Initial Inspection Worksheet - page 1 of 5 Play Site: ________________________ Date: ____ / ____ / ____ Initial Inspection Worksheet Refer to CCR Title 22, Division 4, Chapter 21 le Numbers refer to "A Guide to the Initial Inspection" ver. 00-6-15 A s s ot ie e ab N pl pli R rec d lic D lac d om m or t e e d ep te pp at e C -Co C ina im on El N Inspectors Comments N C n/a §65720 - DESIGN E C R Date Inspectors Comments Inspectors Comments q m m 1 Critical Height and Fall Heights for Equipment - CPSC -Sec. 4.2 and 4.3 1 r m m __ Use Zones (CPSC 5.1) q m m 2 Use Zones for Equipment - CPSC section 5 - 2 r m m __ q m m 3 Stationary Equipment (excluding slides) (CPSC 5.1.1 and ASTM 9.2) 3 r m m __ q m m 4 Slides CPSC 5.1.2 4 r m m __ q m m 5 Rotating Play Equipment (see ASTM 9.3 - Fig. A1.26): 5 r m m __ q m m 6 Swings: ASTM 9.4 6 r m m __ q m m 7 To-Fro Swings-Strap Seats 7 r m m __ q m m 8 To-Fro Swings-Enclosed Seats 8 r m m __ q m m 9 Rotating Swings ASTM 9.4.2 (see Fig. A1.29): 9 r m m __ N C n/a Rocking/Springing Play Equipment (see ASTM 9.5 - Fig. A1.30) E C R Date q m m 10 Rocking/Springing Play Equipment Intended for Sitting: (ASTM 9.5.1) 10 r m m __ q m m 11 Rocking Springing Play Equipment Intended for Standing (ASTM 9.5.2) (see Fig. A1.30): 11 r m m __ q m m 12 Slides (see ASTM 9.6 - Fig. A1.31) 12 r m m __ q m m 13 Composite Play Structures (see ASTM 9.7- Fig. A1.32) 13 r m m __ q m m 14 Placement of Play Structures and Equipment (see ASTM 9.8 Fig.A1.33) 14 r m m __ q m m 15 Overhead Obstructions: (ASTM 9.8.4) 15 r m m __ q m m 16 Track Rides: ASTM 9.9 16 r m m __ N C n/a Accessibility Section 10 of the ASTM Standard - E C R Date q m m 17 Accessible Route 10.1 17 r m m __ q m m 18 Getting Users Onto Accessible Playground Equipment (see ASTM 10.2 - Fig. A1.34): 18 r m m __ q m m 19 Landings: (ASTM 10.2.2.4) 19 r m m __ q m m 20 Transfer Points- ASTM 10.2.3 20 r m m __ q m m 21 Turning Space at the Transfer Point ASTM 10.2.4 (see ASTM 1487, Fig. Al.36 and Al.36a): 21 r m m __ q m m 22 Wheelchair-Accessible Platforms-10.2.5 - 22 r m m __ q m m 23 Allowing the User to interact with the Equipment ASTM 10.3 23 r m m __ q m m 24 Accessible Play Opportunities: (ASTM 10.3.2) 24 r m m __ q m m 25 Owner's/Operator's Responsibilities for Installation - ASTM Standard Section 11.2 25 r m m __ Initial Inspection Worksheet - page 2 of 5 Play Site: ________________________ Date: ____ / ____ / ____ §65725. Equipment and Materials. N C n/a MATERIALS of MANUFACTURE and CONSTRUCTION CPSC, Sec 8 E C R Date q m m 26 Durability and Finish (CPSC 8.1) 26 r m m __ q m m 27 Hardware CPSC 8.2 27 r m m __ q m m 28 Metal Surfaces cpsc 8.3 28 r m m __ N C n/a STAIRWAYS, LADDERS AND HANDRAILS - CPSC - Section 10 E C R Date q m m 29 General (CPSC 10.1) 29 r m m __ q m m 30 Climbers: (ASTM 7.2.2) 30 r m m __ q m m 31 Rungs and Other Hand-gripping Components (CPSC 10.2.1) 31 r m m __ q m m 32 Transition from Access to Platform: (ASTM 7.3) 32 r m m __ q m m 33 Handrails (CPSC 10.3) (ASTM220.127.116.11-18.104.22.168) 33 r m m __ q m m 34 Handrail Height (CPSC 10.3.1)(ASTM 22.214.171.124) 34 r m m __ q m m 35 Handrail Diameter (CPSC 10.3.2) 35 r m m __ q m m 36 Transition from Access to Platform (CPSC 10.4) 36 r m m __ N C n/a PLATFORMS, GUARDRAILS AND PROTECTIVE BARRIERS (CPSC Sec. 11) E C R Date q m m 37 Design Considerations (CPSC 11.1) 37 r m m __ q m m 38 Guardrails and Protective Barriers (CPSC 11.2) 38 r m m __ q m m 39 Design Considerations for Guardrails and Protective Barriers (CPSC 11.6) 39 r m m __ q m m 40 Min. Elevation Requiring Guardrails and Protective Barriers (CPSC 11.3) 40 r m m __ q m m 41 Minimum Height of Guardrails (CPSC 11.4) 41 r m m __ q m m 42 Minimum Height of Protective Barriers (CPSC 11.5) 42 r m m __ N C n/a PLATFORMS E C R Date q m m 43 Stepped Platforms (CPSC 11.7) 43 r m m __ q m m 44 In-Fill - (CPSC 11.7 and ASTM 126.96.36.199) 44 r m m __ q m m 45 Spiral Stairways: (ASTM 7.2.1) 45 r m m __ q m m 46 Adjacent Platforms: (ASTM 7.4.5) 46 r m m __ Initial Inspection Worksheet - page 3 of 5 Play Site: ________________________ Date: ____ / ____ / ____ N C n/a POINTS, PROJECTIONS AND PROTRUSIONS E C R Date q m m 47 Sharp Points, Corners and Edges (CPSC 9.1) 47 r m m __ q m m 48 Protrusions and Projections (CPSC 9.2) 48 r m m __ q m m 49 Protrusions on Suspended Members of Swing Assemblies (CPSC 9.3) 49 r m m __ q m m 50 Protrusions that Project Upwards and Protrusions on Slides (CPSC 9.4) 50 r m m __ N C n/a PINCH, CRUSH and SHEARING POINTS E C R Date q m m 51 Pinch, Crush and Shearing Points (CPSC 9.5) 51 r m m __ N C n/a ENTRAPMENT E C R Date q m m 52 Head Entrapment (CPSC 9.6) (CPSC 9.6.1) 52 r m m __ q m m 53 Rigid Completely Bounded Openings (see ASTM Fig. A1.1 to Fig. A1.3) 53 r m m __ q m m 54 Non-rigid Completely Bounded Openings - (ASTM 6.1.2) 54 r m m __ q m m 55 Boundaries of Large Openings (ASTM 6.1.3) – (see ASTM Fig. A1.8) 55 r m m __ q m m 56 Partially Bounded Openings (ASTM 6.1.4) (see ASTM Fig. A1.4 to Fig.A1.7) 56 r m m __ q m m 57 Angles (CPSC 9.6.2) 57 r m m __ q m m 58 Tripping Hazards (CPSC 9.7) 58 r m m __ q m m 59 Suspended Hazards (CPSC 9.8) 59 r m m __ q m m 60 Suspended Hazards (ASTM 6.6) 60 r m m __ N C n/a CLIMBING EQUIPMENT and UPPER BODY EQUIPMENT (CPSC 12.1 and ASTM 8.3) E C R Date (CPSC 12.1 and ASTM 8.3) q m m 61 General (CPSC 12.1.1) 61 r m m __ q m m 62 Design Considerations - (CPSC 12.1.2) 62 r m m __ q m m 63 Layout of Climbing Components - (CPSC 12.1.9) 63 r m m __ q m m 64 Climbers With Non-Rigid Components - (CPSC 12.1.3 and ASTM 8.2) 64 r m m __ q m m 65 Arch Climbers - (CPSC 12.1.4) 65 r m m __ q m m 66 Horizontal Ladders and Overhead Rings (CPSC 12.1.5 and ASTM 8.3) 66 r m m __ q m m 67 The maximum height of upper body equipment. 67 r m m __ q m m 68 The space between adjacent rungs 68 r m m __ q m m 69 Sliding Poles - (CPSC 12.1.6 and ASTM 8.4) 69 r m m __ q m m 70 Climbing Ropes (CPSC 12.1.7) 70 r m m __ q m m 71 Balance Beams (CPSC 12.1.8 and ASTM 8.1) 71 r m m __ q m m 72 Seesaws (CPSC 12.3 and ASTM 8.10) 72 r m m __ Initial Inspection Worksheet - page 4 of 5 Play Site: ________________________ Date: ____ / ____ / ____ N C n/a MOVING ROTATING or ROCKING COMPONENTS: (ASTM 8.8) E C R Date q m m 73Platform Configuration - (ASTM 188.8.131.52) 73 r m m __ q m m 74Merry-Go-Rounds (Whirls) - (CPSC 12.1) 74 r m m __ q m m 75Spring Rockers - (CPSC 12.5 and ASTM 8.11) 75 r m m __ q m m 76Handgrip Dimensions - (ASTM 8.11.2) 76 r m m __ q m m 77Footrest Dimensions - (ASTM 8.11.3) 77 r m m __ q m m 78Height of the seat (ASTM 8.11.5) 78 r m m __ N C n/a SLIDES - CPSC 12.4 and ASTM 8.5 E C R Date q m m 79 General (CPSC 12.4.1) 79 r m m __ q m m 80 Slide Access (CPSC 12.4.2) 80 r m m __ q m m 81 Slide Transition Platforms: (ASTM 8.5.2) 81 r m m __ q m m 82 Slide Chute Entrance: (ASTM 8.5.3) 82 r m m __ q m m 83 Sliding Section of Straight Slides - (CPSC 12.4.4and ASTM 8.5) 83 r m m __ q m m 84 Slide Clearance Zones: (ASTM 8.5.6) 84 r m m __ q m m 85 Exit region - (CPSC 12.4.5 and ASTM 8.5.5) 85 r m m __ q m m 86 Embankment Slides (CPSC 12.4.6) 86 r m m __ q m m 87 Spiral Slides (CPSC 12.4.7) 87 r m m __ q m m 88 Tube Slides (CPSC 12.4.8) 88 r m m __ q m m 89 Roller Slides - (CPSC 12.4.9 and ASTM 8.9) 89 r m m __ N C n/a SWINGS (CPSC 12.6) E C R Date q m m 90 General (CPSC 12.6.1) 90 r m m __ q m m 91 Single-Axis (To-Fro) Swings (CPSC 12.6.2) 91 r m m __ q m m 92 Tot Swings (CPSC 12.6.3) 92 r m m __ q m m 93 Multi-Axis Tire Swings (CPSC 12.6.4) 93 r m m __ q m m 94 Swings Prohibited for Public Playgrounds CPSC 12.6.5 and ASTM 8.7 94 r m m __ q m m 95 Other Prohibited Equipment (ASTM 8.12) (CPSC 12.7) 95 r m m __ q m m 96 Log Rolls: (ASTM 8.12) 96 r m m __ q m m 97 Track Rides: (ASTM 8.13) 97 r m m __ q m m 98 Roofs: ( ASTM 8.14) 98 r m m __ Initial Inspection Worksheet - page 5 of 5 Play Site: ________________________ Date: ____ / ____ / ____ N C n/a LABELING - Section 14 of the ASTM Standard - E C R Date q m m 99 Warning Label and Manufacturer's Identification- (ASTM 14.4.1) 99 r m m __ q m m 100 Specifications for all Labels: (ASTM 14.4.2) 100 r m m __ q m m 101 Placement (ASTM 14.4.3) 101 r m m __ q m m 102 Attachment- (ASTM 14.4.4) 102 r m m __ q m m 103 Replacement- (ASTM 14.4.5) 103 r m m __ Initial Inspection Worksheet - page 6 of 5 Play Site: ________________________ Date: ____ / ____ / ____ e d at e D lac ep R District Name Playground Initial Inspection This form is to used in conjunction with CCR Title 22, Div. 4, Chapter 22 - A Guide to the Initial Inspection Playground: School: District: Manufacture Installation Date: Date of Inspection: 'Meets CPSC & ASTM' letter on file? Yes / No Max. Critical Fall Height: Inspected by: Summary of the Playground Inspectors observations of this play area. Notes District Name Inspectors Comments Inspectors Comments Inspectors Comments Playground Initial Inspection This form is to used in conjunction with CCR Title 22, Div. 4, Chapter 22 - A Guide to the Initial Inspection Playground: Location: Date of Inspection: Manufacture Installer: Installation Date: 'Meets CPSC & ASTM' letter on file? Yes / No Max. Critical Fall Height: Inspected by: Site Specific Information Used to Calculate the Inspection Rate of High and Low Frequency Inspections Use Factors Materials Environmental Factors Frequency of Vandalism: Low Med High Surface Material: Soil pH: <4 4-5 6-9 10-11 >11 Frequency of Use: Low Med High Min. Recommended Depth: 6" 9" 12" Salt Air: None Moderate High Age of Users 2-5 5 - 12 2 - 12 Post & Deck Materials: Sun Exposure: None Moderate High Moving Parts Moving Static Both Drainage Functioning Moist Surface Equipment Age: Seasonal Flooding Standing Water Notes Calculating Inspection Rate of High & Low Frequency Playgro Adapted from Playground Safety is No Accident @ 1998 NPSI p66-6 The following guide weighs the most common use, materials, and environmental factors that will influence your playground inspection scheduling. Each factor has bee numbers in the right hand column that best describes the conditions at the playground site. Use Factors Materials Frequency Frequency Age of Safety Post & Deck of Vandalism of Use Users Surfacing Materials Low = 2 Low = 2 2 to 5 = 2 Synthetic = 0 Stainless Steel = 0 Med = 5 Med = 5 5 to 12 =4 Loose =12 Alum., Galv. Steel = 2 PARK AREA High = 10 High = 10 All ages = 10 Stabilized Plastics, Wood, Painted Steel = 4 Example #1 2-5 yr olds 2 2 2 12 2 Example #2 2-12 yr olds 5 5 10 12 2 gh & Low Frequency Playground Inspections afety is No Accident @ 1998 NPSI p66-68 nd inspection scheduling. Each factor has been weighed as to importance and influence on the schedule. Put one of the factors Materials Environmental Factors Key to Inspection Frequency Moving Equipment Soil Salt Sun Drainage Total Inspection Parts Age pH Air Exposure Points Frequency Moving = 6 1-2 = 0 6-9 = 0 None = 0 None = 0 Functioning = 0 for Site HIGH LOW Static = 2 3-4 = 3 10-11 = 4 Mod. = 4 Mod. = 4 Moist Surface = 4 > 70 Daily 2-3 x/Month Both = 6 5-9 = 6 4-5 = 4 High = 8 High = 8 Seasonal Flooding = 8 56-70 Weekly Monthly 10-14 = 9 <4 =8 Standing Water = 12 41-55 Biweekly Bimonthly >14 Years = 12 >11 = 8 <41 Monthly Seasonal 6 6 0 0 8 0 40 Monthly Seasonal 6 3 0 0 8 8 59 Weekly Monthly DESIGN. §65720 Operators shall design or redesign playgrounds, locate or relocate playground equipment and routes of access to and from playgrounds, and surface or resurface portions of playgrounds to comply with the following requirements: 1 Critical Height Section 4.2 of the CPSC Handbook - l The surfacing material used under and around a particular piece of playground equipment shall have a Critical Height value of at least the height of the highest designated play surface on the equipment. l This height is the fall height for the equipment. l Requirements for the fall heights for various pieces of playground equipment are as follows (cpsc 4.3): Climbers and Horizontal Ladders - The fall height is the maximum height of the structure. Elevated Platforms Including Slide Platforms - The fall height is the height of the platform. Merry-Go-Rounds - The fall height is the height above the ground of any part at the perimeter on which a child may sit or stand. See-Saws - The fall height is the maximum height attainable by any part of the see-saw. Spring Rockers - The fall height is the maximum height above the ground of the seat or designated play surface. Swings - The fall height of a swing structure is the height of the pivot point where the swing’s suspending elements connect to the supporting structure. Equipment that requires a child to be standing or sitting at ground level during play is not expected to follow the requirements for resilient surfacing. Examples of such equipment are sand boxes, activity walls, play houses or any other equipment that has no elevated designated playing surface. USE ZONES FOR EQUIPMENT - (CPSC Section 5) 2 Use Zones for Equipment (general) l The use zone is an area under and around the equipment where protective surfacing is required and shall be free of obstacles that children could run into or fall on top of and thus be injured. l The use zone shall extend a minimum of 6 feet in all directions from the perimeter of the equipment. 3 Stationary Equipment (excluding slides) (cpsc 5.1.1)(ASTM 9.2) l The use zones of two stationary pieces of playground equipment that are positioned adjacent to one another may overlap. If the adjacent designated play surfaces of each structure are: l no more than 30 in. above the protective surface, then the min. distance is 6 feet apart. l exceeds a height of 30 in. above the protective surface, then the min. is 9 feet apart. l The use zones for two or more stationary play structures that are not physically attached but are play- functionally linked shall be determined as if the separate equipment were parts of a composite play structure (see Fig. A1.32). (astm 9.2.2) 4 Slides CPSC 5.1.2 l The use zone in front of the access and to the sides of a slide shall extend a minimum of 6 feet from the perimeter of the equipment. Note: This does not apply to embankment slides. However, the following requirement applies to all slides, including embankment slides. l The use zone in front of the exit of a slide shall extend a minimum distance of H + 4 feet where H is the vertical distance from the protective surface at the exit to the highest point of the chute (see Figure 1). l The use zone shall never be less than 6 feet but does not need to be greater than 14 feet. l The use zone shall be measured from a point on the slide chute where the slope is less than 5 degree. from the horizontal. If unsure of 5 degree mark then the use zone shall be measured from the end of the chute. l The use zone in front of the exit of a slide shall never overlap the use zone of any other equipment. PLAYGROUND LAYOUT - (ASTM Sec 9) 5 9.3 Rotating Play Equipment (see ASTM - Fig. A1.26): l The use zone for equipment that rotates around a vertical or a horizontal axis shall be no less than 72 in. from the perimeter of the play structure. (astm 9.3.1) (astm 9.3.2) l The use zone of rotating play equipment shall not overlap the use zone of any other play structure (astm 6 Swings: (see ASTM 9.4) To-Fro Swings (astm 9.4.1): 7 l Strap Swings: The total horizontal distance from the front to the rear of the use zone shall be not less than 4X, where X = the distance from the pivot point to the surface material (see astm Fig. A1.27) (astm 184.108.40.206) 8 l Enclosed swing seats or bucket seats : The total horizontal distance from the front to the rear of the use zone should not be less than 4W, where W equals the vertical distance from the top of the occupant's sitting surface to the pivot point. (see Fig. A1.28). (astm 220.127.116.11) l No other play structure use zone shall overlap the front-to-rear use zone of a to-fro swing. (astm 18.104.22.168) l The use zone width for to-fro swings shall be at least as wide as the span length of the suspending beam. (astm 22.214.171.124) l The use zone surrounding the support structure of to-fro swings shall extend no less than 72 in. in all directions from the structure. (astm 126.96.36.199) l (1) The support structure use zones for adjacent to-fro swings may overlap (see Fig. A1.27): 9 Rotating Swings ASTM 9.4.2 (see ASTM Fig. A1.29): l The use zone for a rotating swing shall be a minimum horizontal distance of Y + 72 in. in all directions from pivot point of the swing, where Y equals the vertical distance between the pivot point and the top of the swing seat or suspended member. (astm 188.8.131.52) l No other play structure use zone shall encroach the use zone of a rotating swing. (astm 184.108.40.206) l The use zones for the rotating swing seats (Y + 72 in.) shall not overlap. (astm 220.127.116.11) (however, the support structure use zones of separate adjacent rotating swings may overlap) (see astm Fig. A1.29), ROCKING AND SPRING PLAY EQUIPMENT (see ASTM 9.5 - Fig. A1.30) 10 Rocking/Springing Play Equipment Intended for Sitting: (astm 9.5.1) l The use zone for rocking/springing equipment upon which the user is intended to sit shall be no less than 72 in. in all directions from the at-rest perimeter of the play structure. (astm 9.5. 1.1) l The use zones of adjacent rocking/springing equipment intended for sitting may overlap when each structure consists of a seat or designated play surface with a height 30 in. or less above the protective use zone surfacing when unoccupied. (astm 18.104.22.168) 11 Rocking Springing Play Equipment Intended for Standing (astm 9.5.2) (see Fig. A1.30): l The use zone for rocking/springing equipment upon which the user is intended to stand shall be no less than 84 in. in all directions. (astm 22.214.171.124) l No other play structure use zone shall overlap the use zone of this type of rocking/springing structure. (astm 126.96.36.199) 12 Slides (see ASTM 9.6 - Fig. A1.31) l The use zone around all parts of slides shall conform to the minimum 72" use zone standard for stationary play equipment.(astm 9.6.1) l The use zone at the exit end of the chute or slide bed shall be a minimum of X + 48 in. where X equals the vertical distance from the protective use zone surfacing at the exit to the highest point of the sliding surface. (min - 6' max. - 14') (astm 9.6.2) l No other play structure use zone shall overlap the use zone of a slide. (astm 9.6.3) 13 Composite Play Structures (see ASTM 9.7- Fig. A1.32) l The boundary of the use zone for a composite play structure shall be composed of those use zones that have been established for each individual play structure that comprise the composite play structure. (astm 9.7.1) l Professional judgment of equipment manufacturers, designers, and owner/operators shall be used when designing or re-designing a modular composite play structure to eliminate hazards created by conflicts in circulation use patterns or close proximity of adjacent components. (astm 9.7.2) 14 Placement of Play Structures and Equipment (see ASTM 9.8 Fig.A1.33) l Sufficient space shall be provided between all adjacent structures and individual play equipment for the purposes of circulation and play. (astm 9.8.1) l In play areas where periodic overcrowding is likely, an additional circulation area beyond the use zone is recommended. Provision of any additional circulation area shall be contingent upon the professional judgment of the play-ground designer or owner/operator. (astm 9.8.2) l Moving play equipment shall be located in a position away from circulation routes and shall be located near the periphery of the playground. (i.e. items such as swings and rotating equipment) (astm 9.8.3) 15 Overhead Obstructions: (astm 9.8.4) l Overhead obstructions within the use zones of play-ground equipment that are not part of the play structure (i.e., tree limbs) shall be at least 7 ft. above each designated play surface or7 ft. above the pivot point of swings. (astm 188.8.131.52) l All overhead utility line clearances above the use zone areas shall comply with all local, state, and national codes, such as the National, State or Local Electrical Safety Codes. (astm 184.108.40.206) 16 Track Rides: ASTM 9.9 l The use zone of a track ride shall extend no less than 6 ft. in all directions from the equipment. (astm 9.9.1) ACCESSIBILITY - ASTM Section 10 17 Accessible Route 10.1 l At least one accessible route within the use zone shall be provided from the perimeter to all accessible play structures or components within the playground. l For accessible play components, such as slides, where the access and egress points are not the same, an accessible route will be provided at both points. Accessible routes shall comply with the following: l The clear width of the accessible route shall not be less than 60 in. (astm 10.1.1) l The accessible route within the use zone shall conform to the performance requirements of Specification F 1292 and ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities, Sections 4.5.1 and 4.5.2. (astm 10.1.2) l Any accessible route with a slope greater than 1:20 is a ramp and shall comply with the provisions of 10.2.1.Cross-slopes on accessible routes shall not exceed 1:50 (astm 10. 1.3) l The accessible route within the use zone shall be designed to minimize the possibility of creating a trip hazard and causing a wheelchair to tip over the side edge of the route. (astm 10.1.4) 18 Getting Users Onto Accessible Playground Equipment (see ASTM 10.2 - Fig. A1.34): A ramp, deck, or other stationary bridge, when used to connect an elevated access from the perimeter of the playground to the play equipment, shall be exempt from the use zone fall requirements where the connection is made at the perimeter. (astm 10.2.1) Ramps Intended for Wheelchair Use (astm 10.2.2)- All ramps within the use zone that are intended for access to equipment such as decks and platforms shall conform to the following specifications. In addition, consideration should be given to provide other means of access to the equipment to enhance circulation and the opportunity to engage in play events (see Fig. A1.34). Ramps outside the use zone are beyond the scope of this specification and are subject to applicable federal or state accessibility standards. l The clear width of a ramp shall be 36in. or greater (astm 10.2.2.1) l The slope of a ramp shall not exceed 1:12 (astm 10.2.2.2) l The horizontal run of a ramp shall not be greater than 12 ft. (astm 10.2.2.3) 19 Landings: (astm 10.2.2.4) l (1) Ramps shall have a level landing at the top and bottom of each run with a diameter not less than 60 in. l (2) Landings that contain play components shall include a space where a wheelchair user may park and play that has dimensions of not less than 30 in. by 48 in. and does not reduce the adjacent circulation path to less than 36 in. l (3) Ramp landings shall have guardrails or barriers in accordance with those required for wheelchair- accessible platforms. l Openings for play events may be placed on ramp landings, however, professional judgement shall be used in the design and placement of these openings and provide a means to prevent wheelchairs from falling off of landings. l Ramps shall have barriers that conform to 7.4.4.when: greater than 30 in. for use by preschool age children greater than 48 in. for use by school age children l Ramp height shall be measured at the highest point. (astm 10.2.2.5) l Ramps shall have a handrail on each side of the ramp 26 to 28 in. high when: (astm 10.2.2.6) greater than 30 in. for use by preschool age children greater than 48 in. for use by school age children l Ramps must have two handrails that are 26 to 28in. and 12 to 16 in. high and conform to 7.4.3. when the height of ramp is: (astm 10.2.2.7) Less than or equal to 30 in for preschool age children. Less than or equal to 48 in. school age children. l Ramp height shall be measured at the highest point. l Ramps where the barrier does not extend to within 1.0 in. of the ramp surface, ramps with 2 rails and no barrier, or ramps where the barrier is beyond the edge of the ramp must have a curb on both edges that projects above the ramp a minimum of 2.0 in. (astm 10.2.2.8) 20 Transfer Points- ASTM 10.2.3 l Transfer point shall comply with the following specifications (see ASTM - Fig. Al.35). l The transfer point shall be between 14 in. and 18 in. above the accessible route of travel. (astm 10.2.3.1) l The clear width of the transfer point shall be a min. of 24 in. and the depth of the transfer point shall be a min. of 14 in. (astm 10.2.3.2) l Handrails or other means of support shall be provided to assist users to transfer out of the wheelchair and onto the transfer platform. (astm 10.2.3.3) 21 Turning Space at the Transfer Point ASTM 10.2.4 (see ASTM 1487, Fig. Al.36 and Al.36a): l A wheelchair turning space shall be provided at the base of the transfer point. The turning space shall be a a T-shaped area or a clear space 5 ft. in diameter. (astm 10.2.4.1) l The turning space at the transfer point shall accommodate one wheelchair. l If additional parking spaces are necessary, they shall be no less than 30 in. wide by 48 in. long and shall be located out of the accessible route of travel. (astm 10.2.4.2) 22 Wheelchair-Accessible Platforms-10.2.5 - Decks or platforms that are elevated above the protective surfacing of the use zone and that are accessible to wheelchairs shall comply with the following specifications: l The clear width for single wheelchair passage shall not be less than 36 in. Clear width may be reduced to 32in. for not more than 24 in. along the path of travel (see astm Fig. A1.37). (astm 10.2.5.) l The clear width for two wheelchairs to pass shall be a min. of 5 ft. (astm 10.2.5.2) l The clear width for one wheelchair and one able-bodied user shall not be less than 44 in. (astm 10.2.5.3) l Openings between deck members of wheelchair-accessible surfaces shall be 0.5 in. or less (astm 10.2.5.4) l Guardrails or protective barriers shall be provided for all elevated wheelchair-accessible platforms. (see astm 4.8, 6.1, 7.4.3,and 7.4.4) (see Fig. A1.38). (astm 10.2.5.5) l Elevated wheelchair-accessible platforms with a guardrail shall also have a curb that projects no less than 2.0 in. above the platform surface. (astm 10.2.5.6) l Turning spaces and parking spaces provided on a wheelchair-accessible platform shall conform to the turning space specifications of 10.2.4. 1. The turning space and parking space shall not overlap (see ASTM 1487, Fig. A1.36a). (astm 10.2.5.7) 23 Allowing the User to interact with the Equipment ASTM 10.3 Accessible Stepped Platforms-Platforms or steps within a play structure, provided to facilitate a child with mobility impairments to move from one height to another shall conform to the following specifications: (astm 10.3.1) l The vertical rise of the platform or step shall be not more than 8 in. (astm 10.3.1.1) l The platform or step shall be not less than 14 in. deep. (astm 10.3.1.2) l The platform or step shall be not less than 24 in. wide. (astm 10.3.1.2) 24 Accessible Play Opportunities: (astm 10.3.2) l Accessible play opportunities designed with different access and egress points must allow the use ran opportunity to return unassisted to the original transfer point after egress from the equipment. (i.e. slides) (astm 10.3.2.1) l Equipment that require the user in a wheelchair to pull partially under the equipment shall have a vertical leg clearance of not less than 24in. (i.e., water and sand tables, ) (astm 10.3.2.2) l (1) The top of the playing surface of such equipment shall not be greater than 30 in. above the accessible surface. l Upper-body equipment that are intended for users in wheelchairs shall have the object to be grasped less than or equal to 54 in. above the accessible surface (i.e. horizontal ladders and rings ) (see Fig. A1.40) (astm 10.3.2.3). l Manipulatable equipment that are intended for users in wheel-chairs shall be positioned within the wheelchair user side reach limitations of not less than 9 in. but not greater than48 in. from the accessible surface (i.e. steering wheels and interactive panels) (see ASTM 1487, Fig. A1.41). (astm 10.3.2.4) l Manipulatable equipment that are intended for users in wheel-chairs shall be positioned within the wheelchair user front reach limitations of not less than 20 in. but not greater than 36 in. from the (astm 10.3.2.5) accessible surface (i.e. such as steering wheels and interactive panels) (see ASTM 1487, Fig. A1.42). 25 Owner's/Operator's Responsibilities for Installation - ASTM Standard Section 11.2 l The owner/operator shall install all play structures according to the instructions provided by the designer or manufacturer. (astm 11.2.1) l The owner/operator shall install the appropriate protective surfacing within the use zone of each play structure. (see astm F 1292) (astm 11.2.2) §65725. Equipment and Materials. l Operators shall provide playground equipment and surfacing materials that comply with the following requirements: Materials of Manufacture and Construction Section 8 of the CPSC Handbook 26 Durability and Finish (cpsc 8.1) l Purchasers shall be sure that the equipment is manufactured and constructed only of materials that have a demonstrated record of durability in the playground or similar outdoor setting. l Any new materials shall be documented or tested accordingly for durability by the playground equipment manufacturer. l Metals shall be painted, galvanized, or otherwise treated to prevent rust. l All paints and other similar finishes must meet the current CPSC regulation for lead in paint (0.06% [600 ppm] maximum lead by dry weight). The manufacturer shall ensure that, as a result of contact with playground equipment, the users cannot ingest, inhale, or absorb potentially hazardous amounts of preservative chemicals or other treatments applied to the equipment. l Purchasers and installers of playground equipment shall obtain documentation from the manufacturer that the preservatives or other treatments that have been used do not present a health hazard to the users. l Playground managers shall consult an October 1996 report, CPSC Staff Requirements for Identifying and Controlling Lead Paint on Public Playground Equipment. l Wood shall either be naturally rot and insect-resistant or treated to avoid such deterioration. (Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is acceptable) l Inorganic arsenicals shall be applied by the manufacturer or wood preserver in accordance with the specifications of the American Wood Preservers Association C17 standard. This standard states that the treated wood shall be visibly free of residues which may contain high levels of arsenic (the greenish coloration of CCA treated wood is acceptable). l Wood preservers and playground equipment manufacturers shall practice technologies and procedures that minimize the level of dislodgeable arsenic. l Installers, builders, and consumers who perform woodworking operations shall read the consumer information sheet. l Other preservatives that have low toxicity and may be suitable for playground equipment wood are copper or zinc naphthenates, and borates. 27 Hardware CPSC 8.2 l All fasteners, connectors and covering devices shall not loosen or be removable without the use of tools. Lock washers, self-locking nuts, or other locking means shall be provided for all nuts and bolts to protect them from detachment. l Hardware in moving joints shall also be secured against unintentional or unauthorized loosening. l All fasteners shall be corrosion resistant and be selected to minimize corrosion of the materials they connect. l Bearings used in moving joints shall be easy to lubricate or be self-lubricating. l All hooks, including S-hooks, shall be closed (see also ASTM 1487, Section 12.6.1). l A hook is considered closed if there is no gap or space greater than 0.04 inches. The gap shall not admit a dime. 28 Metal Surfaces CPSC 8.3 l Bare or painted metal surfaces on platforms and slide beds shall be avoided unless they can be located out of direct sun. l Platforms may be wood, plastic or vinyl coated metal and slide beds may be plastic (see also Slides in Section 12.4.4). STAIRWAYS, LADDERS AND HANDRAILS - Section 10 of the CPSC Handbook, 29 General (CPSC 10.1) l Rung ladders and climbing components such as climbing nets, arch climbers, and tire climbers, should not be used as the sole means of access to equipment intended for preschool-age children. l Platforms over 6 feet in height (with the exception of free-standing slides) shall provide an intermediate standing surface where a decision can be made to halt the ascent and to pursue an alternative means of descent. 30 Climbers: (ASTM 7.2.2) l Flexible components used as access to other components of equipment shall be securely connected at both ends. When one end is connected to the ground, the anchoring devices shall be beneath the base of the minimum required depth of the protective surfacing material. 220.127.116.11 l Connections between ropes, cables, chains, or tires used as access to other components of equipment shall be securely fixed. 18.104.22.168 l Flexible components used as access to other components of equipment for use by 2 through 5-year olds shall readily allow users to bring both feet to the same level before ascending to the next level. 22.214.171.124 l Climbers used as access shall provide a means of hand support for use while climbing. 126.96.36.199 31 Rungs and Other Hand-gripping Components (CPSC 10.2.1) l Rungs are generally round in cross section and shall have a diameter or maximum cross sectional dimension between 0.95 and 1.55 inches. Other components intended such as the bars of climbers shall have a diameter between 0.95 and 1.55 inches. A diameter of 1.25 inches is preferred. All rungs shall be secured in a manner that prevents them from turning. 32 Transition from Access to Platform: (ASTM 7.3) l On accesses that do not have side handrails there shall be alternate hand-gripping support to facilitate the transition to the platform. (ie. rung ladders, arch climbers, or flexible components) (astm 7.3.2) l For rung ladders, flexible components, and arch-climbers, the stepping surface used for final access shall not be above the designated play surface it serves. (astm 7.3.3) 33 Handrails (CPSC 10.3) (ASTM188.8.131.52-184.108.40.206) l Continuous handrails extending over the full length of the access shall be provided on both sides of all stairways and stepladders. Rung ladders are exempt from this requirement. 34 Handrail Height (CPSC 10.3.1)(ASTM 220.127.116.11) l Handrails shall begin with the first step. The vertical distance between the top front edge of a step (tread nosing) and the top surface of the handrail above it shall be as follows: Preschool-Age Children: between 22 and 26 inches. School-Age Children: between 22 and 38 inches. 35 Handrail Diameter (CPSC 10.3.2) l The diameter of handrails should be between 0.95 and 1.55 inches. A diameter of 1.25 inches is preferred. 36 Transition from Access to Platform (CPSC 10.4) l On any transition from access mode to a platform, handrails or handholds shall be adequate to provide support. Any opening between a handrail and an adjacent vertical structure shall not pose an entrapment hazard (see CPSC Handbook - Section 9.6). On accesses that do not have handrails, such as rung ladders, flexible climbers, arch climbers, and tire climbers, hand support shall provide for the transition between the top of the access and the platform. PLATFORMS, GUARDRAILS AND PROTECTIVE BARRIERS - Section 11 of the CPSC Handbook, 37 Design Considerations (CPSC 11.1) l Platforms should be within ±2 degrees of a horizontal plane shall allow for drainage. 38 Guardrails and Protective Barriers (CPSC 11.2) l Protective barriers shall be designed to prevent intentional attempts by children seeking to defeat the barrier either by climbing over or through the barrier. l Any openings between uprights or between the platform surface and lower edge of a protective barrier shall prevent passage of the small torso template (see CPSC Handbook Figure B-3 in Appendix B). 39 Design Considerations for Guardrails and Protective Barriers (CPSC 11.6) l Both guardrails and protective barriers shall be designed to prevent inadvertent or unintentional falls off the platform, to discourage climbing on the barrier, to prevent the possibility of entrapment, and to aid supervision. l Guardrails or protective barriers shall completely surround an elevated platform except for entrance and exit openings (15 in. max) necessary to access a play event. l Horizontal cross-pieces shall not be used as in-fill for the space below the top rail because they provide footholds for climbing. l When solid panels are used as in-fill, it is required that there be some transparent areas to facilitate supervision and to permit viewing from the platform. l Guardrails shall conform to the entrapment recommendations in Section 9.6 of the CPSC Handbook. l Guardrails shall contain no designated play surfaces. (astm 7.4.3) l Guardrails and Protective Barriers shall completely surround the elevated surface except for entrance and exit openings necessary for each event. (astm18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124) l (1) The maximum clear opening without a top horizontal guardrail shall be 15 in. l (2) Means of ascent and descent that are accessible by openings with horizontal dimensions greater than 15 in. shall have a minimum of one top rail of a guardrail. l (3) Stairs, ramps, and upper body equipment are exempted from this requirement. 40 Minimum Elevation Requiring Guardrails and Protective Barriers (CPSC 11.3) l Guardrails or protective barriers shall be provided with the following minimum elevation requirements: l Preschool-Age Children: An elevated surface more than 20 inches, but not over 30 inches above protective surfacing should have a guardrail or protective barrier. l School-Age Children: An elevated surface more than 30 inches, but not more than 48 inches above protective surfacing shall have a guardrail or protective barrier. l Protective barriers shall always be used for platforms over: Preschool-Age Children: 30 inches above protective surfacing. School-Age Children: 48 inches above protective surfacing. An elevated surface is exempt if a guardrail or protective barrier would interfere with the intended use of the equipment; this includes most climbing equipment, and platforms that are layered so that the fall height does not exceed: 20 inches on equipment intended for preschool-age children 30 inches on equipment intended for school-age children 41 Minimum Height of Guardrails (CPSC 11.4) l Guard Rail Dimensions Height toTop rail for preschool-age children - 29" minimum for school-age children 38" minimum Height of Lower Rail: for preschool-age children 23" maximum for school-age children 28" maximum 42 Minimum Height of Protective Barriers (CPSC 11.5) l The minimum height shall prevent the largest child from inadvertently falling over the protective barrier. The protective barrier shall not permit children to climb through or under it. Openings in the barrier shall preclude passage of the small torso template (see CPSC Handbook - Section 9.6). Preschool Age Children: the top of protective barriers shall be at least 29 inches high. Vertical in-fill for protective barriers may be preferable. School-Age Children: the top of protective barriers shall be at least 38 inches high. 43 Stepped Platforms (CPSC 11.7) l Unless there is an alternate means of access/egress, the maximum difference in height between stepped platforms should be: Preschool-Age Children: 12 inches. School-Age Children: 18 inches. 44 In-Fill - (cpsc 11.7 and astm 126.96.36.199) l The space between the stepped platforms should follow the recommendations for entrapment in enclosed openings in CPSC Handbook, Section 9.6. l If the space exceeds 9 inches…( Editor’s note: this doesn’t sound right - how about ”If the space allows the small torso probe to penetrate?”) and the height of the lower platform above the protective surfacing exceeds 30 inches for preschool equipment or 48 inches for school-age equipment, in-fill should be used to reduce the space to less than 3.5 inches. l Openings within barriers or between the platform surface and lower edge of protective barriers shall preclude passage of the torso probe (see ASTM F1487 6.1.1). 45 Spiral Stairways: (astm 7.2.1) l Spiral stairways shall meet the general requirements for spacing, orientation, drainage, tread width, and vertical rise specified for stairway access in 7.1.1 through 7.1.3. (astm 188.8.131.52) l The depth of the outer edge of the tread on spiral stairways shall be 7.0 in. (178 mm) or greater on equipment for children 2 through 5 years, and 8.0 in. (203 mm) or greater on equipment for children 5 through 12 years. These depth requirements apply to spiral stairways with both open and closed risers. (astm 184.108.40.206) l Spiral stairways shall meet the requirements specified for handrails in 7.1.4. However, when the design of the stairway does not permit handrails on both sides of the stairway, a continuous handrail shall be provided along the outside perimeter of the steps. (astm 220.127.116.11) 46 Adjacent Platforms: (astm 7.4.5) l Adjacent platforms between which access is intended shall require an access component (see ASTM F1487 Fig. Al. 16)., if they have a height difference greater than : ...(astm 18.104.22.168) 12 in. when intended for use by preschool age children 18 in. when intended for use by school age children 47 Sharp Points, Corners and Edges (CPSC 9.1) l There shall be no sharp points on any equipment and all corners and edges shall be rounded. Caps or plugs shall cover exposed open ends of all tubing. Wood parts are smooth and free of splinters. l (ASTM 6.2) Suspended members, such as rings on upper body equipment and swing seats, shall have a minimum radius of .25 inches. 48 Protrusions and Projections (CPSC 9.2) Protrusion Test Procedure (CPSC 9.2.1) Successively place each gauge over any protrusion or projection. Protrusions sha l Protrusions or projections shall not extend beyond the face of any of the three gauges nor increase in the direction away from the surrounding surface toward the exposed end nor project beyond the face of the nut more than two full threads. 49 Protrusions on Suspended Members of Swing Assemblies (CPSC 9.3) l Using the swing test gauge, no bolt or component should (shall) protrude through the hole beyond the face of the gauge on the suspended member. Test is conducted while the suspended member is in its rest position and the gauge is placed over any protrusion on the front or rear surface. l ASTM 6.3 …Any projection accessible throughout the path of travel on swing seats shall not extend beyond the face of the test gage. l Connecting Devices (astm 6.4.5) – Connecting devices, such as S-hooks, pelican hooks and C-hooks, are to be properly closed so that there is no gap or space greater than 0.04 inches. S-hooks shall also meet the following: (see astm Fig. A1.14) 1) No portion of the closed end of an S-hook lower loop may project beyond the vertical boundary established by the upper loop. 2) An S-hook upper loop may align with, may partially overlap, or may completely overlap the connector body, without extending past the connector body. 3) An S-hook lower loop must align with the connector body and not overlap. 50 Protrusions that Project Upwards and Protrusions on Slides (CPSC 9.4) l Protrusions perpendicular to the horizontal plane of the surrounding surface shall not be greater than 1/8 inch. This also applies to protrusions on slides within the area of use as depicted in the CPSC Figure 9. l Slides (astm 6.4.1) – Slides shall be constructed to provide a smooth continuous sliding surface (roller slides exempted) and have no gaps or spaces that might create an entanglement hazards. 51 Pinch, Crush and Shearing Points (CPSC 9.5) l There should (shall) be no accessible pinch, crush, or shearing points, which may be caused by components moving relative to each other or to a fixed component when the equipment moves through its anticipated use cycle.(astm ...using a .62 inch diameter rod.) 52 Head Entrapment (CPSC 9.6) (CPSC 9.6.1) l All openings on the equipment shall be less than 3.5 inches (by 6.2 inches) or greater than 9 inches(in diameter.) When depth of penetration is an issue, the horizontal space between the lower boundary of the opening and the barrier must also be less than 3.5 inches or greater than 9 inches. Openings formed by non-rigid components shall admit the test probes, used as instructed, with a force less than 50 pounds. 53 l Rigid Completely Bounded Openings –is accessible when a torso probe can be inserted into an opening to a depth of 4 inches. To conform to the Regulation, the head probe must be able to pass through the opening without applying force. (see astm Fig. A1.1 to Fig. A1.3) 54 l Non-rigid Completely Bounded Openings - (astm 6.1.2) Using the torso and head probes and 50 pounds of force, a non-rigid opening does not admit the torso probe, to a depth of 4 inches or more, in any orientation or the opening admits the torso probe and the head probe. 55 l Boundaries of Large Openings (astm 6.1.3) – If an opening admits the 9 inch head probe, each portion of its boundary shall be evaluated for partially bounded opening requirements. (see astm Fig. 56 l Partially Bounded Openings (astm 6.1.4) – Using the test template for partially bound openings, the partially bound opening allows the “A” portion of the template within the boundaries without simultaneous contact between the sides. If there is contact, the “B” portion of the test template is used between and perpendicular to the plane of the opening. The partially bound opening does not allow the “B” portion within the boundaries.(see astm Fig. A1.4 to Fig.A1.7) 57 Angles (CPSC 9.6.2) l Angles formed by adjacent components should (shall) be greater than 55 degrees unless the lower leg is horizontal or projects downwards. 58 Tripping Hazards (CPSC 9.7) l All anchoring devices for equipment should (shall) be installed below ground level, beneath the base of the protective surfacing. Retaining walls used to contain loose surfacing materials should (shall) be highly visible. 59 Suspended Hazards (CPSC 9.8) l Cables, wires, ropes or similar flexible components suspended between play units or from the ground to a play unit should (shall) not be located in high traffic areas. It is recommended (required) that these suspended members be either brightly colored or contrast with surrounding equipment. 60 Suspended Hazards (ASTM 6.6) l There shall be no single non-rigid component suspended between play units or from the ground to the play unit within 45 degrees of horizontal... Rope, cable or chain shall be fixed at both ends and not be capable of being looped back on itself. Climbing Equipment and Upper Body Equipment - CPSC 12.1 and ASTM 8.3 61 General (CPSC 12.1.1) 62 Design Considerations - (CPSC 12.1.2) l Hand-gripping components and stepped platforms covered in Section 10 are applicable to climbing equipment. l Climbers shall not have climbing bars or other structural components in the interior of the structure onto which a child may fall from a height of greater than 18 inches. l Climbing equipment shall allow children to descend as easily as they ascend. See CPSC Section 10. l Preschool-Age Children: Offering an easy way out is particularly important on climbing devices intended for preschoolers, since their ability to descend climbing components emerges later than their ability to climb up the same components. 63 Layout of Climbing Components - (CPSC 12.1.9) l When climbing components are part of a composite structure, their level of challenge and mode of use shall be compatible with the traffic flow from adjacent components. l Upper body devices shall be placed so that the swinging movement generated by children on this equipment cannot interfere with the movement of children on adjacent structures, particularly other children descending on slides. l The design of adjacent play structures shall not facilitate climbing to the top support bars of upper body equipment. 64 Climbers With Non-Rigid Components - (CPSC 12.1.3 and ASTM 8.2) l Flexible grid climbing devices which provide access to platforms shall be securely anchored at both ends. l When one end is connected to the ground, the anchoring devices shall be installed below ground level, beneath the base of the protective surfacing material. Connections between ropes, cables, or chains within the climbing grid or between tires shall be securely fixed. l Spacing between the horizontal and vertical components of a climbing grid shall satisfy all entrapment criteria (see CPSC Handbook, Section 9.6). l Flexible grid climbing devices are prohibited as the sole means of access to equipment intended for preschool-age children. l ASTM 8.2.2 Flexible components (for example, nets, chains, tires, and so forth) of stand-alone climbing structures shall meet the same requirements as those specified in 7.2.2 for components that provide access to or linkage between structures. 65 Arch Climbers - (CPSC 12.1.4) l Arch climbers shall not be used as the sole means of access to other equipment. l Free standing arch climbers are prohibited for preschool-age children. l The rung diameter and spacing of rungs on arch climbers shall follow the requirements for rung ladders in ASTM F 1487, section 7.1.3 - Table 2. 66 Horizontal Ladders and Overhead Rings (CPSC 12.1.5 and ASTM 8.3) l Four-year-olds are generally the youngest children capable of using upper body devices such as these. The requirements below are designed to accommodate children 4 through 12 years of age. l Horizontal ladders intended for preschool-age children shall have rungs that are parallel to one another and evenly spaced. l The first handhold on either end of upper body equipment shall not be placed directly above the platform or climbing rung used for mount or dismount. This minimizes the risk of children impacting rigid access structures if they fall from the first handhold during mount or dismount. l 8.3.2 The horizontal distance from the leading edge of the take-off or landing structure, or both, out to the first handhold of upper body equipment shall be no greater than 8 - 10.0 in.. NOTE 5-Consider that the distance from the top of the take-off/landing structure to the first handhold shall accommodate the vertical grip reach of the smallest user. The vertical grip reach of a 5th percentile 2 year old is 39.0 in. (991 mm), and the vertical grip reach of a 5th percentile 5 year old is 45.0 in. (1143 mm). l The maximum height of upper body equipment measured from the center of the grasping device to the 67 protective surfacing shall be: Preschool-Age Children: 60 inches. School-Age Children: 84 inches. l 8.3.4 The maximum height of the take-off/landing structure for upper body equipment shall be no greater than: Preschool-Age Children: 18 inches. School-Age Children: 36 inches. l The space between adjacent rungs of overhead ladders shall be greater than 9 inches to satisfy the 68 entrapment requirements (see CPSC Handbook, Section 9.6). l The center- to-center spacing of horizontal ladder rungs shall be as follows: Preschool-Age Children: no more than 12 inches. School-Age Children: no more than 15 inches. l This requirement does not apply to the spacing of overhead rings because, during use, the gripped ring swings through an arc and reduces the distance to the gripping surface of the next ring. If overhead swinging rings are suspended by chains, the maximum length of the chains shall be 12 inches. 69 Sliding Poles - (CPSC 12.1.6 and ASTM 8.4) l Vertical sliding poles are prohibited for preschool-age children who may lack the upper body strength and coordination to successfully slide down the pole. l Sliding poles shall be continuous with no protruding welds or seams along the sliding surface and the pole shall not change direction along the sliding portion. l The horizontal distance between a sliding pole and the edge of the platform or other structure used for access to the sliding pole shall be at least 18 inches. This minimum distance applies to all points down the sliding pole. l No point on the sliding pole at or above the level of the access structure, where a child is likely to reach for the pole, shall be more than 20 inches away from the edge of the access structure. l The pole shall extend at least 60 inches above the level of the platform or other structure used for access to the sliding pole. l The diameter of sliding poles shall be no greater than 1.9 inches. l Sliding poles and their access structures shall be located so that traffic from other events will not interfere with the users during descent. l Upper access to the sliding pole shall be from one height only. (astm 8.4.2) l The guardrail or protective barrier at a platform entrance/exit opening shall have an opening with a maximum horizontal dimension of 15.0 in. (astm 8.4.6) 70 Climbing Ropes (CPSC 12.1.7) l A climbing rope shall be secured at both ends and not be capable of being looped back on itself creating a loop with an inside perimeter greater than 5 inches. 71 Balance Beams (CPSC 12.1.8 and ASTM 8.1) l To avoid injuries during falls, balance beams shall be no higher than: Preschool-Age Children: 12 inches. School-Age Children: 16 inches. l Support posts for balance beams shall not pose a tripping hazard. (astm 8.1.2) 72 Seesaws (CPSC 12.3 and ASTM 8.10) l Seesaws are prohibited for preschool-age children (unless they are equipped with a spring centering device to prevent abrupt contact with the ground shall one child elect to dismount.) l The fulcrum of fulcrum seesaws shall not present a pinch or crush hazard. l Partial car tires, or some other shock-absorbing material, shall be embedded in the ground underneath the seats of fulcrum seesaws, or secured on the underside of the seats. This will help prevent limbs from being crushed between the seat and the ground, as well as cushion the impact. Fulcrum see-saws may also be equipped with a spring centering mechanism to minimize the risk of injury due to impact with the ground. l Handholds shall be provided at each seating position for gripping with both hands and shall not turn when grasped. Handholds shall not protrude beyond the sides of the seat. l 22.214.171.124 … Hand-grip(s) intended to be gripped by one hand shall have a minimum length of 3.0 in. Handgrip(s) intended to be gripped by two hands shall have a minimum length of 6.0 in. l Footrests shall not be provided on fulcrum see-saws unless they are equipped with a spring centering mechanism to minimize the likelihood of impact with the ground. l Fulcrum seesaws shall be constructed so that the maximum attainable angle between a line connecting the seats and the horizontal is 25 degrees. l Seesaws shall be constructed …so that the maximum attainable seat height is 60in. above the level of the protective surface. (astm 8.10.6) Moving, Rotating, or Rocking Components: (ASTM 8.8) 73 Platform Configuration - (astm 126.96.36.199 ) l The maximum height for the standing surface of the platform shall be 14 in. above the level of the protective surface. 74 Merry-Go-Rounds (Whirls) - (CPSC 12.1 ) l Preschool-age children shall always be supervised when using merry-go-rounds. l Following are requirements for merry-go-rounds: l The rotating platform shall be continuous and approximately circular. l The difference between the minimum and maximum radii of a non-circular platform shall not exceed 2.0 inches (see CPSC Handbook, Figure 15). l No components of the apparatus, including handgrips, shall extend beyond the perimeter of the platform. The underside of the perimeter of the platform shall be no less than 9 inches above the level of the protective surfacing and shall conform to requirements for protrusions and pinch, crush, and shear points. l Children shall be provided with a secure means of holding on. Where handgrips are provided, they shall conform to the general requirements for hand gripping components in CPSC Handbook, Section 10.2.1. l There shall not be any accessible shearing or crushing mechanisms in the undercarriage of the equipment. The rotating platform of a merry-go-round shall not have any sharp edges. l The surface of the platform shall be continuous with no openings between the axis and the periphery that permit a rod having a diameter of 5/16 inch to penetrate completely through the surface. l A means shall be provided to limit the peripheral speed of rotation to a maximum of 13 ft/sec. l Merry-go-round platforms shall not be provided with an oscillatory (up and down) motion. 75 Spring Rockers - (CPSC 12.5 and ASTM 8.11) l The requirements in this section address only preschool-age children. Seat design shall not allow the rocker to be used by more than the intended number of users. l Each seating position shall be equipped with handgrips and footrests. (ASTM adds …that comply with the general requirements for protrusions) l The springs of rocking equipment shall minimize the possibility of children pinching their hands or their feet between coils or between the spring and a part of the rocker. l The diameter of handgrips shall follow the requirements for hand-gripping components in Section 10 of the CPSC Handbook. 76 Handgrip dimensions (astm 8.11.2 ) l Handgrips intended to be gripped by one hand shall have a minimum length of 3.0 in. l Handgrips intended to be gripped by both hands shall have a minimum length of 6.0 in. 77 Footrests dimensions (astm 8.11.3) l Footrests shall be provided that have a minimum width of 3.5 in. 78 Height of the seat (astm 8.11.5) l After installation, the height of the seat, while unloaded and at rest, shall be 14 in. to 28 in. above the protective surface. Slides - CPSC 12.4 and ASTM 8.5 79 General (CPSC 12.4.1) l The requirements in this section do not apply to water slides or swimming pool slides. 80 Slide Access (CPSC 12.4.2) l Access is provided to a slide shall conform to the guidelines specified in the general discussion of access to all playground equipment (see CPSC Handbook, Section 10). l 8.5.1 Accesses to slides shall meet the same requirements as those for playground equipment in general, as specified in Section 7 (embankment slides excepted). 81 Slide Transition Platforms: (ASTM 8.5.2) l 188.8.131.52 Slide transition platforms shall meet the same requirements for orientation, drainage, guardrails, and protective barriers specified for platforms on other playground equipment in ASTM 1487, 7.4. l 184.108.40.206 The depth of the transition platform on slides shall be 14.0 in. or greater. l 220.127.116.11 The transition platform shall have a width equal to or greater than the width of the sliding chute. 82 Slide Chute Entrance: (ASTM 8.5.3) l 18.104.22.168 Handrails or other means of hand support shall be provided at the slide chute entrance to facilitate the transition from standing to sitting. l 22.214.171.124 At the slide chute entrance, there shall be a means to channel the user into a sitting position (for example, guardrail ,hood, and so forth). 83 Sliding Section of Straight Slides - (CPSC 12.4.4and ASTM 8.5) l Slope: It is required that the average incline of a slide chute be no more than 30 degrees. Measure by determining the height to length ratio (as shown in the CPSC Handbook, Figure 18) does not exceed 0.577. No span on the slide chute shall have a slope greater than 50 degrees. l Sides: Straight slides with flat open chutes shall have sides with a 4 inch minimum height extending along both sides of the chute for the entire length of the inclined sliding surface. l The sides shall be an integral part of the chute, without any gaps between the sides and the sliding surface. Note: Roller slides are excluded from this requirement. l Slides may have an open chute provided that: a. The vertical height of the sides is no less than 4 inches when measured at right angles to a horizontal line that is: (see CPSC Handbook, Figure 19) 12 inches long when: the slide is intended for preschool-age children 16 inches long when the slide is intended for school-age children; or b. The vertical height of the sides is no less than 4 inches minus two times the width of the slide chute divided by the radius of the slide chute curvature (see CPSC Handbook, Figure 20). l 126.96.36.199 All slides with a curved cross section shall minimize the likelihood of lateral discharge 84 Slide Clearance Zones: (ASTM 8.5.6) l 188.8.131.52 A clear area, free of equipment, shall surround the slide chute. This area is defined by Fig. Al.21. Portions of slides containing hoods or other devices to channel the user into a seated position, spiral slides and tube slides excepted. The clear area shall extend through the exit section. l 184.108.40.206 Spiral slides shall maintain a clear area 21.0 in. (533mm) wide, when measured from the inside face of the sidewall along the outer edge of the slide for the entire length of the slide. l Metal slides shall be placed in shaded areas to prevent burns caused by direct sun on the slide chute. 85 Exit region - (CPSC 12.4.5 and ASTM 8.5.5) l The exit region shall be essentially horizontal and parallel (astm - between 0 and 4 degrees) to the ground and have a minimum length of 11 inches. l For slides that are no more than 4 feet in height, the height of the exit region shall be no more than 11 inches from the protective surfacing. l For slides that are over 4 feet in height, the exit region shall be at least 7 inches but not more than 15 inches above the protective surfacing. l Slide exit edges shall be rounded or curved, to prevent lacerations or other injuries which could result from impact with a sharp or straight edge. 220.127.116.11 The radius of curvature of the sliding surface in the exit region shall be 30.0 in. (762 mm) or greater (see ASTM F1487 Fig. Al. 19). l All slide exits shall be located in uncongested areas of the playground. 86 Embankment Slides (CPSC 12.4.6) l The slide chute of an embankment slide shall have a maximum height of 12 inches above the underlying ground surface. Embankment slides shall follow all of the requirements given for straight slides, where applicable, (except for the access to the embankment slide.) l Slide chute entrance by children on skates, skateboards or bicycles should be minimized. 87 Spiral Slides (CPSC 12.4.7) l It is required that spiral slides follow the requirements for straight slides (where applicable), with special attention given to design features which may present problems unique to spiral slides, such as lateral discharge of the user. l Preschool-Age Children: one turn (360 degrees) or less, are required. 88 Tube Slides (CPSC 12.4.8) l Tube slides shall meet all the applicable requirements for other slides. l Barriers shall be provided or surfaces textured to prevent sliding on the top (outside) of the tube. The minimum internal diameter of the tube shall be no less than 23 inches. 89 Roller Slides - (CPSC 12.4.9 and ASTM 8.9) l Roller slides shall meet applicable requirements for slides. l The space between adjacent rollers and between the ends of the rollers and the stationary structure shall be less than 3/16 inch. l 18.104.22.168 A pinch, crush, shear, entrapment, or catch point is any point that will admit a 3/16 in. (5 mm) diameter neoprene rod at one or more positions, either between rollers or adjacent stationary segments. l 8.9.3 The neoprene rods shall have a hardness reading between 50 and 60 as determined by a Type A durometer in accordance with Test Method D 2240. l Frequent inspections are required to insure that there are no missing rollers or broken bearings. Swings (CPSC 12.6) 90 General (CPSC 12.6.1) l Hardware used to secure the suspending elements to the swing seat and to the supporting structure shall not be removable without the use of tools. l S-hooks shall be pinched closed. An S-hook is considered closed if there is no gap or space greater than 0.04 inches. The gap shall not admit a dime. l Swings shall be suspended from support structures that discourage climbing. l A-frame support structures shall not have horizontal cross-bars. l Fiber ropes are prohibited as a means to suspend swings. 91 Single-Axis (To-Fro) Swings (CPSC 12.6.2) l Swing structures shall be located away from other equipment or activities. Additional protection can be provided by means of a low barrier, such as a fence or hedge. Such barriers shall not be an obstacle within the use zone of a swing structure or hamper supervision by blocking visibility. l The use zone to the front and rear of single-axis swings shall never overlap the use zone of another piece of equipment. l It is required that no more than two single-axis swings be hung in each bay of the supporting structure. l Attaching single-axis swings to composite structures is prohibited. l Swing seats shall be designed to accommodate no more than one user at any time. Wood or metal swing seats are prohibited. Lightweight rubber or plastic swing seats are preferred. Edges of seats shall have smoothly finished or rounded edges and shall conform to the protrusion requirements in Section 9.3 of the CPSC Handbook. l The vertical distance from the underside of an occupied swing seat to the protective surfacing shall be no less than 12 inches for swings intended for preschool-age children and no less than 16 inches for swings intended for school-age children. NOTE: If loose-fill material is used as a protective surfacing, the seat height requirements shall be determined after the material has been leveled. l To minimize collisions between swings or between a swing and the supporting structure, the clearances shown in Figure 22 are required. In addition, to reduce side-to-side motion, swing hangers shall be spaced no less than 20 inches apart. l It is required that single-axis swings intended for preschool-age children have the pivot points no greater than 8 feet above the protective surfacing. 92 Tot Swings (CPSC 12.6.3) l The seats and suspension systems of these swings, including the related hardware, shall follow all of the other criteria for conventional single axis swings. l Full-bucket tot swing seats are required to provide support on all sides of a child (see CPSC Handbook Figure 23). It is important that such supports do not present a strangulation hazard. Openings in tot swing seats shall conform to the entrapment criteria in the CPSC Handbook, Sec. 9.6. l It is required that tot swings be suspended from structures which are separate from those for other swings, or at least suspended from a separate bay of the same structure. l The vertical distance from the underside of an occupied tot swing seat to the protective surfacing shall be no less than 24 inches to minimize the likelihood that it will be used by unsupervised young children who may become stuck in the seat. 93 Multi-Axis Tire Swings (CPSC 12.6.4) l A multi-axis tire swing shall not be suspended from a structure having other swings in the same bay. Attaching multi-axis swings to composite structures is prohibited. l To minimize the hazard of impact, heavy truck tires shall be avoided. Further, if steel-belted radials are used, they shall be closely examined to ensure that there are no exposed steel belts that could be a potential protrusion or laceration hazard. Plastic materials can be used as an alternative to simulate actual automobile tires. Drainage holes shall be provided in the underside of the tire. l The hanger mechanisms for multi-axis tire swings shall not have any accessible pinch points. l The minimum clearance between the seating surface of a tire swing and the uprights of the supporting structure shall be 30 inches when the tire is in a position closest to the support structure (see CPSC Handbook - Figure 24). 94 Swings Prohibited for Public Playgrounds CPSC 12.6.5 and ASTM 8.7 l The following types of swings are prohibited for use in public playgrounds: l Animal Figure Swings. These are prohibited because their rigid metal framework is heavy presenting a risk of impact injury. l Multiple Occupancy Swings - With the exception of tire swings, swings that are intended for more than one user are prohibited because their greater mass, as compared to single occupancy swings, presents a risk of impact injury. l Rope Swings – Free swinging ropes that may fray or otherwise form a loop are prohibited because they present a potential strangulation hazard. l Swinging Dual Exercise Rings and Trapeze Bars - These are rings and trapeze bars on long chains that are generally considered to be items of athletic equipment and are prohibited for public playgrounds. NOTE: The requirement against the use of exercise rings does not apply to overhead hanging rings such as those used in a ring trek or ring ladder (see CPSC Handbook - Figure 14). 95 Other Prohibited Equipment (ASTM 8.12) l ASTM 8.7 also states that … swinging gates and doors are prohibited for public playgrounds. l Trampolines are prohibited for use on public playgrounds. (CPSC 12.7) 96 Log Rolls: (ASTM 8.12) l Rigid hand gripping component(s) shall be provided, and shall aid in mounting and dismounting the roll, and maintaining balance while in use.(astm 8.12.1) l Log rolls are prohibited for use by children 2 to 5 years. (astm 8.12.2) l The highest point of the top surface of the roller shall be no greater than 18 in. above the protective surfacing. Hand gripping components shall be between 0.95 in.and 1.55 in. in diameter. (astm 8.12.3) 97 Track Rides: (ASTM 8.13) l Track rides are prohibited for children less than 5 years of age. (astm 8.13.1) l The lowest portion of the hand gripping component shall be a minimum of 64 in. above the surfacing. The maximum height of the hand gripping component shall not exceed 78 in.above the protective surfacing. The hand gripping component shall comply to section 22.214.171.124. (astm 8.13.2) l When elevated landings are used they shall include a landing space with a minimum length of 36 in. and a minimum width of 32 in. Such landings shall comply with the upper body reach requirements for the 5 to 12 year olds found in ASTM F 1487, 8.3.4 and Note 4. (astm 8.13.3) l Track rides shall be designed to prevent the structural elements from obstructing the user in the landing area. (astm 8.13.4) l An unobstructed clearance zone shall be maintained throughout the length of travel of the hand-gripping component. (astm 8.13.5) l The center to center distance between adjacent tracks shall be at least 48 in.(astm 8.13.6) l When the rolling portions of the hand-gripping component are enclosed within the track beam, the track assembly is exempted from the pinch, crush, and shear requirements. (astm 8.13.7) 98 Roofs: ( ASTM 8.14) l Roofs shall contain no designated play surfaces. (astm 8.14.1) Labeling - Section 14 of the ASTM Standard - Minimum Requirements for All Labels on Playground Equipment or Structures: (ASTM 14.4) 99 Warning Label and Manufacturer's Identification- (ASTM 14.4.1) All play structures and composite play structures shall be required to have attached a warning label and a separate manufacturer's identification. l 14.4. 1.1 Signal Word-WARNING shall be on the warning label. l 126.96.36.199 Safety Alert Symbol-Preceding the signal word, there shall be a triangle with an exclamation point inside the triangle on the warning label. l 188.8.131.52 Word Message on the Warning Label-WARNING: Installation over a hard surface such as concrete, asphalt, or packed earth may result in serious injury or death from falls. l 184.108.40.206 The manufacturer's identification shall appear, shall be durable, and shall be placed on the play structure, if it stands alone, or on a composite play structure. Custom- and community-built equipment shall also carry the identification of the designer and the warning label. 100 Specifications for all Labels: (ASTM 14.4.2) l 220.127.116.11 Specification for all labels shall conform to ANSIZ535.1 and ANSI Z535.4 in the following areas: legibility, type of lettering, clarity of message and symbol, color specifications, and word message and visibility. l 18.104.22.168 Durability of the Label-The label shall conform to UL 969. It is intended that the marking be replaced by the operator if it becomes illegible, destroyed, or removed. l 22.214.171.124 Non-injurious- A label shall be so designed that it will not cause injury. 101 Placement (ASTM 14.4.3) l Location of the Label-The label must be located so as not to be removed during the installation process. 102 Attachment- (ASTM 14.4.4) l The label shall be attached so that it cannot be removed without the use of a tool. If a label cannot be attached at the factory, instructions about attaching the label need to be included with the installation information. 103 Replacement- (ASTM 14.4.5) l The product warning labels shall be replaced by the site management when they no longer meet legibility requirements. In cases where products have an extensive expected life or where they are exposed to extreme conditions, replacement labels shall be made available by the product producer.