibility.
space and air traffic control clearances.                    (2) Aeronautical knowledge.
                                                            (3) Flight proficiency.
§61.327 Are there specific endorsement                       (4) Endorsements.
                                                            (5) Privileges and limits.
  requirements to operate a light-sport                     (b) Other provisions of this part apply to the
  aircraft based on VH?                                  logging of flight time and testing.
   (a) Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this       [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44875, July 27,
section, if you hold a sport pilot certificate and you    2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5222, Feb.
seek to operate a light-sport aircraft that is an air-   1, 2010]
plane with a VH less than or equal to 87 knots
CAS you must—                                            §61.403 What are the age, language, and
   (1) Receive and log ground and flight training           pilot certificate requirements for a
from an authorized instructor in an airplane that
has a VH less than or equal to 87 knots CAS; and
                                                           flight instructor certificate with a sport
   (2) Receive a logbook endorsement from the              pilot rating?
authorized instructor who provided the training             To be eligible for a flight instructor certificate
specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section certi-      with a sport pilot rating you must:
fying that you are proficient in the operation of            (a) Be at least 18 years old.
light-sport aircraft that is an airplane with a VH          (b) Be able to read, speak, write, and under-
less than or equal to 87 knots CAS.                      stand English. If you cannot read, speak, write,
   (b) If you hold a sport pilot certificate and you      and understand English because of medical rea-
seek to operate a light-sport aircraft that has a VH     sons, the FAA may place limits on your certificate
greater than 87 knots CAS you must—                      as are necessary for the safe operation of light-
   (1) Receive and log ground and flight training         sport aircraft.
from an authorized instructor in an aircraft that           (c) Hold at least a sport pilot certificate with
has a VH greater than 87 knots CAS; and                  category and class ratings or privileges, as appli-



126
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                     §61.409


cable, that are appropriate to the flight instructor      the endorsement required by paragraph (b)(1)(ii)
privileges sought.                                       of this section, an examiner may accept the en-
[Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44875, July 27,        dorsement instead of the demonstration required
2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42562, Aug.      by this paragraph. If you are taking a test because
21, 2009]                                                you previously failed a test based on not meeting
                                                         the requirements of this paragraph, you must
§61.405 What tests do I have to take to                  pass a practical test on stall awareness, spin en-




                                                                                                                61
  obtain a flight instructor certificate                   try, spins, and spin recovery instructional compe-
  with a sport pilot rating?                             tency and proficiency in the applicable category
                                                         and class of aircraft that is certificated for spins.
   To obtain a flight instructor certificate with a
sport pilot rating you must pass the following
tests:
                                                         §61.407 What aeronautical knowledge
   (a) Knowledge test. Before you take a knowl-            must I have to apply for a flight
edge test, you must receive a logbook endorse-             instructor certificate with a sport pilot
ment certifying you are prepared for the test from         rating?
an authorized instructor who trained you or evalu-          (a) Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this
ated your home-study course on the aeronautical          section you must receive and log ground training
knowledge areas listed in §61.407. You must pass         from an authorized instructor on the fundamentals
knowledge tests on—                                      of instruction that includes:
   (1) The fundamentals of instructing listed in            (1) The learning process.
§61.407(a), unless you meet the requirements of             (2) Elements of effective teaching.
§61.407(c); and                                             (3) Student evaluation and testing.
   (2) The aeronautical knowledge areas for a               (4) Course development.
sport pilot certificate applicable to the aircraft cat-      (5) Lesson planning.
egory and class for which flight instructor privi-           (6) Classroom training techniques.
leges are sought.                                           (b) You must receive and log ground training
   (b) Practical test.                                   from an authorized instructor on the aeronautical
   (1) Before you take the practical test, you           knowledge areas applicable to a sport pilot certifi-
must—                                                    cate for the aircraft category and class in which
   (i) Receive a logbook endorsement from the            you seek flight instructor privileges.
authorized instructor who provided you with flight           (c) You do not have to meet the requirements of
training on the areas of operation specified in           paragraph (a) of this section if you—
§61.409 that apply to the category and class of             (1) Hold a flight instructor certificate or ground
aircraft privileges you seek. This endorsement           instructor certificate issued under this part;
certifies you meet the applicable aeronautical               (2) Hold a teacher’s certificate issued by a
knowledge and experience requirements and are            State, county, city, or municipality; or
prepared for the practical test;                            (3) Are employed as a teacher at an accredited
   (ii) If you are seeking privileges to provide in-     college or university.
struction in an airplane or glider, receive a log-       [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44875, July 27,
book endorsement from an authorized instructor           2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42562, Aug.
indicating that you are competent and possess in-        21, 2009]
structional proficiency in stall awareness, spin en-
try, spins, and spin recovery procedures after you       §61.409 What flight proficiency
have received flight training in those training             requirements must I meet to apply for
areas in an airplane or glider, as appropriate, that
is certificated for spins;
                                                           a flight instructor certificate with a
   (2) You must pass a practical test—                     sport pilot rating?
   (i) On the areas of operation listed in §61.409          You must receive and log ground and flight
that are appropriate to the category and class of        training from an authorized instructor on the fol-
aircraft privileges you seek;                            lowing areas of operation for the aircraft category
   (ii) In an aircraft representative of the category    and class in which you seek flight instructor privi-
and class of aircraft for the privileges you seek;       leges:
   (iii) In which you demonstrate that you are able         (a) Technical subject areas.
to teach stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and            (b) Preflight preparation.
spin recovery procedures if you are seeking privi-          (c) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be per-
leges to provide instruction in an airplane or           formed in flight.
glider. If you have not failed a practical test based
on deficiencies in your ability to demonstrate
knowledge or skill in these areas and you provide



                                                                                                        127
§61.409                                                                       Federal Aviation Regulations


   (d) Preflight procedures.                                    (m) Spins (applicable to airplanes and gliders).
   (e) Airport, seaplane base, and gliderport oper-            (n) Emergency operations.
ations, as applicable.                                         (o) Tumble entry and avoidance techniques
   (f) Takeoffs (or launches), landings, and go-             (applicable to weight-shift-control aircraft).
arounds.                                                       (p) Post-flight procedures.
   (g) Fundamentals of flight.
   (h) Performance maneuvers and for gliders,                §61.411 What aeronautical experience
performance speeds.                                            must I have to apply for a flight
   (i) Ground reference maneuvers (except for                  instructor certificate with a sport pilot
gliders and lighter-than-air).
   (j) Soaring techniques.
                                                               rating?
   (k) Slow flight (not applicable to lighter-than-air           Use the following table to determine the experi-
and powered parachutes).                                     ence you must have for each aircraft category and
   (l) Stalls (not applicable to lighter-than-air, pow-      class:
ered parachutes, and gyroplanes).


If you are applying for
a flight instructor      Then you must log at least…                   Which must include at least…
certificate with a sport
pilot rating for…
(a) Airplane category     (1) 150 hours of flight time as a pilot,     (i) 100 hours of flight time as pilot in command in
  and single-engine                                                      powered aircraft,
  class privileges,                                                   (ii) 50 hours of flight time in a single-engine
                                                                         airplane,
                                                                      (iii) 25 hours of cross-country flight time,
                                                                      (iv) 10 hours of cross-country flight time in a
                                                                         single-engine airplane, and
                                                                      (v) 15 hours of flight time as pilot in command in
                                                                         a single-engine airplane that is a light-sport
                                                                         aircraft.
(b) Glider category       (1) 25 hours of flight time as pilot in
  privileges,               command in a glider, 100 flights in a
                            glider, and 15 flights as pilot in
                            command in a glider that is a light-
                            sport aircraft, or
                          (2) 100 hours in heavier-than-air
                            aircraft, 20 flights in a glider, and 15
                            flights as pilot in command in a glider
                            that is a light-sport aircraft.
(c) Rotorcraft category   (1) 125 hours of flight time as a pilot,     (i) 100 hours of flight time as pilot in command in
  and gyroplane class                                                    powered aircraft,
  privileges,                                                         (ii) 50 hours of flight time in a gyroplane,
                                                                      (iii) 10 hours of cross-country flight time,
                                                                      (iv) 3 hours of cross-country flight time in a
                                                                         gyroplane, and
                                                                      (v) 15 hours of flight time as pilot in command in
                                                                         a gyroplane that is a light-sport aircraft.
(d) Lighter-than-air      (1) 100 hours of flight time as a pilot,     (i) 40 hours of flight time in an airship,
  category and airship                                                (ii) 20 hours of pilot in command time in an
  class privileges,                                                      airship,
                                                                      (iii) 10 hours of cross-country flight time,
                                                                      (iv) 5 hours of cross-country flight time in an
                                                                         airship, and
                                                                      (v) 15 hours of flight time as pilot in command in
                                                                         an airship that is a light-sport aircraft.
(e) Lighter-than-air      (1) 35 hours of flight time as pilot-in-     (i) 20 hours of flight time in a balloon,
  category and balloon      command,                                  (ii) 10 flights in a balloon, and
  class privileges,                                                   (iii) 5 flights as pilot in command in a balloon that
                                                                         is a light-sport aircraft.




128
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                                 §61.415


 (Continued)
If you are applying for
a flight instructor      Then you must log at least…                  Which must include at least…
certificate with a sport
pilot rating for…
(f) Weight-shift-control   (1) 150 hours of flight time as a pilot,   (i) 100 hours of flight time as pilot in command in
  aircraft category                                                     powered aircraft,




                                                                                                                             61
  privileges,                                                        (ii) 50 hours of flight time in a weight-shift-control
                                                                        aircraft,
                                                                     (iii) 25 hours of cross-country flight time,
                                                                     (iv) 10 hours of cross-country flight time in a
                                                                        weight-shift-control aircraft, and
                                                                     (v) 15 hours of flight time as pilot in command in
                                                                        a weight-shift-control aircraft that is a light-
                                                                        sport aircraft.
(g) Powered-parachute      (1) 100 hours of flight time as a pilot,   (i) 75 hours of flight time as pilot in command in
  category privileges,                                                  powered aircraft,
                                                                     (ii) 50 hours of flight time in a powered
                                                                        parachute,
                                                                     (iii) 15 hours of cross-country flight time,
                                                                     (iv) 5 hours of cross-country flight time in a
                                                                        powered parachute, and
                                                                     (v) 15 hours of flight time as pilot in command in
                                                                        a powered parachute that is a light-sport
                                                                        aircraft.



§61.413 What are the privileges of my                         or a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot
  flight instructor certificate with a sport                    rating.
  pilot rating?                                               [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44875, July 27,
                                                              2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5222, Feb.
   If you hold a fight flight instructor certificate with
                                                              1, 2010]
a sport pilot rating, you are authorized, within the
limits of your certificate and rating, to provide
training and endorsements that are required for,              §61.415 What are the limits of a flight
and relate to—                                                  instructor certificate with a sport pilot
   (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certifi-            rating?
cate;                                                            If you hold a flight instructor certificate with a
   (b) A sport pilot certificate;                              sport pilot rating, you may only provide flight train-
   (c) A flight instructor certificate with a sport             ing in a light-sport aircraft and are subject to the
pilot rating;                                                 following limits:
   (d) A powered parachute or weight-shift-control               (a) You may not provide ground or flight training
aircraft rating;                                              in any aircraft for which you do not hold:
   (e) Sport pilot privileges;                                   (1) A sport pilot certificate with applicable cate-
   (f) A flight review or operating privilege for a            gory and class privileges or a pilot certificate with
sport pilot;                                                  the applicable category and class rating; and
   (g) A practical test for a sport pilot certificate, a          (2) Applicable category and class privileges for
private pilot certificate with a powered parachute             your flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot
or weight-shift-control aircraft rating or a flight in-        rating.
structor certificate with a sport pilot rating;                   (b) You may not provide ground or flight training
   (h) A knowledge test for a sport pilot certificate,         for a private pilot certificate with a powered para-
a private pilot certificate with a powered para-               chute or weight-shift-control aircraft rating unless
chute or weight-shift-control aircraft rating or a            you hold:
flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating;           (1) At least a private pilot certificate with the ap-
and                                                           plicable category and class rating; and
   (i) A proficiency check for an additional cate-                (2) Applicable category and class privileges for
gory or class privilege for a sport pilot certificate          your flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot
                                                              rating.
                                                                 (c) You may not conduct more than 8 hours of
                                                              flight training in any 24-consecutive-hour period.



                                                                                                                     129
§61.415                                                                  Federal Aviation Regulations


   (d) You may not endorse a:                             class appropriate to the certificate, rating, or privi-
   (1) Student pilot’s certificate or logbook for solo     lege sought.
flight privileges, unless you have—                        [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44875, July 27,
   (i) Given that student the flight training required     2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5222, Feb.
for solo flight privileges required by this part; and      1, 2010; Amdt. 61–125A, 75 FR 15610, Mar. 30, 2010]
   (ii) Determined that the student is prepared to
conduct the flight safely under known circum-              §61.417 Will my flight instructor
stances, subject to any limitations listed in the stu-      certificate with a sport pilot rating list
dent’s logbook that you consider necessary for              aircraft category and class ratings?
the safety of the flight.
   (2) Student pilot’s certificate and logbook for a          Your flight instructor certificate does not list air-
solo cross-country flight, unless you have deter-          craft category and class ratings. When you suc-
mined the student’s flight preparation, planning,          cessfully pass the practical test for a flight instruc-
equipment, and proposed procedures are ade-               tor certificate with a sport pilot rating, regardless
quate for the proposed flight under the existing           of the light-sport aircraft privileges you seek, the
conditions and within any limitations listed in the       FAA will issue you a flight instructor certificate
logbook that you consider necessary for the               with a sport pilot rating without any category and
safety of the flight.                                      class ratings. The FAA will provide you with a log-
   (3) Student pilot’s certificate and logbook for         book endorsement for the category and class of
solo flight in Class B, C and D airspace areas, at         light-sport aircraft you are authorized to provide
an airport within Class B, C, or D airspace and to        training in.
from, through or on an airport having an opera-
tional control tower, unless that you have—               §61.419 How do I obtain privileges to
   (i) Given that student ground and flight training         provide training in an additional
in that airspace or at that airport; and                    category or class of light-sport
   (ii) Determined that the student is proficient to         aircraft?
operate the aircraft safely.                                 If you hold a flight instructor certificate with a
   (4) Logbook of a pilot for a flight review, unless      sport pilot rating and seek to provide training in an
you have conducted a review of that pilot in accor-       additional category or class of light-sport aircraft
dance with the requirements of §61.56.                    you must—
   (e) You may not provide flight training in an air-         (a) Receive a logbook endorsement from the
craft unless you have at least 5 hours of flight time      authorized instructor who trained you on the ap-
in a make and model of light-sport aircraft within        plicable areas of operation specified in §61.409
the same set of aircraft as the aircraft in which you     certifying you have met the aeronautical knowl-
are providing training.                                   edge and flight proficiency requirements for the
   (f) You may not provide training in a light-sport      additional category and class flight instructor priv-
aircraft that is an airplane with a VH less than or       ilege you seek;
equal to 87 knots CAS unless you have the en-
                                                             (b) Successfully complete a proficiency check
dorsement specified in §61.327(a), or are other-
                                                          from an authorized instructor other than the in-
wise authorized to operate that light-sport aircraft.
                                                          structor who trained you on the areas specified in
   (g) You may not provide training in a light-sport
                                                          §61.409 for the additional category and class
aircraft with a VH greater than 87 knots CAS un-
                                                          flight instructor privilege you seek;
less you have the endorsement specified in
                                                             (c) Complete an application for those privileges
§61.327(b), or are otherwise authorized to oper-
                                                          on a form and in a manner acceptable to the FAA
ate that light-sport aircraft.
                                                          and present this application to the authorized in-
   (h) You must perform all training in an aircraft
                                                          structor who conducted the proficiency check
that complies with the requirements of §91.109 of
                                                          specified in paragraph (b) of this section; and
this chapter.
                                                             (d) Receive a logbook endorsement from the
   (i) If you provide flight training for a certificate,
                                                          instructor who conducted the proficiency check
rating or privilege, you must provide that flight
                                                          specified in paragraph (b) of this section certifying
training in an aircraft that meets the following:
                                                          you are proficient in the areas of operation and
   (1) The aircraft must have at least two pilot sta-
                                                          authorized for the additional category and class
tions and be of the same category and class ap-
                                                          flight instructor privilege.
propriate to the certificate, rating or privilege
sought.
   (2) For single place aircraft, pre-solo flight train-
ing must be provided in an aircraft that has two
pilot stations and is of the same category and




130
Part 61: Certification: Pilots and Instructors                                                       §61.429


§61.421 May I give myself an                             §61.425 How do I renew my flight
  endorsement?                                             instructor certificate?
   No. If you hold a flight instructor certificate with      If you hold a flight instructor certificate with a
a sport pilot rating, you may not give yourself an       sport pilot rating you may renew your certificate in
endorsement for any certificate, privilege, rating,       accordance with the provisions of §61.197.
flight review, authorization, practical test, knowl-




                                                                                                                  61
edge test, or proficiency check required by this          §61.427 What must I do if my flight
part.                                                      instructor certificate with a sport pilot
                                                           rating expires?
§61.423 What are the recordkeeping                          You may exchange your expired flight instructor
  requirements for a flight instructor                    certificate with a sport pilot rating for a new certif-
  with a sport pilot rating?                             icate with a sport pilot rating and any other rating
   (a) As a flight instructor with a sport pilot rating   on that certificate by passing a practical test as
you must:                                                prescribed in §61.405(b) or §61.183(h) for one of
   (1) Sign the logbook of each person to whom           the ratings listed on the expired flight instructor
you have given flight training or ground training.        certificate. The FAA will reinstate any privilege au-
   (2) Keep a record of the name, date, and type         thorized by the expired certificate.
of endorsement for:
   (i) Each person whose logbook or student pilot        §61.429 May I exercise the privileges of
certificate you have endorsed for solo flight privi-         a flight instructor certificate with a
leges.                                                     sport pilot rating if I hold a flight
   (ii) Each person for whom you have provided
an endorsement for a knowledge test, practical
                                                           instructor certificate with another
test, or proficiency check, and the record must in-         rating?
dicate the kind of test or check, and the results.          If you hold a flight instructor certificate, a com-
   (iii) Each person whose logbook you have en-          mercial pilot certificate with an airship rating, or a
dorsed as proficient to operate—                          commercial pilot certificate with a balloon rating
   (A) An additional category or class of light-         issued under this part, and you seek to exercise
sport aircraft;                                          the privileges of a flight instructor certificate with a
   (B) In Class B, C, and D airspace; at an airport      sport pilot rating, you may do so without any fur-
located in Class B, C, or D airspace; and to, from,      ther showing of proficiency, subject to the follow-
through, or at an airport having an operational          ing limits:
control tower;                                              (a) You are limited to the aircraft category and
   (C) A light-sport aircraft that is an airplane with   class ratings listed on your flight instructor certifi-
a VH less than or equal to 87 knots CAS; and             cate, commercial pilot certificate with an airship
   (D) A light-sport aircraft with a VH greater than     rating, or commercial pilot certificate with a bal-
87 knots CAS.                                            loon rating, as appropriate, when exercising your
   (iv) Each person whose logbook you have en-           flight instructor privileges and the privileges spec-
dorsed as proficient to provide flight training in an      ified in §61.413.
additional category or class of light-sport aircraft.       (b) You must comply with the limits specified in
   (b) Within 10 days after providing an endorse-        §61.415 and the recordkeeping requirements of
ment for a person to operate or provide training in      §61.423.
an additional category and class of light-sport air-        (c) If you want to exercise the privileges of your
craft you must—                                          flight instructor certificate in a category or class of
   (1) Complete, sign, and submit to the FAA the         light-sport aircraft for which you are not currently
application presented to you to obtain those privi-      rated, you must meet all applicable requirements
leges; and                                               to provide training in an additional category or
   (2) Retain a copy of the form.                        class of light-sport aircraft specified in §61.419.
   (c) You must keep the records listed in this sec-     [Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44875, July 27,
tion for 3 years. You may keep these records in a        2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42562, Aug.
logbook or a separate document.                          21, 2009; Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5222, Feb. 1, 2010]
[Docket No. FAA–2001–11133, 69 FR 44875, July 27,
2004; as amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5222, Feb.       §61.431 [Removed]
1, 2010; Amdt. 61–125A, 75 FR 15610, March 30, 2010]     [As amended by Amdt. 61–125, 75 FR 5222, Feb. 1, 2010]




                                                                                                          131
Part 61   Federal Aviation Regulations




132
Part 67: Medical Standards & Certification                                                      §67.4


                   PART 67                        Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701–44703,
                                                  44707, 44709–44711, 45102–45103, 45301–45303.
       MEDICAL STANDARDS AND                      Source: Docket No. 27940, 61 FR 11256, March 19,
            CERTIFICATION                         1996, unless otherwise noted.

               Subpart A— General
Sec.                                                    Subpart A—General
67.1    Applicability.
67.3    Issue.                                    §67.1 Applicability.
67.4    Application




                                                                                                          67
                                                    This part prescribes the medical standards and
67.7    Access to the National Driver Register.
                                                  certification procedures for issuing medical certifi-
                                                  cates for airmen and for remaining eligible for a
                 Subpart B —
                                                  medical certificate.
    First-Class Airman Medical Certificate
67.101    Eligibility.                            §67.3 Issue.
67.103    Eye.
                                                    A person who meets the medical standards
67.105    Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.
                                                  prescribed in this part, based on medical exami-
67.107    Mental.
                                                  nation and evaluation of the person’s history and
67.109    Neurologic.
                                                  condition, is entitled to an appropriate medical
67.111    Cardiovascular.
                                                  certificate.
67.113    General medical condition.
67.115    Discretionary issuance.                 [Docket No. FAA–2007–27812, 73 FR 43065, July 24,
                                                  2008]
               Subpart C —
  Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate          §67.4 Application.
67.201    Eligibility.                               An applicant for first-, second- and third-class
67.203    Eye.                                    medical certification must:
67.205    Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.        (a) Apply on a form and in a manner prescribed
67.207    Mental.                                 by the Administrator;
67.209    Neurologic.                                (b) Be examined by an aviation medical exam-
67.211    Cardiovascular.                         iner designated in accordance with part 183 of
67.213    General medical condition.              this chapter. An applicant may obtain a list of avi-
67.215    Discretionary issuance.                 ation medical examiners from the FAA Office of
                                                  Aerospace Medicine homepage on the FAA Web
                Subpart D —                       site, from any FAA Regional Flight Surgeon, or by
   Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate          contacting the Manager of the Aerospace Medical
                                                  Education Division, P.O. Box 26200, Oklahoma
67.301    Eligibility.                            City, Oklahoma 73125.
67.303    Eye.                                       (c) Show proof of age and identity by present-
67.305    Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.     ing a government-issued photo identification
67.307    Mental.                                 (such as a valid U.S. driver’s license, identification
67.309    Neurologic.                             card issued by a driver’s license authority, military
67.311    Cardiovascular.                         identification, or passport). If an applicant does
67.313    General medical condition.              not have government-issued identification, he or
67.315    Discretionary issuance.                 she may use non-photo, government-issued iden-
                                                  tification (such as a birth certificate or voter regis-
       Subpart E— Certification Procedures         tration card) in conjunction with photo identifica-
67.401 Special issuance of medical certificates.   tion (such as a work identification card or a
67.403 Applications, certificates, logbooks,       student identification card).
         reports, and records: Falsification,      [Docket No. FAA–2007–27812, 73 FR 43065, July 24,
         reproduction, or alteration; incorrect   2008]
         statements.
67.405 Medical examinations: Who may perform?
67.407 Delegation of authority.
67.409 Denial of medical certificate.
67.411 [Reserved]
67.413 Medical records.
67.415 Return of medical certificate after
         suspension or revocation.



                                                                                                  133
§67.7                                                                 Federal Aviation Regulations


§67.7 Access to the National Driver                     esophoria, or 6 prism diopters of exophoria. If any
  Register.                                             of these values are exceeded, the Federal Air
   At the time of application for a certificate issued   Surgeon may require the person to be examined
under this part, each person who applies for a          by a qualified eye specialist to determine if there
medical certificate shall execute an express con-        is bifoveal fixation and an adequate vergence-
sent form authorizing the Administrator to request      phoria relationship. However, if otherwise eligible,
the chief driver licensing official of any state des-    the person is issued a medical certificate pending
ignated by the Administrator to transmit informa-       the results of the examination.
tion contained in the National Driver Register
about the person to the Administrator. The Admin-       §67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and
istrator shall make information received from the         equilibrium.
National Driver Register, if any, available on re-         Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for
quest to the person for review and written com-         a first-class airman medical certificate are:
ment.                                                      (a) The person shall demonstrate acceptable
                                                        hearing by at least one of the following tests:
                                                           (1) Demonstrate an ability to hear an average
  Subpart B—First-Class                                 conversational voice in a quiet room, using both
Airman Medical Certificate                               ears, at a distance of 6 feet from the examiner,
                                                        with the back turned to the examiner.
                                                           (2) Demonstrate an acceptable understanding
§67.101 Eligibility.                                    of speech as determined by audiometric speech
   To be eligible for a first-class airman medical       discrimination testing to a score of at least 70 per-
certificate, and to remain eligible for a first-class     cent obtained in one ear or in a sound field envi-
airman medical certificate, a person must meet           ronment.
the requirements of this subpart.                          (3) Provide acceptable results of pure tone au-
                                                        diometric testing of unaided hearing acuity ac-
§67.103 Eye.                                            cording to the following table of worst acceptable
   Eye standards for a first-class airman medical        thresholds, using the calibration standards of the
certificate are:                                         American National Standards Institute, 1969 (11
   (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/20 or better in      West 42d Street, New York, NY 10036):
each eye separately, with or without corrective
                                                                           500     1000     2000     3000
lenses. If corrective lenses (spectacles or contact     Frequency (Hz)
                                                                           Hz      Hz       Hz       Hz
lenses) are necessary for 20/20 vision, the person
                                                        Better ear (Db)    35      30       30       40
may be eligible only on the condition that correc-
tive lenses are worn while exercising the privi-        Poorer ear (Db)    35      50       50       60
leges of an airman certificate.
   (b) Near vision of 20/40 or better, Snellen             (b) No disease or condition of the middle or in-
equivalent, at 16 inches in each eye separately,        ternal ear, nose, oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx
with or without corrective lenses. If age 50 or         that—
older, near vision of 20/40 or better, Snellen             (1) Interferes with, or is aggravated by, flying or
equivalent, at both 16 inches and 32 inches in          may reasonably be expected to do so; or
each eye separately, with or without corrective            (2) Interferes with, or may reasonably be ex-
lenses.                                                 pected to interfere with, clear and effective
   (c) Ability to perceive those colors necessary       speech communication.
for the safe performance of airman duties.                 (c) No disease or condition manifested by, or
   (d) Normal fields of vision.                          that may reasonably be expected to be mani-
   (e) No acute or chronic pathological condition       fested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium.
of either eye or adnexa that interferes with the
proper function of an eye, that may reasonably be       §67.107 Mental.
expected to progress to that degree, or that may           Mental standards for a first-class airman medi-
reasonably be expected to be aggravated by fly-          cal certificate are:
ing.                                                       (a) No established medical history or clinical di-
   (f) Bifoveal fixation and vergence-phoria rela-       agnosis of any of the following:
tionship sufficient to prevent a break in fusion un-        (1) A personality disorder that is severe enough
der conditions that may reasonably be expected          to have repeatedly manifested itself by overt acts.
to occur in performing airman duties. Tests for the        (2) A psychosis. As used in this section, “psy-
factors named in this paragraph are not required        chosis” refers to a mental disorder in which:
except for persons found to have more than 1
prism diopter of hyperphoria, 6 prism diopters of


134
Part 67: Medical Standards & Certification                                                        §67.111


   (i) The individual has manifested delusions,           (c) No other personality disorder, neurosis, or
hallucinations, grossly bizarre or disorganized be-    other mental condition that the Federal Air Sur-
havior, or other commonly accepted symptoms of         geon, based on the case history and appropriate,
this condition; or                                     qualified medical judgment relating to the condi-
   (ii) The individual may reasonably be expected      tion involved, finds—
to manifest delusions, hallucinations, grossly bi-        (1) Makes the person unable to safely perform
zarre or disorganized behavior, or other com-          the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman
monly accepted symptoms of this condition.             certificate applied for or held; or
   (3) A bipolar disorder.                                (2) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-
   (4) Substance dependence, except where              mum duration of the airman medical certificate




                                                                                                               67
there is established clinical evidence, satisfactory   applied for or held, to make the person unable to
to the Federal Air Surgeon, of recovery, including     perform those duties or exercise those privileges.
sustained total abstinence from the substance(s)       [Docket No. 27940, 61 FR 11256, March 19, 1996; as
for not less than the preceding 2 years. As used in    amended by Amdt. 67–19, 71 FR 35764, June 21, 2006]
this section—
   (i) “Substance” includes: Alcohol; other seda-      §67.109 Neurologic.
tives and hypnotics; anxiolytics; opioids; central
                                                          Neurologic standards for a first-class airman
nervous system stimulants such as cocaine, am-
                                                       medical certificate are:
phetamines, and similarly acting sympathomimet-
                                                          (a) No established medical history or clinical di-
ics; hallucinogens; phencyclidine or similarly act-
                                                       agnosis of any of the following:
ing arylcyclohexylamines; cannabis; inhalants;
                                                          (1) Epilepsy;
and other psychoactive drugs and chemicals; and
                                                          (2) A disturbance of consciousness without sat-
   (ii) “Substance dependence” means a condition
                                                       isfactory medical explanation of the cause; or
in which a person is dependent on a substance,
                                                          (3) A transient loss of control of nervous sys-
other than tobacco or ordinary xanthine-contain-
                                                       tem function(s) without satisfactory medical ex-
ing (e.g., caffeine) beverages, as evidenced by—
                                                       planation of the cause.
   (A) Increased tolerance;
                                                          (b) No other seizure disorder, disturbance of
   (B) Manifestation of withdrawal symptoms;
                                                       consciousness, or neurologic condition that the
   (C) Impaired control of use; or
                                                       Federal Air Surgeon, based on the case history
   (D) Continued use despite damage to physical
                                                       and appropriate, qualified medical judgment relat-
health or impairment of social, personal, or occu-
                                                       ing to the condition involved, finds—
pational functioning.
   (b) No substance abuse within the preceding 2          (1) Makes the person unable to safely perform
years defined as:                                       the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman
   (1) Use of a substance in a situation in which      certificate applied for or held; or
that use was physically hazardous, if there has           (2) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-
been at any other time an instance of the use of a     mum duration of the airman medical certificate
substance also in a situation in which that use        applied for or held, to make the person unable to
was physically hazardous;                              perform those duties or exercise those privileges.
   (2) A verified positive drug test result, an alco-
hol test result of 0.04 or greater alcohol concen-     §67.111 Cardiovascular.
tration, or a refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol      Cardiovascular standards for a first-class air-
test required by the U.S. Department of Transpor-      man medical certificate are:
tation or an agency of the U.S. Department of             (a) No established medical history or clinical di-
Transportation; or                                     agnosis of any of the following:
   (3) Misuse of a substance that the Federal Air         (1) Myocardial infarction;
Surgeon, based on case history and appropriate,           (2) Angina pectoris;
qualified medical judgment relating to the sub-            (3) Coronary heart disease that has required
stance involved, finds—                                 treatment or, if untreated, that has been symp-
   (i) Makes the person unable to safely perform       tomatic or clinically significant;
the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman       (4) Cardiac valve replacement;
certificate applied for or held; or                        (5) Permanent cardiac pacemaker implanta-
   (ii) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-      tion; or
mum duration of the airman medical certificate             (6) Heart replacement;
applied for or held, to make the person unable to         (b) A person applying for first-class medical
perform those duties or exercise those privileges.     certification must demonstrate an absence of my-
                                                       ocardial infarction and other clinically significant
                                                       abnormality on electrocardiographic examination:
                                                          (1) At the first application after reaching the
                                                       35th birthday; and


                                                                                                       135
§67.113                                                               Federal Aviation Regulations


   (2) On an annual basis after reaching the 40th                Subpart C —
birthday.
   (c) An electrocardiogram will satisfy a require-          Second-Class Airman
ment of paragraph (b) of this section if it is dated          Medical Certificate
no earlier than 60 days before the date of the ap-
plication it is to accompany and was performed
and transmitted according to acceptable stan-
                                                        §67.201 Eligibility.
dards and techniques.                                      To be eligible for a second-class airman medi-
                                                        cal certificate, and to remain eligible for a second-
§67.113 General medical condition.                      class airman medical certificate, a person must
                                                        meet the requirements of this subpart.
   The general medical standards for a first-class
airman medical certificate are:
   (a) No established medical history or clinical di-
                                                        §67.203 Eye.
agnosis of diabetes mellitus that requires insulin         Eye standards for a second-class airman med-
or any other hypoglycemic drug for control.             ical certificate are:
   (b) No other organic, functional, or structural         (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/20 or better in
disease, defect, or limitation that the Federal Air     each eye separately, with or without corrective
Surgeon, based on the case history and appropri-        lenses. If corrective lenses (spectacles or contact
ate, qualified medical judgment relating to the          lenses) are necessary for 20/20 vision, the person
condition involved, finds—                               may be eligible only on the condition that correc-
   (1) Makes the person unable to safely perform        tive lenses are worn while exercising the privi-
the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman     leges of an airman certificate.
certificate applied for or held; or                         (b) Near vision of 20/40 or better, Snellen
   (2) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-        equivalent, at 16 inches in each eye separately,
mum duration of the airman medical certificate           with or without corrective lenses. If age 50 or
applied for or held, to make the person unable to       older, near vision of 20/40 or better, Snellen
perform those duties or exercise those privileges.      equivalent, at both 16 inches and 32 inches in
   (c) No medication or other treatment that the        each eye separately, with or without corrective
Federal Air Surgeon, based on the case history          lenses.
and appropriate, qualified medical judgment relat-          (c) Ability to perceive those colors necessary
ing to the medication or other treatment involved,      for the safe performance of airman duties.
finds—                                                      (d) Normal fields of vision.
   (1) Makes the person unable to safely perform           (e) No acute or chronic pathological condition
the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman     of either eye or adnexa that interferes with the
certificate applied for or held; or                      proper function of an eye, that may reasonably be
   (2) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-        expected to progress to that degree, or that may
mum duration of the airman medical certificate           reasonably be expected to be aggravated by fly-
applied for or held, to make the person unable to       ing.
perform those duties or exercise those privileges.         (f) Bifoveal fixation and vergence-phoria rela-
                                                        tionship sufficient to prevent a break in fusion un-
§67.115 Discretionary issuance.                         der conditions that may reasonably be expected
                                                        to occur in performing airman duties. Tests for the
   A person who does not meet the provisions of         factors named in this paragraph are not required
§§67.103 through 67.113 may apply for the dis-          except for persons found to have more than 1
cretionary issuance of a certificate under               prism diopter of hyperphoria, 6 prism diopters of
§67.401.                                                esophoria, or 6 prism diopters of exophoria. If any
                                                        of these values are exceeded, the Federal Air
                                                        Surgeon may require the person to be examined
                                                        by a qualified eye specialist to determine if there
                                                        is bifoveal fixation and an adequate vergence-
                                                        phoria relationship. However, if otherwise eligible,
                                                        the person is issued a medical certificate pending
                                                        the results of the examination.




136
Part 67: Medical Standards & Certification                                                        §67.207


§67.205 Ear, nose, throat,                              sustained total abstinence from the substance(s)
  and equilibrium.                                      for not less than the preceding 2 years. As used in
   Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for     this section—
a second-class airman medical certificate are:              (i) “Substance” includes: Alcohol; other seda-
   (a) The person shall demonstrate acceptable          tives and hypnotics; anxiolytics; opioids; central
hearing by at least one of the following tests:         nervous system stimulants such as cocaine, am-
   (1) Demonstrate an ability to hear an average        phetamines, and similarly acting sympathomimet-
conversational voice in a quiet room, using both        ics; hallucinogens; phencyclidine or similarly act-
ears, at a distance of 6 feet from the examiner,        ing arylcyclohexylamines; cannabis; inhalants;
                                                        and other psychoactive drugs and chemicals; and




                                                                                                               67
with the back turned to the examiner.
   (2) Demonstrate an acceptable understanding             (ii) “Substance dependence” means a condition
of speech as determined by audiometric speech           in which a person is dependent on a substance,
discrimination testing to a score of at least 70 per-   other than tobacco or ordinary xanthine-contain-
cent obtained in one ear or in a sound field envi-       ing (e.g., caffeine) beverages, as evidenced by—
ronment.                                                   (A) Increased tolerance;
   (3) Provide acceptable results of pure tone au-         (B) Manifestation of withdrawal symptoms;
diometric testing of unaided hearing acuity ac-            (C) Impaired control of use; or
cording to the following table of worst acceptable         (D) Continued use despite damage to physical
thresholds, using the calibration standards of the      health or impairment of social, personal, or occu-
American National Standards Institute, 1969:            pational functioning.
                                                           (b) No substance abuse within the preceding 2
                   500     1000     2000     3000       years defined as:
Frequency (Hz)                                             (1) Use of a substance in a situation in which
                   Hz      Hz       Hz       Hz
Better ear (Db)    35      30       30       40         that use was physically hazardous, if there has
                                                        been at any other time an instance of the use of a
Poorer ear (Db)    35      50       50       60
                                                        substance also in a situation in which that use
                                                        was physically hazardous;
   (b) No disease or condition of the middle or in-        (2) A verified positive drug test result, an alco-
ternal ear, nose, oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx       hol test result of 0.04 or greater alcohol concen-
that—                                                   tration, or a refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol
   (1) Interferes with, or is aggravated by, flying or   test required by the U.S. Department of Transpor-
may reasonably be expected to do so; or                 tation or an agency of the U.S. Department of
   (2) Interferes with, or may reasonably be ex-        Transportation; or
pected to interfere with, clear and effective              (3) Misuse of a substance that the Federal Air
speech communication.                                   Surgeon, based on case history and appropriate,
   (c) No disease or condition manifested by, or        qualified medical judgment relating to the sub-
that may reasonably be expected to be mani-             stance involved, finds—
fested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium.        (i) Makes the person unable to safely perform
                                                        the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman
§67.207 Mental.                                         certificate applied for or held; or
   Mental standards for a second-class airman              (ii) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-
medical certificate are:                                 mum duration of the airman medical certificate
   (a) No established medical history or clinical di-   applied for or held, to make the person unable to
agnosis of any of the following:                        perform those duties or exercise those privileges.
   (1) A personality disorder that is severe enough        (c) No other personality disorder, neurosis, or
to have repeatedly manifested itself by overt acts.     other mental condition that the Federal Air Sur-
   (2) A psychosis. As used in this section, “psy-      geon, based on the case history and appropriate,
chosis” refers to a mental disorder in which:           qualified medical judgment relating to the condi-
   (i) The individual has manifested delusions,         tion involved, finds—
hallucinations, grossly bizarre or disorganized be-        (1) Makes the person unable to safely perform
havior, or other commonly accepted symptoms of          the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman
this condition; or                                      certificate applied for or held; or
   (ii) The individual may reasonably be expected          (2) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-
to manifest delusions, hallucinations, grossly bi-      mum duration of the airman medical certificate
zarre or disorganized behavior, or other com-           applied for or held, to make the person unable to
monly accepted symptoms of this condition.              perform those duties or exercise those privileges.
   (3) A bipolar disorder.                              [Docket No. 27940, 61 FR 11256, March 19, 1996; as
   (4) Substance dependence, except where               amended by Amdt. 67–19, 71 FR 35764, June 21, 2006]
there is established clinical evidence, satisfactory
to the Federal Air Surgeon, of recovery, including


                                                                                                       137
§67.209                                                               Federal Aviation Regulations


§67.209 Neurologic.                                        (c) No medication or other treatment that the
   Neurologic standards for a second-class air-         Federal Air Surgeon, based on the case history
man medical certificate are:                             and appropriate, qualified medical judgment relat-
   (a) No established medical history or clinical di-   ing to the medication or other treatment involved,
agnosis of any of the following:                        finds—
   (1) Epilepsy;                                           (1) Makes the person unable to safely perform
   (2) A disturbance of consciousness without sat-      the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman
isfactory medical explanation of the cause; or          certificate applied for or held; or
   (3) A transient loss of control of nervous sys-         (2) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-
tem function(s) without satisfactory medical ex-        mum duration of the airman medical certificate
planation of the cause;                                 applied for or held, to make the person unable to
   (b) No other seizure disorder, disturbance of        perform those duties or exercise those privileges.
consciousness, or neurologic condition that the
Federal Air Surgeon, based on the case history          §67.215 Discretionary issuance.
and appropriate, qualified medical judgment relat-          A person who does not meet the provisions of
ing to the condition involved, finds—                    §§67.203 through 67.213 may apply for the dis-
   (1) Makes the person unable to safely perform        cretionary issuance of a certificate under
the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman     §67.401.
certificate applied for or held; or
   (2) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-
mum duration of the airman medical certificate                     Subpart D —
applied for or held, to make the person unable to
perform those duties or exercise those privileges.
                                                               Third-Class Airman
                                                               Medical Certificate
§67.211 Cardiovascular.
   Cardiovascular standards for a second-class          §67.301 Eligibility.
medical certificate are no established medical his-         To be eligible for a third-class airman medical
tory or clinical diagnosis of any of the following:     certificate, or to remain eligible for a third-class
   (a) Myocardial infarction;                           airman medical certificate, a person must meet
   (b) Angina pectoris;                                 the requirements of this subpart.
   (c) Coronary heart disease that has required
treatment or, if untreated, that has been symp-         §67.303 Eye.
tomatic or clinically significant;
   (d) Cardiac valve replacement;                          Eye standards for a third-class airman medical
   (e) Permanent cardiac pacemaker implanta-            certificate are:
tion; or                                                   (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/40 or better in
                                                        each eye separately, with or without corrective
   (f) Heart replacement.
                                                        lenses. If corrective lenses (spectacles or contact
                                                        lenses) are necessary for 20/40 vision, the person
§67.213 General medical condition.                      may be eligible only on the condition that correc-
   The general medical standards for a second-          tive lenses are worn while exercising the privi-
class airman medical certificate are:                    leges of an airman certificate.
   (a) No established medical history or clinical di-      (b) Near vision of 20/40 or better, Snellen
agnosis of diabetes mellitus that requires insulin      equivalent, at 16 inches in each eye separately,
or any other hypoglycemic drug for control.             with or without corrective lenses.
   (b) No other organic, functional, or structural         (c) Ability to perceive those colors necessary
disease, defect, or limitation that the Federal Air     for the safe performance of airman duties.
Surgeon, based on the case history and appropri-           (d) No acute or chronic pathological condition
ate, qualified medical judgment relating to the          of either eye or adnexa that interferes with the
condition involved, finds—                               proper function of an eye, that may reasonably
   (1) Makes the person unable to safely perform        be expected to progress to that degree, or that
the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman     may reasonably be expected to be aggravated
certificate applied for or held; or                      by flying.
   (2) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-
mum duration of the airman medical certificate
applied for or held, to make the person unable to
perform those duties or exercise those privileges.




138
Part 67: Medical Standards & Certification                                                        §67.307


§67.305 Ear, nose, throat,                              for not less than the preceding 2 years. As used in
  and equilibrium.                                      this section—
                                                           (i) “Substance” includes: alcohol; other seda-
   Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for
                                                        tives and hypnotics; anxiolytics; opioids; central
a third-class airman medical certificate are:
                                                        nervous system stimulants such as cocaine, am-
   (a) The person shall demonstrate acceptable
                                                        phetamines, and similarly acting sympathomimet-
hearing by at least one of the following tests:
                                                        ics; hallucinogens; phencyclidine or similarly act-
   (1) Demonstrate an ability to hear an average
                                                        ing arylcyclohexylamines; cannabis; inhalants;
conversational voice in a quiet room, using both
                                                        and other psychoactive drugs and chemicals; and
ears, at a distance of 6 feet from the examiner,
                                                           (ii) “Substance dependence” means a condition




                                                                                                               67
with the back turned to the examiner.
                                                        in which a person is dependent on a substance,
   (2) Demonstrate an acceptable understanding
                                                        other than tobacco or ordinary xanthine-contain-
of speech as determined by audiometric speech
                                                        ing (e.g., caffeine) beverages, as evidenced by—
discrimination testing to a score of at least 70 per-
                                                           (A) Increased tolerance;
cent obtained in one ear or in a sound field envi-
                                                           (B) Manifestation of withdrawal symptoms;
ronment.
                                                           (C) Impaired control of use; or
   (3) Provide acceptable results of pure tone au-
                                                           (D) Continued use despite damage to physical
diometric testing of unaided hearing acuity ac-
                                                        health or impairment of social, personal, or occu-
cording to the following table of worst acceptable
                                                        pational functioning.
thresholds, using the calibration standards of the
                                                           (b) No substance abuse within the preceding 2
American National Standards Institute, 1969:
                                                        years defined as:
                   500     1000     2000     3000          (1) Use of a substance in a situation in which
Frequency (Hz)                                          that use was physically hazardous, if there has
                   Hz      Hz       Hz       Hz
Better ear (Db)    35      30       30       40         been at any other time an instance of the use of a
                                                        substance also in a situation in which that use
Poorer ear (Db)    35      50       50       60
                                                        was physically hazardous;
                                                           (2) A verified positive drug test result, an alco-
   (b) No disease or condition of the middle or in-     hol test result of 0.04 or greater alcohol concen-
ternal ear, nose, oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx       tration, or a refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol
that—                                                   test required by the U.S. Department of Transpor-
   (1) Interferes with, or is aggravated by, flying or   tation or an agency of the U.S. Department of
may reasonably be expected to do so; or                 Transportation; or
   (2) Interferes with clear and effective speech          (3) Misuse of a substance that the Federal Air
communication.                                          Surgeon, based on case history and appropriate,
   (c) No disease or condition manifested by, or        qualified medical judgment relating to the sub-
that may reasonably be expected to be mani-             stance involved, finds—
fested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium.        (i) Makes the person unable to safely perform
                                                        the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman
§67.307 Mental.                                         certificate applied for or held; or
   Mental standards for a third-class airman med-          (ii) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-
ical certificate are:                                    mum duration of the airman medical certificate
   (a) No established medical history or clinical di-   applied for or held, to make the person unable to
agnosis of any of the following:                        perform those duties or exercise those privileges.
   (1) A personality disorder that is severe enough        (c) No other personality disorder, neurosis, or
to have repeatedly manifested itself by overt acts.     other mental condition that the Federal Air Sur-
   (2) A psychosis. As used in this section, “psy-      geon, based on the case history and appropriate,
chosis” refers to a mental disorder in which—           qualified medical judgment relating to the condi-
   (i) The individual has manifested delusions,         tion involved, finds—
hallucinations, grossly bizarre or disorganized be-        (1) Makes the person unable to safely perform
havior, or other commonly accepted symptoms of          the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman
this condition; or                                      certificate applied for or held; or
   (ii) The individual may reasonably be expected          (2) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-
to manifest delusions, hallucinations, grossly bi-      mum duration of the airman medical certificate
zarre or disorganized behavior, or other com-           applied for or held, to make the person unable to
monly accepted symptoms of this condition.              perform those duties or exercise those privileges.
   (3) A bipolar disorder.                              [Docket No. 27940, 61 FR 11256, March 19, 1996; as
   (4) Substance dependence, except where               amended by Amdt. 67–19, 71 FR 35764, June 21, 2006]
there is established clinical evidence, satisfactory
to the Federal Air Surgeon, of recovery, including
sustained total abstinence from the substance(s)


                                                                                                       139
§67.309                                                               Federal Aviation Regulations


§67.309 Neurologic.                                        (c) No medication or other treatment that the
   Neurologic standards for a third-class airman        Federal Air Surgeon, based on the case history
medical certificate are:                                 and appropriate, qualified medical judgment relat-
   (a) No established medical history or clinical di-   ing to the medication or other treatment involved,
agnosis of any of the following:                        finds—
   (1) Epilepsy;                                           (1) Makes the person unable to safely perform
   (2) A disturbance of consciousness without sat-      the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman
isfactory medical explanation of the cause; or          certificate applied for or held; or
   (3) A transient loss of control of nervous sys-         (2) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-
tem function(s) without satisfactory medical ex-        mum duration of the airman medical certificate
planation of the cause.                                 applied for or held, to make the person unable to
   (b) No other seizure disorder, disturbance of        perform those duties or exercise those privileges.
consciousness, or neurologic condition that the
Federal Air Surgeon, based on the case history          §67.315 Discretionary issuance.
and appropriate, qualified medical judgment relat-          A person who does not meet the provisions of
ing to the condition involved, finds—                    §§67.303 through 67.313 may apply for the dis-
   (1) Makes the person unable to safely perform        cretionary issuance of a certificate under
the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman     §67.401.
certificate applied for or held; or
   (2) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-
mum duration of the airman medical certificate                   Subpart E—
applied for or held, to make the person unable to
perform those duties or exercise those privileges.
                                                          Certification Procedures

§67.311 Cardiovascular.                                 §67.401 Special issuance of medical
   Cardiovascular standards for a third-class air-
                                                          certificates.
man medical certificate are no established medi-            (a) At the discretion of the Federal Air Surgeon,
cal history or clinical diagnosis of any of the fol-    an Authorization for Special Issuance of a Medical
lowing:                                                 Certificate (Authorization), valid for a specified
   (a) Myocardial infarction;                           period, may be granted to a person who does not
   (b) Angina pectoris;                                 meet the provisions of subparts B, C, or D of this
   (c) Coronary heart disease that has required         part if the person shows to the satisfaction of the
treatment or, if untreated, that has been symp-         Federal Air Surgeon that the duties authorized by
tomatic or clinically significant;                       the class of medical certificate applied for can be
   (d) Cardiac valve replacement;                       performed without endangering public safety dur-
   (e) Permanent cardiac pacemaker implanta-            ing the period in which the Authorization would be
tion; or                                                in force. The Federal Air Surgeon may authorize a
   (f) Heart replacement.                               special medical flight test, practical test, or medi-
                                                        cal evaluation for this purpose. A medical certifi-
§67.313 General medical condition.                      cate of the appropriate class may be issued to a
                                                        person who does not meet the provisions of sub-
   The general medical standards for a third-class      parts B, C, or D of this part if that person pos-
airman medical certificate are:                          sesses a valid Authorization and is otherwise eli-
   (a) No established medical history or clinical di-   gible. An airman medical certificate issued in
agnosis of diabetes mellitus that requires insulin      accordance with this section shall expire no later
or any other hypoglycemic drug for control.             than the end of the validity period or upon the
   (b) No other organic, functional, or structural      withdrawal of the Authorization upon which it is
disease, defect, or limitation that the Federal Air     based. At the end of its specified validity period,
Surgeon, based on the case history and appropri-        for grant of a new Authorization, the person must
ate, qualified medical judgment relating to the          again show to the satisfaction of the Federal Air
condition involved, finds—                               Surgeon that the duties authorized by the class of
   (1) Makes the person unable to safely perform        medical certificate applied for can be performed
the duties or exercise the privileges of the airman     without endangering public safety during the per-
certificate applied for or held; or                      iod in which the Authorization would be in force.
   (2) May reasonably be expected, for the maxi-           (b) At the discretion of the Federal Air Surgeon,
mum duration of the airman medical certificate           a Statement of Demonstrated Ability (SODA) may
applied for or held, to make the person unable to       be granted, instead of an Authorization, to a per-
perform those duties or exercise those privileges.      son whose disqualifying condition is static or non-
                                                        progressive and who has been found capable of



140
Part 67: Medical Standards & Certification                                                           §67.401


performing airman duties without endangering                 (3) Public safety would be endangered by the
public safety. A SODA does not expire and autho-          holder’s exercise of airman privileges;
rizes a designated aviation medical examiner to              (4) The holder fails to provide medical informa-
issue a medical certificate of a specified class if         tion reasonably needed by the Federal Air Sur-
the examiner finds that the condition described on         geon for certification under this section; or
its face has not adversely changed.                          (5) The holder makes or causes to be made a
   (c) In granting an Authorization or SODA, the          statement or entry that is the basis for withdrawal
Federal Air Surgeon may consider the person’s             of an Authorization or SODA under §67.403.
operational experience and any medical facts that            (g) A person who has been granted an Authori-
may affect the ability of the person to perform air-      zation or SODA under this section based on a




                                                                                                                  67
man duties including—                                     special medical flight or practical test need not
   (1) The combined effect on the person of failure       take the test again during later physical examina-
to meet more than one requirement of this part;           tions unless the Federal Air Surgeon determines
and                                                       or has reason to believe that the physical defi-
   (2) The prognosis derived from professional            ciency has or may have degraded to a degree to
consideration of all available information regard-        require another special medical flight test or prac-
ing the person.                                           tical test.
   (d) In granting an Authorization or SODA under            (h) The authority of the Federal Air Surgeon un-
this section, the Federal Air Surgeon specifies the        der this section is also exercised by the Manager,
class of medical certificate authorized to be is-          Aeromedical Certification Division, and each Re-
sued and may do any or all of the following:              gional Flight Surgeon.
   (1) Limit the duration of an Authorization;               (i) If an Authorization or SODA is withdrawn un-
   (2) Condition the granting of a new Authoriza-         der paragraph (f) of this section the following pro-
tion on the results of subsequent medical tests,          cedures apply:
examinations, or evaluations;                                (1) The holder of the Authorization or SODA will
   (3) State on the Authorization or SODA, and            be served a letter of withdrawal, stating the rea-
any medical certificate based upon it, any opera-          son for the action;
tional limitation needed for safety; or                      (2) By not later than 60 days after the service of
   (4) Condition the continued effect of an Authori-      the letter of withdrawal, the holder of the Authori-
zation or SODA, and any second- or third-class            zation or SODA may request, in writing, that the
medical certificate based upon it, on compliance           Federal Air Surgeon provide for review of the de-
with a statement of functional limitations issued to      cision to withdraw. The request for review may be
the person in coordination with the Director of           accompanied by supporting medical evidence;
Flight Standards or the Director’s designee.                 (3) Within 60 days of receipt of a request for re-
   (e) In determining whether an Authorization or         view, a written final decision either affirming or re-
SODA should be granted to an applicant for a              versing the decision to withdraw will be issued;
third-class medical certificate, the Federal Air Sur-      and
geon considers the freedom of an airman, exer-               (4) A medical certificate rendered invalid pursu-
cising the privileges of a private pilot certificate, to   ant to a withdrawal, in accordance with paragraph
accept reasonable risks to his or her person and          (a) of this section, shall be surrendered to the Ad-
property that are not acceptable in the exercise of       ministrator upon request.
commercial or airline transport pilot privileges,            (j) An Authorization or SODA granted under the
and, at the same time, considers the need to pro-         provisions of this section to a person who does
tect the safety of persons and property in other          not meet the applicable provisions of subparts B,
aircraft and on the ground.                               C, or D of this part must be in that person’s physi-
   (f) An Authorization or SODA granted under             cal possession or readily accessible in the air-
the provisions of this section to a person who            craft.
does not meet the applicable provisions of sub-           [Docket No. 27940, 61 FR 11256, March 19, 1996; as
parts B, C, or D of this part may be withdrawn, at        amended by Amdt. 67–20, 73 FR 43065, July 24, 2008]
the discretion of the Federal Air Surgeon, at any
time if—
   (1) There is adverse change in the holder’s
medical condition;
   (2) The holder fails to comply with a statement
of functional limitations or operational limitations
issued as a condition of certification under this
section;




                                                                                                          141
§67.403                                                              Federal Aviation Regulations


§67.403 Applications, certificates,                     §67.407 Delegation of authority.
  logbooks, reports, and records:                         (a) The authority of the Administrator under 49
  Falsification, reproduction, or                       U.S.C. 44703 to issue or deny medical certificates
  alteration; incorrect statements.                    is delegated to the Federal Air Surgeon to the ex-
   (a) No person may make or cause to be               tent necessary to—
made—                                                     (1) Examine applicants for and holders of med-
   (1) A fraudulent or intentionally false statement   ical certificates to determine whether they meet
on any application for a medical certificate or on a    applicable medical standards; and
request for any Authorization for Special Issuance        (2) Issue, renew, and deny medical certificates,
of a Medical Certificate (Authorization) or State-      and issue, renew, deny, and withdraw Authoriza-
ment of Demonstrated Ability (SODA) under this         tions for Special Issuance of a Medical Certificate
part;                                                  and Statements of Demonstrated Ability to a per-
   (2) A fraudulent or intentionally false entry in    son based upon meeting or failing to meet appli-
any logbook, record, or report that is kept, made,     cable medical standards.
or used, to show compliance with any require-             (b) Subject to limitations in this chapter, the
ment for any medical certificate or for any Authori-    delegated functions of the Federal Air Surgeon to
zation or SODA under this part;                        examine applicants for and holders of medical
   (3) A reproduction, for fraudulent purposes, of     certificates for compliance with applicable medi-
any medical certificate under this part; or             cal standards and to issue, renew, and deny med-
   (4) An alteration of any medical certificate un-     ical certificates are also delegated to aviation
der this part.                                         medical examiners and to authorized representa-
   (b) The commission by any person of an act          tives of the Federal Air Surgeon within the FAA.
prohibited under paragraph (a) of this section is a       (c) The authority of the Administrator under 49
basis for—                                             U.S.C. 44702, to reconsider the action of an avia-
   (1) Suspending or revoking all airman, ground       tion medical examiner is delegated to the Federal
instructor, and medical certificates and ratings        Air Surgeon; the Manager, Aeromedical Certifica-
held by that person;                                   tion Division; and each Regional Flight Surgeon.
   (2) Withdrawing all Authorizations or SODA’s        Where the person does not meet the standards of
held by that person; and                               §§67.107(b)(3) and (c), 67.109(b), 67.113(b) and
   (3) Denying all applications for medical certifi-    (c), 67.207(b)(3) and (c), 67.209(b), 67.213(b)
cation and requests for Authorizations or SODA’s.      and (c), 67.307(b)(3) and (c), 67.309(b), or
   (c) The following may serve as a basis for sus-     67.313(b) and (c), any action taken under this
pending or revoking a medical certificate; with-        paragraph other than by the Federal Air Surgeon
drawing an Authorization or SODA; or denying an        is subject to reconsideration by the Federal Air
application for a medical certificate or request for    Surgeon. A certificate issued by an aviation medi-
an authorization or SODA:                              cal examiner is considered to be affirmed as is-
   (1) An incorrect statement, upon which the FAA      sued unless an FAA official named in this para-
relied, made in support of an application for a        graph (authorized official) reverses that issuance
medical certificate or request for an Authorization     within 60 days after the date of issuance. How-
or SODA.                                               ever, if within 60 days after the date of issuance
   (2) An incorrect entry, upon which the FAA re-      an authorized official requests the certificate
lied, made in any logbook, record, or report that is   holder to submit additional medical information,
kept, made, or used to show compliance with any        an authorized official may reverse the issuance
requirement for a medical certificate or an Autho-      within 60 days after receipt of the requested infor-
rization or SODA.                                      mation.
                                                          (d) The authority of the Administrator under 49
                                                       U.S.C. 44709 to re-examine any civil airman to
§67.405 Medical examinations:                          the extent necessary to determine an airman’s
  Who may perform?                                     qualification to continue to hold an airman medi-
   (a) First-class. Any aviation medical examiner      cal certificate, is delegated to the Federal Air Sur-
who is specifically designated for the purpose          geon and his or her authorized representatives
may perform examinations for the first-class med-       within the FAA.
ical certificate.
   (b) Second- and third-class. Any aviation
medical examiner may perform examinations for
the second-or third-class medical certificate.
[Docket No. 27940, 61 FR 11256, March 19, 1996; as
amended by Amdt. 67–20, 73 FR 43065, July 24, 2008]




142
Part 67: Medical Standards & Certification                                                        §67.415


§67.409 Denial of medical certificate.                   §67.413 Medical records.
   (a) Any person who is denied a medical certifi-          (a) Whenever the Administrator finds that addi-
cate by an aviation medical examiner may, within        tional medical information or history is necessary
30 days after the date of the denial, apply in writ-    to determine whether you meet the medical stan-
ing and in duplicate to the Federal Air Surgeon,        dards required to hold a medical certificate, you
Attention: Manager, Aeromedical Certification Di-        must:
vision, AAM-300, Federal Aviation Administration,          (1) Furnish that information to the FAA; or
P.O. Box 26080, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma                    (2) Authorize any clinic, hospital, physician, or
73126, for reconsideration of that denial. If the       other person to release to the FAA all available in-




                                                                                                               67
person does not ask for reconsideration during          formation or records concerning that history.
the 30-day period after the date of the denial, he         (b) If you fail to provide the requested medical
or she is considered to have withdrawn the appli-       information or history or to authorize its release,
cation for a medical certificate.                        the FAA may suspend, modify, or revoke your
   (b) The denial of a medical certificate—              medical certificate or, in the case of an applicant,
   (1) By an aviation medical examiner is not a de-     deny the application for a medical certificate.
nial by the Administrator under 49 U.S.C. 44703.           (c) If your medical certificate is suspended,
   (2) By the Federal Air Surgeon is considered to      modified, or revoked under paragraph (b) of this
be a denial by the Administrator under 49 U.S.C.        section, that suspension or modification remains
44703.                                                  in effect until you provide the requested informa-
   (3) By the Manager, Aeromedical Certification         tion, history, or authorization to the FAA and until
Division, or a Regional Flight Surgeon is consid-       the FAA determines that you meet the medical
ered to be a denial by the Administrator under 49       standards set forth in this part.
U.S.C. 44703 except where the person does not           [Docket No. FAA–2007–27812, 73 FR 43066, July 24,
meet the standards of §§67.107(b)(3) and (c),           2008]
67.109(b), or 67.113(b) and (c); 67.207(b)(3) and
(c), 67.209(b), or 67.213(b) and (c); or 67.307(b)(3)   §67.415 Return of medical certificate
and (c), 67.309(b), or 67.313(b) and (c).                 after suspension or revocation.
   (c) Any action taken under §67.407(c) that
wholly or partly reverses the issue of a medical          The holder of any medical certificate issued un-
certificate by an aviation medical examiner is the       der this part that is suspended or revoked shall,
denial of a medical certificate under paragraph (b)      upon the Administrator’s request, return it to the
of this section.                                        Administrator.
   (d) If the issue of a medical certificate is wholly
or partly reversed by the Federal Air Surgeon; the
Manager, Aeromedical Certification Division; or a
Regional Flight Surgeon, the person holding that
certificate shall surrender it, upon request of the
FAA.

§67.411 [Reserved]




                                                                                                       143
Part 67   Federal Aviation Regulations




144
Part 71: Airspace                                                                                        §71.1


          SUBCHAPTER E                                            SFAR NO. 97 TO PART 71
                                                            SPECIAL OPERATING RULES FOR THE
                                                           CONDUCT OF INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES
                AIRSPACE                                      (IFR) AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV)
                                                           OPERATIONS USING GLOBAL POSITIONING
                   PART 71                                       SYSTEMS (GPS) IN ALASKA
       DESIGNATION OF                                    Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 97, see Part 91
CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE                         of this chapter.
  AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE
ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS
                                                         §71.1 Applicability.




                                                                                                                    71
SFAR No. 97 [Note]                                          A listing for Class A, B, C, D, and E airspace
                                                         areas; air traffic service routes; and reporting
Sec.                                                     points can be found in FAA Order 7400.9T, Air-
*71.1  Applicability.                                    space Designations and Reporting Points, dated
71.3   [Reserved]                                        August 27, 2009. This incorporation by reference
*71.5  Reporting points.                                 was approved by the Director of the Federal Reg-
71.7   Bearings, radials, and mileages.                  ister in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1
71.9   Overlapping airspace designations.                CFR Part 51. The approval to incorporate by ref-
71.11  Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.                  erence FAA Order 7400.9T is effective September
71.13  Classification of Air Traffic Service               15, 2009, through September 15, 2010. During
         (ATS) routes.                                   the incorporation by reference period, proposed
*71.15 Designation of jet routes and VOR                 changes to the listings of Class A, B, C, D, and E
         Federal airways.                                airspace areas; air traffic service routes; and re-
                                                         porting points will be published in full text as pro-
                                                         posed rule documents in the Federal Register.
        SUBPART A — CLASS A AIRSPACE
                                                         Amendments to the listings of Class A, B, C, D,
*71.31 Class A airspace.                                 and E airspace areas; air traffic service routes;
*71.33 Class A airspace areas.                           and reporting points will be published in full text
                                                         as final rules in the Federal Register. Periodi-
                                                         cally, the final rule amendments will be integrated
        SUBPART B — CLASS B AIRSPACE
                                                         into a revised edition of the Order and submitted
*71.41 Class B airspace.                                 to the Director of the Federal Register for approval
                                                         for incorporation by reference in this section. Cop-
        SUBPART C — CLASS C AIRSPACE                     ies of FAA Order 7400.9T may be obtained from
                                                         Airspace and Rules Group, Federal Aviation Ad-
*71.51 Class C airspace.                                 ministration, 800 Independence Avenue SW,
                                                         Washington, DC 20591, (202) 267-8783. An elec-
        SUBPART D — CLASS D AIRSPACE                     tronic version of the Order is available on the FAA
                                                         Website at:
*71.61 Class D airspace.
                                                           http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications
        SUBPART E — CLASS E AIRSPACE                     Copies of FAA Order 7400.9T may be inspected
                                                         in Docket No. 29334 on the Federal Register
*71.71 Class E airspace.                                 Website at:
                                                           http://www.regulations.gov
         SUBPARTS F–G— [RESERVED]
                                                         [Docket No. 29334, 74 FR 46490, Sept. 10, 2009]

        SUBPART H — REPORTING POINTS
                                                         §71.3 [Reserved]
*71.901 Applicability.

Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O.
10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959–1963 Comp., p. 389.
Source: Amdt. 71–14, 56 FR 65654, Dec. 17, 1991,
unless otherwise noted.




                                                                                                            145
§71.5                                                                 Federal Aviation Regulations


§71.5 Reporting points.                                 §71.13 Classification of Air Traffic
   The reporting points listed in Subpart H of FAA        Service (ATS) routes.
Order 7400.9T (incorporated by reference, see              Unless otherwise specified, ATS routes are
§71.1) consist of geographic locations at which         classified as follows:
the position of an aircraft must be reported in ac-        (a) In subpart A of this part:
cordance with part 91 of this chapter.                     (1) Jet routes.
[Docket No. 29334, 73 FR 54495, Sept. 22, 2008; as         (2) Area navigation (RNAV) routes.
amended by Amdt. 71–40, 73 FR 60940, Oct. 15, 2008;        (b) In subpart E of this part:
Amdt. 71–41, 74 FR 46490, Sept. 10, 2009]                  (1) VOR Federal airways.
                                                           (2) Colored Federal airways.
§71.7 Bearings, radials, and mileages.                     (i) Green Federal airways.
   All bearings and radials in this part are true and      (ii) Amber Federal airways.
are applied from point of origin and all mileages in       (iii) Red Federal airways.
this part are stated as nautical miles.                    (iv) Blue Federal airways.
                                                           (3) Area navigation (RNAV) routes.
§71.9 Overlapping airspace                              [Docket No. FAA–2003–14698, 68 FR 16947, April 8,
                                                        2003]
  designations.
   (a) When overlapping airspace designations           §71.15 Designation of jet routes and
apply to the same airspace, the operating rules
associated with the more restrictive airspace des-
                                                          VOR Federal airways.
ignation apply.                                           Unless otherwise specified, the place names
   (b) For the purpose of this section—                 appearing in the descriptions of airspace areas
   (1) Class A airspace is more restrictive than        designated as jet routes in Subpart A of FAA Or-
Class B, Class C, Class D, Class E, or Class G          der 7400.9T, and as VOR Federal airways in Sub-
airspace;                                               part E of FAA Order 7400.9T, are the names of
   (2) Class B airspace is more restrictive than        VOR or VORTAC navigation aids. FAA Order
Class C, Class D, Class E, or Class G airspace;         7400.9T is incorporated by reference in §71.1.
   (3) Class C airspace is more restrictive than        [Docket No. 29334, 73 FR 54495, Sept. 22, 2008; as
Class D, Class E, or Class G airspace;                  amended by Amdt. 71–40, 73 FR 60940, Oct. 15, 2008;
   (4) Class D airspace is more restrictive than        Amdt. 71–41, 74 FR 46490, Sept. 10, 2009]
Class E or Class G airspace; and
   (5) Class E is more restrictive than Class G air-
space.

§71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.
   Unless otherwise specified, the following apply:
   (a) An Air Traffic Service (ATS) route is based
on a centerline that extends from one navigation
aid, fix, or intersection, to another navigation aid,
fix, or intersection (or through several navigation
aids, fixes, or intersections) specified for that
route.
   (b) An ATS route does not include the airspace
of a prohibited area.
[Docket No. FAA–2003–14698, 68 FR 16947, April 8,
2003; as amended by Amdt. 71–33, 70 FR 23004, May
3, 2005]




146
Part 71: Airspace                                                                                      §71.61


            Subpart A—                                                 Subpart B—
          Class A Airspace                                           Class B Airspace
§71.31 Class A airspace.                                    §71.41 Class B airspace.
   The airspace descriptions contained in §71.33               The Class B airspace areas listed in Subpart B
and the routes contained in Subpart A of FAA Or-            of FAA Order 7400.9T (incorporated by reference,
der 7400.9T (incorporated by reference, see                 see §71.1) consist of specified airspace within
§71.1) are designated as Class A airspace within            which all aircraft operators are subject to the min-
which all pilots and aircraft are subject to the rat-       imum pilot qualification requirements, operating
ing requirements, operating rules, and equipment            rules, and aircraft equipment requirements of part
requirements of part 91 of this chapter.                    91 of this chapter. Each Class B airspace area




                                                                                                                   71
[Docket No. 29334, 73 FR 54495, Sept. 22, 2008; as          designated for an airport in Subpart B of FAA Or-
amended by Amdt. 71–40, 73 FR 60940, Oct. 15, 2008;         der 7400.9T (incorporated by reference, see
Amdt. 71–41, 74 FR 46490, Sept. 10, 2009]                   §71.1) contains at least one primary airport
                                                            around which the airspace is designated.
§71.33 Class A airspace areas.                              [Docket No. 29334, 73 FR 54495, Sept. 22, 2008; as
   (a) That airspace of the United States, includ-          amended by Amdt. 71–40, 73 FR 60940, Oct. 15, 2008;
                                                            Amdt. 71–41, 74 FR 46490, Sept. 10, 2009]
ing that airspace overlying the waters within 12
nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous
States, from 18,000 feet MSL to and including
FL600 excluding the states of Alaska and Hawaii,
                                                                       Subpart C—
Santa Barbara Island, Farallon Island, and the air-                  Class C Airspace
space south of latitude 25°04'00" North.
   (b) That airspace of the State of Alaska, includ-        §71.51 Class C airspace.
ing that airspace overlying the waters within 12
                                                               The Class C airspace areas listed in Subpart C
nautical miles of the coast, from 18,000 feet MSL
                                                            of FAA Order 7400.9T (incorporated by reference,
to and including FL600 but not including the air-
                                                            see §71.1) consist of specified airspace within
space less than 1,500 feet above the surface of
                                                            which all aircraft operators are subject to operat-
the earth and the Alaska Peninsula west of longi-
                                                            ing rules and equipment requirements specified in
tude 160°00'00" West.
                                                            part 91 of this chapter. Each Class C airspace
   (c) The airspace areas listed as offshore air-
                                                            area designated for an airport in Subpart C of
space areas in Subpart A of FAA Order 7400.9T
                                                            FAA Order 7400.9T (incorporated by reference,
(incorporated by reference, see §71.1) that are
                                                            see §71.1) contains at least one primary airport
designated in international airspace within areas
                                                            around which the airspace is designated.
of domestic radio navigational signal or ATC radar
coverage, and within which domestic ATC proce-              [Docket No. 29334, 73 FR 54495, Sept. 22, 2008; as
dures are applied.                                          amended by Amdt. 71–40, 73 FR 60940, Oct. 15, 2008;
                                                            Amdt. 71–41, 74 FR 46490, Sept. 10, 2009]
[Amdt. 71–14, 56 FR 65654, Dec. 17, 1991]
Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting
§71.33, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which                   Subpart D—
appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume
and on GPO Access.                                                   Class D Airspace
                                                            §71.61 Class D airspace.
                                                               The Class D airspace areas listed in Subpart D
                                                            of FAA Order 7400.9T (incorporated by reference,
                                                            see §71.1) consist of specified airspace within
                                                            which all aircraft operators are subject to operat-
                                                            ing rules and equipment requirements specified in
                                                            part 91 of this chapter. Each Class D airspace
                                                            area designated for an airport in Subpart D of
                                                            FAA Order 7400.9T (incorporated by reference,
                                                            see §71.1) contains at least one primary airport
                                                            around which the airspace is designated.
                                                            [Docket No. 29334, 73 FR 54495, Sept. 22, 2008; as
                                                            amended by Amdt. 71–40, 73 FR 60940, Oct. 15, 2008;
                                                            Amdt. 71–41, 74 FR 46490, Sept. 10, 2009]




                                                                                                           147
§71.71                                                               Federal Aviation Regulations


           Subpart E—                                     (e) The airspace areas listed as en route do-
                                                       mestic airspace areas in Subpart E of FAA Order
         Class E Airspace                              7400.9T (incorporated by reference, see §71.1).
                                                       Unless otherwise specified, each airspace area
§71.71 Class E airspace.                               has a lateral extent identical to that of a Federal
   Class E Airspace consists of:                       airway and extends upward from 1,200 feet above
                                                       the surface of the earth to the overlying or adja-
   (a) The airspace of the United States, including    cent controlled airspace.
that airspace overlying the waters within 12 nauti-       (f) The airspace areas listed as offshore air-
cal miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous states     space areas in Subpart E of FAA Order 7400.9T
and Alaska, extending upward from 14,500 feet          (incorporated by reference, see §71.1) that are
MSL up to, but not including 18,000 feet MSL, and      designated in international airspace within areas
the airspace above FL600, excluding—                   of domestic radio navigational signal or ATC radar
   (1) The Alaska peninsula west of longitude          coverage, and within which domestic ATC proce-
160°00’00" W.; and                                     dures are applied. Unless otherwise specified,
   (2) The airspace below 1,500 feet above the         each airspace area extends upward from a speci-
surface of the earth.                                  fied altitude up to, but not including, 18,000 feet
   (b) The airspace areas designated for an air-       MSL.
port in Subpart E of FAA Order 7400.9T (incorpo-
rated by reference, see §71.1) within which all air-   [Docket No. 29334, 73 FR 54495, Sept. 22, 2008; as
                                                       amended by Amdt. 71–40, 73 FR 60940, Oct. 15, 2008;
craft operators are subject to the operating rules
                                                       Amdt. 71–41, 74 FR 46490, Sept. 10, 2009]
specified in part 91 of this chapter.
   (c) The airspace areas listed as domestic air-
space areas in Subpart E of FAA Order 7400.9T          Subparts F–G—[Reserved]
(incorporated by reference, see §71.1) which ex-
tend upward from 700 feet or more above the sur-
face of the earth when designated in conjunction
with an airport for which an approved instrument
                                                                  Subpart H—
approach procedure has been prescribed, or from                 Reporting Points
1,200 feet or more above the surface of the earth
for the purpose of transitioning to or from the ter-   §71.901 Applicability.
minal or en route environment. When such areas
                                                          Unless otherwise designated:
are designated in conjunction with airways or
                                                          (a) Each reporting point listed in Subpart H of
routes, the extent of such designation has the lat-
                                                       FAA Order 7400.9T (incorporated by reference,
eral extent identical to that of a Federal airway
                                                       see §71.1) applies to all directions of flight. In any
and extends upward from 1,200 feet or higher.
                                                       case where a geographic location is designated
Unless otherwise specified, the airspace areas in
                                                       as a reporting point for less than all airways pass-
the paragraph extend upward from 1,200 feet or
                                                       ing through that point, or for a particular direction
higher above the surface to, but not including,
                                                       of flight along an airway only, it is so indicated by
14,500 feet MSL.
                                                       including the airways or direction of flight in the
   (d) The Federal airways described in Subpart E
                                                       designation of geographical location.
of FAA Order 7400.9T (incorporated by reference,
                                                          (b) Place names appearing in the reporting
see §71.1).
                                                       point descriptions indicate VOR or VORTAC facili-
                                                       ties identified by those names.
                                                       [Docket No. 29334, 73 FR 54496, Sept. 22, 2008; as
                                                       amended by Amdt. 71–40, 73 FR 60940, Oct. 15, 2008;
                                                       Amdt. 71–41, 74 FR 46490, Sept. 10, 2009]




148
Part 73: Special Use Airspace                                                                        §73.17


                   PART 73                               §73.5 Bearings; radials; miles.
        SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE                                (a) All bearings and radials in this part are true
                                                         from point of origin.
                                                            (b) Unless otherwise specified, all mileages in
               Subpart A—General
                                                         this part are stated as statute miles.
Sec.
73.1    Applicability.
73.3    Special use airspace.
73.5    Bearings; radials; miles.
                                                                    Subpart B —
                                                                  Restricted Areas
         Subpart B—Restricted Areas
73.11   Applicability.                                   §73.11 Applicability.
73.13   Restrictions.                                       This subpart designates restricted areas and
73.15   Using agency.                                    prescribes limitations on the operation of aircraft
73.17   Controlling agency.                              within them.




                                                                                                                  73
73.19   Reports by using agency.
                                                         §73.13 Restrictions.
         Subp