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					MIDDLE EAST LIBRARIANS ASSOCIATION
Committee on Cataloging




Best Practices for Arabic Script Cataloguing
Final Draft, November 2010




Introduction
An increasing number of MELA member libraries are using Arabic script in bibliographic
records, despite the conspicuous absence of cataloguing rules that apply specifically to
Arabic-script fields.


In order to resolve this issue, most cataloguers have tried to mirror the cataloguing
practices observed in Romanized fields, with slight adaptations. This has proven to be a
workable solution, but has also resulted in some real variation of practice, particularly in
non-Romanized, cataloguer-supplied subfields (such as qualifiers).


The present draft aims to regularize Arabic-script cataloguing practice by setting down
clear principles and by providing specific instructions for catalogers.


It is to be expected that the guidelines given here will eventually be superseded by new
standards and methods of authority control, but we hope that in the meantime, the
principles and instructions in this draft will be widely adopted and adhered to.


The benefits are obvious: library users searching in Arabic script will gain more reliable,
and predictable access points; library professionals will find it easier to exchange
bibliographic data.
1. Scope


1.1. The guidelines in this document pertain to the descriptive fields in the bibliographic
record which contain (or might contain) Arabic or Persian text in Romanization, as well
as their subfields, regardless of language.


1.2. It does not therefore pertain to parts of the record that are peculiar to the catalog as
a whole, such as Subject headings, or display constants in title added entries.


2. Mandatory and optional elements


2.1. It is recommended that parallel script fields be provided for the MARC fields listed
below, or their equivalents. Note that parallel script fields for notes and MARC 6xx fields
are optional.


Fields                   MELA recommendation

100 110/111              Required if applicable

240                      Required if applicable

245                      Required if applicable

246, 247                 Required if applicable

250                      Required if applicable

260                      Required if applicable

490                      Required if applicable

5xx                      Optional

600 610/611              Optional

700 710/711              Required if applicable

8xx                      Required if applicable
3. Guidelines


3.1 Overriding Principles for all fields


       Create parallel fields in original script using the same elements, in the same
        order as the Romanized form.
       Do not apply this principle if would entail a violation of the grammatical or logical
        structure of the target language


3.2. Personal Name Headings (MARC 100/600/700)


Unless controlled by reference to an authority file, formulate name headings in original
scripts according to the general principles and specific instructions set out below.


3.2.1 General principles:


       Create parallel fields using the same elements, in the same order as the
        authorized form. Follow this principle also for names like “Avicenna” which are
        established in a commonly-used English form or nonstandard romanization.


       Do not mix elements in original script with English ones. Wherever possible,
        provide equivalents for all non-transliterated elements in the Romanized field.


            o   Refer to the appendices for a standardized listing of these elements
                (A.1.1-A.1.4 for Arabic, A2.1-A.2.4 for Persian).


            o   If no standardized equivalent is given in the documentation, formulate a
                script element according to the principles set out herein, and alert the
                authors of the online cataloguing manual.


       Use Western Arabic numerals (1234567890 for ٠٩٨٧٦٥٤٣٢١)


3.2.2. Exception to general principles:
        Do not follow the order of the authorized transliterated heading if its content or
         structure violates the nature of the name in the original language.


             o   This situation may occur with names which are established from a
                 commonly-used English form. When possible, rearrange the elements of
                 the name. Do not provide additional elements.


        For guidelines on formulating the title parts of author/ title entries, refer to 3.5.
         (‘Controlled Title Entries’) below.


3.2.3. Examples

7901-089 d$,‫إبن سينا‬
-----
Avicenna, $d 980-1037


7019-7078 d$,‫عبد الناصر, جمال‬
-----
Nasser, Gamal Abdel, $d 1918-1970


‫ الدكتور‬c$,‫عمر, علي‬
-----
ʿ mar ʿAl , $c al- ukt r


)‫ (نقوال‬q$ .‫سيوفي, ن‬
-----
Siouffi, N. $q (Nicolas)


129 .‫ ت‬d$ ,‫ الخليفة‬c$ ,‫ الثاني‬b$ ‫عمر‬
------
ʿUmar $b II, $c Caliph, $d d. 720


7097-7090 d$ ,‫ ملك المغرب‬c$ ,‫ الخامس‬d$ ‫محمد‬
-----
Mu ammad $b V, $c King of Morocco, $d 1909-1961


7030-7097 d$ ,‫إبن فضل هللا العمري, أحمد بن يحيى‬
-----
    n Fa l All h al-ʿ mar A mad i n a           , $d 1301-1349


‫ القرن العاشر\ الحادش عشر‬d$,‫نيسابوري، أحمد بن إبراهيم‬
-----
Na s         r A mad i n     r h m, $d 10th/11th cent


808 ‫ كان حيا‬d$ ,‫الحكيم الترمذي, محمد بن علي‬
-----
    ak m al-Tirmidh Mu ammad i n Al , $d fl. 898


-1 ‫ 9907 او‬d$ ,‫رضاى دارستانى, فرزانه‬
-----
    i         rist n Far   nah, $d 1966 or 7-


0 ‫ 1967 أو 8 – 8297 أو‬d$ ,‫أبو الوجاهة المرشدي, عبد الرحمن بن عيسى‬
-----
A       al- aj hah al-Murshid     A d al- a m n i n s , $d 1567 or 8-1628 or 9



3.3. Corporate/ Conference Name Headings (MARC 110/111)


Unless controlled by reference to an authority file, formulate name headings in original
scripts according to the general principles and specific instructions set out below.


3.3.1. General principles:


           Do not mix elements in original script with English ones. Wherever possible,
            provide equivalents for all non-transliterated elements in the Romanized field.
               o    Refer to the appendices for a standardized listing of these elements
                    (A.1.1 through 4 for Arabic, A2.1. through 4 for Persian).


               o    If no standardized equivalent is given in the documentation, formulate a
                    script element according to the principles set out herein, and alert the
                    authors of the online cataloguing manual.


         Use Western Arabic numerals (1234567890 for ٠٩٨٧٦٥٤٣٢١)


3.3.2. Exception to general principles:


         Do not follow the order of the authorized transliterated heading if its content or
          structure violates the nature of the name in the original language.


               o    This situation may occur with corporate names which are established
                    from a commonly-used English form. Whenever possible, restitute the
                    original elements of the name. Do not provide additional elements.




3.3.3. Examples:


                                                             ‫$ .مركز البحوث األفريقية‬b ‫جامعة القاهرة‬
-----
   mi at al-       hirah. $ Marka al- u     th al-Afr q ah


                                               )‫مركز أبحاث مكافحة الجريمة (المملكة العربية السعودية‬
-----
Marka A            th Muk fa at al- ar mah (Saudi Arabia)


                                                  )‫جهاد دانشگاهى (سازمان: دانشگاه عالمه طباطبائى‬
-----
 ih d-i     nishg h Organi ation           nishg h-i All mah a         a    )
                                 )‫ تهران, ايران‬c$ 2992 d$ ‫$ (شانزدهم‬n ‫همايش سراسرى مددكاران اجتماعى ايران‬
-----
    am          ish-i ar sar -i Madadk r n-i jtim ʿ -i r n $n (16th : $d 2002 : $c Tehran, Iran)


                                                                    )‫مركز كربالء للبحوث والدراسات (لندن, إنجلترا‬
-----
Marka Kar al ʾ lil-Bu             th wa-al- ir s t London England)


)‫ الشارقة, اإلمارات العربية المتحدة‬c$ : 7008 d$ : ‫ (الرابع عشر‬n$ ‫مؤتمر اآلثار والتراث الحضاري العربي‬
-----
Mu tamar al- th r wa-al-Tur th al- a                 r al- Ara   $n (14th : $d 1998 : $c h riqah,
United Arab Emirates)




3.4. Uncontrolled Title Entries (MARC 245/ 246/ 247/ 740)


3.4.1. General principles:


               Do not provide equivalents for display constants such as medium descriptors
                (MARC 245 $h) and display text (MARC 246 $i).


               Enumeration and dates appearing in any of the subfields should be given in the
        form which appears on the source.
3.4.2. Examples:


                                     ‫$ / تأليف يحيى آرينپور‬c ‫$ : تاريخ 967 سال ادب فارسى‬b ‫از صبا تا نيما‬
-----
A           a     t N m : $ t r kh-i           s l-i ada -i F rs / $c ta l f-i ah       r an′p r.


    ‫$[إنتاج] أفالم أحمد زكي بالمشاركة مع إتحاد اإلذاعة والتلفيزيون‬c [videorecording] /$h ‫أيام السادات‬
-----
A           m al-     d t $h [videorecording] / $c int j Afl m A mad ak             i-al-mush rakah
ma a tti            d al- dh ah wa-al-Til fi     n
                                                          ‫$از نيما تا روزگار ما‬a Title on v. 3: $i
------
 i Title on v      a A Nm t r       g r-i m




3.5. Controlled Title Entries (MARC 130/ 240/ 600 $t/ 700 $t/ 730 )


3.5.1. General principles:


        Provide equivalents for English-language qualifiers (e.g. in language and form
         subfields) in the language of the item. Refer to the appendices for a standardized
         listing of these elements (A.1.5-A.1.6 for Arabic, A.2.5-A.2.6 for Persian).


        If no standardized equivalent is given in the documentation, formulate a script
         element according to the principles set out herein, and alert the authors of the
         online cataloguing manual.


        Enumeration and dates should be given in the form which appears on the source.




3.5.2. Exceptions to the general rule:


        Do not replicate form headings or other free-floating subdivisions.


3.5.3 Examples


                                                                         .‫$ سورة الفاتحة‬p .‫قرآن‬
-----
Koran. $p       rat al-F ti ah $vCommentaries
3.6. Edition Statement (MARC 250)




3.6.1. General principles


      Do not spell out ordinal numbers


      Use Western Arabic numerals


       ‫الطبعة 7., مزيدة ومنقحة‬
       -----
       al- abʿah     ma dah wa-munaqqa ah
3.7. Publication information (MARC 260)


3.7.1. General principles:


       General Rule: enter all publication information, including inferred data, in non-
        Roman script. Provide equivalents in the language of the record, wherever it is
        appropriate.


       Provide equivalents for s.l. and s.n. in the language of the item. Use .‫ د.م‬and .‫د. ن‬
        for Arabic, and { } and { } for Persian.


         hen the pu lisher’s name is that of a person usuall a person named in the
        245 field), the entire name should be represented in direct order, i.e. without
        additions, subtractions, or abbreviations, both in Romanization and in non-
        Roman script.


3.7.2. Exceptions to the general rule:


       If publication data is given in Romanized form (standard or non-standard) on the
        item being described, represent the information in that form in the parallel script
        field.


3.7.3. Examples:


                                                                  2993 c$ ,‫ نشر مركز‬b$ : ‫تهران‬
-----
Tihr n:$b Nashr-i Markaz, $c 2004


                                                             2999 c$,‫ دار الجديد‬b$:‫بيروت, لبنان‬
-----
 a r t Lu n n :$b       r al- ad d $c 2000


                                                   2999 c$, ‫ رياض الريس للكتب والنشر‬b$: Beirut
-----
Beirut : $b i        al-Rayyis lil-Kutub wa-al-Nashr, $c 2000


                                                           ]‫ [2007؟‬c$ ,‫ الدار الجامعية‬b$: ]‫[بيروت؟‬
-----
[Beirut?] : $b al-    r al-   m ah $c [1992?]


                                                       2998 c$ ،‫ دار ومكتبة بيبليون‬b$ : ]‫جبيل [لبنان‬
-----
 u a l Le anon                r wa-Makta at    il   n, $c 2008


                                  ]7000 ‫ 0737 [8007 أو‬c$ ,‫ علي بن عبد الرحمن الطيار‬b$: ]‫[الرياض‬
-----
[Riyadh] :      ʿAl i n A d al- a m n al- a         r, $c 1419 [1998 or 1999]


                                                                        2999 c$ , ].‫ د.ن‬b $: .‫[د.م‬
-----
[S.l. :$b s.n.], $c2000




3.8. Series statements (MARC 490, 800, 810, 811, 830)


3.8.1. General principles:


       Wherever possible, provide equivalents for all non-transliterated elements in the
        Romanized field, in the language of the bibliographic record.




3.8.2. Specific instructions


       Follow the name guidelines (3.2. and 3.3. above) for the personal or corporate
        name portion of 800, 810 and 811 fields.
       Follow the language-specific guidelines in the appendices to provide equivalents
        for subdivisions in the language of the item.


       Enumeration and dates should be given in the form which appears on the source.


       Subfield v, when included, should use original script designators and Western-
        style numerals


3.8.3. Examples:


                                                              3 ‫$ رقم‬v ‫سلسلة المعاجم الموحدة ؛‬
-----
Silsilat al-ma jim al-muwa    adah ;$v raqm 4




A.1. Specific Instructions for Arabic language records:


       A.1.1. Enumeration: Spell out ordinals, thus:


        I.                                 ‫األول \ األولى‬

        II.                                ‫الثاني \ الثانية‬

        III.                               ‫الثالث \ الثالثة‬

        IV.                               ‫الرابع \ الرابعة‬

        V.                            ‫الخامس \ الخامسة‬

        VI.                          ‫السادس \ السادسة‬

        VII.                            ‫السابع \ السابعة‬

        VIII.                             ‫الثامن \ الثامنة‬

        IX.                             ‫التاسع \ التاسعة‬

        X.                             ‫العاشر \ العاشرة‬

        XI.                        ‫الحادي عشر \ الحادية‬
                                                 ‫عشرة‬
    …                                            ...

    XX.                                    ‫العشرون‬

    XXI.                         \ ‫الحادي والعشرون‬
                                   ‫الحادية والعشرون‬
    …                                            ...

    C.                                        ‫المائة‬



   A.1.2. Titles: Use Arabic qualifiers. Follow usage when available, if supplied by
    the cataloger, qualifiers should be grammatically definite.


      ishop of …                           ... ‫أسقف‬

    Caliph                                   ‫الخليفة‬

    Coptic Patriarch of           ‫بطريرك اإلسكندرية‬
                                             ‫القبطي‬
    Alexandria
    Doctor                                   ‫الدكتور‬

    King of …                                ... ‫ملك‬

    Prophet                                    ‫النبي‬

      uler of …                             ... ‫حاكم‬

    …


   A.1.3. Dates: If present, mirror the use of dates in the Romanized field: Use
    Common Era dates in Western Arabic numerals (or, where present, Hijri dates in
    Western Arabic numerals). Use Arabic qualifiers, and expand alternative dates,
    thus:


    b.                                   ‫ولد \ ولدت‬

    ca.                                         ‫نحو‬

    d.                                           .‫ت‬

    fl.                           ‫كان حيا \ كانت حية‬

    1524 or 5                        7626 ‫3267 أو‬
      A.1.4. Relator terms: Use Arabic relator terms, thus:


       au. / author                              ‫مؤلف‬

       ed./ editor                              ‫محقق‬

       tr./ translator                          ‫مترجم‬

       …                                            ...


      A.1.5. Form subheadings:


       Selections                              ‫منتخبات‬

       Poems                                     ‫ديوان‬

       Works                            ‫األعمال الكاملة‬

       …


      A.1.6. Arabic qualifiers for language subheadings:


       Arabic               ‫عربي‬
       Dutch              ‫هولندي‬
       English             ‫ إنجليزي‬NOT:           ‫إنكليزي‬
       French              ‫فرنسي‬
       German              ‫ألماني‬
       Hebrew               ‫عبري‬
       Italian             ‫إيطالي‬
       Latin                ‫التيني‬
       Persian             ‫فارسي‬
       Spanish             ‫إسباني‬




A.2. Specific Instructions for Persian language records:


[to be provided]

				
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