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					Using Assistive
Technology
Implementation Plans
Ted S. Hasselbring
Margaret E. Bausch
Melinda Jones Ault
University of Kentucky




         Orlando, FL
       January 19, 2006
NATRI
Introduction
    Overview of the National Assistive Technology
     Research Institute
    Consideration to Implementation
    Documentation of AT in IEP
    AT Recommendations in IEP Meetings
    Data on AT Implementation Plan Use
    Components of AT Implementation Plan
    Sample form
    Feedback from Participants


The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Introduction


What is NATRI?

National Assistive Technology
Research Institute




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
NATRI
Background
    Funded by the U.S. Department of
     Education, Office of Special Education
     Programs
    Cooperative Agreement
    Funded October 1, 2000
    4 year project-extended for 18 months
    $2.8 million award




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
NATRI
Project Goals
 To examine factors related to the
     planning, development, implementation,
     and evaluation of AT services in
     schools

 To disseminate the findings of the
     research in ways that will assist school
     personnel to develop or improve AT
     policies and practices for students with
     disabilities



The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
NATRI
7 Proposed Research Areas
1- Status of AT use in schools and the role it provides in education
                              2- Policies & procedures in the development
                                 and delivery of AT services

                                       3- AT decision-making by IEP teams
                                       4- Integration of AT use in learning
                                          environments (facilitate instruction,
                                          access to curriculum)
                                     5- Effects of AT use on academic, social,
                                        functional performance of students
 6- Training and technical support needed by persons
 implementing AT
7- Extent to which IHEs are developing AT knowledge and skills


The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
State Case Studies




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
State Case Studies
Research Questions
  What is the state-of-the-practice of AT service
    delivery in 10 states in the nation?
                             How do school districts plan and implement AT
                              programs?

                                What policies and practices support the
                                  use of AT in the learning environment?

                                   What AT training is needed by personnel
                                      providing AT services?

                           How are AT decisions made in IEP meetings?




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
State Case Studies in AT
Participants


                                                              States:
                                                              CA, FL, KY, OR, TX, VA, WI,
                                                              KS, MA, MT


                                                       Subjects:
                                                       State Department of Education
                                                       Personnel, Local Education
                                                       Agency Personnel, School
                                                       Personnel, Classroom Teachers,
                                                       Parents, and Students



The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
State Case Studies in AT
What is the State-of-the-Practice of AT
Service Delivery?

 Participating states (10)
 Multiple districts in each state (43)
 Local data collectors (216)
 Multiple students in each
     district (322)



The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
State Case Studies in AT
Procedures
    On-Site Data Collection
             Train team of local AT data collectors (216)
             Select target students using AT (322)
             Conduct classroom observations (305)
             Attend IEP meetings (274)
             Interview teachers, parents, and students (695)




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
State Case Studies in AT
Procedures - Interviews
    Participants
             268 Teacher interviews
             274 Family interviews
             153 Student interviews
    Teacher format
             Audio taped interviews
             Structured to open-ended
             Asked questions in 14 categories




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
State Case Studies in AT
14 Categories                         of Interview                     Questions
    Overall Service Delivery                               Consideration of AT
     Plan                                                   Assessment of AT Needs
    Policies/Guidelines                                    AT Implementation
    State Initiatives                                      Evaluation of
    Personnel                                               Effectiveness
    Training                                               Family/Consumer
    IEP Meeting                                             Responsiveness
    Documentation in IEP                                   Evaluation of AT Services
                                                            Funding




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Documentation of AT
The Law Says…
Recent Legislation
 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    Amendments of 1997 (P.L. 105-17)
         Includes a statement that ALL students with an IEP
            must be considered for Assistive Technology




 Individuals with Disabilities Education
    Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004)
         Maintained the definition of AT as well as the
            accompanying stipulations that AT be considered
            when developing IEPs
The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Documentation of AT
QIAT Says…
                                        Quality Indicators for
              QIAT                      Assistive Technology

              The education agency has
              guidelines for documenting AT
              needs in the IEP and requires their
              consistent application.
              One common error of documenting
              assistive technology in the IEP is teams do
              not know how to document AT in the IEP.

              www.qiat.org

The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Documentation of AT
Our Data Say…
 Does the state or district have documents that
   assist you in writing IEPs or conducting IEP
   meetings on issues specific to AT?




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
  Documentation of AT
      Teacher Responses
Percentage of Teachers with AT-Specific IEP Guidelines

100
                                                                                           No
 90
                                                                     N=81
 80
 70                              54
 60
 50                                                                                        Yes
                                              34
 40
 30                                                       12
 20
 10                                                                                        Not Sure

  0



      The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
“No” Responses
Have IEP Information But Not AT-Specific
  “For the IEP meetings, there is a lot of
      trainings or manuals or workshops, there is a
      lot going on, but not specifically for our
      assistive technology.” Florida teacher

    “Our district gives us a lot of information
      on how to write a good IEP, like they give us
      sample IEPs, but I don’t honestly remember
      ever seeing a sample one that you checked
      AT with, and were shown how to do the
      documentation.” Wisconsin teacher


 The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
“No” Responses
Reliance On AT Experts
 “We have documents that we follow to make
     sure the IEP meeting follows a certain format.
     And then, specific to AT issues, we would
     make sure that we covered with the AT
     coordinator.” Kentucky teacher

   “We would just call an expert in from the
     district to come in and help us if we were
     not familiar with what is going on.” Kentucky
     teacher




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
“Yes” Responses
Training On AT-Specific IEP Information
 “Yes, new teachers to our district or new
     special education teachers go through
     training through the district that goes through
     every detail of the IEP.” Kentucky teacher

IEP Software with AT-Specific Information

   “We use the … Basic Goals and Objectives
     Writer and that incorporates a lot of AT
     usage.” California teacher



The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
“Yes” Responses
AT-Specific IEP Information Included
Within A Larger Manual

 “We have some guides that there’s usually a
     section about AT and they’re from the
     district’s guide.” California teacher

  “Yes, I believe within the … special
    education manual there is a section that
    refers to AT.” Kentucky teacher




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
“Yes” Responses
AT Information In A Stand-Alone Manual

 “Just the AT tech guide would be available.”
     Montana teacher


  “We have a manual and we have ongoing
      training.” Kansas                teacher




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Documentation of AT
Teacher Interview
 How and where in the IEP do you document AT
   and AT consideration?

        Documentation of AT in the IEP
        Documentation of the consideration of AT in the IEP




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Documentation of AT
The Law Says…



   IDEA 2004 requires assistive technology
    be made available to a child with a
    disability if required as a part of the
    child’s--
            Special education
            Related services
            Supplementary aids and services (Sec. 300.105)

   The law does not specifically stipulate
    where AT should be documented in the IEP

The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Documentation of AT
QIAT Says…
                                        Quality Indicators for
              QIAT                      Assistive Technology

               Assistive technology is included in
               the IEP in a manner that provides a
               clear and complete description of
               the devices and services to be
               provided and used to address
               student needs and achieve expected
               results.
               www.qiat.org

The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
  Documentation of AT
      Our Data Say…
      Percentage of IEP Areas Where AT is Documented
                                                                                           Accomodations &
100                                                                                        Modifications

 90                                                                                        Related Services
                                                                   N=126
 80
                                                                                           Special Factors
 70
 60                                                                                        Specially Designed
 50                                                                                        Instruction

 40                   34      29                                                           Goals & Objectives

 30                                   21
                                                                                           Supplementary
 20                                           10 10           9                            Aides & Services
                                                                     6
 10                                                                                        Present Level of
                                                                                           Performance
  0



      The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Consideration of AT
The Law Says…
     IDEA 2004 stipulates the IEP team must consider
      special factors including whether the child needs
      assistive technology devices and services. (Sec.
      300.324)




     Minimal compliance is documenting in the IEP the
      response to the statement “Does the child need
      assistive technology devices and services?”




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Consideration of AT
QIAT Says…
                                       Quality Indicators for
            QIAT                       Assistive Technology

               The assistive technology
               consideration process and results
               are documented in the IEP and
               include a rationale for the decision
               and supporting evidence.
               www.qiat.org



The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
  Consideration of AT
      Our Data Say…
         Documentation of Consideration of AT

100                                                                                        Narrative
 90
                                                                     N=81
 80
 70                                                                                        Checkbox
                             54                                                            Only
 60
 50
                                        33                                                 Not Sure
 40
 30
 20                                                 9
                                                               4                           None
 10
  0



      The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
AT Decision-Making
AT Recommendations in IEP Meetings

  AT Recommendations Made in IEP Meetings                                              % of
                                                                                     Meetings
  Acquisition of AT assigned                                                           79%
  Student training recommended/scheduled                                               71%
  Trial periods before purchase
                                                                                       66%
  recommended
  Teacher training recommended/scheduled                                               62%
  Follow-up evaluation scheduled                                                       43%
  Family training recommended/scheduled                                                42%
  Funding sources discussed                                                            38%

The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
AT Implementation Plans
QIAT Says…
                                     Quality Indicators for
           QIAT                      Assistive Technology
           Assistive technology implementation
           proceeds according to a
           collaboratively developed plan.
           Intent: Following IEP development, all those
           involved in implementation work together to
           develop a written action plan that provides
           detailed information about how the AT will
           be used in specific educational settings, what
           will be done, and who will do it.
           www.qiat.org

The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
AT Implementation Plans
Our Data Say…
Some schools develop written plans to guide
how the AT will be implemented following the IEP
meeting for individual students. Does your
school do anything similar to this and what is
included?

        Who is responsible for implementing the AT plan?
        Is there a required or recommended form used by
        your state for a written AT plan?
        What is included in the plan?




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
  AT Implementation Plans
      Teacher Responses
      Percent of Teachers Using AT Implementation Plans

100                                                                                        No AT Plan
 90
                                                                   N=116
 80                                                                                        Use IEP
 70
 60                       52
                                                                                           Not Sure
 50
 40                                 27
 30                                                                                        Yes
 20                                          10         8
 10                                                               3
                                                                                           Sometimes
  0



      The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Teacher Responses
School Has Enough Forms
 “No, we have enough forms already, so we
     don’t need another one.” Montana teacher


People Would Not Use It
   “If there is, I don’t think people would
     adhere to it. I have never heard of one”
     California teacher




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Teacher Responses
Depend On AT Program
 “[The AT team] is very good about following
     through. I just take care of the class, thank
     [goodness!]” California teacher


IEP          is    Sufficient
   “Pretty much what we do with assistive
     tech is written into the IEP and that’s what
     we follow. If we felt the need to develop
     something more elaborate then we could
     do that, but usually it’s pretty specific in
     the IEP.” Wisconsin teacher
The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Teacher Responses
More Informal
 “I don’t know of a specific plan that we have
  or it seems like it’s way more informal than
  that.” California teacher
 “Usually at the IEP meeting, we just talk
  about how we’re going to use it and then as
  soon as the IEP meeting is over, that’s when
  we start using it however we said we
  would.” California teacher
 I: “It’s pretty loose here and everyone just
  kind of does what is needed.”
  R: “Yeah and if somebody is not there then
  everybody is calling that person to see
  what’s going on.” California teacher
The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Teacher Responses
Individualize Use Of Plan
 “I don’t think it’s unrealistic to think that
     someone who is using something like a
     DynaVox that’s going to require training by
     staff, training by parents, expenses- for that
     staff to have a plan. As far as my students are
     concerned, I have not needed to develop one.”
     Virginia teacher

   “In some specific cases we have written into
     the IEP some specific implementation as far as
     some training or making sure that things are
     specifically in the modifications or in the
     objectives so that somebody is held
     accountable to that.” Kentucky teacher
The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Teacher Responses
Plan Is Beneficial
 “No [we don’t] have a specific form, although
     that would be a good idea. Without a specific
     form to define all those questions, it’s
     nebulous.” Massachusetts teacher

 “Most definitely [need a plan], because our AT
     specialist can only be available just a few
     hours each month at my school.” Kentucky teacher




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
Teacher Responses
Plan Is Beneficial
 I: “I think it needs to be in the implementation
     plan even as specific as who is going to buy it.
     Once you have all that stuff in writing it will be
     easier to manage services, manage how much
     it is being used, and just makes people more
     responsible for what their role is in the
     implementation. Kentucky teacher

 “Probably would be a good idea. Somebody
     would probably kill me for saying that (laugh).
     [They will say] then you write it!” Kentucky teacher



The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
AT Implementation Plans
Teacher Responses to…
“What Is Included In The Plan?”
 Type of AT
 Setting
 Timelines
 Responsible parties
 Integration into Curriculum
 Training conducted
 Troubleshooting
 Data Collection
 Evaluation




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
AT Implementation Plans
Sample Plan




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
AT Implementation Plans
Participation
   Discussion
   Feedback on Implementation Plan




The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky
                             Websites
             http://natri.uky.edu


                                      e-mail
               natri@coe.uky.edu


The National Assistive Technology Research Institute at the University of Kentucky

				
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