Teachers Perception on Classroom Assessment by rmp16006


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        Gilbert M. Mwanzia                                             Patrick Miano
Kenya National Examinations Council                        Kenya National Examinations
          Nairobi, Kenya                                              Nairobi, Kenya


Summative public examinations are reputed to have very little contribution to the
improvement of teaching and learning process. Teacher’s assessment on the other hand
is an ongoing process in teaching and learning situations and is used mainly for
diagnostic purposes. Teacher’s assessment provides feedback on challenges that should
be addressed to ensure effective provision and acquisition of knowledge and skills
through the school system.

The Kenya National Examinations Council offers public examinations that measure
candidate’s attainment. In its vision to assist schools in offering quality education, it
provides feedback to schools in form of backwash documents both at end of primary and
end of secondary examinations. The paper discusses the role played by these backwash
documents, the structure and effectiveness.

The paper also discusses ways in which school examinations both formal and informal,
and external examinations play a complimentary role to improve the classroom teaching.

The quality of Education system is a very crucial determinant of the economic
development and social stability of the nation.

According to Udo Bude (1995) “The renewed interest in schools is based, among other
reasons, on the results of a number of studies that seem to indicate that, under certain
conditions of modernization and social improvement, schools may play a useful role if
they provide education of sufficient quality”.
He also points out that “School is an accepted vehicle for societal transformation as long
as it succeeds in providing the three Rs (reading, writing and arithmetic) and the basic
skills and knowledge for participating actively in society”.

In essence Udo Bude perceives quality education as that which provides competences
that are relevant to the needs of society.
Bunyi (2001) expresses similar views. Findings in her research revealed that in the
perception of the key stakeholders (pupils, parents, teachers, students teachers,
educational planners and managers, educational researchers and members of the civil
society), quality education has two components:
       1.      What is learned, i.e. the knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes acquired
               through schooling and
       2.      How well what is learned is learned i.e. the levels of competency attained.

Consequently, for assessment to play a role in fostering quality education, it must pay
attention to the goals of education in terms of what is taught and learned and the levels at
which the knowledge and skills acquired by the learner are assessed.           Assessment
therefore serves as a monitoring and evaluation tool in curriculum implementation. If
properly used, assessment, whether external or institutional based can serve as a tool for
enhancing the quality of teaching and learning.
What then is assessment?

According to Taylor (1984) Assessment refers to the gathering of relevant information
to help individual (teacher) make decisions regarding appropriate goals and objectives,
teaching strategies and programme placement.

Assessment in education is essentially a measurement process.          Attainment testing
attempts to measure what the student knows or can do and is usually related to the
syllabus of a course, which the student has followed. Predictive testing, on the   other
hand attempts to assess what the student might learn or learn to do successfully given
suitable tuition.

Assessment of attainment may include the use of a number of different assessment
methods.      Methods available include written examinations, practical and oral
examinations, projects and assignments during the course. Each of these approaches to
assessment provides information, which the education providers and the learners
themselves can use to decide the interventions that can be employed to improve
educational attainment.

There are many reasons of assessing attainment.         The purpose of assessment helps
        in deciding the type of assessment to be used. However, the purposes of the
        assessment can be listed according to their relevance for the student, the teacher
        or institution, the employer and the public. Christine Ward (1980) has given the
following as some of the purposes served by assessment.

2.1.1. For the Student
                       An incentive to study the course.
                       A means of indicating areas on which he needs further study.
                       A recognition of getting his knowledge or skills and of the effort
                        he has put into his course.
                     A means of entry to a higher course or a later stage of the same

2.1.2 For the Teacher/Institution
              Feed back
           Part of teaching process, indicating areas on which further tuition is needed.
           To teach more efficiently the teacher needs feedback in finding out if what has
           been taught has been learned, whether a particular approach to a particular
           topic was successful or whether to use a different method. The teacher needs
           to know whether or not the pupils have understood the topic properly so that
           misconceptions can be corrected.

      Monitoring Progress
   Monitoring progress of individual pupils or classes is important. Progress of parallel
   sets of classes under different teachers may need to be compared as well as checks on
   the progress of individuals or pupils in a class for the teacher to know who may need
   remedial teaching. When pupils have to be allocated to different streams, their levels
   of attainment in particular subjects are factors to be considered. Attainment records
   are also useful to parents who may want to know the progress being made from year
   to year and to the new teachers who may want to be acquainted with their pupils
   (School council publications 1975).

      Evaluation of Materials
When a teacher may have to compare new teaching materials (text books and apparatus)
with the old. He needs to have basis on which to make judgment on whether the school
should or should not acquire new teaching materials.

2.1.3 For the employer and the Public
Records of school attainment are important to those outside the    school. There is need
for keeping parents informed about school progress. Employers want a guide in form of
certificates or leaving certificates from pupils looking for jobs. Entry to higher levels of
education may be dependent on satisfactory completion         of an earlier stage. It is
responsibility of teacher to make sure that this information is available to assist pupils in
their future careers.

To the general public it is a means of safeguarding public safety and health by restricting
employment in some areas (e.g. aircraft maintenance, electrical installation). Assessment
also ensures adequate standards of work on part of those who serve public (e.g. car
servicing) and evaluation of courses financed by the taxpayer.

Considering assessment as a necessary part of the teaching/learning process, it therefore
requires assessment of parts of syllabus be undertaken during the course while there is
still time for remedial teaching.

3.0 Constrains in the Teacher Assessment of learner achievement

The system of assessment at all levels in primary and secondary schools consists of
basically classroom tests constructed by class teachers.
The tests may be given any time - weekly, monthly, in the middle of the term or at the
end of the term.

The purpose is to prepare reports on student progress upon which decisions can be made
on whether to pass a pupil to next class or not. The other purpose is to inform parents of
their children’s performance.
Many primary Schools also administer continuous assessment tests (CAT). Schools with
low enrolment, coupled with a wealth of teaching and learning resources, often apply
CAT fairly effectively as teacher only have a small number of learners to give attention.
At the same time they have requisite resources with which to carry out necessary
interventions. Such schools are usually privately owned and are managed professionally.
In contrast the high enrolment and scarcity of facilities in many public schools make it
difficult for teachers to effectively carry out continuous assessment.
In Kenya, provision of free primary education has made the situation worse. Free primary
education has resulted in high enrolment, leading to a tremendous increase in class sizes
in most schools. The average class size is currently estimated at 60:1, which has made it
difficult for teachers to observe learners on a one to one basis. As a consequence of these
developments teachers’ reporting of learner progress is less than wholesome as it is
dominantly based on performance in classroom tests. Needless to say, objective reporting
needed by providers of education to guide interventions in their efforts has been a
casualty of the unprecedented growth in enrollment.

Even where teachers use written tests, many of the tests they develop are wanting in
quality. The tests are usually wanting in originality of style, clarity of language and
abilities tested. Some teachers do not even bother to develop their own tests. Instead they
simply lift questions from past national examinations or from commercial publications.
Rather than help improve the learning process, these practices seem to encourage rote
learning, which both the teacher and the pupils believe would improve performance in
national examinations.

Thus, a combination of large class size, teacher’s inability to develop suitable assessment
instruments and endemic shortage of suitable and sufficient educational resources
explains why teachers are unable to effectively assess their pupils and collect information
that would help them improve teaching.

Apart from lack of educational resources, many teachers’ inability to develop suitable
assessment instrument is a result of the shortcomings of the teacher training programmes
which give little emphasis on acquisition of assessment skills. There are many teachers in
our schools who cannot apply the principles of assessment for diagnostic purposes
because they were not given sufficient training.

A growing phenomenon in the Kenya education sector today is the stiff competition for
good performance at all levels of education. The competition is not only between
individual learners and schools but also between various geographical zones. The
competition has led to a mushrooming of zonal examining panels formed by schools in a
given zone or districts. By pooling resources together schools in a zone finance
development of examination instruments which individual schools administer to their
learners. The tests target several levels, but especially those that are near the top of the
primary and secondary education cycles.

Since most of the panel members are drawn from teachers who mark national
examinations, the tests they develop bear all the characteristics of standardised tests.
When the feedback from these tests is used to inform teachers’ approaches to teaching the
results are always positive. Also, arising from the appointment of the most competent
teachers to the panels, other teachers in the zone learn from their experience.

4.0    Role of KNEC in enhancing quality Education.

The Kenya     National Examinations Council was established in 1980 by an Act of
Parliament to conduct School and Post-school examination and award certificates to
successful candidates. Examinations and Certification are major indicators of quality of
One of the strategies employed by KNEC to improve the quality of education in Kenya is
through effective assessment. This is in line with the Mission Statement of KNEC, which
is, 'to objectively test and evaluate the curriculum and to enhance and safeguard
globally acceptable certification standards".

This strategy is accomplished within the broad framework provided by the Council's
Vision which is, "Efficient Testing for Quality Education". Efficient testing involves
maintaining relevance, fairness, validity, reliability and equity in all examinations.

KNEC plays a strategic role in national development since examinations and certification
are central to education and training as a means of evaluating levels of achievement for
further education, training and employment.
5.0 Shortcomings of Feedback from external (public) Examinations.

Public examinations refer to any assessment that is set, moderated, administered and
marked by any agent other than the teacher. These examinations are usually administered
at the end of the course and are meant for selection purposes. They do not provide the
teacher with immediate feedback on the progress of the learner during the study.
However, as discussed later in this paper their results may be used to provide feedback
for future use.

The assessment of the implementation of the curriculum in Kenya is too dominated by
terminal examinations principally, the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE)
and the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). These examinations are
administered nationally to test a wide range of subjects as stipulated in the curriculum.
However, both give insufficient attention to formative monitoring. As a result, schools
ignore aspects of learning that are not tested but yet stipulated in the curriculum.

Both the KCPE and KCSE examinations are mainly used for selection and certification
and this makes the system biased towards further education and training. The country
does not have an internal system of monitoring learning achievements of competencies at
other levels of the education cycle. The absence of a system for the national monitoring
of achievement of learning outcomes, therefore, denies the country data and information
that could be used for improvement of education.

6.0 Using School Based Assessment (SBA) to Improve Instruction and Learning

The 1988 Presidential Working Party on Education and Manpower Training for the next
decade and beyond was emphatic on the need to incorporate School Based Assessment in
national certification.
The new curriculum at the time (first examined at end of the primary cycle in 1985 and
1989 at the secondary cycle) had made provision for the existing assessment procedures
to incorporate SBA especially for vocational and practical subjects offered in the
secondary cycle. To date this has been fairly successfully by the KNEC despite the
challenges associated with it.

As a tool for generating information to improve the learning/teaching processes, school
based assessment has several advantages, but also challenges.

SBA offers the classroom teacher an opportunity to obtain constant flow of information
about the student’s progress or lack of it, and perhaps the reasons why. It offers the
teacher the opportunity for remedial teaching and serves as a means to systematic
implementation and evaluation of curriculum.

When this important aspect of assessment is lacking the quality of teaching and learning
will be affected and hence the quality of education is seriously compromised. There are
several assumptions that have to be made when considering SBA for certification. Some
of these include ensuring that:

       The teachers are qualified in assessment methods;
       The teachers are honest;
       Teachers have enough time to construct and administer assessment instruments
        and keep proper students scores/records;
       The instruments constructed and scores awarded are valid and reliable;
       The class sizes are manageable.

It is important to note that SBA can enhance the quality of learning if used appropriately.
SBA individualizes the curriculum and focuses on assessing the application of knowledge
in a real world situation.
The role of assessment should not be seen as being primarily that of a judge to determine
the future of the learner but that of being an integral part of the teaching and learning
process. The purpose of SBA should be seen as that of improving quality of teaching and
it should therefore play a complimentary role to external assessment as it can be used to
assess areas that external tests cannot assess. Such areas include attitude, interest and
other human attributes that are difficult to assess using public examinations.

Knowledge about students achievement obtained through SBA in any education system
could be used to make many important decisions about changes in the curricula or
allocation of resources that could have far reaching positive implications on quality of
education though we may not have a great deal of evidence that these changes take place.

When considering what role assessment might play in improving the quality of education,
it is important to distinguish between SBA and external (public) examinations. In both
cases assessment is concerned with the performance of individual students. However, the
differences arise in the way individual student’s data are aggregated and in the use that is
made of the data.

For the purpose of obtaining data on learner achievement for use in national certification
at the end of the secondary cycle, SBA is applied to evaluate project work carried out by

During the conduct of the project, teachers are required to guide learners to identify and
develop suitable methods of carrying it out. The project scores in most cases vary from
subject to subject and are used in the final grading of candidates at end of the secondary
cycle. The subjects that have a project component are Home Science, Art and Design,
Agriculture, Woodwork, Metalwork, Building and Construction, Power Mechanics,
Electricity, Drawing and Design, Aviation Technology and Computer Studies.
Teachers assess their candidates at various stages of the projects. External assessors, who
are teachers from other schools, assess the projects. Teachers and the assessors do a
thorough coordination of the scores in order to standardize the marking.

7.0 Challenges faced by KNEC when dealing with SBA

a.     The cost of assessing projects is exorbitant, yet the contribution of the project
       score to the total score for the paper is relatively insignificant.

b.     Some of the teachers and assessors inflate the scores. In a few cases the scores
       submitted have at times been proved to have been faked.

c.     Lack of uniform facilities in schools undermines the reliability and validity of
       assessment results obtained from SBA since candidates may not be in a position
       to produce work of comparable standards.

d.     Inaccurate data transcription and recording of SBA information by all parties
       involved in SBA process (eg. wrong coding of subjects, interchanging marks,
       omission of candidates’ numbers, incomplete scores).

e.      Lack of adequate qualified personnel for specialized subjects like Computer
       Studies to assess projects.

f.      Interference by School Administration on SBA processes.


8.1 Feedback from the Marking exercise

The Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) examination is mainly scored
(marked) by machines except for English composition and insha in Kiswahili, which are
manually scored. Each year examiners, who are mainly primary school teachers,
converge at designated marking centers to take part in this exercise. They spend at least a
day discussing the merits and demerits of some carefully selected essays before marking
starts. Much attention is given to the subtle points of difference, which make one essay
worth a few marks more or a few marks less, than the essay adjacent to it on either side in
the standard scale. Because the frame of reference they are using is a set of real essays by
the candidates, rather than a set of generalised points in a formal marking scheme,
examiners very quickly begin to relate the discussions to their own work as teachers of
English/Kiswahili, and hence to formulate ideas as to how they could improve standards
of prose writing in their own schools. Somerset, (1981), notes that, since the examiners
are drawn from all over the country this backwash effect may play a significant role in
improving teaching of the subject.

Similarly the marking of secondary examinations may also provide great opportunity for
the examiners; majority of who are Secondary school teachers, to re-evaluate their
teaching methods in their subject areas. The marking exercise takes longer time than that
of the KCPE and the coordination involves a more thorough discussion of specific
content areas. The effect of the knowledge and skills acquired in this exercise on teacher's
work in the classroom is difficult to quantify but it certainly has an added value to the
teaching and learning. The participation becomes more than a marking exercise; it is an
intensive period of in-service as well.

Subject specialists in KNEC are of opinion that the quality of answers has improved over
the years but whether this is as a result of the experience gained by the teachers during
marking needs to be researched on.

8.2. Feedback from Ranking of Schools

For many years ranking of schools and candidates has been a controversial issue not only
in Kenya but also in many other countries, including those in the developed world. The
purpose of ranking schools is to generate debate that would, hopefully, lead to
improvement in education provision. Ranking of Schools is expected to:
               a.     Motivate schools that are highly ranked so that they can maintain
                      their good work.
               b.     Challenge the less well performing schools into improved
               c.     Encourage healthy or positive competition between schools and
               d.     Prompt school inspectors and supervisors into endeavoring to
                      make more frequent visits to schools under their care.
               e.     Sensitize   school    communities,     the   parents   and   teachers
                      associations to take more interests in their schools and ensure
                      provision of needed resources.

In an endeavor to be ranked higher the teacher will strife to improve his teaching
approaches. Whereas ranking of candidates may have similar motivational impact as the
ranking of schools, it is of greater personal value to those who are highly ranked. It
bestows esteem and opens doors of opportunity in the search for further education or

8.3 Feedback Reports.
To maximize the positive wash back effect of its examinations, the council has adopted
an effective reporting approach of performance of candidates. At the time of release of
results a comprehensive report is issued on performance trends in all the subjects. This is
soon followed by preparations of comprehensive Newsletters analyzing performance in
every subject with suggestions of how the weaknesses displayed can be rectified. The
targeted consumers of these reports are teachers, school managers, curriculum
developers, subject inspectors, parents and other interested stakeholders.

The main objectives of the feedback reports are to:

       a.      Give a detailed analysis of candidate’s performance in each of the KCPE
               and KCSE examination papers.
       b.      Provide the classroom teachers with information about pupils' weaknesses
               in the course content.
       c.      Provide suggestions on better teaching and learning methods that can
               enhance performance.
       d.      Give teachers advice on how they can re-orientate their teaching strategies
               to enhance pupils learning and performance.

8.3.1. KCPE Newsletter

The newsletter contains reports on performance of candidates in each subject and is
published after the release of end of primary cycle results. It highlights the items that
were found difficult by the candidates and also advances possible reasons for poor
performance. Teachers and learners are advised on the interventions that are needed to
improve performance in the identified areas.

Although the intention of this publication is to provide information which can be used to
improve the teaching/learning practices, available evidence seems to indicate that the
publication does not reach more than a fraction of       the targeted audience. Part of the
reason for this is that, unlike in the past, when the publication used to be distributed free
to schools, they are now required to meet part of the production cost. Main features of the Newsletter:

                      Information about candidature.
                      Candidates raw mean performance by gender.
                      Performance per item in terms of percentage of candidates scoring
                       correctly in each question.
                      Discussion of items with facility index of 30% or less.
In languages selected samples of compositions that scored the whole range of marks,
from the lowest 03/40 say to 38/40 are included together with comments on errors made
and possible reasons for the score. Analysis of Candidates Performance

In determining the performance of candidates item analysis is used. Item Analysis
involves determining the facility index (f-index) and discrimination index (d-index) of
each question in a paper for the chosen sample population of candidates. A good question
is considered to be one that has a facility index of between 30% and 80%. Any question
therefore with a facility index of below 30% is considered to have proved difficult to the
candidates and one above 80% is considered to have been easy. It is in this way that the
item analysis programme picks out questions with low facility indices for discussion in
the KCPE Newsletter.

In the discussions of the questions that candidates performed poorly, a response is given
for every question showing the percentage of candidates from the sample population
choosing the various responses to the question.
The following is an example of a question in Science as reported in a KCPE Newsletter;

       Which one of the following sets of characteristics are descriptions of a wind-
       pollinated flower?

           A Fewer large pollen grains, petals sometimes absent.
           B Fewer large pollen grains, large loosely attached anthers.
           C Small in size, large loosely attached anthers, sticky stigma.
           D Small in size, large loosely attached anthers, petals sometimes absent.

Response Pattern

         Option                               A           B            C           D*
           % Choosing Option                   9.10         24.77        36.69      28.62
           Mean Mark in Other Questions        22.94        23.59        23.12      28.25

       Important to note was the assortment of characteristic of insect pollinated flowers.
       Candidates had to sort out those characteristics that belong to wind pollinated
       flowers only.

       Sticky stigma is characteristics of insect pollinated flowers hence option C, which
       was chosen by majority of candidates could not be correct. Those who chose B
       did not also know that fewer pollen grains is a characteristic of insect pollinated

       Lack of knowledge about characteristics of the two types of flowers led to guess
       work as is evident with the choices.

       An asterisk (*) on an option denotes the correct response to the question. Also
       under the response pattern, information on the mean mark of candidates in other
       questions is given. This is the average score on the rest of the items for each
       group of candidates choosing an option and it is important as it shows the way
       each group of candidates choosing a specific option scored in the other questions
       in the paper.

       As a means of getting the feedback on the relevance and effectiveness of the
       feedback reports teachers are requested to comment and/or make suggestions that
       can be considered for inclusion in future reports.

8.3.2 KCSE Feedback Reports
The main features of the KCSE reports are:
           Overall candidates’ performance.
           Questions candidates found difficult.
           Discussion of the weaknesses in the candidates’ responses.
          Expected responses.
          Advice to teachers.

The report also highlights the areas of the syllabus not adequately covered as evidenced
by the poor performance by candidates in these areas and gives recommendations on how
such areas could be managed or taught better. Identification of Questions for Discussion
At KCSE level the papers are manually marked, unlike in the KCPE where scoring is
mainly done by use of machine. Consequently data on candidate’s performance is not as
easily available at KCSE as in the KCPE. Thus the Council relies mainly on the chief
examiners reports and sampling the candidate’s scripts. Chief Examiners Reports
During marking the examiners provide crucial clues on questions in which candidates
perform poorly.     Examiners are exposed to a large sample of the responses to the
questions during the marking exercise and therefore are able to provide the council with
information on weaknesses and misconceptions resulting from poor teaching approaches
and inadequate syllabus coverage. Examiners are also experienced teachers and are able
to detect candidates’ weaknesses and content areas requiring attention. Sampling Candidates Scripts
The Council samples scripts for analysis. Questions or parts of questions that are scored
below average (50%) are sorted out for scrutiny. Subject specialists and research officers
scrutinize the responses of the items individually to determine the nature of the weakness
in the responses.

8.4 Feedback of Post-schools Examinations
The department of Research and Data processing usually compiles reports on
performance statistics at the release of the post school examinations results. These reports
rely heavily on the Chief Examiners recommendations to highlight areas of weakness as
observed during the marking exercise.
The council is faced with the following constrains in this area:

              The number of examination papers is too large compared to the number of
               the subject officers. Officers handle up to 100 or more papers in a year,
               which makes it difficult to get time to research and write the reports.
              Subject officers supervise the development of papers that are not in their
               area of specialization and therefore have little or no expert advice to give.
              Some courses are examined two or three times in a year, which gives the
               overloaded officers no room to do the reports.

Kenya National Examinations Council then hands over Chief Examiners and
recommendations to the Directorate of Quality Assurance and Standards (QAS) in the
Ministry of Education Science and Technology.           It is hoped that based on these
recommendations appropriate advice is given to the teachers/lecturers to improve on their
teaching approaches.

8.5 Constraints Faced by KNEC In Preparation of Feedback Reports

The size and method of presentation of the reports has been bulky and costly.            It is
important to consider the production of concise, but informative reports that can quickly
reach the users when there is a fresh recollection of the examinations.
KNEC has managed to produce the reports on yearly basis to reach the schools in at the
latest by June in the year after the examination.

Establishing a KNEC web-site could also considerably reduce the cost of disseminating
such reports. In the meantime the Ministry of Education through the Directorate of
Quality Assurance Standards has come up with a Policy whereby all schools will be
supplied with these reports free of charge from year 2005. This will go a long way in
enabling the feedback documents to reach the intended classroom teacher.

8.0.   Conclusion

This paper has highlighted the various ways in which feedback from the teachers’
assessment and the external examinations are being used to improve classroom teaching.
In particular the paper has outlined the insufficient attention given to formative
monitoring of learning achievement competencies

As long as the teacher training programs do not prepare teachers to face classroom
assessment challenges that will enable them to assess and interpret learners’
competencies, improvement in teaching and learning cannot be achieved.

There is need for establishment of a National Assessment System that will monitor
achievements of competencies at all levels of education cycle. The absence of such a
system denies the country the data and information that could be used in improving the
quality of education.

1.   Udo Bude (1995), Strategies for using Information to Improve Learning
     Conditions and Instructional Practices at the School Level DSE

2    D. S. Frith, H G Macintosh (1986), A Teacher’s Guide to Assessment.

3.   Evans/Methuen (1975), Educational Schools Council Examinations Bulletin 3 –
     Assessment and Testing in the Secondary School.

4.   David Satrerly , Assessment in Schools.

5.   G. W. Bunyi (2001), School Based Assessment: An Unattainable. Good       in
     Kenya’s Education System?

6.   Ronald L. Taylor, Assessment of Exceptional Student.

7.   Christine Ward (1980), Designing a Scheme of Assessment.
8.     (MOEST September 2003), Education Sector Strategic Plan 2003-2007,

9.     David M. Weerhe (2001), Utilizing School Based Assessment for Improving
       Instruction and Learning: An Overview of constraints and Challenges          in
       Operationalizing SBA.

10.    P. Wasanga & G. G. Ingolo (2001), SBA – KNEC Experience at KCSE Level.
       19th – AEAA Annual Conference, Nairobi .

11.    Prof. J. C. Kiptoon (2001). Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education, Science
       and Technology. Closing speech at the 19th AEAA, Annual Conference, Nairobi.

12.    H.C.A. Somerset (1981). Examination Reform in KNEC

13.    Kenya Education Strategic Sector Plan ( 2003-2007)

14.   Obadiah M. Wamai (1991), Scratching the surface (MEd. Thesis).

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