Successful Social Media Marketing Success by pmk11148


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This category of environmental strategies includes Social Marketing/Social Norms
Marketing and Mass Media Campaigns. We see these strategies as hierarchical in
nature, with Social Norms Marketing being a subset of Social Marketing. Mass
Media is a strategy that is used within both Social Marketing and Social Norms


      Social Marketing (CLI Definition): Using commercial marketing techniques to
      develop, implement, and evaluate programs designed to influence the behavior of
      a target audience. Social marketing often relies on the use of mass media and
      involves identifying the needs of a specific group, supplying information so
      people can make informed decisions, offering services that meet needs, and
      assessing how well the needs were met.

      Worden, page S118: Social marketing is consumer oriented, uses research to
      analyze and segment the audience, uses formative research to design and pre-test
      media messages, analyzes channels and marketing mixes to reach targeted
      audiences, and uses tracking and management processes to monitor
      implementation and improve media campaign designs.

      Haines, et al., page 8: Social Norms Model/Approach “gathers credible data
      from a target population and then, using various health communication strategies,
      consistently tell the truth about its actual norms of health, protection, and the
      avoidance of risk behaviors. With repeated exposure to a variety of positive, data-
      based messages, the misperceptions that help to sustain problem behavior are
      reduced and a greater proportion of the population begins to act in accord with the
      more accurately perceived norms of health, protection, and safety.

      Martino-McAllister & Wessel, page 187, Social Norms Marketing: “is an
      extremely powerful approach that applies marketing techniques developed in the
      commercial sector to improve consumers’ physical and mental health. Successful
      social norms marketing programs are based on an assessment of students’ needs
      and employ standard marketing techniques, such as incentive programs,
      throughout the program to increase the likelihood of message retention and
      behavior change.

      Mass media campaign (Kristi): Any promotion activity that uses the mass
      media (including print, television, radio, and the internet) to communicate a

Overlapping/Key Factors Involved in Mass Media Campaigns & Social
Marketing/Social Norms Campaigns

      Conduct formative research
      Collect and report local survey data prior to the campaign and after the campaign
              to reinforce message
      Launch a planning process to identify the behavior/norms being addressed and the
              type of strategy being used
      Identify specific goals and objectives for the campaign
      Select the target audience
      Select the right message source/spokesperson
      Select a mix of media channels
      Maximize media exposure – repeat often
      Conduct process and outcome evaluations
      Publicize positive trends to help reinforce further changes in beliefs, attitude,

REFERENCES (annotated)

      Dejong, W. (2002). The role of mass media campaigns in reducing high-risk
            drinking among college students. J.Stud.Alcohol Suppl, 182-192. GD, IG

      Launch a strategic planning process
      Select a strategic objective
      Select the target audience
      Develop a staged approach
      Define the key promise
      Avoid fear appeals
      Select the right message source
      Select a mix of media channels
      Maximize media exposure
      Conduct formative research
      Conduct process and outcome evaluations
      Define the problem in a way that motivates behavior change
      Collect and report survey data that will correct misperceptions of student drinking
      Publicize positive trends to help reinforce further changes in behavioral norms
      Collect information on student opinions on various policy options
      Consider implementing a program of environmental change by starting with those
              policies that enjoy majority support and then moving on

      Jack, S. M., Bouck, L. M., Beynon, C. E., Ciliska, D. K., & Mitchell, M. J.
              (2005). Marketing a hard-to-swallow message: recommendations for the
              design of media campaigns to increase awareness about the risks of binge
              drinking. Can.J.Public Health, 96, 189-193. GD, IG

      Choose language that is familiar to students

Choose spokesperson carefully – a celebrity or individual with a personal story to
Graphics should portray realistic situations
Use local statistics to show consequences or health risks associated with
       drug/alcohol use

Kelder, S. H., Maibach, E., Worden, J. K., Biglan, A., & Levitt, A. (2000).
       Planning and initiation of the ONDCP National Youth Anti-Drug Media
       Campaign. J.Public Health Manag.Pract., 6, 14-26. GD, IG

Focus objectives on altering those mediating variables that are known to have a
        significant impact on adolescent drug use
Target both parent/caregiver and youth with complementary/synergistic messages.
Focus messages on common transitions and situations that are known to heighten
        adolescents vulnerability to drug use initiation
Use a full range of media mechanisms and formats in an integrated fashion
Use professionals to help design the message, with target audience input
Repeat the message often and in a variety of ways
Pre-test messages with target and non-target audiences.

Lin, C. A. & Hullman, G. A. (2005). Tobacco-Prevention Messages Online:
        Social Marketing via the Web. Health Communication, 18, 177-193. GD,

Monopolization: campaigns are more likely to succeed if there are few competing
       counter messages
Canalization: campaigns that call for a change in behavior congruent with existing
Supplementation: an existing message that is reinforced by similar messages or
       and delivered through other media channels
Creating new opinions is has a better chance of success than changing old ones.
Make the message personally relevant.

Haines, M. P., Perkins, H. W., Rice, R. M., & Barker, G. (2005). A Guide to
       Marketing Social Norms for Health Promotion in Schools and
       Communities National Social Norms Resource Center. GD, IG, OM, E

Define the issue
Understand the population
Define goals and outcomes
Select appropriate message channels and sources
Test, retest the message
Monitor the message/efforts
Evaluate the effort

Higher Education Center. (12-12-2002). Research and Evaluation of Social
       Norms Campaigns. GD, IG, OM

Use data from local community to construct message
Measure extent of actual behavior in order to help address misconceptions
Construct the message
Pre-test the message
Measure exposure to the campaign
Collect other contextual information that may have influenced reactions to

Martino-McAllister, J. & Wessel, M. T. (2005). An evaluation of a social norms
       marketing project for tobacco prevention with middle, high, and college
       students; use of funds from the Tobacco Master Settlement (Virginia). J
       Drug Educ., 35, 185-200. GD, IG, OM, E

Gather baseline data
Develop the message – involve members of target audience
Ensure credibility
Deliver the message – multi-media, repetition
Support message retention with related giveaways

Worden, J. K. (1999). Research in using mass media to prevent smoking. Nicotine
      & Tobacco Research, 1, S117-S121. GD, IG, E

Arouse involvement in an issue or stimulate motivation to change
Repeat messages over long periods through multimedia (years, not weeks or
Employ novelty in message presentation
Target very specific issues and provide constant attitudinal alternatives
Produce high quality materials to ensure audience attention
To change behavior:
       Incorporate info about behavioral alternatives
       Promote interaction with the audience
       Supplement with face to face interaction
       Mobilize community resources
Key factors of the study:
       Target group identified
       Educational objectives developed
       Target group interests and perceptions determined
       Strategic principles followed
       Pre-testing with the target group employed
       Moved effective media channels identified

DRAFT Rationale Used to Guide Fidelity Assessment of Social Marketing/Social
Norms Marketing/Mass Media Campaigns

      Core Activity               Fidelity Questions                              Rationale
Plan in place           Has the mass media/social                 A written plan ensures that a strategy
                        marketing/ social norms plan been        has been thought out and that key
                        written? Does it identify: 1)            aspects of the campaign have been
                        behaviors or norms targeted; 2)          considered. This process will help
                        strategy to be used; 3) the target       assess readiness to implement a mass
                        audience                                 media campaign strategy and ensure
                                                                 that it is well-researched and well-
Formative research      Was formative research conducted?        Formative research on the actual
conducted               Did the research seek to understand      message, medium, spokesperson, etc.
                        and test the target audience responses   ensure that the message is credible
                        to the messages? The use of              with the target audience. In addition,
                        appropriate media channels (web,         formative research should be
                        TV, billboards, person to person,        conducted with non-target audience to
                        etc.), and the salience of the           ensure that the campaign does not
                        /acceptability of the                    have any unintended consequences.
Use of local data       Were local data collected? Were they     The use of local data will help ensure
                        reported before the campaign? Were       that the target population believes or
                        they reported after the campaign?        buys into the message. Data from
                                                                 other areas/schools/regions allows
                                                                 target pops to think that the data do
                                                                 not apply to them.
Multiple media used     Does the campaign use a variety of       The use of multiple channels helps
                        media channels to reinforce the          reinforce the message. The more
                        message? Are person-to person, TV,       frequently a message is viewed, the
                        radio, web, and print ads used           more opportunity it has to be
                        together to promote a unified            processed by the target population. In
                        message?                                 addition, the use of multiple media
                                                                 channels helps ensure that the
                                                                 campaign does not get stale.
Frequency of exposure   Was research conducted to determine      The appropriate frequency of exposure
                        the appropriate frequency of             will vary depending on the channel,
                        exposure to ensure successful            purpose of the campaign, and other
                        campaign?                                factors. Researching the appropriate
                                                                 level of exposure will ensure a
                                                                 successful campaign.
Repetition conducted    Is the message repeated? How often?      The campaign should be repeated to
                                                                 ensure message retention. The
                                                                 frequency of exposure should be
                                                                 implemented according to the research

  DRAFT Fidelity Rubric for Social Marketing/Social Norms Marketing/Mass Media

     Core Activity              Missing          Weak Fidelity         Moderate Fidelity        Strong Fidelity
                                   0                    1                       2                       3
Mass media/social           No plan            Plan in place, but     Plan in place, but      Plan in place, and
marketing/ social norms     written.           only addresses 1       only addresses 2 or     addresses all 4
plan has been written and                      of the 4               of the 4                components.
documented and                                 components.            components.
identifies: 1) goals and
objectives; 2) the target
audience; 3) behaviors or
norms targeted; and 4)
strategy to be used.
Formative research          No formative       Formative              Formative research      Formative research
conducted to understand     research           research               conducted on 2 of       conducted on all 3
and test the target         conducted.         conducted on 1 of      the 3 components.       components.
audience responses to the                      the 3 components.
1) messages; 2) media
channels (web, TV,
billboards, person to
person, etc.), and 3)
(if applicable).
Collect and report local    No data            Non local data         Data collected, but     Local data
data to reinforce message   collected.         reported.              not reported, or only   collected and
prior to and after the                                                reported prior to OR    reported both prior
campaign.                                                             after the campaign.     to the campaign
                                                                                              and after the
Campaign employs more       Campaign not       Campaign               Campaign employs        Campaign employs
than 1 media channel.       implemented.       employs 1 media        2 media channels.       3 or more media
                                               channel.                                       channels.
Research (lit review,       No research                                                       Research
focus groups, testing       conducted on                                                      conducted to
with surveys, etc.)         appropriate                                                       determine
conducted to determine      frequency of                                                      appropriate
appropriate frequency of    exposure for                                                      frequency of
exposure for target         target audience.                                                  exposure.
Message repeated            Campaign           Message repeated,                              Message repeated
appropriately, as           message not        but less frequently                            at frequency
determined by research.     repeated.          than research                                  research suggests is
                                               suggests will result                           appropriate to
                                               in a successful                                ensure a successful
                                               campaign.                                      campaign.

                               MEDIA ADVOCACY


   Wilbur & Stewart (DOJ/PIRE), page 2: Media Advocacy is “an approach to
   media that helps empower people to tell their own story proactively rather than
   waiting passively for the media to get it right... Media advocacy can include:
       Responding to calls from reporters
       Initiating calls to reporters
       Designing good visual images for television reporters
       Staging media events
       Writing letters to the editor or op-ed pieces
       Conducting creative research to help generate media attention
       Developing long-term relationships with editors and producers
       Alerting media to important political or other policy-related developments”

   DOT, page 3: Media relations “seeking coverage in the print and broadcast news

Overlapping/Key Factors Involved in Media Advocacy

      Get to know your local media contacts/Develop a media contact list
      Monitor local media
      Frame the issue
      Stay on message
      Link your issues to issues already high in the public consciousness
      Use local statistics to tell your story

REFERENCES (annotated)

      The Marin Institute. (2006). Media Advocacy Action Pack. 7-27-2006.
   GD, IG

      Frame the issue
      Stay on message
      Get to know your local media contacts
      Develop a media contact list
      Monitor local media
      Get to know your local media contacts/Develop a media contact list
      Monitor local media
      Frame the issue
      Stay on message
      Link your issues to issues already high in the public consciousness
      Use local statistics to tell your story

US Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety
      Administration. Zero Tolerance Means Zero Chances. 8-3-2006. GD, IG

Wilbur, P. M. & Stewart, K. (1999). Strategic Media Advocacy for Enforcement
       of Underage Drinking Laws Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
       in support of the OJJDP Enforcing the Underage Drinking Laws Program. GD, IG

Take the initiative
Know your goal
Be strategic
Be newsworthy
Be timely
Frame your story
Think locally
Be strategic in selecting your spokespeople
Tend your relationships with journalists

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of
       Transportation. (2001). Community How to Guide On Media Relations
       (Rep. No. DOT HS 809 209). National Highway Traffic Safety
       Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation.
       20HTML/Book7_MediaRelations.html#Intro GD, IG

Understand the media
Target efforts carefully
Make your efforts newsworthy
Get to know reporters
Develop a good, clean press list
Link your issues to issues already high in the public consciousness
Be creative
Choose speakers carefully
Use statistics to capture the media’s attention

Media Literacy
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental
       Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse and
       Prevention, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office of
       Smoking and Health. Mediasharp: Analyzing tobacco and alcohol
       messages leader's guide. GD, IG

 DRAFT Rationale Used to Guide Fidelity Assessment of Media Advocacy Strategies

          Core Activity                     Fidelity Questions                           Rationale
Get to know media contacts.            Was a media contact list          Building relationships with news
                                       developed? Did the                reporters is essential to any media
                                       organization contact the          advocacy effort. Developing a media
                                       media with potential stories?     contact list is an important step to
                                       Has the media contacted the       enhancing an organization’s ability
                                       organization for information      to contact reporters when an
                                       on stories?                       important news event develops.
                                                                         Contacting local reporters with
                                                                         newsworthy stories will help build a
                                                                         reciprocal working relationship and
                                                                         increase an organization’s credibility
                                                                         as a good source of information.
Monitor the media, including 1)        Did the organization monitor      Monitoring multiple types of news
alcohol and tobacco industry, 2)       multiple types of media           stories will increase the chances of
research reports on ATOD, and 3)       including alcohol and tobacco     identifying a news story that can
local news stories.                    industry ads, research reports    serve as a springboard for an
                                       on ATOD, and local news           organization’s issue.
Frame the issue. Are you able to       How did the organization          Clearly and concisely framing the
communicate the following 3            frame the issue? Were the 3       issue is the key to successful media
concepts: 1) Describing the issue at   framing components                advocacy. Strong messages describe
hand; 2) Describing what you want      addressed?                        the issue, the solution, and the target
to change and what to do to change                                       audiences of the message.
the issue; and 3) Knowing who can
make the change (understanding
your target).
Stay on message.                       Did the organization stay on      Repeating the same message is
                                       message? Did the message          essential to building a consistent,
                                       adhere to the 3 framing           memorable message. Deviating from
                                       components? Did the framing       the 3 framing components may cause
                                       components repeat the key         confusion and diminish media focus
                                       issue?                            on the key issues.
Message linked to issues in public     Did the organization link         It is easier to gain media attention
consciousness.                         their message to issues           when the message is linked to an
                                       already in public                 issue that the public is already
                                       consciousness?                    concerned about.
Use local statistics to tell story.    Did the organization use local    It is easier to gain the media’s
                                       statistics to tell their story?   attention when local statistics are
                                                                         used to tell a story. News reporters
                                                                         (and the public) find news stories
                                                                         that contain local statistics more
                                                                         interesting because they reveal the
                                                                         scope of the issue at the local level.

DRAFT Fidelity Rubric for Media Advocacy Strategies

      Core Activity              Missing       Weak Fidelity        Moderate Fidelity        Strong Fidelity
                                     0               1                        2                      3
Get to know media              Media          Media contact list   Organization             Media contacts
contacts.                      contacts not   developed            contacts media with      organization for
                               identified.                         potential stories once   information on
                                                                   or more per year.        stories.
Monitor the media,             Media not      Monitors 1 of the    Monitors 2 of the        Monitors all 3 of
including 1) alcohol and       monitored.     types of media       types of media           the types of
tobacco industry, 2)                          described.           described.               media described.
research reports on
ATOD, and 3) local news
Frame the issue. Are you       Issue did      Only addresses 1     Only addresses 2 of      Addresses all 3
able to communicate the        not address    of the 3             the 3 components.        components.
following 3 components:        framing        components.
1) Describing the issue at     components.
hand; 2) Describing what
you want to change and
what to do to change the
issue; and 3) Knowing
who can make the change
(understanding your
target). This is known as
the issue, the solution,
and who can make the
Stay on message by             Message did    Message includes     Message only             Message includes
keeping to the 3 framing       not contain    extraneous           includes 3 framing       3 framing
components and repeat          framing        information than     components.              components and
them if time permits.          components.    the 3 framing                                 repeats key issue.
Message linked to issues       Message not                                                  Message linked to
in public consciousness.       linked.                                                      issues.

Use local statistics to tell   No data                                                      Local (or state, if
story, when available.         used to tell                                                 no local data
Otherwise use state data.      story.                                                       available) data
                                                                                            used to tell story.


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