SOCIAL MARKETING/SOCIAL NORMS/ MASS MEDIA CAMPAINGS This category of environmental strategies includes Social Marketing/Social Norms Marketing and Mass Media Campaigns. We see these strategies as hierarchical in nature, with Social Norms Marketing being a subset of Social Marketing. Mass Media is a strategy that is used within both Social Marketing and Social Norms Marketing. DEFINITIONS Social Marketing (CLI Definition): Using commercial marketing techniques to develop, implement, and evaluate programs designed to influence the behavior of a target audience. Social marketing often relies on the use of mass media and involves identifying the needs of a specific group, supplying information so people can make informed decisions, offering services that meet needs, and assessing how well the needs were met. Worden, page S118: Social marketing is consumer oriented, uses research to analyze and segment the audience, uses formative research to design and pre-test media messages, analyzes channels and marketing mixes to reach targeted audiences, and uses tracking and management processes to monitor implementation and improve media campaign designs. Haines, et al., page 8: Social Norms Model/Approach “gathers credible data from a target population and then, using various health communication strategies, consistently tell the truth about its actual norms of health, protection, and the avoidance of risk behaviors. With repeated exposure to a variety of positive, data- based messages, the misperceptions that help to sustain problem behavior are reduced and a greater proportion of the population begins to act in accord with the more accurately perceived norms of health, protection, and safety. Martino-McAllister & Wessel, page 187, Social Norms Marketing: “is an extremely powerful approach that applies marketing techniques developed in the commercial sector to improve consumers’ physical and mental health. Successful social norms marketing programs are based on an assessment of students’ needs and employ standard marketing techniques, such as incentive programs, throughout the program to increase the likelihood of message retention and behavior change. Mass media campaign (Kristi): Any promotion activity that uses the mass media (including print, television, radio, and the internet) to communicate a message. 1 Overlapping/Key Factors Involved in Mass Media Campaigns & Social Marketing/Social Norms Campaigns Conduct formative research Collect and report local survey data prior to the campaign and after the campaign to reinforce message Launch a planning process to identify the behavior/norms being addressed and the type of strategy being used Identify specific goals and objectives for the campaign Select the target audience Select the right message source/spokesperson Select a mix of media channels Maximize media exposure – repeat often Conduct process and outcome evaluations Publicize positive trends to help reinforce further changes in beliefs, attitude, knowledge REFERENCES (annotated) Dejong, W. (2002). The role of mass media campaigns in reducing high-risk drinking among college students. J.Stud.Alcohol Suppl, 182-192. GD, IG Launch a strategic planning process Select a strategic objective Select the target audience Develop a staged approach Define the key promise Avoid fear appeals Select the right message source Select a mix of media channels Maximize media exposure Conduct formative research Conduct process and outcome evaluations Define the problem in a way that motivates behavior change Collect and report survey data that will correct misperceptions of student drinking Publicize positive trends to help reinforce further changes in behavioral norms Collect information on student opinions on various policy options Consider implementing a program of environmental change by starting with those policies that enjoy majority support and then moving on Jack, S. M., Bouck, L. M., Beynon, C. E., Ciliska, D. K., & Mitchell, M. J. (2005). Marketing a hard-to-swallow message: recommendations for the design of media campaigns to increase awareness about the risks of binge drinking. Can.J.Public Health, 96, 189-193. GD, IG Choose language that is familiar to students 2 Choose spokesperson carefully – a celebrity or individual with a personal story to share Graphics should portray realistic situations Use local statistics to show consequences or health risks associated with drug/alcohol use Kelder, S. H., Maibach, E., Worden, J. K., Biglan, A., & Levitt, A. (2000). Planning and initiation of the ONDCP National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. J.Public Health Manag.Pract., 6, 14-26. GD, IG Focus objectives on altering those mediating variables that are known to have a significant impact on adolescent drug use Target both parent/caregiver and youth with complementary/synergistic messages. Focus messages on common transitions and situations that are known to heighten adolescents vulnerability to drug use initiation Use a full range of media mechanisms and formats in an integrated fashion Use professionals to help design the message, with target audience input Repeat the message often and in a variety of ways Pre-test messages with target and non-target audiences. Lin, C. A. & Hullman, G. A. (2005). Tobacco-Prevention Messages Online: Social Marketing via the Web. Health Communication, 18, 177-193. GD, IG Monopolization: campaigns are more likely to succeed if there are few competing counter messages Canalization: campaigns that call for a change in behavior congruent with existing attitudes Supplementation: an existing message that is reinforced by similar messages or and delivered through other media channels Creating new opinions is has a better chance of success than changing old ones. Make the message personally relevant. Haines, M. P., Perkins, H. W., Rice, R. M., & Barker, G. (2005). A Guide to Marketing Social Norms for Health Promotion in Schools and Communities National Social Norms Resource Center. http://www.socialnorms.org/pdf/Guidebook.pdf GD, IG, OM, E Define the issue Understand the population Define goals and outcomes Select appropriate message channels and sources Test, retest the message Monitor the message/efforts Evaluate the effort 3 Higher Education Center. (12-12-2002). Research and Evaluation of Social Norms Campaigns. http://www.higheredcenter.org/socialnorms/research.html GD, IG, OM Use data from local community to construct message Measure extent of actual behavior in order to help address misconceptions Construct the message Pre-test the message Measure exposure to the campaign Collect other contextual information that may have influenced reactions to campaign Martino-McAllister, J. & Wessel, M. T. (2005). An evaluation of a social norms marketing project for tobacco prevention with middle, high, and college students; use of funds from the Tobacco Master Settlement (Virginia). J Drug Educ., 35, 185-200. GD, IG, OM, E Gather baseline data Develop the message – involve members of target audience Ensure credibility Deliver the message – multi-media, repetition Support message retention with related giveaways Worden, J. K. (1999). Research in using mass media to prevent smoking. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 1, S117-S121. GD, IG, E Arouse involvement in an issue or stimulate motivation to change Repeat messages over long periods through multimedia (years, not weeks or months) Employ novelty in message presentation Target very specific issues and provide constant attitudinal alternatives Produce high quality materials to ensure audience attention To change behavior: Incorporate info about behavioral alternatives Promote interaction with the audience Supplement with face to face interaction Mobilize community resources Key factors of the study: Target group identified Educational objectives developed Target group interests and perceptions determined Strategic principles followed Pre-testing with the target group employed Moved effective media channels identified 4 DRAFT Rationale Used to Guide Fidelity Assessment of Social Marketing/Social Norms Marketing/Mass Media Campaigns Core Activity Fidelity Questions Rationale Plan in place Has the mass media/social A written plan ensures that a strategy marketing/ social norms plan been has been thought out and that key written? Does it identify: 1) aspects of the campaign have been behaviors or norms targeted; 2) considered. This process will help strategy to be used; 3) the target assess readiness to implement a mass audience media campaign strategy and ensure that it is well-researched and well- designed. Formative research Was formative research conducted? Formative research on the actual conducted Did the research seek to understand message, medium, spokesperson, etc. and test the target audience responses ensure that the message is credible to the messages? The use of with the target audience. In addition, appropriate media channels (web, formative research should be TV, billboards, person to person, conducted with non-target audience to etc.), and the salience of the ensure that the campaign does not /acceptability of the have any unintended consequences. messenger/spokesperson. Use of local data Were local data collected? Were they The use of local data will help ensure reported before the campaign? Were that the target population believes or they reported after the campaign? buys into the message. Data from other areas/schools/regions allows target pops to think that the data do not apply to them. Multiple media used Does the campaign use a variety of The use of multiple channels helps media channels to reinforce the reinforce the message. The more message? Are person-to person, TV, frequently a message is viewed, the radio, web, and print ads used more opportunity it has to be together to promote a unified processed by the target population. In message? addition, the use of multiple media channels helps ensure that the campaign does not get stale. Frequency of exposure Was research conducted to determine The appropriate frequency of exposure the appropriate frequency of will vary depending on the channel, exposure to ensure successful purpose of the campaign, and other campaign? factors. Researching the appropriate level of exposure will ensure a successful campaign. Repetition conducted Is the message repeated? How often? The campaign should be repeated to ensure message retention. The frequency of exposure should be implemented according to the research results. 5 DRAFT Fidelity Rubric for Social Marketing/Social Norms Marketing/Mass Media Campaigns Core Activity Missing Weak Fidelity Moderate Fidelity Strong Fidelity 0 1 2 3 Mass media/social No plan Plan in place, but Plan in place, but Plan in place, and marketing/ social norms written. only addresses 1 only addresses 2 or addresses all 4 plan has been written and of the 4 of the 4 components. documented and components. components. identifies: 1) goals and objectives; 2) the target audience; 3) behaviors or norms targeted; and 4) strategy to be used. Formative research No formative Formative Formative research Formative research conducted to understand research research conducted on 2 of conducted on all 3 and test the target conducted. conducted on 1 of the 3 components. components. audience responses to the the 3 components. 1) messages; 2) media channels (web, TV, billboards, person to person, etc.), and 3) messenger/spokesperson (if applicable). Collect and report local No data Non local data Data collected, but Local data data to reinforce message collected. reported. not reported, or only collected and prior to and after the reported prior to OR reported both prior campaign. after the campaign. to the campaign and after the campaign. Campaign employs more Campaign not Campaign Campaign employs Campaign employs than 1 media channel. implemented. employs 1 media 2 media channels. 3 or more media channel. channels. Research (lit review, No research Research focus groups, testing conducted on conducted to with surveys, etc.) appropriate determine conducted to determine frequency of appropriate appropriate frequency of exposure for frequency of exposure for target target audience. exposure. audience. Message repeated Campaign Message repeated, Message repeated appropriately, as message not but less frequently at frequency determined by research. repeated. than research research suggests is suggests will result appropriate to in a successful ensure a successful campaign. campaign. 6 MEDIA ADVOCACY DEFINITIONS Wilbur & Stewart (DOJ/PIRE), page 2: Media Advocacy is “an approach to media that helps empower people to tell their own story proactively rather than waiting passively for the media to get it right... Media advocacy can include: Responding to calls from reporters Initiating calls to reporters Designing good visual images for television reporters Staging media events Writing letters to the editor or op-ed pieces Conducting creative research to help generate media attention Developing long-term relationships with editors and producers Alerting media to important political or other policy-related developments” DOT, page 3: Media relations “seeking coverage in the print and broadcast news media.” Overlapping/Key Factors Involved in Media Advocacy Get to know your local media contacts/Develop a media contact list Monitor local media Frame the issue Stay on message Link your issues to issues already high in the public consciousness Use local statistics to tell your story REFERENCES (annotated) The Marin Institute. (2006). Media Advocacy Action Pack. 7-27-2006. http://www.marininstitute.org/action_packs/media_advocacy.htm GD, IG Frame the issue Stay on message Get to know your local media contacts Develop a media contact list Monitor local media Get to know your local media contacts/Develop a media contact list Monitor local media Frame the issue Stay on message Link your issues to issues already high in the public consciousness Use local statistics to tell your story 7 US Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Zero Tolerance Means Zero Chances. 8-3-2006. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/alcohol/zero/ GD, IG Wilbur, P. M. & Stewart, K. (1999). Strategic Media Advocacy for Enforcement of Underage Drinking Laws Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation in support of the OJJDP Enforcing the Underage Drinking Laws Program. http://prev.org/documents/mediaadvocacy.pdf GD, IG Take the initiative Know your goal Be strategic Be newsworthy Be timely Practice Frame your story Think locally Be strategic in selecting your spokespeople Tend your relationships with journalists National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. (2001). Community How to Guide On Media Relations (Rep. No. DOT HS 809 209). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/alcohol/Community%20Guides% 20HTML/Book7_MediaRelations.html#Intro GD, IG Understand the media Target efforts carefully Make your efforts newsworthy Get to know reporters Develop a good, clean press list Link your issues to issues already high in the public consciousness Be creative Choose speakers carefully Use statistics to capture the media’s attention Media Literacy U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse and Prevention, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office of Smoking and Health. Mediasharp: Analyzing tobacco and alcohol messages leader's guide. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/educational_materials/mdiashrp.pdf GD, IG 8 DRAFT Rationale Used to Guide Fidelity Assessment of Media Advocacy Strategies Core Activity Fidelity Questions Rationale Get to know media contacts. Was a media contact list Building relationships with news developed? Did the reporters is essential to any media organization contact the advocacy effort. Developing a media media with potential stories? contact list is an important step to Has the media contacted the enhancing an organization’s ability organization for information to contact reporters when an on stories? important news event develops. Contacting local reporters with newsworthy stories will help build a reciprocal working relationship and increase an organization’s credibility as a good source of information. Monitor the media, including 1) Did the organization monitor Monitoring multiple types of news alcohol and tobacco industry, 2) multiple types of media stories will increase the chances of research reports on ATOD, and 3) including alcohol and tobacco identifying a news story that can local news stories. industry ads, research reports serve as a springboard for an on ATOD, and local news organization’s issue. stories? Frame the issue. Are you able to How did the organization Clearly and concisely framing the communicate the following 3 frame the issue? Were the 3 issue is the key to successful media concepts: 1) Describing the issue at framing components advocacy. Strong messages describe hand; 2) Describing what you want addressed? the issue, the solution, and the target to change and what to do to change audiences of the message. the issue; and 3) Knowing who can make the change (understanding your target). Stay on message. Did the organization stay on Repeating the same message is message? Did the message essential to building a consistent, adhere to the 3 framing memorable message. Deviating from components? Did the framing the 3 framing components may cause components repeat the key confusion and diminish media focus issue? on the key issues. Message linked to issues in public Did the organization link It is easier to gain media attention consciousness. their message to issues when the message is linked to an already in public issue that the public is already consciousness? concerned about. Use local statistics to tell story. Did the organization use local It is easier to gain the media’s statistics to tell their story? attention when local statistics are used to tell a story. News reporters (and the public) find news stories that contain local statistics more interesting because they reveal the scope of the issue at the local level. 9 DRAFT Fidelity Rubric for Media Advocacy Strategies Core Activity Missing Weak Fidelity Moderate Fidelity Strong Fidelity 0 1 2 3 Get to know media Media Media contact list Organization Media contacts contacts. contacts not developed contacts media with organization for identified. potential stories once information on or more per year. stories. Monitor the media, Media not Monitors 1 of the Monitors 2 of the Monitors all 3 of including 1) alcohol and monitored. types of media types of media the types of tobacco industry, 2) described. described. media described. research reports on ATOD, and 3) local news stories. Frame the issue. Are you Issue did Only addresses 1 Only addresses 2 of Addresses all 3 able to communicate the not address of the 3 the 3 components. components. following 3 components: framing components. 1) Describing the issue at components. hand; 2) Describing what you want to change and what to do to change the issue; and 3) Knowing who can make the change (understanding your target). This is known as the issue, the solution, and who can make the change. Stay on message by Message did Message includes Message only Message includes keeping to the 3 framing not contain extraneous includes 3 framing 3 framing components and repeat framing information than components. components and them if time permits. components. the 3 framing repeats key issue. components. Message linked to issues Message not Message linked to in public consciousness. linked. issues. Use local statistics to tell No data Local (or state, if story, when available. used to tell no local data Otherwise use state data. story. available) data used to tell story. 10
"Successful Social Media Marketing Success"