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Unilever was created in 1930 by the amalgamation of the operations of British soapmaker Lever
Brothers and Dutch margarine producer Margarine Unie, a merger as palm oil was a major raw
material for both margarines and soaps and could be imported more efficiently in larger

In the 1930s the business of Unilever grew and new ventures were launched in Latin America. In
1972 Unilever purchased A&W Restaurants' Canadian division but sold its shares through a
management buyout to former A&W Food Services of Canada CEO Jeffrey Mooney in July
1995.[2] By 1980 soap and edible fats contributed just 40% of profits, compared with an original
90%. In 1984 the company bought the brand Brooke Bond (maker of PG Tips tea).

In 1987 Unilever strengthened its position in the world skin care market by acquiring
Chesebrough-Ponds, the maker of Ragú, Pond's, Aqua-Net, Cutex Nail Polish, and Vaseline. In
1989 Unilever bought Calvin Klein Cosmetics, Fabergé, and Elizabeth Arden, but the latter was
later sold (in 2000) to FFI Fragrances.[3]

In 1996 Unilever purchased Helene Curtis Industries, giving the company "a powerful new
presence in the United States shampoo and deodorant market".[3] The purchase brought Unilever
the Suave and Finesse hair-care product brands and Degree deodorant brand.[4]

Global employment at Unilever 2000-2008
Black represents employment numbers in Europe, light grey represents the Americas and dark
grey represents Asia, Africa, and Middle East. Between 2000 and 2008 Unilever reduced global
workforce numbers by 41%, from 295,000 to 174,000. Note: Europe figures for 2000-2003 are
all Europe; from 2004 figures in black are Western Europe. For 2004-2008 Figures for Asia,
Africa and Middle East include Eastern and Central Europe.
Source: Unilever Annual Reports 2004, 2008
In 2000 the company absorbed the American business Best Foods, strengthening its presence in
North America and extending its portfolio of foods brands. In April 2000 it bought both Ben &
Jerry's and Slim Fast.

The company is fully multinational with operating companies and factories on every continent
(except Antarctica) and research laboratories at Colworth and Port Sunlight in England;
Vlaardingen in the Netherlands; Trumbull, Connecticut, and Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey in
the United States; Bangalore in India (see also Hindustan Unilever Limited); Pakistan; and
Shanghai in China.

The US division continued to carry the Lever Brothers name until the 1990s, when it adopted the
parent company's moniker. The American unit now has headquarters in New Jersey, and no
longer maintains a presence at Lever House, the iconic skyscraper on Park Avenue in New York

Unilever's Lipton brand certified by the Rainforest Alliance

The company promotes sustainability[5] and started a sustainable agriculture programme in
1998.[6] In May 2007 it became the first tea company to commit to sourcing all its tea in a
sustainable manner,[7] employing the Rainforest Alliance, an international environmental NGO,
to certify its tea estates in East Africa, as well as third-party suppliers in Africa and other parts of
the world.[8] It declared its aim to have all Lipton Yellow Label and PG Tips tea bags sold in
Western Europe certified by 2010, followed by all Lipton tea bags globally by 2015.[9]

Covalence, an ethical reputation ranking agency, placed Unilever at the top of its ranking based
on positive versus negative news coverage for 2007.[10]

In 2008 Unilever was honoured at the 59th Annual Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards
for "Outstanding Achievement in Advanced Media Technology for Creation and Distribution of
Interactive Commercial Advertising Delivered Through Digital Set Top Boxes" for its program
Axe: Boost Your ESP.[11]

[edit] Operations
Unilever owns more than 400 brands as a result of acquisitions, however, the company focuses
on what are called the "billion-dollar brands", 13 brands which each achieve annual sales in
excess of €1 billion. Unilever's top 25 brands account for more than 70% of sales.[12] The brands
fall almost entirely into two categories: Food and Beverages, and Home and Personal Care.
[edit] Brands

Further information: List of Unilever brands

[edit] Heartbrand

The Heartbrand logo accompanying various brands of Unilever ice creams

Unilever is the world's biggest ice cream manufacturer, with an annual turnover of €5 billion.[13]
Except for Popsicle, Klondike, Ocean Spray ice cream, Slim Fast ice cream, Breyers, Starbucks
and Ben & Jerry's, all of its ice cream business is done under the "Heartbrand" brand umbrella,
so called because of its heart-shaped logo. Unilever currently operates eleven ice cream factories
in Europe; the biggest include factories at Heppenheim in Germany, Caivano in Italy, St. Dizier
in France and Gloucester in the United Kingdom.

The Heartbrand was launched in 1999 (and slightly modified in 2002) as an effort to increase
international brand awareness and promote cross-border synergies in manufacturing and
marketing ("centralisation"). It is present in more than 40 countries[13]. Although the logo is
common worldwide, each country retained the local brand so as to keep the familiarity built over
the years, one notable exception being Hungary where the previous Eskimo brand was replaced
with Algida in 2003.

In 2005, Glidat Strauss received special permission from Unilever to export their brand of ice
cream to the United States because of the strict kosher certification the products in Israel have.
Under terms of the agreement, Strauss ice cream and krembo may be sold only in kosher
supermarkets and import shops. It is distributed in North America by Dairy Delight, a subsidiary
of Norman's Dairy.
A freezer in Queens, NY filled with Strauss ice cream from Israel with the Heartbrand

Prior to the heart logo, each country could choose its own logo, although the most common one
consisted of a blue circle with the local brand's name over a background of red and white stripes;
second most common old logo, used by Wall's in the UK and other countries, was a yellow logo
with Wall's in blue text.

Unilever generally manufactures the same ice-cream with the same names, with rare occasions of
regional availability, under different brands. Some of these ice-creams include Carte D'Or,
Cornetto, Magnum, Solero and Viennetta.

[edit] Advertising
Unilever has produced many advertising campaigns, including:

      Lynx/Axe click advert with Nick Lachey
      PG Tips Monkey and Al
      Knorr Chicken Tonight, 'I feel like chicken tonight'
      Flora London Marathon
      Knorr global brand
      Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, including Evolution
      Calve Pindakaas (peanut butter) in the Netherlands
      Comfort Pure recommended by mothercare
      Clear Anti-Dandruff shampoo and conditioner with the entertainer Rain
      Clear Anti-Dandruff shampoo and conditioner with the entertainer Nicole Scherzinger
      Clear Soft and Shiny shampoo and conditioner with the actress Sandra Dewi

[edit] Corporate governance
Unilever's highest executive body is called the Unilever Executive which is led by the Group
Chief Executive (Paul Polman). It is responsible for delivering profit and growth across the

Members of the Unilever Executive include:       Executive and non-executive directors at
                                                 Unilever are:
      Paul Polman (Group Chief Executive)
      Vindi Banga (President Categories)               Michael Treschow
      Doug Baillie (President Western Europe)          Professor Geneviève Berger
      Harish Manwani (President Asia,Africa,           The Rt. Hon. The Lord Brittan of
       Central & Eastern Europe)                         Spennithorne, QC
      Jim Lawrence (Chief Financial Officer)           Wim Dik
      Sandy Ogg (Chief HR Officer)                     Charles E. Golden
      Michael B. Polk (President Americas)             Kees J. Storm
                                                        Jeroen van der Veer
                                                             Byron E. Grote
                                                             Hixonia Nyasulu
                                                             N. R. Narayana Murthy
                                                             Lord Simon of Highbury CBE

[edit] Criticism
Unilever has attracted a variety of criticisms from political, environmental and human rights
activists.[14] For example, it has been criticised by Greenpeace for causing deforestation,[15] for
testing products on animals by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, and for making use
of child labour,[16] among others.

List of Unilever brands

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This is a list of brands operated by the Anglo-Dutch multinational Unilever


        1 Billion-Euro brands
        2 Food and beverages
              o 2.1 Partial list of national brands variants of the Heartbrand
        3 Home and personal care brands
        4 References

[edit] Billion-Euro brands
Brands with annual sales in excess of €1 billion.[1]

        Axe/Lynx                                            Lipton
        Blue Band                                           Lux (soap)
        Dove                                                Omo
        Flora/Becel                                         Rexona/Sure
        Heartbrand                                          Sunsilk
        Hellman's                                           Surf (detergent)
     Knorr

[edit] Food and beverages
     Ades or Adez — soya-             Fruco — ketchup,                 Peperami — Sausage
      based drinks                      mayonnaise and                    snacks
     Alsa — desserts and               condiments                       PG Tips — tea (UK)
      syrups                           Fudgsicle                        Phase — cooking oil
     Amora — French                   Gallo — olive oil                Planta — margarine
      mayonnaise and dressings         Heartbrand — ice cream           Popsicle — Frozen treats
     Amino - dehydrated soup           (umbrella logo)                  Pot Noodle — cup noodles
      (Poland)                         Hellmann's — mayonnaise          Promise — Becel/Flora
     Annapurna — salt and             I Can't Believe It's Not         Ragú — pasta sauces
      wheat flour (India)               Butter — margarine               Rama — margarine
     Becel — also known as             spread                           Royal — pastas
      Flora/Promise; health-           Imperial Margarine —              (Philippines)
      aware: margarine,                 margarine                        Rinso - detergent (only in
      spreads, cooking oil, milk,      Jif Lemon & Lime Juice            Indonesia)
      fermented milk                   Kasia - margarine (Poland)       Royco — stock cubes,
     Ben & Jerry's — ice cream        Kecap Bango — soya                non-MSG stock (only in
     Best Foods —                      sauce in Indonesia                Indonesia)
      mayonnaise, sandwich             Kissan — Ketchups                Red Rose Tea — tea
      spreads, peanut butter            Squashes and Jams (India          (Canada)
      and salad dressings               and Pakistan)                    Sana — Margarine
     Bertolli — pasta sauces          Klondike — Ice cream              (Turkey)
      (ambient/chilled & frozen)        sandwiches                       Saga — tea (Poland)
      and margarine                    Knorr (Knorr-Suiza in            Sariwangi — tea
     BiFi - sausage-based              Argentina) — sauces,              (Indonesia)
      snacks (Germany)                  stock cubes, ready-meals,        Scottish Blend — tea
     Blue Band — family-               meal kits, ready-soups,          Skippy — peanut butter
      aware: margarine, bread,          frozen food range                Slim·Fast — diet products
      cream alternatives               Lady's Choice —                  Sunlight Soap (Africa)
     Bovril — beef extract             mayonnaise, peanut               Surf (Ireland, UK,
     Breyers — ice cream               butter and sandwich               Indonesia)
     Brooke Bond — tea                 spreads (Philippines)            Stork margarine
     Bru — instant coffee             Lan-Choo — tea                   Streets (ice cream)
      (India)                           (Australia/New Zealand)           (Australia/New Zealand)
     Brummel & Brown —                Lao Cai Seasoning                Tortex - ketchup (Poland)
      margarine                        Lipton — tea                     Turun sinappi — mustard
     Bushells — tea (Australia,       Lipton Ice Tea — ready-to-        (Finland/Sweden)
      New Zealand)                      drink tea (partnership           Unilever Foodsolutions —
     Calvé — sauces, ketchup,          with PepsiCo)                     professional markets
      mustard, mayonnaise,             Lizano Sauce (Salsa Lizano)       (food service)
      peanut butter                     - Costa Rican condiment          Unox — soups, smoked
     Captain Findus —                 Lyons' - tea (Ireland)            sausages
      children's frozen food           Maille — French mustard          Vaqueiro — cooking
      Conimex — Asian spices              Maizena — corn starch             margarine, cooking oil
       (Netherlands)                       Marmite — yeast extract          Wall's ice cream
      Colman's — mustard                   spread (except in Australia      Wish-Bone salad dressing
      Continental — side dishes            and New Zealand)
      Country Crock —                     McCollins — tea (Peru)
       margarine                           Mrs. Filbert's — margarine
      Delma — margarine                    (USA)
       (Poland)                            Paddle pop — Icecream
      Du Darfst (Germany)                  (Australia, Indonesia
      Elmlea — Pourable                    [incorporated with Wall's])
       artificial cream available in       Pfanni — Bavarian potato
       different varieties (UK)             mixes
      Fanacoa — Mayonnaise,
       mustard, ketchup
      Findus — frozen foods
       (Italy, UK, Scandinavia)
      Flora — margarine, light
       butter, jams

[edit] Partial list of national brands variants of the Heartbrand

      Algida - Czech Republic, Cyprus, Greece,             Kwality Wall's - India
       Hungary, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Poland,            Langnese - Germany
       Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey          Lusso - Switzerland
      Bresler - Chile                                      Miko - France
      Cargills - Sri Lanka                                 Ola - Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg,
      Eskimo - Austria                                      South Africa
      Frigo - Spain, Serbia                                Olá - Portugal
      Frisko - Denmark                                     Pingüino - Ecuador
      GB Glace - Sweden, Finland                           Selecta - Philippines
      Glidat Strauss - Israel, USA                         Streets - Australia, New Zealand (slogan
      Good Humor - USA, Canada                              'Nothing Beats Streets')[2]
      HB - Ireland                                         Kibon - Brazil
      Helados La Fuente - Colombia                         Tio Rico - Venezuela
      Hertog Ola - Netherlands (selected                   Wall's - United Kingdom (Great Britain),
       products)                                             Hong Kong, Singapore, Indonesia, Pakistan,
      和路雪 - China                                           Malaysia,Thailand and other parts of Asia
      Holanda - Mexico, Central America                    Wall's HB - United Kingdom (Northern

[edit] Home and personal care brands
      Ala - laundry              Dove - skin, hair,       Pond's                  Sunsilk (Sedal in
       detergent                   and deodorant            Quix -                   Latin America,
    (Argentina-Brazil)      Fair and Lovely -        dishwashing             Seda in Brazil) -
   Andrelon                 skin lightening          liquid (Chile)          shampoo and
   Aviance                  product (available      Q-Tips - cotton         conditioner
   Axe - deodorant,         in India and             swabs                  Sure
    shower gel,              Malaysia)               Rexona -               Surf - laundry
    bodyspray (Lynx         Finesse -                deodorant               detergent
    in the UK, Ireland       shampoo and             Rinso                  Swan (defunct)
    and Australia)           conditioner (sold       Robijn - softener      Thermasilk -
   Ayush (India)            in 2006 to              Sedal (known in         shampoo and
   Baba (East               Lornamead                Brazil as Seda)         conditioner
    Europe)                  Brands, Inc.)            shampoo and            TIGI - shampoo
   Brilhante -             Gessy (Brazil)           conditioner             and conditioner
    laundry detergent       Glorix                  Signal (dental          for hair salons
    (Brazil)                 (Netherlands)            care)                  Timotei -
   Brut - cologne          Good Morning -          SR - toothpaste         shampoo and
   Caress - soap            soap (Egypt)             with sodium             conditioner
   Cif - cleaning          Impulse -                ricinoleate[3]         Vaseline body
   Clear - anti-            deodorant               Skip - laundry          lotion, shower
    dandruff                Lever 2000 - soap        detergent               gel, deodorant
   shampoo (China,         Lifebuoy - soap         Snuggle                 (Vasenol in
    Philippines,             (Malaysia,               (ファーファ in               Portugal, Brazil,
    Vietnam,                 Singapore,               Japan) - fabric         Italy and Spain)
    Indonesia,               Vietnam,                 softener               Vibrance -
    Romania,                 Bangladesh,             Suave                   shampoo and
    Pakistan, Poland,        India, Pakistan,        Sun - dishwasher        conditioner
    Hungary)                 Indonesia)              Sunil                  Vim (Bangladesh,
   Clear -                 Linic - dandruff        Sunlight                India, Pakistan)
    conditioner              shampoo                                         Vinólia - soap
    (Philippines,           Lynx - deodorant,                                (Brazil)
    Vietnam,                 men's                                           Viso - laundry
    Indonesia,              Lyso Form - home                                 detergent
    Pakistan)                care (Italy)                                     (Vietnam)
   Close-Up -              Lux - women's                                   White Beauty -
    toothpaste               soap, shower gel,                                skin lightening
   Coccolino -              and lotions                                      cream
    softener (Poland,        (Caress in the                                  Wisk - laundry
    Hungary)                 United States)                                   detergent
   Comfort                 Minerva - laundry                               Xedex
   Cream Silk -             and dishwasher                                  Zhonghua -
    conditioner              detergents                                       toothpaste
    (Philippines)            (Brazil)
   Degree -                Mist - soap
    deodorant                (Egypt)
   Domestos -              Omo (Bolivia) -
    bleach (Poland,          laundry detergent
    Czech Republic,         Pears
    Romania,                 Transparent Soap
    Hungary, Spain,         Pepsodent -
Germany, Italy,       dental
Israel, France,      Persil
Turkey)               (IE/UK/FR/NZ)