Antenna Combining

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					A publication of the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence                                                                                                  June 2010




                                                                                                   Antenna Combining
       ISO 9001:2008 Certified
           Michael D. Frederickson,
               EMPF Director                                   I  n multiple channel applications of the next
                                                                  generation communication systems, it is often
                                                               desirable to develop an antenna system to combine
                                                                                                                                as high peak-to-average ratio (PAR). As a result,
                                                                                                                                signals are distorted. In order to compensate for this
                                                                                                                                distortion, linearization techniques must be applied
  Barry Thaler, Ph.D. • bthaler@aciusa.org
          EMPF Technical Director                              many of these antennas into fewer antennas by using              to minimize spectral re-growth or intermediation
         Empfasis Technical Editor                             modern wide-band antennas and power amplifiers                   products created by the non-linearity of wide-band
       Paul Bratt • pbratt@aciusa.org                          for multiple transmitters. This can be extremely                 amplifiers. A method called digital pre-distortion is
               Empfasis Editor                                 helpful since in many locations, the deck of a vessel            used to distort the signal prior to the input of the
                                                               for instance, the real estate is so limited that it is not       power amplifier. The signal is distorted such that
                    In this Issue                              possible to mount every antenna that is required for             the composite output of the power amplifier appears
 Antenna Combining........................................1    each possible frequency range and application.                   to have linear amplification over the desired
 Ask the EMPF Helpline!................................2       Through the use of wide-band antennas and power                  frequency range, without distortion. Figure 1-1
                                                               amplifiers (PA), the power, weight, and the amount               shows the digital pre-distortion method which is
 Fourier Transform
 Infrared Spectroscopy.....................................3   of real estate consumed by both antennas and                     used to linearize power amplifiers over very broad
                                                               electronics can be significantly reduced. This would             bandwidths. Figure 1-2 shows an example of the
 Tech Tips: Selective Soldering.......................4
                                                               allow smaller vessels to have the same capability as             effects of power amplifier nonlinearities on a
 Manufacturer’s Corner: Hybond....................5            larger vessels and increase their tactical advantage.            transmitted spectrum and the potential spectral
 IPC-7711B/7721B Modular Training............6                                                                                  benefits of applying digital pre-distortion.
                                                               In order to maximize the efficiency, modern wide-
 Training Center Course Schedule ................10            band power amplifiers must operate in a non-linear               The effectiveness of digital adaptive pre-distortion
                                                               region. However, this creates large variations in the            is that it enables high power amplifier linearization
                                                               instantaneous output power, a condition described                of spectrum to combine multiple transmitters


            ACI Technologies, Inc.
     One International Plaza, Suite 600
          Philadelphia, PA 19113
   610.362.1200 • fax: 610.362.1290
          Helpline: 610.362.1320
   web: www.empf.org • www.aciusa.org




         Industrial Advisory Board
      Gerald R. Aschoff, The Boeing Company
          Jane Krueger, Rockwell Collins
  Richard Kidwell, ITT Industries, Avionics Division
             Gary Kirchner, Honeywell
             Dennis M. Kox, Raytheon
         Gregory X. Krieger, BAE Systems
        Edward A. Morris, Lockheed Martin
       Andrew Paradise, Northrop Grumman                              Figure 1-1: Linearization of a PA using digital pre-distortion (DPD). Courtesy of Northrop Grumman Corporation.
                                                                                                                                                                           continued on page 7



                                                                                                 1
                                                                                          JUNE 2010
                                                     Ask the EMPF Helpline!
                                                   EMS Provider Qualification for DSP Product Line


    An original equipment manufacturer (OEM) called the EMPF Helpline, asking for assistance with electronics manufacturing services (EMS)
                provider qualification for their advanced digital signal processing (DSP) product line for critical DoD applications.


I  ncreasingly, OEMs are recognizing the benefits of concentrating their
   in-house skills and resources on product design and marketing, while
simultaneously subcontracting their manufacturing requirements. The
reasons are varied, ranging from the massive capital expenditure
required to process the latest electronics packaging technologies, to the
rising tide of issues surrounding RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous
Substances directive) and REACH (Registration, Evaluation,
Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) legislation.
However, OEM purchasing departments know that choosing the right
manufacturing partner is potentially the single most important sourcing
decision the company will make. With OEMs increasingly relying on
manufacturing partners for their future production capacity, it is vital for
customers to be able to differentiate between suppliers.
This OEM recognized the importance of having the right skills available
to qualify their EMS provider. They requested that the EMPF provide
the technical auditors that would team with their quality personnel to
survey and audit the targeted EMS providers.
The customer needed experts in IPC-A-610 Class 3 (Acceptability
                                                                                       Table 2-1: Pb-free electronics risk factors which must be addressed in the life cycle.
of Electronic Assemblies), mechanical design and manufacturing,
component derating, thermal analysis, functional and performance
testing, and environmental testing. They did not expect that any one                 life. The primary product reliability risks related to Pb-free electronics are
vendor would be able to provide all the manufacturing functions, so                  the premature failure of the solder joint interface and functional failures
specialty vendors were targeted to be surveyed. Additionally, the                    caused by tin whiskers. Both reliability risks are addressed in detail in
customer preferred vendors located in their region.                                  this document. Product sustainment includes those risks which impact
                                                                                     the projected lifetime of the product to include its availability and total
Approach                                                                             ownership costs. These general risks may be further subdivided into the
The EMPF has extensive expertise in high reliability electronics                     risk factors shown in Table 2-1.
manufacturing. We conduct training and certification on all levels of IPC            The structure of the site surveys were organized by function. The
standards. Additionally, the EMPF has been involved in the development               functional categories were Lead Free Control Plan, component derating,
of risk mitigation and training of lead free electronics manufacturing for           thermal analysis, board manufacture, board assembly, functional testing,
a number of years.                                                                   environmental testing, and final performance testing. The EMPF
The EMPF recommended that an additional area to audit should be                      coordinated with the customer’s Quality Auditor to prioritize and
included: the EMS provider’s Lead Free Control Plan in accordance                    schedule the site surveys. Results and recommendations were provided
with GEIA-STD-00005-1 requirements. Among the many concerns                          at the conclusion of the surveys. The EMPF utilized a grading system
relative to electronic assembly, is the mixing of RoHS-compliant and                 based on predetermined criteria so that the team was not comparing
non-RoHS compliant components on the same printed wiring assemblies                  vendors to vendors, but vendors to an established standard.
due to the availability of components. Such mixing is becoming a practical           Result
necessity for many high reliability electronic assemblies used in military
and aerospace. Formerly, these critical assemblies were assembled                    The customer was pleased to find that there was an EMS provider in their
exclusively using the familiar tin-lead solders, component finishes, and             region that met all of their criteria. When they received their contract
board finishes. However, as the majority of commercial electronic                    they were able to engage their qualified supplier with confidence.
applications switch to the European-mandated lead-free requirements                  Contact the EMPF Helpline at 610.362.1320 for more information.
(RoHS-compliant), mixed SnPb/Pb-free components are inevitable.
The major risks confronting products which introduce Pb-free electronics
into their bills of material may be divided into two categories: product
reliability and product sustainment. Product reliability encompasses                                     Michael Barger     |   Senior Materials Engineer
those risks which impact the reliability of the product required to operate
as desired in a defined environmental applications for its contractual service


                                                                                 2
                                                                          JUNE 2010
                                   Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy


F    ourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)
     spectroscopy exists as one of the most
powerful techniques for chemical identification
                                                      polymers, coatings, adhesives, semiconductor
                                                      materials, and minerals. More significantly,
                                                      each of these materials can be investigated, in
                                                                                                                    boards can be accomplished by means of a
                                                                                                                    solvent extraction procedure (as defined in
                                                                                                                    IPC-TM-650, Test Method 2.3.38). In this
and the most practical for “first step” analysis.     many cases, without destructive analysis. A                   method, the sample is extracted from the
Analytical instrumentation such as GC-MS and          variety of sampling methodologies exist to                    board using acetonitrile and collected on the
LC-MS are commonly used for identifying               allow sample materials to be analyzed “as is,”                slide. After solvent evaporation the sample
organic compounds. However, these techniques          whether it is a solid, liquid, or gas.                        residue is ready for analysis (Figure 3-2).
are costly and often require extensive set up time,
                                                      The majority of analysis are accomplished                     Minimal sample preparation time allows for
method development, and sample alteration.
                                                      simply by placing the sample directly on the                  “real time” results to be achieved within a
Reliance upon FTIR as a robust and versatile
                                                      attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystal                    matter of minutes. The speed of obtaining
tool can be based on its attributes of simplicity,
                                                      (Figure 3-1).                                                 FTIR spectra is supplemented by the “Fellgett
speed, sensitivity, and affordability.
                                                                                                                    or multiplex advantage.” By simultaneously
                                                      Fluid samples require a small drop of liquid
An infrared spectrum represents a “fingerprint”                                                                     measuring all the frequencies of the sample,
                                                      on the ATR lens while only a single fiber
of a sample, with absorption peaks corresponding                                                                    the analysis is accomplished in seconds. This
                                                      or particle can be adequate for a material
to the frequencies of bond vibrations. Since                                                                        also increases sensitivity by decreasing
                                                      identification. Sample spot size allows for a
different materials have specific arrangements                                                                      detection limits through signal to noise ratio
                                                      minimum area of analysis in the range from
of atoms, the FTIR spectrum of a material is                                                                        enhancement.
                                                      microns to millimeters. Certain samples may
unique. These distinctive traits allows for a
                                                      require preparation using salt plates, mineral                A search of the sample spectra (Figure 3-3)
diverse range of material identifications for
                                                      oil (Nujol), potassium bromide (KBr) pellets,                 against a library of known compounds is
nearly all organic compounds, as well as
                                                      films, and gas or liquid cells. In some instances             essential for spectral interpretation. External
many inorganics.
                                                      the sample is generated as a result of an                     commercial spectral databases containing
FTIR spectroscopy occupies an essential               extraction procedure. For example, identifying                thousands of compounds (Figure 3-4) are
role in material evaluations, cleanliness             the existence of residues on printed wiring                   currently available through the internet and the
verifications, and quality control screening. It
also is a fundamental step in some failure
analysis and allows for the classification of
unidentified residues and materials to assist in
resolving a root cause. A key advantage of
FTIR is its ability to characterize an extensive
range of organic chemistries, certain inorganics,




    Figure 3-1: Image of residue on an ATR crystal                Figure 3-2: Image of residue on slide obtained after extraction of residue from a bare board.
          of a bench top FTIR spectrometer.
                                                                                                                                                           continued on page 9




                                                                              3
                                                                       JUNE 2010
                                                 Tech Tips: Selective Soldering


S   elective soldering machines fill the critical performance gap
     between wave soldering and hand soldering operations. Wave
soldering is suitable for medium to large runs when all components are
                                                                                                 There are two general configurations for these machines, either the circuit
                                                                                                 board is fixed and the mini-solder wave is moved under the circuit
                                                                                                 board, or the mini-solder wave is fixed, and the circuit board is moved
through-hole or surface mount while hand soldering is suitable for low                           from above. This article concentrates on a fixed solder pot and movable
volume production and difficult to access parts. Process time for a wave                         circuit board which allows rotation through 90 degrees to access the
soldered board is usually a few minutes while the time to process a hand                         difficult parts (Figure 4-2).
soldered board depends on the number of individual connections
                                                                                                 Selective soldering machines have three major elements, a precise nozzle
to be soldered. Hand soldering is often the greatest bottleneck in a
                                                                                                 wave of molten solder with a nitrogen shroud, a fixture to hold and move
production line.
                                                                                                 the circuit board, and the software to control the entire process. The nozzle
By comparison, selective soldering machines process each solder joint                            wave is the heart of the process. Successful soldering always requires
individually, but the process is automated and at least three times faster                       clean and oxide free surfaces. First, flux is sprayed onto the component
than hand soldering. They can be precisely programmed to solder specific                         before lowering into nozzle wave. Flux activation and oxide removal is
connections and provide excellent solder joint quality (Figure 4-1).                             accomplished using a high temperature nitrogen gas enveloped around
Selective solder equipment is a sound choice when some components                                the nozzle wave (Figure 4-3). The temperature of this nitrogen atmosphere
cannot be exposed to the heat of molten solder in a wave solder machine.                         is under tight control and is hotter then the nozzle solder wave. This




Figure 4-1: The above image shows dual solder wave in action.

                                           Figure 4-2: At right is selective solder equipment with rotating table.



In recent years, surface mount components have largely replaced                                  heats the components, activates the flux, and prevents the parts from
through-hole as the components of choice and the reflow oven has                                 reoxidizing. All selective soldering machines use nitrogen.
largely replaced the wave solder machine. However, not all required
                                                                                                 After fluxing, the board is lowered into solder wave for a specific dwell
components in a design are available in surface mount format. Designers
                                                                                                 time and then raised, resulting in a perfect solder connection. With precise
can be forced to mix through-hole components in a surface mount
                                                                                                 computer control of the solder wave height, temperature, and board
design. There is always a switch, a connector, or some device that may
                                                                                                 angle, the key technical and process requirements are achieved to solder
only be available only as a through-hole component. When mixed
                                                                                                 the most difficult components reliably and repeatedly.
technology or physical barriers prevents access to components, the only
                                                                                                                                                              continued on page 8
option may be hand soldering or the higher performance of a selective
soldering machine.


                                                                                           4
                                                                                   JUNE 2010
                                         Manufacturer’s Corner: Hybond


A   s the needs and demands of a very complex industry increase, so
       does the offerings found in the EMPF. To meet these challenges,
the EMPF’s power packaging lab develops manufacturing capabilities
                                                                                    The 626 can be used for wire diameters from 0.7 to 2.0 mil gold wire
                                                                                    when in ball bonder configuration or 0.5 to 3.0 mil and ribbon up to
                                                                                    1.0 x 12.0 mil (25 x 300 µm) when in wedge or peg bonding mode.
in assembly technology that can exploit the advantages of advanced                  It was specifically designed for applications that require bonding at
materials. The lab contains equipment which enables flip chip assembly,             extreme height differences between first and second bond and for
hybrid bonding, wire bonding, and hermetic packaging of electronics                 bonding wires to sensitive devices such as gallium arsenide field-effect
devices, and surface mount chips and components.                                    transistors (FETs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The motorized wire
                                                                                    feed and wire/ribbon clamping system provide superior control and
The model 626 by Hybond is a deep access, long reach, manual wire
                                                                                    allow the operator to increase or decrease tail length in 1 mil increments
bonder that can operate as a wedge bonder (wedge-wedge), ball bonder
                                                                                    at a touch of a switch.
(ball-wedge), peg bonder (for tacking down pre-aligned leads, ribbons
and bare or insulated wires), and a bump bonder (gold stud bumping)                 The 626 shows actual units for the set up of bond parameters. Change
without having to remove or replace any electrical or mechanical                    over from ball bonder to wedge bonder requires only a press of a button
machine component. Conversion time from ball bonder to wedge bonder                 to turn EFO power to zero and to change from capillary to wedge tool.
or back is the same as the time spent replacing a used tool.                        The 626 can also operate in bump or peg bonding modes.




                                               Figure 5-1: Model 626 Multipurpose Digital Thermosonic Wire Bonder

With servomotor control, touch sensor, and linear vertical movement,                The wire bonder is not only portable, but versatile. As a manual wire
the 626 bond head can move and bond within a 0.750" vertical range                  bonder, it more than proves its value on each application. For more
without the need to readjust the work stage or bonder platform height. It           information related to this article or to see a demonstration of the model
also has memory for storage up to 75 different schedules (or “recipes”)             626 bonder by Hybond, please contact Ken Friedman at 610.362.1200
and independent first and second bond digital parameter settings.                   extension 279 or via email at kfriedman@aciusa.org.




                                                                                                       Ken Friedman   |   EAB Coordinator




                                                                               5
                                                                       JUNE 2010
                                       IPC-7711B/7721B Modular Training


G     iven the current climate of affordability,
       it has never been more important to get
the most for your money. In electronics
                                                                                                                   Module Seven. PWB Circuit Repair contains
                                                                                                                   criteria and procedural requirements, for the
                                                                                                                   repair of damaged land/pads or foil runs
manufacturing the most cost effective way to                                                                       (i.e. conductive traces), as well as for the
utilize resources is to invest in the proper                                                                       installation of jumper wires.
training of personnel; but how do you match
an adequate amount of training to the task                                                                         Module Eight. Laminate Repair contains
being performed? Training personnel to the                                                                         criteria and procedural requirements for the
IPC-7711B/7721B provides two levels of cost                                                                        repair of burnt or damaged board material.
effectiveness and affordability. First, the ability                                                                Module Nine. Conformal Coating contains
to rework or repair an assembly will eliminate                                                                     criteria and procedural requirements for the
the costly practice of scrapping every piece                                                                       removal and reinstallation of conformal coating.
that does not comply with quality standards.                                                                       Also discussed are guidelines for identifying
Second, the IPC-7711B/7721B, CIS (Certified                                                                        an unknown sample by comparing its physical
IPC Applications Specialist) level class is                                                                        characteristics to the physical characteristics
currently taught in modules that allow the                                                                         of the five basic types of conformal coatings.
selection of only those topics relevant to a
specific job.                                                                                                      The benefit of the modular approach is obvious!
                                                                                                                   Amanufacturer can tailor a custom made course
The CIS is defined under the IPC policy and                                                                        to suit the specific needs of their processes
procedures1 as a manager, supervisor, inspector/                                                                   without the added expense of having to train
quality program administrator, operator or                                                                         personnel to criteria that is not relevant to the
any other individual that needs a consistent                                                                       task at hand. The EMPF Learning Center is
understanding of the criteria contained within                                                                     proud to offer on-site training of the modular
the standard. Module one of IPC-7711B/7721B                                                                        CIS level IPC-7711B/7721B course which
includes an overview of IPC policies and                                                                           can be custom fit to specific manufacturing
procedures and teaches the student common                                                                          requirements.
practices that are to be utilized in any rework or      Figure 6-1: This course is ideal for individuals who
repair operation. It is a mandatory module that is       possess strong reasoning capabilities and above           This course is ideal for individuals who
required before training to any optional modules                     average soldering skills.                     possess strong reasoning capabilities and
which are much more specific in nature.                                                                            above average soldering skills (Figure 6-1).
                                                                                                                   An IPC certification is valid for two years is
The following is an overview of the remaining         Module Five. Gull Wing Lead contains                         earned upon successful completion of the
eight optional modules.                               criteria and procedural requirements for the                 course, with endorsement blocks indicating
                                                      removal and reinstallation of surface mount                  the specific modules completed. Additional
Module Two. Wire Splicing contains criteria
                                                      gull wing leaded components [including small                 optional modules can be added at a later date to
and procedural requirements for utilizing the
                                                      outline transistors (SOTs), small outline                    facilitate training around a hectic production
four most common types of wire splices.
                                                      integrated circuits (SOICs), and quad flat                   schedule. Please contact the Registrar by
Module Three. Through-Hole contains                   packs (QFPs)].                                               phone at 610.362.1295 or via email at
criteria and procedural recommendations
                                                      Module Six. J-Lead contains criteria and                     registrar@empf.org for more details.
for the removal and reinstallation of through-
                                                      procedural requirements for the removal and
hole components.                                                                                                   1
                                                                                                                       IPC Professional Training and Certification Program
                                                      reinstallation of PLCC (plastic leaded chip                      Policies and Procedures. V1.2. Clause 2.0.2. Bannockburn:
Module Four. Chip and MELF contains                   carrier) components (commonly called J-leads).                   IPC Association Connecting Electronic Industries, 2007.
criteria and procedural requirements for
the removal and reinstallation of surface
mounted chip and MELF (metal electrode
face) components.
                                                                                                           Ross Dillman    | Technician/Instructor




                                                                                 6
                                                                         JUNE 2010
                                                             Antenna Combining
                                                                       (continued from page 1)



across entire VHF and UHF ranges. Harmonic or intermediation products                      utilizing the same frequencies, and have ample channel separation. Since
are reduced by more than 15dBm. Additionally, cancellation improves                        the pre-distorter is implemented in reconfigurable hardware FPGA,
receiver dynamic range.                                                                    modifications to the pre-distorter are possible even after the system has
                                                                                           been produced.
In the proposed antenna combining, this pre-distortion is performed by
digital signal processing techniques utilizing open architectures which
enable reduced cost and increased flexibility of the system. System level                    1-2b
control, switch control for communication equipment selection, oscillator
control, and antenna selection, is supplied by a standard single board
computer utilizing a Versa Module European (VME) bus based chassis.
Also, populated in this VME chassis is a software defined radio (SDR)
board, a wideband transceiver board consisting of field-programmable
gate arrays (FPGAs), analog to digital converter (ADC), and digital to
analog converter (DAC). The digital signal processing for the pre-distorter
is performed by FPGAs utilizing a down converted and sampled signal.
The signal is mixed down to an intermediate frequency for sampling by
an analog to digital converter for input to the FPGA for filtering. Then the
filtered digital data is sent to a digital to analog converter which is then
mixed back up to the carrier frequency for input to the power amplifier.
Thus an undistorted signal is output to the antenna for improved signal
integrity. If the bandwidth of the pre-distorter is large enough, then
multiple communication systems within the same frequency range can be
combined to utilize the same amplifier and antenna set. Some precautions
need to be taken to ensure that the communication systems are not

 1-2a                                                                                        1-2c




                   Figure 1-2a-c: Example showing spectrum of PA outputs, before and after digital pre-distortion. Courtesy of Northrop Grumman Corporation.
                                                                                                                                                               continued on page 8




         Contact the EMPF Helpline!                                                          phone    610.362.1320          |   e-mail   helpline@empf.org


                                                                                      7
                                                                               JUNE 2010
                                                             Antenna Combining
                                                                   (continued from page 7)



Benefits                                                                          The EMPF engineering staff is able to leverage this experience of
                                                                                  developing antenna combining and software defined radio solutions for
Antenna combining utilizing digital linearization techniques, digital pre-
                                                                                  many of today’s radio applications from military communications to
distortion (DPD), offers many benefits for multicarrier RF applications.
                                                                                  embedded control software for commercial products. For additional
 • Less real estate required for mounting multiple antennas                       information regarding these engineering services, please contact Lead
 • Reduced interference between antennas                                          Engineer John Doyle at 610.362.1200, extension 210.
 • Reduced size and weight
 • Fewer communications electronics, low power consumption,
   and low cost
 • High efficiency and high reliability                                                           Yinhao Wu   |   Senior Design Engineer
 • Improved functionality of the communication systems




                                               Tech Tips: Selective Soldering
                                                                   (continued from page 4)



                                                                                  Selective soldering is a mature and effective technology for mixed
                                                                                  technology components, heat sensitive components, and low to medium
                                                                                  production. For more information regarding selective soldering or any of
                                                                                  the other electronics manufacturing services available at the EMPF,
                                                                                  please contact the Helpline at 610.362.1320.




                                                                                                  Mike Prestoy    |   Senior Applications Engineer



                 Figure 4-3: Solder wave with Nitrogen envelope.




                                                              Upcoming Courses
                              IPC J-STD-001                                                                 IPC A-610
            Certification: June 7-11    |   Recertification: July 14-15
                                                                                        Certification: June 14-17     |   Recertification: July 12-13
     This course provides an in-depth study and hands-on
                                                                                  Achieve the highest quality and most cost-effective productivity by
     application of the national standard for soldering as well as
                                                                                  knowing how to correctly apply the IPC A-610 acceptability criteria.
     all materials necessary to conduct operator training.

           CONTACT THE REGISTRAR via phone at 610.362.1295, email at registrar@empf.org or online at www.aciusa.org/courses




                                                                              8
                                                                          JUNE 2010
                                Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
                                                              (continued from page 3)



cost associated with utilizing local software        The EMPF offers a variety of analytical                    FTIR, and SEM/EDX capabilities are all on
spectral libraries can be mitigated with the use     instrumentation and techniques to aid in failure           hand to assist in resolving root cause. For
of “pay as you go” search methods.                   analysis, cleanliness determinations, and                  more information, please contact the EMPF
                                                     material characterization. Optical microscopy,             Helpline at 610.362.1320.
FTIR spectroscopy remains a cost-effective
analytical tool when compared to instruments
which yield similar results, such as mass
spectroscopy which is an order of magnitude
more expensive. Minimal maintenance is
required and the likelihood of instrument
downtime is reduced due to the mechanical
simplicity of the FTIR instrument. Furthermore,
FTIR spectrometers are self-calibrated by using
a HeNe laser as an internal wavelength standard.
Therefore, expenditures after the initial
purchase of the instrument can be limited to
mostly consumables.
In the realm of failure analysis, FTIR
spectroscopy is often used as an accompaniment
to Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy
(EDX). EDX analysis is employed primarily
for the identification of inorganic atomic
species on an elemental level. EDX
complements FTIR analysis by confirming
                                                                                 Figure 3-3: FTIR spectrum of residue from a bare board.
organic species, such as carbon, oxygen, silicon
and sulfur while also analyzing inorganic
species undetected by FTIR.
While FTIR is excellent analyzing molecular
species, it is deficient in detecting atomic
species. For example, homonuclear diatomic
species such as H2, Cl2, N2, and O2, have no
infrared absorption bands and provide no signal.
FTIR functions ideally with homogeneous
matrices, or those composed of only a small
number of constituents, such as pure compounds.
Complex mixtures are inclined to confound
library search functions due to the intricacy of
overlapping spectral fingerprints. However,
even when spectral patterns do not yield
adequate results, partial information can be
gained from the individual peaks.
FTIR spectroscopy persists as the most                                   Figure 3-4: FTIR spectra from residue of a bare board (red) with a known
established instrumental analysis method used                                        polyester resin (blue) found in the library search.
in laboratories today. Its versatility finds it
well established in all industries including
semiconductor, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology,
forensics, healthcare, and petroleum industries.
Its simplicity, in addition to its characteristics                                                   Ron Sauro    |   Chemist
of speed, accuracy, and affordability enable it to
be the cornerstone instrument of a laboratory.



                                                                            9
                                                                     JUNE 2010
ACI Technologies, Inc.




National Electronics Manufacturing Technology Center of Excellence


                    Electronics
                    Manufacturing                      IPC CIT Challenge Test                                         Skills
                                                                                        IPC A-610
                      Boot Camp A                         January 29                    CIT Certification                BGA Manufacturing,
                      March 1-5                           February 19                   January 4-7                      Inspection, Rework
                      May 3-7                             April 23                      February 8-11                    January 19-20
                      September 13-17                     June 18                       April 19-22                      April 5-6
                      November 1-5                        July 16                       June 14-17                       June 28-29
                                                          August 20                     August 16-19                     October 11-12
                      Boot Camp B
                                                          October 15                    October 11-14
                      March 8-12                                                                                         Chip Scale
                                                          November 19                   December 6-9
                      May 10-14                                                                                          Manufacturing
                                                          December 17
                      September 20-24                                                   IPC A-610                        February 16-18
                                                          Call for Additional
                      November 8-12                                                     CIT Recertification              May 26-28
                                                             Availabilities
                                                                                        January 11-12                    August 11-13
                                                                                        February 22-23                   December 13-15
                    CIS/Operator                       IPC Certifications               April 12-13
                                                       CIT/Instructor                   May 24-25
                      IPC J-STD-001                                                     July 12-13
                                                                                                                      Continuing Professional
                      Call for Availability                                             August 23-24
                                                                                                                      Advancement
                                                          IPC J-STD-001                                               in Electronics
                      IPC A-610                           CIT Certification             October 4-5
                                                                                        November 15-16
                                                                                                                      Manufacturing
                      Call for Availability               January 4-8
                                                          February 1-5                  December 13-14
                      IPC 7711/7721                                                                                      Design for
                                                          March 15-19                   IPC A-600
                      Call for Availability                                                                              Manufacturability
                                                          April 26-30                   CIT Certification                February 8-9
                      IPC/WHMA-A-620A                     June 7-11                     January 26-28                    May 24-25
                      CIS Certification                   July 19-23                    March 22-24                      August 9-10
                      February 16-18                      August 30 -                   June 21-23                       November 22-23
                      April 19-21                            September 3                September 7-9
                      June 28-30                          October 18-22                 November 29 -                    Failure Analysis and
                      September 27-29                     December 6-10                   December 1                     Reliability Testing
                      December 20-22                                                                                     March 15-17
                                                          IPC J-STD-001                 IPC 7711/7721                    May 17-19
                                                          CIT Recertification           CIT Certification                September 27-29
                    High Reliability                      January 13-14                 January 25-29                    November 15-17
                    Addendum                              February 24-25                March 22-26
                                                          April 14-15                   July 26-30                       Lead Free
                                                          May 26-27                     October 25-29                    Manufacturing
                      IPC J-STD-001 DS
                                                          July 14-15                                                     February 22-23
                      CIT Certification                                                 IPC 7711/7721
                                                          August 25-26                                                   June 7-8
                      January 15                                                        CIT Recertification
                                                          October 6-7                                                    October 4-5
                      February 26                                                       March 8-9
                                                          November 17-18                                                 December 20-21
                      April 16                                                          May 17-18
                                                          December 15-16
                      May 28                                                            June 14-15
                      August 27                                                         September 13-14
                      October 8



                    Contact the Registrar for course information and pricing:           phone: 610.362.1295          email: registrar@empf.org
                    Electronics manufacturing assistance is available
                                                     via the EMPF Helpline:             phone: 610.362.1320          email: helpline@empf.org
                    Custom courses and on-site training are available. ACI is conveniently located next to the Philadelphia International Airport.

                    All courses and dates subject to change without notice.                                                                LD0010

				
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