Summative Assessment Strategies - PowerPoint

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       Practices for the Classroom
            NC TEACH April 2010
  Think About It! Group Activity with
         Graphic Organizer
What is the difference between teaching
 and telling?
What is the difference between assessing
 and grading?
What is the difference between teaching
 and learning?
What is assessment?
 Assessment for learning is best described as a
  process by which assessment information is
  used by teachers to adjust their teaching
  strategies, and by students to adjust their
  learning strategies.
 Assessment, teaching and learning are
  inextricably linked, as each informs the others.
 Assessment is a powerful process that can
  either optimize or inhibit learning, depending on
  how it’s applied.
Planned and Communicated
 Assessment for learning should be built into
  teachers’ planning as a part of everyday
  classroom practice.
 Learning goals, teaching strategies and
  assessment criteria should be carefully matched.
  Students should know in advance what they will
  learn, as well as how and why they are to be
  assessed. Teachers’ plans should be flexible so
  that they can make changes in response to new
  information, opportunities or insights.
Planned and Communicated
 The planning needs to include strategies to check
  students’ understanding of the goals they are pursuing
  and the criteria that will be applied in assessing their
 How students will receive feedback, how they will take
  part in assessing their learning and how they will be
  helped to make further progress should also be planned.
 A teacher’s planning should provide opportunities for
  both student and teacher to obtain information about
  progress towards learning goals, and use it to direct the
  learning process.
Your Turn!

As you view the video, take notes on how
 the teacher gathers, interprets, and uses
 information to guide the learning of the
What was the objective? How does the
 teacher know if the students achieved it?
Assess the teacher’s behaviors in regards
 to the planning, execution, and monitoring
 of the lesson.
Why Discuss Assessment?
  A review of the data shows that there is a lot
   of testing happening in most districts, but that
   assessment does not necessarily drive
   curriculum and instruction.
  District educators indicated that the timeliness
   of receiving data impacts their ability to use it
  Educators expressed a frustration related to
   their ability to analyze and synthesize the
Assessment in education is the process of
gathering, interpreting, recording, and
using information about pupils’ responses
to an educational task. (Harlen, Gipps,
Broadfoot, Nuttal,1992)
Individual Activity

Review the Anticipation Guide and
 respond to the statements or answer the
Watch the video “Research Connections
 between Questioning/Learning”, and use
 the Anticipation Guide to answer any
 questions you didn’t know.


A process used by teachers        A tool used after
and students during instruction   instruction to measure
that provides feedback to         student achievement
adjust ongoing teaching and       which provides evidence
learning to help students         of student competence or
improve their achievement of      program effectiveness.
intended instructional

           FORMATIVE                  SUMMATIVE

•Occurs During Instruction   •Occurs at the end
•Not Graded                  •Graded
•Process                     •Product
•Descriptive Feedback        •Evaluative Feedback
•Continuous                  •Periodic
Possible Assessment Methods
Formative Assessment includes      Summative Assessment

   Questions                    Selected Response
   Classroom Discussions
                                   Multiple Choice
   Learning Activities
   Feedback                       True/False
   Conferences                    Matching
   Interviews                     Fill-in
   Student Self-Assessment      Extended Written Response
                                 Performance Assessment
Formative and summative assessment are
interconnected. They seldom stand alone in
construction or effect.
The vast majority of genuine formative
assessment is informal, with interactive and timely
feedback and response.
It is widely and empirically argued that formative
assessment has the greatest impact on learning
and achievement.
Values and Attitudes about Assessment

1. Teachers value and believe in students.
2. Sharing learning goals with the students.
3. Involving students in self-assessment.
4. Providing feedback that helps students
   recognize their next steps and how to take
5. Being confident that every student can
6. Providing students with examples of what we
   expect from them.
Formative Assessment

Assessment for learning
Taken at varying intervals throughout a
 course to provide information and feedback
 that will help improve
  the quality of student learning
  the quality of the course itself
“…learner-centered, teacher-directed,
 mutually beneficial, formative, context-
 specific, ongoing, and firmly rooted in good
 practice" (Angelo and Cross, 1993).
Provides information on what an individual
 student needs
  To practice
  To have re-taught
  To learn next
Skittles Activity
Objectives: Grade 7

 1.01 Develop and use ratios, proportions, and
  percents to solve problems.
 4.01 Collect, organize, analyze, and display
  data to solve problems.

Develop an assessment for one or both of the
 objectives using the Skittles.
Key Elements of Formative Assessment
1. The identification by teachers & learners of
   learning goals, intentions or outcomes and criteria
   for achieving these.
2. Rich conversations between teachers & students
   that continually build and go deeper.
3. The provision of effective, timely feedback to
   enable students to advance their learning.
4. The active involvement of students in their own
5. Teachers responding to identified learning needs
   and strengths by modifying their teaching
                                   Black & Wiliam, 1998
Summative Assessment
 Assessment of learning
 Generally taken by students at the end of a unit
  or semester to demonstrate the "sum" of what
  they have or have not learned.
 Summative assessment methods are the most
  traditional way of evaluating student work.
 "Good summative assessments--tests and other
  graded evaluations--must be demonstrably
  reliable, valid, and free of bias" (Angelo and
  Cross, 1993).
         Formative                          Summative

‘… often means no more than        ‘…assessment (that) has
that the assessment is carried      increasingly been used to sum
out frequently and is planned at    up learning…’(Black and Wiliam,
the same time as teaching.’         1999)
(Black and Wiliam, 1999)
                                    ‘… looks at past achievements
‘… provides feedback which         … adds procedures or tests to
leads to students recognizing       existing work ... involves only
the (learning) gap and closing it   marking and feedback grades to
… it is forward looking …’          student … is separated from
(Harlen, 1998)                      teaching … is carried out at
                                    intervals when achievement has
‘ … includes both feedback         to be summarized and reported.’
and self-monitoring.’ (Sadler,      (Harlen, 1998)

‘… is used essentially to feed
back into the teaching and
learning process.’ (Tunstall and
Gipps, 1996)
The Garden Analogy
If we think of our children as plants …

Summative assessment of the plants is the process of
simply measuring them. It might be interesting to
compare and analyze measurements but, in themselves,
these do not affect the growth of the plants.

Formative assessment, on the other hand, is the
equivalent of feeding and watering the plants appropriate
to their needs - directly affecting their growth.
Factors Inhibiting Assessment
 A tendency for teachers to assess quantity and
  presentation of work rather than quality of

 Greater attention given to marking and grading,
  much of it tending to lower self esteem of
  students, rather than providing advice for

 A strong emphasis on comparing students with
  each other, which demoralizes the less
  successful learners.
   Where would you place your assessment practice on the
   following continuum?

   The main focus is on:
Quantity of work/Presentation                   Quality of learning

            Marking/Grading                     Advice for improvement

        Comparing students                      Identifying individual
Forms of Summative Assessment

Performance Assessment
Traditional Tests
NC End of Grade/End of Course Tests
NC End of Grade/End of Course Test

 Go to
 Click on Testing, Scroll down and click on 2008-
  2009 Released Forms
 Scroll down and click on the grade level and
  content area you would like to review.
 Spend the next 20 - 30 minutes taking the test and
  checking your answers.
 Grades k-2 -
Implications for classroom practice

Share learning goals with students.
Involve students in self-assessment.
Provide feedback that helps students
 recognize their next steps and how to take
Be confident that every student can
Formative Assessment:
Cooperative Learning

Think about the characteristics of
 formative assessment.
Does cooperative learning demonstrate
 any of these characteristics?
Cooperative/Collaborative Learning
 Cooperative and collaborative learning differ
  from traditional teaching approaches because
  students work together rather than compete with
  each other individually.
 Collaborative learning can take place any time
  students work together (individual and group
 In a world where being a "team player" is often a
  key part of business success, cooperative
  learning is a very useful and relevant tool.
Cooperative/Collaborative Learning
 Research suggests that cooperative and
  collaborative learning bring positive results such
  as deeper understanding of content, increased
  overall achievement in grades, improved self-
  esteem, and higher motivation to remain on task.
  Cooperative learning helps students become
  actively and constructively involved in content, to
  take ownership of their own learning, and to
  resolve group conflicts and improve teamwork
Formative Assessment
 Observing cooperative learning groups in action
  allows you to effectively assess students' work
  and understanding. Cooperative learning groups
  also offer a unique opportunity for feedback from
  peers and for self-reflection.
 Research has shown that when implemented
  properly, students in cooperative learning
  classrooms outperform their peers in traditional
Cooperative Structures

  Played with higher-level
    thinking Q cards. #1 fans, #2
    picks, #3 answers, #4 praises.
    Students then rotate roles.
Cooperative Structures

 Numbered Heads Together
   Students huddle to make sure all can
    respond, a number is called, the student
    with that number responds.
     Paired Heads Together: Students in pairs
      huddle to make sure they both can respond, an
      “A” or “B” is called, the student with that letter
Cooperative Structures
  Pass a Problem Review
    Teams discuss topic written in the middle
     of the map, and then cover with sticky
    Teams record definitions, synonyms or
     antonyms, symbols, graphs, etc. to
     describe the topic or concept.
    With the word covered, the charts are
     passed to another group to see if they
     can guess the word.
Cooperative Structures

   Teammates each write an answer,
    then there is a “showdown” as they
    show their answers to each other.
    Teammates verify answers.
Cooperative Structures

Talking Chips
 Students place their chip in the
  center each time they talk; they
  cannot speak again until all chips
  are in the center and collected.
Cooperative Structures

   Students think about their response to a
    question, discuss answers in pairs, and
    then share their own or partner’s answer
    with the class.
     Think-Pair-Square: Same except students
      share their answers with teammates rather than
      with the class.

How can you use cooperative learning
 activities to effectively assess your
How has the information shared today
 changed your views/thoughts about
What questions do you still have regarding
Do you feel confident that you can add the
 assessment (s) to your lesson plan to
 increase effectiveness and assist students
 in mastery of the intended objectives?

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