Deer by wuxiangyu


									April 25, 2011 Headline News - CNN
              Cayuga Heights, NY and Solon, OH
                have generated the most news
                                                     Solon Police
“After five years, $807,325.55 dollars,     Deer Killed by Motor Vehicles
and the massacre of nearly 1,600 deer,                2004-2010
Solon has witnessed rebounding deer
populations, as predicted.”

“Let's put this issue on the ballot for a
vote, join us on Saturday, April 16th”
Communities have responsibility for Urban
Deer Management in the U.S., subject to
some state regulations on hunting or
disposal of deer.                   Overabundance:
                                        deer populations
                                        declining in
                                        western states
                                        and Maine

                               Craig, Colorado
It is one of the most contentious local decisions
   Research: What are the cities doing?

Data Collection: Google
Alert set up to scan the
internet every day for 10
months (July 2010 through
April, 2011). Collecting
about 50 news or other
articles every day on the
term “deer”. Also standard
Google Search.                 Cleveland, Ohio
    Many local decision makers report using the
          internet to collect information

Given the explosion of information on the internet, it
 is increasingly difficult to find relevant information

    Summary of Google Alerts Results
   Topic                                 Google Percent of
                                         Alerts   Total
   Deer                                    13045     100.00%
   Not Relevant*                             8075       61.9%
   Related to Deer, the animal               4970       38.1%
   *The Not Relevant category includes results such as locations
   (Deer Valley), companies (Deer Consumer), and other articles
   not related to deer, the animal.
   Source: Google Alerts Collected Daily from July, 2010 to April,
  Top 10 Topics Relevant to Deer from Google Alerts

Topic                            Google Percent of Rank
                                 Alerts   Total
Total Relevant to Deer, the
animal                             4,970   100.00%
Deer Hunting                        1264     25.4%   1
Deer Management                      925     18.6%   2
Urban Deer Management                829     16.7%   3
Deer and Car or Other Vehicle
Accidents                           806      16.2%    4
Deer Resistant Plants               351       7.1%    5
Deer Disease (Chronic Wasting)      246       4.9%    6
Deer Information, General           236       4.7%    7
Deer Rescue                         152       3.1%    8
Deer Pictures                        90       1.8%    9
Deer and Lyme Disease                20       0.4%   10
 Results of Cases Identified Using Google Alerts
                                           Number Percent
Total Communities Making Decisions           78    100 %
Decisions Made in City Councils              70    90.0 %
(county governments next most important)
Communities Conducting Deer                  11    14.1 %
Communities Conducting Citizen               6      7.7%
Communities Conducting a Deer Cull           41    52.6 %

Communities Considering a Deer Cull          28    35.9 %

Communities Deciding Not To Cull             9     11.5%
                   Decision Approaches

Most decisions, 90%, are discussed in city council
  Attracts proponents and opponents
  Sometimes a Deer Committee is formed

Of six communities conducting surveys, 4 were links on
the community website, 2 were mailed surveys
   Internet links also attract proponents and opponents
   Even with mailed surveys, proponents and opponents
       are more likely to respond

Discussions become polarized while many are indifferent
In some cases 30 percent of residents report feeding deer
Majorities both favor and oppose a deer management in
reporting cities. (Diverse goals, conference speaker Alberti)
               Surveys of Deer

Often discussed, but dismissed as too costly

Options discussed:
  Aerial surveys using infrared
  Driving around surveys (not as accurate)

What is the appropriate number?
   The biological carrying capacity of a suburban
environment has been estimated at 100 deer per
square mile. How many deer are wanted?
   Only one city reported poor deer health, this
was from broken bones
   Example Deer Map Using Citizen Input,
               supported by Google maps and forms

                                                             Cities such as
                                                             Oxford, MS
                                                             citizen input
                                                             for tracking

Effort to engage the public: conference speaker Lindsey, search for stakeholders
Issues Cited as the Reason    Number Percent
for Considering a Deer Cull *

   Damage to Plants                      62       79.5 %
   Car Accidents                         33       42.3%
   Lyme Disease                          18       23.1%
* Percentages do not sum to 100% since communities
often cite multiple issues for considering deer culling as a
management option
 States Having the Most Communities
  Citing Plant Destruction as an Issue
State         Number of   Percent of
              Communities Total
Minnesota         10          12.8 %
Ohio              9           11.5 %
New Jersey        6            7.7 %
Massachusetts     5            6.4 %
New York          5            6.4 %
Maryland          4            5.1 %
        States Having Communities Citing Car
                Accidents as an Issue
State                 Number of    Percent of Total
                     Communities    Communities
Ohio                     11            33.3%
New York                  4            12.1%
Texas                     4            12.1%
Pennsylvania              3             9.1%
South Dakota              3             9.1%
Connecticut               2             6.1%
Massachusetts             2             6.1%
Delaware                  1             3.0%
Missouri                  1             3.0%
Montana                   1             3.0%
North Carolina            1             3.0%
          States Having Communities
        Citing Lyme Disease as an Issue
State         Number of       Percent of
              Communities     Total
Massachusetts      6              33.3 %
Connecticut        4              22.2%
(first identified case
of Lyme, 1975)
New York                 4        22.2%
Delaware                 1        5.6%
Maine                    1        5.6%
North Carolina           1        5.6%
Information on Deer Management is organized into a
searchable text database at
                 Urban deer management portal
          Fencing: A Key to Suburban
             Environmental Design

Only a few communities discussed fencing ordinances
that can be used to control deer density and protect
   Using publically built fences for large areas is
   For transport, fencing can focus on highways

Fencing ordinances significantly impact the long-term
  Perimeter fencing has cut our local deer herd in half
  Wildlife permeable fencing and corridors can mitigate
  negative impacts
  A southern California community with 15 foot setbacks
  complains of too many deer
              Deer Vehicle Collisions
              (more details on transportation page)

Weight and size is correlated to increased damage
costs and risk of injury.

States engaged in breeding larger deer for hunters
increase transportation cost and risk

Most deer injuries to drivers are related to secondary
collisions, the driver swerves to avoid the deer.

Education has been shown to reduce risk. Female
drivers have been shown to be at increased risk of injury.
Cost effective methods for reducing transportation
risks and costs related to deer (a 2007 study),
Montana Department of Transportation in cooperation with U.S.
Department of Transportation

Clearing vegetation around roads provides the
   highest cost benefit
Seasonal warning signs had a positive benefit, accident
   probablity is much higher during the rutting season.
Animal detection systems had a positive benefit
Reflecting systems were too costly
Culling is found to have a positive benefit if the area is
   not open to deer immigration
Sterilization and relocation were costs were too high,
  assuming no immigration
     Decisions Based on Deer and Lyme Disease

Example comment: “…’there is a direct correlation between
the number of deer and the number of infections.‟ Sullivan
explained that ticks feed off the deer, infecting themselves
with the disease. They then end up in the grass where they can be
transferred to humans. “ - Michael Sullivan, Medfield
Massachusetts Town Administrator, “Medfield to „cull the herd‟ with
archers to combat the spread of Lyme” Medfield Press, Online,
February 22, 2011

“Deer may carry small numbers of the spirochete that causes Lyme
disease but they are dead-end hosts for the bacterium. Deer cannot
infect another animal directly and no deer hunter has acquired the
disease from dressing out a deer. Infected ticks that drop from
deer present little risk to humans or other animals since the
ticks are now at the end of their life cycle and will not feed again. Deer
don’t carry Lyme disease. A tick infected with the disease does not
transfer Lyme to other ticks on the deer.” - Michigan Department of
Natural Resources
       Center for Disease Control’s (CDC) Website
In studies on islands, removing all deer greatly reduced the number of
ticks. Studies in coastal locations found that reducing the number of
deer generally corresponded with decreased numbers of ticks.
However, the level of deer reduction needed to
substantially reduce the risk of human tick bites or
break the Lyme disease cycle was not established.

A study in mainland NJ found that reducing the number of deer did not
correspond to decreased numbers of ticks or reduced cases of Lyme
disease. However, this study may have been too short or the reduction
of deer insufficient to demonstrate an impact.

Kirby Stafford, Connecticut Chief Entomologist: “Scientific field
research demonstrates that reducing deer below 10
to 12 per square mile provides a satisfactory target
for managing tick numbers and Lyme disease.” - Not
supported by scientific literature , focused on ticks, measurement
"the scientific evidence as I‟ve reviewed it, without
any preconceived notion or political agenda or any
other agenda, does not support the notion that
tick numbers and Lyme disease risk are strongly
correlated with deer numbers, and the data do
not suggest that if you manage deer by hunting,
you’ll reduce the number of Lyme cases.”

Dr. Richard S. Ostfeld, Disease Ecologist, Ph.D.,
University of California. Author of numerous studies on Lyme
diseae and author of “Lyme Disease: The Ecology of a
Complex System (2011)

it would be more effective to parachute opossums
into the area
Biodiversity and Disease Risk: The Case of Lyme Disease Richard S. Ostfeld and
Felicia Keesing Conservation Biology Vol. 14, No. 3 (Jun., 2000), pp. 722-728

In North America, the most competent reservoir host for the
Lyme disease agent is the white-footed mouse …

Analyses of states and multistate regions along the east coast of
the United States demonstrated significant negative
correlations between species richness of terrestrial small
mammals (orders Rodentia, Insectivora, and Lagomorpha), a
key group of hosts for ticks, and per capita numbers of
reported Lyme disease cases, which supports our "dilution
effect" hypothesis.

A positive correlation between per capita Lyme disease cases
and species richness of ground-dwelling birds supported this
hypothesis, which we call the "rescue effect."
Climate, Deer, Rodents, and Acorns as Determinants of Variation
in Lyme-Disease Risk Ostfeld RS, Canham CD, Oggenfuss K,
Winchcombe RJ, Keesing F (2006) Climate, Deer, Rodents, and
Acorns as Determinants of Variation in Lyme-Disease Risk. PLoS Biol
4(6): e145.

Indices of deer abundance had no predictive power,
and precipitation in the current year and temperature in the prior year
had only weak effects on entomological risk. The strongest
predictors of a current year's risk were the prior year's
abundance of mice and chipmunks and abundance of
acorns 2 y previously. In no case did inclusion of deer or climate
variables improve the predictive power of models based on rodents,
acorns, or both. We conclude that interannual variation in
entomological risk of exposure to Lyme disease is
correlated positively with prior abundance of key
hosts for the immature stages of the tick vector and
with critical food resources for those hosts.
System to apply tick control to deer
January 11, 2011 Arkansas Southwest News-Herald

ARS researchers have developed new cattle fever tick control measures
including this one that automatically applies a pesticide-impregnated
neckband to deer ... The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) tackled the
tick problem by developing a device called the 4-Poster Deer
Treatment Bait Station. This is essentially a corn-filled bin with paint
rollers on its four corners. The ARS scientists have since refined
their deer treatment station, creating a new system that
automatically applies a pesticide-impregnated neckband
to wild deer as they feed. The collars can be detached remotely
once they've stopped working.

Gibson Island, Maryland, which is a private, resident-owned community,
purchased 15 of the devices and deployed them around
their community for five years, and achieved at least 77
percent control of the ticks that carry Lyme disease and
human monocytic ehrlichiosis, both serious human health problems.
           The Four Poster System

Some citizens would pay for the right to legally feed the
deer, a possible source of funds for this system
No human injuries were reported from deer culls.
Safety concerns are commonly an important issue.
Lowest cost: -$25; hunters will pay. Deer have been wounded.
  Methods of Deer
 Population Control
Communities Using 41
Lethal Methods*
 Bow Hunting        20
 Sharpshooter or    21
 other gun
*Average $500 per deer
 Some sterilization 3
or contraception
 Some or all        5
Kimberly, WY, a

Products: Gonacon, Spayvac

Researchers working to achieve reduced number of reapplications.

Testimony from Allen Rutbery, professor at Tufts Universities’s Cummings
School of Veterinary Medicine

The vaccine produced noticeable results in each trial, Gutberg said. On Fire
Island, less than 20 percent of does that were treated produced fawns the
                                  a 50 to 60 percent
following year. This trend was accompanied by
decline in the local deer population during an
approximately 10-year span. On Fripp Island, the one-shot vaccine
had produced an 80 to 90 percent drop in fawning rates.

Rutberg said the costs of deer birth control were not inconsiderable. While
remote darting of the deer cost only about $80 in the Fire
Island program, capturing each deer for vaccination and
tagging on Fripp Island cost more than $500.
Officials Work To Spay Deer To Reduce Their
Population « CBS Baltimore
Feb 14, 2011 ... Spaying to control the population of
domesticated animals is being given a try in the wild. Contraceptive
darts have been tried before in Maryland but they must be
administered once a year. A biologist with a doctorate and a
national reputation as a deer sharpshooter, can sterilize five to
seven deer a day vs. shooting 10 to 15 a day.

In July 2007, Cornell University began a five-year,
$500,000 deer management plan that used hunting and
surgical sterilization to reduce the campus herd by 75
percent. Results should be out soon.
If sterilization and contraception cost about twice as
much per deer as lethal methods,
And non-fertile does prevent in migration of new does,
Then sterilization and contraction become cost effect in
just a few years
This approach requires management and planning
Austin, Texas
Decision: Not to Cull,
 Focus on Education

           Thank you
          Texas Parks
          and Wildlife
The benefits of culling deer to reduce Lyme disease
appear to be significantly over estimated.
   Diverts resources from a spreading health risk
   Bad public relations for wildlife
   Connecticut goal of 10 deer per square mile not support by research

Larger deer are correlated with more collision damage.
   Efforts to increase deer size for recreational hunters comes at a cost
   to society not taken into consideration

Analysis related to culling often ignores immigration
    Over estimates the benefits of lethal versus non-lethal methods.
    Sterile does will defend local territories, reducing in migration.

Long-term design solutions typically not considered
    fencing ordinances, corridors, clearing vegetation around roads,
    education, which deer should be culled or sterilized
                       “Killing deer is like mowing
                       the grass” - Biologist with
                       an urban deer management
                       company a not for profit

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