A publication of the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence June 2010
ISO 9001:2008 Certified
Michael D. Frederickson,
EMPF Director I n multiple channel applications of the next
generation communication systems, it is often
desirable to develop an antenna system to combine
as high peak-to-average ratio (PAR). As a result,
signals are distorted. In order to compensate for this
distortion, linearization techniques must be applied
Barry Thaler, Ph.D. • email@example.com
EMPF Technical Director many of these antennas into fewer antennas by using to minimize spectral re-growth or intermediation
Empfasis Technical Editor modern wide-band antennas and power amplifiers products created by the non-linearity of wide-band
Paul Bratt • firstname.lastname@example.org for multiple transmitters. This can be extremely amplifiers. A method called digital pre-distortion is
Empfasis Editor helpful since in many locations, the deck of a vessel used to distort the signal prior to the input of the
for instance, the real estate is so limited that it is not power amplifier. The signal is distorted such that
In this Issue possible to mount every antenna that is required for the composite output of the power amplifier appears
Antenna Combining........................................1 each possible frequency range and application. to have linear amplification over the desired
Ask the EMPF Helpline!................................2 Through the use of wide-band antennas and power frequency range, without distortion. Figure 1-1
amplifiers (PA), the power, weight, and the amount shows the digital pre-distortion method which is
Infrared Spectroscopy.....................................3 of real estate consumed by both antennas and used to linearize power amplifiers over very broad
electronics can be significantly reduced. This would bandwidths. Figure 1-2 shows an example of the
Tech Tips: Selective Soldering.......................4
allow smaller vessels to have the same capability as effects of power amplifier nonlinearities on a
Manufacturer’s Corner: Hybond....................5 larger vessels and increase their tactical advantage. transmitted spectrum and the potential spectral
IPC-7711B/7721B Modular Training............6 benefits of applying digital pre-distortion.
In order to maximize the efficiency, modern wide-
Training Center Course Schedule ................10 band power amplifiers must operate in a non-linear The effectiveness of digital adaptive pre-distortion
region. However, this creates large variations in the is that it enables high power amplifier linearization
instantaneous output power, a condition described of spectrum to combine multiple transmitters
ACI Technologies, Inc.
One International Plaza, Suite 600
Philadelphia, PA 19113
610.362.1200 • fax: 610.362.1290
web: www.empf.org • www.aciusa.org
Industrial Advisory Board
Gerald R. Aschoff, The Boeing Company
Jane Krueger, Rockwell Collins
Richard Kidwell, ITT Industries, Avionics Division
Gary Kirchner, Honeywell
Dennis M. Kox, Raytheon
Gregory X. Krieger, BAE Systems
Edward A. Morris, Lockheed Martin
Andrew Paradise, Northrop Grumman Figure 1-1: Linearization of a PA using digital pre-distortion (DPD). Courtesy of Northrop Grumman Corporation.
continued on page 7
Ask the EMPF Helpline!
EMS Provider Qualification for DSP Product Line
An original equipment manufacturer (OEM) called the EMPF Helpline, asking for assistance with electronics manufacturing services (EMS)
provider qualification for their advanced digital signal processing (DSP) product line for critical DoD applications.
I ncreasingly, OEMs are recognizing the benefits of concentrating their
in-house skills and resources on product design and marketing, while
simultaneously subcontracting their manufacturing requirements. The
reasons are varied, ranging from the massive capital expenditure
required to process the latest electronics packaging technologies, to the
rising tide of issues surrounding RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous
Substances directive) and REACH (Registration, Evaluation,
Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) legislation.
However, OEM purchasing departments know that choosing the right
manufacturing partner is potentially the single most important sourcing
decision the company will make. With OEMs increasingly relying on
manufacturing partners for their future production capacity, it is vital for
customers to be able to differentiate between suppliers.
This OEM recognized the importance of having the right skills available
to qualify their EMS provider. They requested that the EMPF provide
the technical auditors that would team with their quality personnel to
survey and audit the targeted EMS providers.
The customer needed experts in IPC-A-610 Class 3 (Acceptability
Table 2-1: Pb-free electronics risk factors which must be addressed in the life cycle.
of Electronic Assemblies), mechanical design and manufacturing,
component derating, thermal analysis, functional and performance
testing, and environmental testing. They did not expect that any one life. The primary product reliability risks related to Pb-free electronics are
vendor would be able to provide all the manufacturing functions, so the premature failure of the solder joint interface and functional failures
specialty vendors were targeted to be surveyed. Additionally, the caused by tin whiskers. Both reliability risks are addressed in detail in
customer preferred vendors located in their region. this document. Product sustainment includes those risks which impact
the projected lifetime of the product to include its availability and total
Approach ownership costs. These general risks may be further subdivided into the
The EMPF has extensive expertise in high reliability electronics risk factors shown in Table 2-1.
manufacturing. We conduct training and certification on all levels of IPC The structure of the site surveys were organized by function. The
standards. Additionally, the EMPF has been involved in the development functional categories were Lead Free Control Plan, component derating,
of risk mitigation and training of lead free electronics manufacturing for thermal analysis, board manufacture, board assembly, functional testing,
a number of years. environmental testing, and final performance testing. The EMPF
The EMPF recommended that an additional area to audit should be coordinated with the customer’s Quality Auditor to prioritize and
included: the EMS provider’s Lead Free Control Plan in accordance schedule the site surveys. Results and recommendations were provided
with GEIA-STD-00005-1 requirements. Among the many concerns at the conclusion of the surveys. The EMPF utilized a grading system
relative to electronic assembly, is the mixing of RoHS-compliant and based on predetermined criteria so that the team was not comparing
non-RoHS compliant components on the same printed wiring assemblies vendors to vendors, but vendors to an established standard.
due to the availability of components. Such mixing is becoming a practical Result
necessity for many high reliability electronic assemblies used in military
and aerospace. Formerly, these critical assemblies were assembled The customer was pleased to find that there was an EMS provider in their
exclusively using the familiar tin-lead solders, component finishes, and region that met all of their criteria. When they received their contract
board finishes. However, as the majority of commercial electronic they were able to engage their qualified supplier with confidence.
applications switch to the European-mandated lead-free requirements Contact the EMPF Helpline at 610.362.1320 for more information.
(RoHS-compliant), mixed SnPb/Pb-free components are inevitable.
The major risks confronting products which introduce Pb-free electronics
into their bills of material may be divided into two categories: product
reliability and product sustainment. Product reliability encompasses Michael Barger | Senior Materials Engineer
those risks which impact the reliability of the product required to operate
as desired in a defined environmental applications for its contractual service
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
F ourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)
spectroscopy exists as one of the most
powerful techniques for chemical identification
polymers, coatings, adhesives, semiconductor
materials, and minerals. More significantly,
each of these materials can be investigated, in
boards can be accomplished by means of a
solvent extraction procedure (as defined in
IPC-TM-650, Test Method 2.3.38). In this
and the most practical for “first step” analysis. many cases, without destructive analysis. A method, the sample is extracted from the
Analytical instrumentation such as GC-MS and variety of sampling methodologies exist to board using acetonitrile and collected on the
LC-MS are commonly used for identifying allow sample materials to be analyzed “as is,” slide. After solvent evaporation the sample
organic compounds. However, these techniques whether it is a solid, liquid, or gas. residue is ready for analysis (Figure 3-2).
are costly and often require extensive set up time,
The majority of analysis are accomplished Minimal sample preparation time allows for
method development, and sample alteration.
simply by placing the sample directly on the “real time” results to be achieved within a
Reliance upon FTIR as a robust and versatile
attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystal matter of minutes. The speed of obtaining
tool can be based on its attributes of simplicity,
(Figure 3-1). FTIR spectra is supplemented by the “Fellgett
speed, sensitivity, and affordability.
or multiplex advantage.” By simultaneously
Fluid samples require a small drop of liquid
An infrared spectrum represents a “fingerprint” measuring all the frequencies of the sample,
on the ATR lens while only a single fiber
of a sample, with absorption peaks corresponding the analysis is accomplished in seconds. This
or particle can be adequate for a material
to the frequencies of bond vibrations. Since also increases sensitivity by decreasing
identification. Sample spot size allows for a
different materials have specific arrangements detection limits through signal to noise ratio
minimum area of analysis in the range from
of atoms, the FTIR spectrum of a material is enhancement.
microns to millimeters. Certain samples may
unique. These distinctive traits allows for a
require preparation using salt plates, mineral A search of the sample spectra (Figure 3-3)
diverse range of material identifications for
oil (Nujol), potassium bromide (KBr) pellets, against a library of known compounds is
nearly all organic compounds, as well as
films, and gas or liquid cells. In some instances essential for spectral interpretation. External
the sample is generated as a result of an commercial spectral databases containing
FTIR spectroscopy occupies an essential extraction procedure. For example, identifying thousands of compounds (Figure 3-4) are
role in material evaluations, cleanliness the existence of residues on printed wiring currently available through the internet and the
verifications, and quality control screening. It
also is a fundamental step in some failure
analysis and allows for the classification of
unidentified residues and materials to assist in
resolving a root cause. A key advantage of
FTIR is its ability to characterize an extensive
range of organic chemistries, certain inorganics,
Figure 3-1: Image of residue on an ATR crystal Figure 3-2: Image of residue on slide obtained after extraction of residue from a bare board.
of a bench top FTIR spectrometer.
continued on page 9
Tech Tips: Selective Soldering
S elective soldering machines fill the critical performance gap
between wave soldering and hand soldering operations. Wave
soldering is suitable for medium to large runs when all components are
There are two general configurations for these machines, either the circuit
board is fixed and the mini-solder wave is moved under the circuit
board, or the mini-solder wave is fixed, and the circuit board is moved
through-hole or surface mount while hand soldering is suitable for low from above. This article concentrates on a fixed solder pot and movable
volume production and difficult to access parts. Process time for a wave circuit board which allows rotation through 90 degrees to access the
soldered board is usually a few minutes while the time to process a hand difficult parts (Figure 4-2).
soldered board depends on the number of individual connections
Selective soldering machines have three major elements, a precise nozzle
to be soldered. Hand soldering is often the greatest bottleneck in a
wave of molten solder with a nitrogen shroud, a fixture to hold and move
the circuit board, and the software to control the entire process. The nozzle
By comparison, selective soldering machines process each solder joint wave is the heart of the process. Successful soldering always requires
individually, but the process is automated and at least three times faster clean and oxide free surfaces. First, flux is sprayed onto the component
than hand soldering. They can be precisely programmed to solder specific before lowering into nozzle wave. Flux activation and oxide removal is
connections and provide excellent solder joint quality (Figure 4-1). accomplished using a high temperature nitrogen gas enveloped around
Selective solder equipment is a sound choice when some components the nozzle wave (Figure 4-3). The temperature of this nitrogen atmosphere
cannot be exposed to the heat of molten solder in a wave solder machine. is under tight control and is hotter then the nozzle solder wave. This
Figure 4-1: The above image shows dual solder wave in action.
Figure 4-2: At right is selective solder equipment with rotating table.
In recent years, surface mount components have largely replaced heats the components, activates the flux, and prevents the parts from
through-hole as the components of choice and the reflow oven has reoxidizing. All selective soldering machines use nitrogen.
largely replaced the wave solder machine. However, not all required
After fluxing, the board is lowered into solder wave for a specific dwell
components in a design are available in surface mount format. Designers
time and then raised, resulting in a perfect solder connection. With precise
can be forced to mix through-hole components in a surface mount
computer control of the solder wave height, temperature, and board
design. There is always a switch, a connector, or some device that may
angle, the key technical and process requirements are achieved to solder
only be available only as a through-hole component. When mixed
the most difficult components reliably and repeatedly.
technology or physical barriers prevents access to components, the only
continued on page 8
option may be hand soldering or the higher performance of a selective
Manufacturer’s Corner: Hybond
A s the needs and demands of a very complex industry increase, so
does the offerings found in the EMPF. To meet these challenges,
the EMPF’s power packaging lab develops manufacturing capabilities
The 626 can be used for wire diameters from 0.7 to 2.0 mil gold wire
when in ball bonder configuration or 0.5 to 3.0 mil and ribbon up to
1.0 x 12.0 mil (25 x 300 µm) when in wedge or peg bonding mode.
in assembly technology that can exploit the advantages of advanced It was specifically designed for applications that require bonding at
materials. The lab contains equipment which enables flip chip assembly, extreme height differences between first and second bond and for
hybrid bonding, wire bonding, and hermetic packaging of electronics bonding wires to sensitive devices such as gallium arsenide field-effect
devices, and surface mount chips and components. transistors (FETs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The motorized wire
feed and wire/ribbon clamping system provide superior control and
The model 626 by Hybond is a deep access, long reach, manual wire
allow the operator to increase or decrease tail length in 1 mil increments
bonder that can operate as a wedge bonder (wedge-wedge), ball bonder
at a touch of a switch.
(ball-wedge), peg bonder (for tacking down pre-aligned leads, ribbons
and bare or insulated wires), and a bump bonder (gold stud bumping) The 626 shows actual units for the set up of bond parameters. Change
without having to remove or replace any electrical or mechanical over from ball bonder to wedge bonder requires only a press of a button
machine component. Conversion time from ball bonder to wedge bonder to turn EFO power to zero and to change from capillary to wedge tool.
or back is the same as the time spent replacing a used tool. The 626 can also operate in bump or peg bonding modes.
Figure 5-1: Model 626 Multipurpose Digital Thermosonic Wire Bonder
With servomotor control, touch sensor, and linear vertical movement, The wire bonder is not only portable, but versatile. As a manual wire
the 626 bond head can move and bond within a 0.750" vertical range bonder, it more than proves its value on each application. For more
without the need to readjust the work stage or bonder platform height. It information related to this article or to see a demonstration of the model
also has memory for storage up to 75 different schedules (or “recipes”) 626 bonder by Hybond, please contact Ken Friedman at 610.362.1200
and independent first and second bond digital parameter settings. extension 279 or via email at email@example.com.
Ken Friedman | EAB Coordinator
IPC-7711B/7721B Modular Training
G iven the current climate of affordability,
it has never been more important to get
the most for your money. In electronics
Module Seven. PWB Circuit Repair contains
criteria and procedural requirements, for the
repair of damaged land/pads or foil runs
manufacturing the most cost effective way to (i.e. conductive traces), as well as for the
utilize resources is to invest in the proper installation of jumper wires.
training of personnel; but how do you match
an adequate amount of training to the task Module Eight. Laminate Repair contains
being performed? Training personnel to the criteria and procedural requirements for the
IPC-7711B/7721B provides two levels of cost repair of burnt or damaged board material.
effectiveness and affordability. First, the ability Module Nine. Conformal Coating contains
to rework or repair an assembly will eliminate criteria and procedural requirements for the
the costly practice of scrapping every piece removal and reinstallation of conformal coating.
that does not comply with quality standards. Also discussed are guidelines for identifying
Second, the IPC-7711B/7721B, CIS (Certified an unknown sample by comparing its physical
IPC Applications Specialist) level class is characteristics to the physical characteristics
currently taught in modules that allow the of the five basic types of conformal coatings.
selection of only those topics relevant to a
specific job. The benefit of the modular approach is obvious!
Amanufacturer can tailor a custom made course
The CIS is defined under the IPC policy and to suit the specific needs of their processes
procedures1 as a manager, supervisor, inspector/ without the added expense of having to train
quality program administrator, operator or personnel to criteria that is not relevant to the
any other individual that needs a consistent task at hand. The EMPF Learning Center is
understanding of the criteria contained within proud to offer on-site training of the modular
the standard. Module one of IPC-7711B/7721B CIS level IPC-7711B/7721B course which
includes an overview of IPC policies and can be custom fit to specific manufacturing
procedures and teaches the student common requirements.
practices that are to be utilized in any rework or Figure 6-1: This course is ideal for individuals who
repair operation. It is a mandatory module that is possess strong reasoning capabilities and above This course is ideal for individuals who
required before training to any optional modules average soldering skills. possess strong reasoning capabilities and
which are much more specific in nature. above average soldering skills (Figure 6-1).
An IPC certification is valid for two years is
The following is an overview of the remaining Module Five. Gull Wing Lead contains earned upon successful completion of the
eight optional modules. criteria and procedural requirements for the course, with endorsement blocks indicating
removal and reinstallation of surface mount the specific modules completed. Additional
Module Two. Wire Splicing contains criteria
gull wing leaded components [including small optional modules can be added at a later date to
and procedural requirements for utilizing the
outline transistors (SOTs), small outline facilitate training around a hectic production
four most common types of wire splices.
integrated circuits (SOICs), and quad flat schedule. Please contact the Registrar by
Module Three. Through-Hole contains packs (QFPs)]. phone at 610.362.1295 or via email at
criteria and procedural recommendations
Module Six. J-Lead contains criteria and firstname.lastname@example.org for more details.
for the removal and reinstallation of through-
procedural requirements for the removal and
hole components. 1
IPC Professional Training and Certification Program
reinstallation of PLCC (plastic leaded chip Policies and Procedures. V1.2. Clause 2.0.2. Bannockburn:
Module Four. Chip and MELF contains carrier) components (commonly called J-leads). IPC Association Connecting Electronic Industries, 2007.
criteria and procedural requirements for
the removal and reinstallation of surface
mounted chip and MELF (metal electrode
Ross Dillman | Technician/Instructor
(continued from page 1)
across entire VHF and UHF ranges. Harmonic or intermediation products utilizing the same frequencies, and have ample channel separation. Since
are reduced by more than 15dBm. Additionally, cancellation improves the pre-distorter is implemented in reconfigurable hardware FPGA,
receiver dynamic range. modifications to the pre-distorter are possible even after the system has
In the proposed antenna combining, this pre-distortion is performed by
digital signal processing techniques utilizing open architectures which
enable reduced cost and increased flexibility of the system. System level 1-2b
control, switch control for communication equipment selection, oscillator
control, and antenna selection, is supplied by a standard single board
computer utilizing a Versa Module European (VME) bus based chassis.
Also, populated in this VME chassis is a software defined radio (SDR)
board, a wideband transceiver board consisting of field-programmable
gate arrays (FPGAs), analog to digital converter (ADC), and digital to
analog converter (DAC). The digital signal processing for the pre-distorter
is performed by FPGAs utilizing a down converted and sampled signal.
The signal is mixed down to an intermediate frequency for sampling by
an analog to digital converter for input to the FPGA for filtering. Then the
filtered digital data is sent to a digital to analog converter which is then
mixed back up to the carrier frequency for input to the power amplifier.
Thus an undistorted signal is output to the antenna for improved signal
integrity. If the bandwidth of the pre-distorter is large enough, then
multiple communication systems within the same frequency range can be
combined to utilize the same amplifier and antenna set. Some precautions
need to be taken to ensure that the communication systems are not
Figure 1-2a-c: Example showing spectrum of PA outputs, before and after digital pre-distortion. Courtesy of Northrop Grumman Corporation.
continued on page 8
Contact the EMPF Helpline! phone 610.362.1320 | e-mail email@example.com
(continued from page 7)
Benefits The EMPF engineering staff is able to leverage this experience of
developing antenna combining and software defined radio solutions for
Antenna combining utilizing digital linearization techniques, digital pre-
many of today’s radio applications from military communications to
distortion (DPD), offers many benefits for multicarrier RF applications.
embedded control software for commercial products. For additional
• Less real estate required for mounting multiple antennas information regarding these engineering services, please contact Lead
• Reduced interference between antennas Engineer John Doyle at 610.362.1200, extension 210.
• Reduced size and weight
• Fewer communications electronics, low power consumption,
and low cost
• High efficiency and high reliability Yinhao Wu | Senior Design Engineer
• Improved functionality of the communication systems
Tech Tips: Selective Soldering
(continued from page 4)
Selective soldering is a mature and effective technology for mixed
technology components, heat sensitive components, and low to medium
production. For more information regarding selective soldering or any of
the other electronics manufacturing services available at the EMPF,
please contact the Helpline at 610.362.1320.
Mike Prestoy | Senior Applications Engineer
Figure 4-3: Solder wave with Nitrogen envelope.
IPC J-STD-001 IPC A-610
Certification: June 7-11 | Recertification: July 14-15
Certification: June 14-17 | Recertification: July 12-13
This course provides an in-depth study and hands-on
Achieve the highest quality and most cost-effective productivity by
application of the national standard for soldering as well as
knowing how to correctly apply the IPC A-610 acceptability criteria.
all materials necessary to conduct operator training.
CONTACT THE REGISTRAR via phone at 610.362.1295, email at firstname.lastname@example.org or online at www.aciusa.org/courses
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
(continued from page 3)
cost associated with utilizing local software The EMPF offers a variety of analytical FTIR, and SEM/EDX capabilities are all on
spectral libraries can be mitigated with the use instrumentation and techniques to aid in failure hand to assist in resolving root cause. For
of “pay as you go” search methods. analysis, cleanliness determinations, and more information, please contact the EMPF
material characterization. Optical microscopy, Helpline at 610.362.1320.
FTIR spectroscopy remains a cost-effective
analytical tool when compared to instruments
which yield similar results, such as mass
spectroscopy which is an order of magnitude
more expensive. Minimal maintenance is
required and the likelihood of instrument
downtime is reduced due to the mechanical
simplicity of the FTIR instrument. Furthermore,
FTIR spectrometers are self-calibrated by using
a HeNe laser as an internal wavelength standard.
Therefore, expenditures after the initial
purchase of the instrument can be limited to
In the realm of failure analysis, FTIR
spectroscopy is often used as an accompaniment
to Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy
(EDX). EDX analysis is employed primarily
for the identification of inorganic atomic
species on an elemental level. EDX
complements FTIR analysis by confirming
Figure 3-3: FTIR spectrum of residue from a bare board.
organic species, such as carbon, oxygen, silicon
and sulfur while also analyzing inorganic
species undetected by FTIR.
While FTIR is excellent analyzing molecular
species, it is deficient in detecting atomic
species. For example, homonuclear diatomic
species such as H2, Cl2, N2, and O2, have no
infrared absorption bands and provide no signal.
FTIR functions ideally with homogeneous
matrices, or those composed of only a small
number of constituents, such as pure compounds.
Complex mixtures are inclined to confound
library search functions due to the intricacy of
overlapping spectral fingerprints. However,
even when spectral patterns do not yield
adequate results, partial information can be
gained from the individual peaks.
FTIR spectroscopy persists as the most Figure 3-4: FTIR spectra from residue of a bare board (red) with a known
established instrumental analysis method used polyester resin (blue) found in the library search.
in laboratories today. Its versatility finds it
well established in all industries including
semiconductor, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology,
forensics, healthcare, and petroleum industries.
Its simplicity, in addition to its characteristics Ron Sauro | Chemist
of speed, accuracy, and affordability enable it to
be the cornerstone instrument of a laboratory.
ACI Technologies, Inc.
National Electronics Manufacturing Technology Center of Excellence
Manufacturing IPC CIT Challenge Test Skills
Boot Camp A January 29 CIT Certification BGA Manufacturing,
March 1-5 February 19 January 4-7 Inspection, Rework
May 3-7 April 23 February 8-11 January 19-20
September 13-17 June 18 April 19-22 April 5-6
November 1-5 July 16 June 14-17 June 28-29
August 20 August 16-19 October 11-12
Boot Camp B
October 15 October 11-14
March 8-12 Chip Scale
November 19 December 6-9
May 10-14 Manufacturing
September 20-24 IPC A-610 February 16-18
Call for Additional
November 8-12 CIT Recertification May 26-28
January 11-12 August 11-13
February 22-23 December 13-15
CIS/Operator IPC Certifications April 12-13
CIT/Instructor May 24-25
IPC J-STD-001 July 12-13
Call for Availability August 23-24
IPC J-STD-001 in Electronics
IPC A-610 CIT Certification October 4-5
Call for Availability January 4-8
February 1-5 December 13-14
IPC 7711/7721 Design for
March 15-19 IPC A-600
Call for Availability Manufacturability
April 26-30 CIT Certification February 8-9
IPC/WHMA-A-620A June 7-11 January 26-28 May 24-25
CIS Certification July 19-23 March 22-24 August 9-10
February 16-18 August 30 - June 21-23 November 22-23
April 19-21 September 3 September 7-9
June 28-30 October 18-22 November 29 - Failure Analysis and
September 27-29 December 6-10 December 1 Reliability Testing
December 20-22 March 15-17
IPC J-STD-001 IPC 7711/7721 May 17-19
CIT Recertification CIT Certification September 27-29
High Reliability January 13-14 January 25-29 November 15-17
Addendum February 24-25 March 22-26
April 14-15 July 26-30 Lead Free
May 26-27 October 25-29 Manufacturing
IPC J-STD-001 DS
July 14-15 February 22-23
CIT Certification IPC 7711/7721
August 25-26 June 7-8
January 15 CIT Recertification
October 6-7 October 4-5
February 26 March 8-9
November 17-18 December 20-21
April 16 May 17-18
May 28 June 14-15
August 27 September 13-14
Contact the Registrar for course information and pricing: phone: 610.362.1295 email: email@example.com
Electronics manufacturing assistance is available
via the EMPF Helpline: phone: 610.362.1320 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Custom courses and on-site training are available. ACI is conveniently located next to the Philadelphia International Airport.
All courses and dates subject to change without notice. LD0010