Docstoc

Technology Trainers

Document Sample
Technology Trainers Powered By Docstoc
					                       Department of Education


       Safe Use of Machinery in Technology



                               Trainer’s Guide

Name                                  Course Codes
                                         VBQU618
                                         VBQU619
                                         VBQU620
Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   2
Contents

Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 5
VBQU618 Apply OH&S principles to technology teaching ................................................ 7
VBQU619 Safely operate and maintain wood working machines ...................................... 9
VBQU620 Safely operate and maintain metal working machines ................................... 11
Trainer Requirements (Day 1) .............................................................................................. 13
Trainer Requirements (Days 2-4) ......................................................................................... 14

Day 1 - VBQU618 - Apply OHS principles to technology teaching ................................... 15
        Session 1: Occupational Health and Safety Legislation ...................................................... 15
        Session 2: Plant and Equipment........................................................................................... 43
        Session 3: Manual Handling ................................................................................................ 51
        Session 4: Noise ................................................................................................................... 55
        Session 5: Hazardous Substances ........................................................................................ 61
        Session 6: Summary and Feedback ...................................................................................... 69
        Session 7: Assessment and Evaluation ................................................................................ 69




3                                                                   Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   4
Introduction

This qualification has been developed to certify technology studies teachers for the safe operation
of wood and metal fabrication workshops.

Teachers completing this qualification will be able to maintain, set up and operate equipment that
they will be assessed for competence in. The safe conduct and supervision of students in wood
and metal fabrication workshops is the overall outcome.

Trainers using this Trainers‟ Guide must be capable of assessing teachers in safe operation and
maintenance of given plant and equipment.




5                                             Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   6
VBQU618 Apply OH&S principles to technology
teaching

Unit Descriptor                   This unit of competency sets out the knowledge and skills required
                                  for teachers who are registered with or have permission to teach
                                  from the Victorian Institute of Teaching, or students who are
                                  enrolled in an approved course in education to apply OH&S risk
                                  management principles to a technology teaching environment. This
                                  includes understanding a technology teaching environment, from
                                  the perspective of OHS risks, risk controls and supervising the safe
                                  operations.

                                  Persons practicing this competency must be registered with or
                                  have permission to teach from the Victorian Institute of Teaching
                                  (VIT) or its equivalent in other jurisdictions.

Application of the Unit           The unit applies to technology teaching environments in secondary
                                  schools where the learning experience is supervised and conducted
                                  by a registered teacher.


ELEMENT                           PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
Elements describe the essential   Performance criteria describe the required performance needed to demonstrate
outcomes of a unit of             achievement of the element. Where bold italicised text is used, further
competency.                       information is detailed in the required skills and knowledge and/or the range
                                  statement. Assessment of performance is to be consistent with the evidence guide.

1 Maintain awareness of           1.1   Relevant provisions of OH&S legislation, policies, and
  all relevant OH&S risk                guidelines are interpreted correctly as applicable to the
  management                            technology area including consultation provisions, risk
  requirements                          management process, roles of management nominee health
                                        and safety representative (HSR) and technology curriculum
                                        (KLA) leader

                                  1.2   Workplace OH&S documents are identified, periodically
                                        accessed, and their recommendation followed.

                                  1.3   Professional development or safety training is undertaken as
                                        directed

                                  1.4   Contributions to OH&S consultation processes in the
                                        workplace are made within the School‟s policies and
                                        procedures and within the scope of the teacher‟s
                                        responsibilities

                                  1.5   Clarification of role in generating and implementing risk
                                        controls including options for eliminating risk, redesigning
                                        work systems, purchasing safe equipment, obligations,
                                        procedures, and safe working practices is sought when
                                        necessary from appropriate personnel


7                                                    Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
2 Keep immediate                     2.1    OH&S practices relating to a technology teaching
  technology teaching                       environment are implemented in accordance with workplace
  environment safe                          and regulatory procedures.

                                     2.2    Machinery is operated in accordance with workplace
                                            procedures, regulatory requirements, manufacturer‟s
                                            specifications other support

                                     2.3    Risk controls for identified risks in technology are
                                            implemented and maintained

                                     2.4    Potentially hazardous situations are immediately reported to
                                            appropriate personnel

                                     2.5    Emergency procecedures are followed and implemented
                                            according to workplace procedures

                                     2.6    Safe operating rules for a technology teaching environment
                                            are developed, maintained and communicated




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide                                        8
VBQU619 Safely operate and maintain wood working
machines


Unit Descriptor                   This unit of competency sets out the knowledge and skills required for
                                  teachers who are registered with or have permission to teach from the
                                  Victorian Institute of Teaching, or students who are enrolled in an
                                  approved course in education to safely operate and maintain wood
                                  working machines used in secondary schools for technology teaching.

                                  Persons practicing this competency must be registered with or have
                                  permission to teach from the Victorian Institute of Teaching (VIT) or its
                                  equivalent in other jurisdictions.

Pre-requisite Unit(s)             VBQU618 Apply OH&S principles to technology teaching

Application of the Unit           The unit applies to technology teaching environments in secondary
                                  schools where the learning experience is supervised and conducted by a
                                  teacher.


ELEMENT                           PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
Elements describe the essential   Performance criteria describe the required performance needed to demonstrate
outcomes of a unit of             achievement of the element. Where bold italicised text is used, further
competency.                       information is detailed in the required skills and knowledge and/or the range
                                  statement. Assessment of performance is to be consistent with the evidence guide.

1   Prepare wood working            1.1   OH&S requirements for preparing and using wood working
    machine for use                       machines are identified and followed

                                    1.2   Appropriate personal protective equipment is selected,
                                          correctly fitted and used in accordance with Australian
                                          Standards

                                    1.3   Machine is set up to required operating process and setting
                                          with fences/guides locked in position in accordance with
                                          workplace procedures

    Operate wood working            2.1   OH&S requirements for operating wood working machines
2
    machine                               are identified and followed

                                    2.2   Machine start up procedures is carried out to manufacturer‟s
                                          specifications

                                    2.3   Materials feed to the machine, where applicable, is in
                                          accordance with manufacturer‟s specification, safe handling
                                          and work place procedures

                                    2.4   Material set up and held into place, where applicable, for
                                          mobile machine and moving table operations in accordance
                                          with manufacturer‟s specifications


9                                                    Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
                                        2.5    Machine is operated in accordance with its designated
                                               capacity and purpose and to manufacturer‟s specifications
                                               and OH&S requirements

                                        2.6    Machine shut down procedure is carried out to
                                               manufacturer‟s specifications and industry standards

3   Maintain wood working               3.1    OH&S requirements for maintaining wood working machine
    machine and attachments                    and machines are identified and followed

                                        3.2    Machine is maintained through regular servicing to
                                               manufacturer‟s operating manual

                                        3.3    Faults are identified and reported to appropriate personnel
                                               according to work place procedures

                                       3.4     Minor faults are identified and corrected, where applicable

                                       3.5     Machine is shut down to manufacturer‟s specifications and
                                               work place procedures

4   Clean up work area                 4.1     Material that can be reused is collected and stored

                                       4.2     Waste and scrap are removed following work place
                                               procedures

                                       4.3     Machine and work are are cleaned and inspected for
                                               serviceable condition according with work place procedures




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide                                          10
VBQU620 Safely operate and maintain metal
working machines


Unit Descriptor                   This unit of competency sets out the knowledge and skills required for
                                  teachers who are registered with or have permission to teach from the
                                  Victorian Institute of Teaching, or students who are enrolled in an
                                  approved course in education to safely operate and maintain metal
                                  working machines used in secondary schools for technology teaching.
                                  Persons practicing this competency must be registered with or have
                                  permission to teach from the Victorian Institute of Teaching (VIT) or its
                                  equivalent in other jurisdictions.

Pre-requisite Unit(s)             VBQU618 Apply OH&S principles to technology teaching

Application of the Unit           The unit applies to technology teaching environments in secondary
                                  schools where the learning experience is supervised and conducted by a
                                  registered teacher.



ELEMENT                           PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
Elements describe the essential   Performance criteria describe the required performance needed to demonstrate
outcomes of a unit of             achievement of the element. Where bold italicised text is used, further
competency.                       information is detailed in the required skills and knowledge and/or the range
                                  statement. Assessment of performance is to be consistent with the evidence guide.

1 Prepare metal working              1.1    OH&S requirements for preparing and using metal working
  machine for use                           machines are identified and followed

                                     1.2    Education employer‟s operator‟s permit for intended type of
                                            metal working machine to be used is checked for currency
                                            and validity

                                     1.3    Appropriate personal protective equipment is selected,
                                            correctly fitted and used in accordance with Australian
                                            Standards

                                     1.4    Machine is set up to required operating process and setting
                                            with fences/guides locked in position in accordance with
                                            work place procedures

     Operate metal working           2.1    OH&S requirements for operating metal working machines
2
     machine                                are identified and followed

                                     2.2    Machine start up procedures are carried out to
                                            manufacturer‟s specifications

                                     2.3    Materials feed to the machine, where applicable, is in
                                            accordance with manufacturer‟s specification, safe handling
                                            and work place procedures


11                                                   Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
                                         2.4     Material set up and held into place, where applicable, for
                                                 mobile machine and moving table operations in accordance
                                                 with manufacturer‟s specifications

                                         2.5     Machine is operated in accordance with its designated
                                                 capacity and purpose and to manufacturer‟s specifications
                                                 and OH&S requirements

                                         2.6     Machine shut down procedure is carried out to
                                                 manufacturer‟s specifications and industry standards

3 Maintain metal working                 3.1     OH&S requirements for maintaining metal working
  machine and attachments                        machines are identified and followed

                                         3.2     Machine is maintained through regular servicing to
                                                 manufacturer‟s operating manual

                                         3.3     Faults are identified and reported to appropriate personnel
                                                 according to work place procedures

                                         3.4     Minor faults are identified and corrected, where applicable

                                         3.5     Machine is shut down to manufacturer‟s specifications and
                                                 work place procedures

4 Clean up work area                     4.1     Material that can be reused is collected and stored

                                         4.2     Waste and scrap are removed following work place
                                                 procedures

                                         4.3     Machine and work area are cleaned and inspected for
                                                 serviceable condition according with work place procedures




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide                                            12
Trainer Requirements (Day 1)

•    Lead / power board
•    Laptop
•    Data projector
•    Power point presentation

•    Video:   *„Safe Manual Handling – 3 Steps to a Safer Workplace‟
•    Resource books
               Officewise                                       Available from
               Code of Practice for Manual Handling             Worksafe Victoria

•    HAZCHEM safety cards (available from Worksafe Victoria)


* Available from
     Video Education Australasia Pty Ltd
     111A Mitchell Street
     BENDIGO VIC AUSTRALIA 3550
     Ph:      (03) 5442 2433
     Fax:     (03) 5441 1148




13                                            Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Trainer Requirements (Days 2-4)

   Scales – used for weighing, tooling and retaining bolts and grub screws
   Spanners – metric /imperial / wit worth
   Allen keys – metric / imperial
   Screw drivers – Phillips – slotted
   Oil stones – used for honing, tooling
   Cordless drill
   Grinding wheel
   Diamond dresser
   Lubricants – inox – WD40
   Oil diesel used for oil stones
   Setting tools – used to set tooling in machines – ie. thicknesser and surface planner
   Containers for oils
   Files used for metal work
   Rags
   Assessment books / sheets




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide                         14
Day 1 - VBQU618 - Apply OHS
principles to technology teaching

Session 1: Occupational Health and
Safety Legislation


Session          To create a learning environment for participants
Objectives:      and to outline the purpose and format of the
                 course.

                 To provide participants with a background to
                 occupational health and safety legislation in
                 Australia.


Learning         Participants will:
Outcomes:         Describe technology area roles and
                   responsibilities of employers, employees, and
                   contractors as set out in occupational health
                   and safety legislation eg. technology head,
                   health and safety representative, technology
                   teachers, management nominee


Time:            1hour 30 minutes

Method:          Discussion, group discussion, syndicate
                 exercise


Resources:       Job pack, including enrolment form
                 Laptop
                 Data projector
                 Butchers paper
                 Participants training package, including
                 nameplates, pen, marker pen, writing pad




15            Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Display screen, whilst participants are settling in.
                                                                                       Department of Education
Trainer to provide emergency information required as per site, including
evacuation, toilets, canteen etc
                                                                                 Safe Use of Machinery
Outline also arrangements for breaks, tea/coffee, lunch, toilets, phone         in Technology Teaching
etc.

Trainer to introduce self giving an outline of experience and/or
background in occupational health and safety and involvement in the
course
 school, role in their school
                                                                               Program Purpose
 what they hope to get out of the course
                                                                               • To be able to test and demonstrate knowledge in the

 a health or safety issue/hazard in their workplace/ section of the             safe use of static powered machinery
                                                                               • To have an understanding of safety requirements
                                                                                 according to current Victorian legislation
   workplace (trainer to note these on butchers paper and display in
   training room - these can then be referred to at the appropriate time
   during the course)



Overheads‘Learning Outcomes’
                                                                                Learning Outcomes
Outline the structure of the 4 day course, giving details of format and         VBQU618 Apply OHS principles to technology teaching

referring to the timetable. Mention that the course is interactive and          •   Describe technology area roles and responsibilities of
                                                                                    employers, employees, and contractors as set out in
                                                                                    occupational health and safety legislation eg. technology
that participants will get plenty of opportunity to discuss issues in               head, health and safety representative, technology teachers,
                                                                                    management nominee
                                                                                •
small groups.                                                                       Maintain awareness of all relevant OHS Risk Management
                                                                                    requirements for managing risks in technology
                                                                                •   Develop understanding of hazards in technology and the
                                                                                    application to machinery safety
                                                                                •   Learn about the management of hazardous substances in the
The course is designed to equip participants with the knowledge and                 technology teaching environment


skills to deal with health and safety issues/problems within their
workplace and to safely operate typical wood working / metal working
equipment in their school environment.
                                                                                Learning Outcomes
                                                                                VBQU619 Safely operate and maintain woodworking
                                                                                machines
                                                                                • Learn about preparing, operating and maintaining woodwork
                                                                                  machinery, including basic machinery safety
                                                                                • Develop understanding of managing safety in a woodwork
                                                                                  teaching workshop
                                                                                • Implement housekeeping procedures in a technology
                                                                                  teaching environment and safe operation of all common
                                                                                  woodwork machinery




                                                                                Learning Outcomes
                                                                                VBQU619 Safely operate and maintain metalworking
                                                                                machines
                                                                                • Understand metal shop safety in the technology teaching
                                                                                  environment and safe operation of all common metalwork
                                                                                  machinery
                                                                                • Learn about preparing metal working machines for use
                                                                                • Learn about operating, maintaining metal working machines
                                                                                • Implement housekeeping procedures in a teaching metal
                                                                                  shop




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide       16
GROUP ACTIVITY
           Introduce the first activity. This involves
           participants working in small groups to discuss
           one of the following statements:




     1. Safety is just common sense - if people were sensible there
        would be no accidents.
     2. Do you know who your health and safety representatives are
        and their responsibilities?
     3. As a teacher what does “Duty of care” mean to you
     4. Who is the person with the key responsibility in the
        technology aera?



Groups to elect a spokesperson to report back on their views which
may be recorded on butcher‟s paper.
Allow 15 - 20 minutes for discussion.


Trainer’s notes on discussion points
This session is intended to "flush out" many common
misconceptions/attitudes to workplace health and safety. It will
highlight the attitudes that will need to be challenged during the
training course.




17                  Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Statement 1


    Safety is just common sense - if people were sensible there
    would be no accidents.


Ask –What is “common sense?”

We are not born with common sense - it is learned from our
experiences (use the example of small children and hot
plates/matches) - so what is "common" sense for you may be different
for someone else.

     Assume no common sense
     What is common sense? Based on age, experience, gender, culture
      knowledge
     When writing OHS policy don‟t assume
     Outline „your Stove controls‟ and ask participants to correctly
      guess which knob controls which element/burner to reinforce
      „common sense‟ is not so common. Other examples - hydraulic
      controls are best situated so that lifting the control up to lift &
      push to lower. Ask which way a window winder should operate?




Statement 2


    Do you know who your health and safety representatives are
    and their responsibilities?


Teachers may/may not know who their health and safety
representative is and may not know of their role in the work place

Teachers have great responsibilities outline their roles in the school
environment




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide         18
Statement 3

 As a teacher what does “Duty of care” mean to you?


Teachers must work with all parties not only with students but staff,
and volunteers within the school environment.

Explain why it is important to monitor the workplace or processes to
protect all parties.



Statement 4


 Who is the person with the key responsibility in the technology
 area?


Explain why each person must co-operate with all parties in the
workplace.

It is now a shared responsibility not just one person‟s.

Introduce Roben's philosophy - "the responsibility for occupational
health and safety lies with those who create the risks and those that
work with them".




19                  Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Common Law
Explain Common Law.
Based on decisions made in previous court cases.
Duty of Care Duty of care is based on concept of fault and what a
“reasonable person” would do.

Common law is law that is not the result of legislation. Common law
occurs when a person believes they have been wronged by another
party and take the matter to seek justice. It is law made by decisions
of the judges over time. It is a set of rules developed by judges. The
rules are based on precedence.

Refer participants to help box on Common Law and discuss the
meaning of Reasonable. Teachers are seen to be more reasonable than
normal persons and have a higher duty of care – “in locus parentis” –
as a parent.

The judge must follow previous binding decisions (precedence) when
deciding a case.

Common law is different to workers‟ compensation because it looks at
„fault‟ or cases involving negligence. Damages awarded are based on
the degree of fault, age of the „victim‟, extent of pain and suffering
and disfigurement.

To establish negligence a worker must establish that the employer
owes a duty of care to the employee
   the employer has breeched that duty
   the employee is harmed as a result of the breech

Duty of Care
Duty of care requires everything „reasonably practicable‟ to be done to
protect the health and safety of others at the workplace.

This duty is placed on:
   all employers
   their employees
   any others who have an influence on the hazards in a workplace

The latter includes contractors and those who design, manufacture,
import, supply or install plant, equipment or materials used in the
workplace.

„Reasonably practicable‟ means that the requirements of the law vary
with the degree of risk in a particular activity or environment which
must be balanced against the time, trouble and cost of taking measures
to control the risk. It allows the duty holder to choose the most
efficient means for controlling a particular risk from the range of
feasible possibilities preferably in accordance with the „hierarchy of
control‟.

Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   20
This qualification allows those responsible to meet their duty of care at
the lowest cost. It also requires changes in technology and knowledge
to be incorporated but only as and when it is efficient to do so. The
duty holder must show that it was not reasonably practicable to do
more than what was done or that they have taken „reasonable
precautions and exercised due diligence‟.

Specific rights and duties logically flow from the duty of care.

These include:

        provision and maintenance of safe plant and systems of work
        safe systems of work in connection with plant and substances
        a safe working environment and adequate welfare facilities
        information and instruction on workplace hazards and supervision
         of employees in safe work
        monitoring the health of their employees and related records
         keeping
        employment of qualified persons to provide health and safety
         advice
        nomination of a senior employer representative
        monitoring conditions at any workplace under their control and
         management

These are representative of the employer‟s specific duties in all
Australian States and Territories. The „hierarchy of control‟ refers to
the range of feasible options for managing the risk to health and
safety.

The hierarchy normally ranges over the following controls:
          elimination of the hazard; its substitution with a less
          harmful version; its redesign; engineering controls;
          isolation of the hazard from people at the workplace; safe
          work practices; redesigning work systems; and the use of
          personal protective equipment by people at the workplace.
Source: Industry Commission, Work, Health and Safety, Report No. 47, Sept 1995

Under Common law, every employer has the duty to provide:

          reasonably competent staff
          a sufficient number of workers to carry out the work safely
          a reasonably safe place to work and safe access
          proper plant and equipment
          a reasonably safe system or method of work




21                     Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Types of OHS Legislation
See the information in the Workbook & Refer to list in Resource Book


Acts
Acts are laws that are passed by parliament and are very general in        Legislation
terms. For example, under the Occupational Health and Safety               • Acts

Act 2004, employers are required to provide so far as is reasonably        • Regulations
                                                                           • Compliance Codes
practicable for employees, a workplace that is safe and without risks to   • Standards
                                                                           • Guidance
health.                                                                    • Agreements and contracts




Employers can be fined for failing to follow an Act.


Regulations
Regulations are laws written under the authority of an Act. They give
detailed effect to the Act. If a person does not comply with a
regulation they can be prosecuted. Regulations are generally reviewed
every 10 years and then updated as required.


Compliance Codes
The Minister may approve Compliance Codes which provide practical
guidance to those who have duties or obligations under the Act or
Regulations. Where a Compliance Code deals with a duty under the
Act or Regulations, a person who complies with the Code is taken to
have complied with their duty under the Act or Regulations to the
extent that the code addresses that duty.

Failing to comply with a Compliance Code does not give rise to any
civil or criminal liability.

Compliance Codes are expected to be in force by 1 July 2008.


Standards
Australian Standards are developed by various bodies (Standards
Australia for example) to ensure that safe, high quality goods and
services are produced and delivered. Standards only become law “if”
they are cited in regulations.

AS 1940 Storage and Handling of Dangerous Goods is quoted in the
Dangerous Goods Storage and Handling Regulations. This means that
what is in the standard “must” be followed.




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   22
                                         Guidance Notes, Strategies, Policies and
                                         Statements
                                         To encourage and assist in a uniform approach to occupational health
                                         and safety in Australia, authorities such as the Australian Safety and
                                         Compensation Council (www.ascc.gov.au) produce guidance notes,
                                         strategies, policies and statements on matters relating to workplace
                                         health and safety.

                                         Worksafe Victoria also produces a wide range of publications on
                                         health and safety. For example:

                                             Guide to Incident Notification
                                             Workplace Violence and Bullying
                                             Guide for Assessing and Fixing Noise Problems at Work
                                             Guide to Workplace Injury Insurance and Safety at Work

                                         www.Worksafe.vic.gov.au


                                         Agreements and Employment contracts
                                         Many contracts of work have clauses requiring compliance with state
                                         OHS legislation. These must be complied with.

                                         An employment contract or an old Enterprise Bargaining Agreement
                                         (EBA) may include occupational health and safety conditions.


                                         Worksafe Victoria
WorkSafe Victoria                        Discuss the role of the Worksafe Victoria
•   WorkSafe Victoria is the Victorian
    WorkCover Authority’s occupational
                                          Describe the role of the Worksafe Victoria.
    health and safety arm
                                          Discuss the role of Worksafe in administering OH&S Legislation.
•   Responsibilities include:
     - prevent workplace injuries
     - enforce Victoria’s OHS Laws
                                            Explain that this is aimed at prevention of accidents and injuries
                                            at work.
                                          Briefly outline the additional role of Worksafe Victoria in
                                            administration of Compensation and Rehabilitation. Explain that
                                            this legislation is aimed at what happens after an event (accident,
                                            injury, illness) as compared to the preventative role.
                                          Mention that Compensation and Rehabilitation are not covered by
                                            the Learning Objectives of this course.

                                         Background Information on Worksafe Victoria
                                         Worksafe Victoria manages
                                          Victoria's workers‟ compensation
                                          Occupational rehabilitation
                                          Workplace safety systems. Worksafe.

                                         Worksafe aim to progressively reduce the incidence, severity and cost
                                         to the community of work-related injury and disease.

                                         23                  Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Functions and Responsibilities
   help avoid workplace injuries occurring
   enforce Victoria's occupational health and safety laws
   provide reasonably priced insurance for employers
   help injured workers back into the workforce
   manage the workers' compensation scheme by ensuring the prompt
    delivery of appropriate services and adopting prudent financial
    practices


OHS Advisory Committee
Worksafe Victoria is governed by a Board which is accountable to the
Government, stakeholders and society.



Worksafe Victoria Statutory Obligations
 health, safety and welfare in the workplace under the
  OHS Act 2004
 workers' compensation and the rehabilitation of injured workers
  under the Accident Compensation Act 1985 and the Accident
  Compensation (WorkCover Insurance) Act 1993
 employer insurance and premium under the Accident
  Compensation (WorkCover Insurance) Act 1993
 explosives and other dangerous goods under the Dangerous Goods
  Act 1985
 the transport of dangerous goods by road under the Road Transport
  Reform (Dangerous Goods) Act 1995
 high-risk equipment used in public places and on private premises
  under the Equipment (Public Safety) Act 1994


Preventing Injuries and Illness
Worksafe Victoria takes the lead role in the promotion and
enforcement of health and safety in Victorian workplaces. Worksafe
has a team of more than 450 field officers, investigators, work-site
technical experts and support staff spread throughout a network of
city, suburban and regional offices.

Worksafe is responsible for compliance strategy which focuses on
information and education, incentives, enforcement, investigations,
prosecutions and penalties.




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide    24
Enforcement action follows assessment of the situation and considers:
    extent of the risk
    seriousness of the perceived breach and the actual or potential
       consequences
    whether or not the situation or hazard type is targeted by
       Worksafe Victoria for priority prevention activity
    impact of the regulatory action, especially its impact on
       encouragement and deterrence
    compliance history of the employer, and
    whether or not the incident of non-compliance is of
       considerable public concern


No Fault Benefits for WorkCover
Worksafe Victoria provides a range of benefits to injured workers, for
life if required, regardless of who was at fault. Benefits can include:
      weekly compensation
      ambulance transport
      hospital treatment
      medical and paramedical treatment
      attendant care and home help
      lump sum payments
Where death occurs as a result of a work-related injury or illness,
support is provided for dependants in the form of lump sum and
periodic pension payments, counselling for immediate family
members and funeral expenses.

Worksafe Victoria benefits are indexed in accordance with Average
Weekly Earnings (AWE) or the Consumer Price Index (CPI).

Common Law Benefits
In addition to no-fault benefits, a person who is seriously injured in the
workplace and can prove fault is entitled to pursue a claim for further
compensation through the court system.

Before any court proceedings claiming damages can be commenced,
the degree of impairment arising from the injuries must be assessed
and the worker must make an application to the Authority seeking its
determination as to whether or not the injury is "serious".

Common law damages are payable for pecuniary loss and pain and
suffering and can be recovered by the dependants of a deceased
worker up to a maximum payment.




25                  Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
ASCC Australian Safety and Compensation

The ASCC aims to lead and coordinate Australia's national effort to:
    promote best practice in occupational health and safety (OHS)
    improve workers' compensation arrangements
    improve rehabilitation and return to work of injured workers


Its role is to:
        develop national occupational health and safety (OHS) and
         workers' compensation policy
        encourage policy discussion and research
        promote consistency in legislation developed by states and
         territories

National Priorities
The National OHS Strategy 2002-2012 identifies five national
priorities requiring national action. They are:
        reduce high incidence/severity risks
        develope the capacity of business operators and workers to
         manage OHS effectively
        prevent occupational disease more effectively
        elimate hazards at the design stage
        strengthen the capacity of government to influence OHS
         outcomes.




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   26
                                                                         Victorian Legislation - OHS Act 2004 /
                                                                         Employer / Employee Duties

                                                                         Discuss the introduction of the Occupational Health and Safety
                                                                         Act 2004.

                                                                         The Act aims to prevent incidents/illness and injuries in Victorian
                                                                         workplaces.

                                                                         Explain how the Act is divided into parts, then each part into sections.

                                                                         Look in particular at Section 5 which covers definitions eg
                                                                         workplace, employee, health includes psychological health

                                                                         Section 6 Act binds the Crown ie. government and all its
                                                                         departments.
                                                                    S2

Objects of the OHS Act 2004

a) to secure the health, safety and welfare of employees                 Section 2      Objects of the Act
   and other persons at work
b) to eliminate, at the source, risks to health safety or
   welfare of employees and other persons at work
c) to ensure that the health and safety of members of the
   public is not placed at risk by the conduct of
                                                                         S2 (1 b) to eliminate, at the source - emphasise the importance of
   undertakings by employers and self-employed persons
d) to provide for involvement of employees, employers and
                                                                         elimination at the source. The aim is to eliminate all workplace
   organisations representing those persons in the
   formulation and implementation of health, safety and
   welfare standards
                                                                         hazards so there can be no workplace accidents.



                                                                    S4
Principles of Health and Safety
Protection
                                                                         Section 4      The principles of health and safety protection
            1
                                                          3
    All people must
      be given the                                 Employers and
    highest level of                               self-employed
                                                  persons must be
   protection against
                                                     proactive
         risks                      2
                         Those who control or
                        manage the workplace
                           are responsible for
                                                                         Mention the role of the Worksafe Victoria in administering the Act.
                        eliminating or reducing
                            risks as far as is
           4            reasonably practicable.
                                                            5
     Employers and
                                                    Employees are
   employees should
                                                  entitled, should be
       exchange
                                                  encouraged to be
    Information and
                                                     represented
   ideas about risks




                                                                  S20
Concept of Ensuring
Health and Safety

• Eliminate risks to health and safety so far as is
                                                                         Section 20 Concept of ensuring health and safety
  reasonably practicable

   If not reasonably practicable to eliminate risks

• Reduce risks so far as is reasonably practicable

  Note: health includes psychological health




                                                                         27                 Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Explain the concept of reasonably practicable                                                                                           S20
                                                                              When determining what is Reasonably
  a. likelihood of the hazard or risk eventuating                             Practicable regard must be had to …

  b. degree of harm (consequence)                                              a) likelihood of the hazard or risk eventuating
                                                                               b) the degree of harm that would result if the hazard or
  c. what the person concerned knows, or ought to reasonably                      risk eventuated
                                                                               c) what the person concerned knows, or ought to
                                                                                  reasonably know about the hazard or risk and ways
       know                                                                       of eliminating or reducing it
                                                                               d) the availability and suitability of ways to eliminate or
  d. availability and suitability of ways to eliminate or reduce the              reduce the hazard or risk
                                                                               e) $ the cost of eliminating or reducing the hazard or

       hazard or risk                                                             risk $



  e. cost

SECTIONS 21 Duties of Employers
Section 21 (1)                                                                                                                        S21(1)

                                                                              Duties of Employers
An employer must, so far as is reasonably practicable, provide and
                                                                              An employer must, so far as is
maintain for employees of the employer a working environment that is          reasonably practicable,
                                                                              provide and maintain for
                                                                              employees of the employer a
safe and without risks to health                                              working environment that is safe
                                                                              and without risks to health*.




Emphasise that this is the main section of the Act for employers.              * Definition of health includes psychological health

Employers must provide a safe workplace.


Section 21(2)
                                                                                                                                  S21 (a-e)
a. Provide or maintain safe plant or systems of work.                        Duties of Employers
b. Manage risk when using, handling, storing and transporting plant          Employers must so far as is reasonably practicable:

   or substances.                                                           • provide or maintain plant or systems of work
                                                                            • manage risk when using, handling, storing and
c. Maintain workplaces under their control and management in a safe           transporting plant or substances
                                                                            • maintain workplaces under their control and management

   and healthy condition.                                                     in a safe and healthy condition
                                                                            • provide adequate facilities for the welfare of employees

d. Provide adequate facilities for the welfare of employees.                • provide information, instruction, training or supervision to
                                                                              employees to perform their work that is safe and without
                                                                              risks to health
e. Provide information, instruction, training or supervision to
   employees to perform their work that is safe and without risks to
   health.

Section 21 (3) Contractors
                                                                                                                                  S21(3)(a)
Emphasise the importance of this section for managers/supervisors eg.         Contractors
all building contractors should complete a JSA before commencement            “Employee” includes an independent contractor
of works.                                                                     engaged by an employer and any employees of
                                                                              the independent contractor




Employers owe the same duty of care to independent contractors and
their employees who are working at their workplaces.

This duty extends over matters which the employer has or should have
control. This covers for example, large work sites where there is an
overall employer and many independent contractors performing
different types of work. When employing contractors the following                                                                 S21(3)(b)

                                                                              Contractors
matters should be made clear:                                                 • the duties of an employer under those sub-sections

 the employment status of the employer and the contractor                      extend to such an independent contractor and the
                                                                                independent contractor’s employees, in relation to
                                                                                matters over which the employer –
     including who has control over what matters                                    has control; or


 contractual arrangements between the parties
                                                                                    would have had control but for any agreement
                                                                                    between the employer and the independent
                                                                                    contractor to limit or remove that control.

 the nature of the business conducted by each party
 the chain of responsibility on site
 how supervision of the contract will occur throughout the period
     of operation

Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide    28
                                                               Section 22 Monitor health and conditions
                                                         S22

Duties of Employers
                                                               a. Monitor the health of the employees - flu injections? Lung
An employer must so far as is reasonably practicable
                                                                  function for workers in dusty conditions. Do employers test eyes
• monitor the health of the employees
• monitor the conditions at the workplace
                                                                  if working on screen based equipment all day?
• provide information to employees (in appropriate
  languages) concerning health and safety at the workplace,

                                                                    Ask what monitoring occurs in participants‟ workplaces.
  including the names to whom an employee may make an
  enquiry or complaint about health and safety
• keep information and records relating to health and safety
  of employees
• employ or engage qualified people to provide advice on
                                                                    Discuss.
  occupational health and safety



                                                               b.   Monitor the conditions at the workplace
                                                                    eg. noise measurement, chemical concentrations
                                                               c.   Provide information to employees (in appropriate languages)
                                                                    concerning health and safety at the workplace, including the
                                                                    names to whom an employee may make an enquiry or complaint
                                                                    about health and safety
                                                               d.   Keep information and records relating to health and safety of
                                                                    employees

                                                                    Discuss how long they should be kept for.

                                                               e.   Employ or engage qualified people to provide advice on
                                                                    occupational health and safety


                                                               Section 25      Duties of Employees
                                                         S25

Duties of Employees                                            (1) a. Take reasonable care of themselves
• Take reasonable care of themselves                               b. Take reasonable care of others who may be affected by their
• Take reasonable care of others who may be affected
  by their acts or omissions                                          acts or omissions
• Co-operate with their employer on safety matters
• Not to intentionally or recklessly interfere with or
  misuse anything provided at the workplace in the
                                                                   c. To co-operate with their employer on safety matters
  interests of health, safety or welfare
• In determining failure to take reasonable care regard
  must be had to what the employee knew about the
  relevant circumstances                                       (2) Not to intentionally or recklessly interfere with or misuse anything
                                                                   provided at the workplace in the interests of health, safety or
                                                                   welfare.

                                                               (3) In determining failure to take reasonable care regard must be had
                                                                   to what the employee knew about the relevant circumstances.

                                                                    This section provides guidance for the courts.




                                                               29                  Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Other Duties and Responsibilities

Section 23-24          Responsibility not to affect others
                                                                                                                              S23&24
Discuss the role of employers to provide a safe workplace.                    Employers and
                                                                              Self Employed Persons
                                                                             Responsibility to ensure that persons (other than
                                                                             employees) are not exposed to risks arising from conduct
Self employed. Note that this is the only part of the Act that applies to    of their undertaking


them as employers.
Note: For a single person self employed this is the only section of the
Act that applies. Can‟t have a DWG, can‟t elect HSR, cannot issue
themselves with a PIN, can‟t form a H&S committee etc.


S26            People who manage or control workplaces

Outline the responsibilities of those who manage or control a
workplace.
Note that managers must ensure safe entry & exit from the workplace.


S27            Duties of designers of plant                                  Duties of Designers of Plant
                                                                                                                                   S27




                                                                             • Must ensure that the plant is designed to be without
                                                                               risks to health and safety when used for the purpose it
                                                                               was designed.
                                                                             • Must carry out tests and examinations to
                                                                               ensure that the plant is safe when used for
                                                                               its intended purpose.
                                                                             • Must provide information about the
                                                                               intended purpose of the plant, test results
                                                                               and any conditions necessary to ensure
                                                                               that it is safe when used for the intended
                                                                               purpose.




S29-30         Duties of manufacturers and suppliers of plant or                                                                  S29
                                                                             Duties of Manufacturers of
               substances                                                    Plant or Substances
                                                                             • Must ensure that plant and substances are safe when
                                                                               used for the purpose they were manufactured
                                                                             • Must carry out or arrange tests and examinations to
Note all equipment should be supplied in a safe condition AND                  ensure that the plant/substance is safe when used for
                                                                               intended purpose
should be supplied with an instruction book.                                 • Must give suppliers and users of plant or substances
                                                                               information about:

These sections only apply to plant that is used for the purpose it is            the intended purpose(s) of the plant or substances,

                                                                                 the results of tests for plant or substances; and

                                                                                 any condition necessary to ensure that when used for

designed.                                                                         intended purpose they are safe.


Explain that the Plant Regulations will be covered in more detail in
Day 4 of the course.

Chemicals information should be provided.
This is often on the label or in a MSDS. Explain briefly what MSDSs
are, and where to obtain them.

Duties of manufacturers & suppliers of chemicals (substances).
Chemicals should be tested and MSDS available.




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide     30
                                                          S31         Duties of persons installing, erecting or
                                                                      commissioning plant


                                                          S28         Duties of designers of buildings or structures

                                                          The duties only apply to buildings designed as a workplace.
                                                          If a doctor converts a house to a clinic, the original designer is not held
                                                          responsible.
                                                          If the designers specifies lights - say 6m - off the floor and there is no
                                                          easy way to change them, they may be liable if an accident occurs
                                                          while a person is changing the globes.


Licences, Registration and
                                            S40,41&42
                                                          S40-42      Licences and Permits
Permits

• Employers must not allow work to be carried out
  unless the workplace activity, plant or substance is
                                                          Equipment that requires a licence must not be operated except by
  licensed or registered as required under the relevant
  regulations.                                            relevant people who hold the relevant licences or certificates, or are
• An employer must not allow the person to work unless
  the person has the required training, qualification,
                                                          under direct supervision.
  permits or supervision.




                                                          Discussion - Optional
                                                          Ask participants when their car/truck licence was last checked at
                                                          work.

                                                          Would a reasonable employer be aware if employees lost their
                                                          licence?

                                                          Would a reasonable employer allow a person to drive a company
                                                          vehicle without a current drivers licence?

                                                          Technically this section does not apply to vehicle licences but only if
                                                          the regulations specify a licence or certificate of competency is
                                                          required.




                                                          31                  Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Workplace Consultation and Workplace
Representation                                                             Workplace Consultation and
                                                                           Workplace Representation




• Discuss how consultation occurs in participant‟s workplace
• Trainer to outline why it is now important to consult with all parties      (Duties to consult commenced January 2006)


  within the workplace. Refer to section 35 and 36 of the
  OHS Act 2004
• “How do they feel when they are not consulted”
                                                                                                                           S35&36
                                                                           Consultation
                                                                           Employer must
                                                                           Consult employees on OHS matters that directly
                                                                           affect them especially for:

                                                                           • Health monitoring
                                                                           • Workplace environmental monitoring
                                                                           • Providing information and training
                                                                           • Membership of any health and safety committee
                                                                           • Proposed changes – workplace, plant, substances,
                                                                             other things, conduct of work performed




                                                                                                                           S35&36
                                                                           Consultation
                                                                           Employer must
                                                                           Consult employees on OHS matters that directly
                                                                           affect them especially when:

                                                                           • Identifying or assessing hazards and risks
                                                                           • Making decisions about control measures
                                                                           • Making decisions about the adequacy of facilities
                                                                           • Issue resolution procedures
                                                                           • Consultation procedures




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   32
GROUP ACTIVITY
There are 5 case studies in the participant’s workbook.
Working in 4 groups participants discuss one of these
case studies stating which sections and subsections of
the Act relate to the situation.

Each group is to record their findings in their workbook and to report
back to the whole group.

Trainer to clarify any issues arising from the reports and to summarise
the findings.

Highlight the position of manager/supervisor in relation to the Act
(Section 21, 22 & 25).

The following points should be covered:

    Managers/supervisors are covered under Section 21 of the
     OHS Act. They play a critical role in achieving workplace health
     and safety for the employees they supervise, and are in touch with
     the health and safety problems that can arise. They deal with
     issues raised by health and safety representatives, and can provide
     health and safety information and training to employees. They can
     also implement control measures.

    For the supervisor/manager to be an effective force in preventing
     workplace injury and disease, the employer must provide
     appropriate training, information and back-up support.




33                  Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Case Studies

  Case One – Mark
  Mark is a new technology teacher to the school. On inspecting the metal
  workshop he discovers that the emergency exit door at the rear of the
  workshop is blocked by gas bottles. There is only one other entrance/exit
  to the workshop. He is afraid that if there was an emergency staff and
  students would not be able to get out.

  Mark discovers that part of his job will require him to stack pre-cut
  material into crates and that these crates are to go to the workshop for
  teaching staff to collect. These crates when full of materials are quite
  heavy (15-18 kg). He has been told by the Principal that the maintenance
  staff will use a trolley to take the crates to the other metal area.

  On Monday afternoon the maintenance staff were really busy and Mark
  did not like to be a nuisance so he decided to carry the crate of materials
  to the metal workshop. As Mark lifted the crate he experienced a sharp
  pain in his back.



21 1           Workplace must be safe - untidy & cluttered

21 2a          carrying crates, system of work

21 2 c         Maintain a safe workplace Housekeeping is part of the
               process but standard procedures should be followed

21 2e          Must provide proper training or supervision to enable
               Mark to work safely

22 1b          Monitor the conditions eg clutter & housekeeping issues

25 1a          Take reasonable care




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide             34
 Case Two – Jason
 Jason has been teaching English at a secondary college but has some self
 taught skills in woodworking. He has been asked to fill in at the
 woodworking department as the college is currently short staffed.

 He notices that when the guard is down on the machine it takes a lot
 longer to complete cut so he lifts it up and leans forward to feed the
 material through. As he does this his sleeve catches in the shaft, which
 drive the saw blade- the spinning, motion of the shaft drags his arm into
 the blade.

 Jason manages to turn the switch off but receives a badly lacerated hand
 and will require surgery and physiotherapy. He‟ll be off work for at least
 two months.



21 1        employer must provide a safe workplace

21 2        safe plant and system of work

21 2 c      safe workplace

21 2 d      welfare

21 2e       instruction or supervision

22 1a       monitor health

22 1b       monitor conditions

25 1a       reasonable care

25 1 c      cooperate




35                    Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
 Case Three – John
 John is a wood tech teacher and has been asked to work in the
 metal shop to supervise the welding of materials by the students.

 John was worried about his lack of skills in this area. He requested
 additional information from the other teachers from that area. John
 is given standard procedures to follow but forgets to take his PPE
 and suffers from welding flash.


21 1         employer must provide a safe workplace

21 2a        safe system

21 2 c       safe workplace

21 2e        supervision

22 1a        monitor health

22 1b        monitor conditions

25 1a        reasonable care

25 1 c       cooperate




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide     36
 Case Four – Peter
 Peter works as a technolology assistant in the Metal Department at the
 local high school. He knows that he should always wear enclosed leather
 shoes, long pants and a coat when working in that area. In fact this was
 mentioned when he was appointed to the position.
 The students use chemicals for a process called „pickling‟.

 The weather bureau has forecast a 40 degree day. He thinks that just this
 once he will wear shorts and sandals to school.

 The technology co-ordinator wants a 50% solution of sulphuric acid
 prepared and brought to his class. The co-ordinator notices the way Peter
 is dressed and tells him to dress more appropriately for the job in future.

 Whilst Peter was carrying the acid to class he was bumped by a passing
 student and the acid spilled onto his lower left leg and foot. Peter
 sustained nasty burns to his left leg and foot and had to be hospitalised.
 He will be of work for at least three weeks.




21 1      employer must provide a safe workplace

21 2      a safe system

21 2 c    safe workplace

21 2e     supervision

22 1a     monitor health

22 1b     monitor conditions

22 1 c     provide information

25 1a     reasonable care

25 1 b    take reasonable care of others

25 1 c    cooperate




37                  Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Case Five - Kim
Kim has been working at a secondary college for 6 months. The
School is in an old two story building, which is hot in summer and cold
in winter. The class rooms are cramped and the lighting is poor.

Yesterday she was carrying exam papers and books from the staff room
on the ground floor to her class on the second floor. She was running
late for class and as usual the students had left their school bags and
books all over the corridors, Kim can‟t remember exactly what happened
but she thinks she lost her balance when she tried to step over one of the
student‟s bags.

The next thing she knew the exam papers were spread all over the
corridor floor and she had a badly sprained ankle.

She was really embarrassed, especially when the Deputy Principle said it
was her own fault for rushing and for wearing those „ridiculous high
heels‟. Kim needs to keep off her ankle for at least a week.



21 1         employer must provide a safe workplace

21 2 c       safe workplace

21 2e        supervision

22 1b        monitor conditions

25 1a        reasonable care

25 1 c       cooperate




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide          38
Legal Proceedings
Discuss Penalties and Sentencing Principles.

Penalty units originally $100

Penalty units are indexed on 1 July each year.

1 penalty unit = $110.12 at July 2007 up 2.5% from 2006




Penalties and Sentencing Options
Worksafe Victoria and/or Inspectors can initiate legal proceedings for
offences under the Act. The Director of Public Prosecutions can also
bring proceedings for an indictable offence against the Act.




Duty not to recklessly endanger persons at
workplaces
This is a new section introduced in the OHS Act 2004 that clearly
states no one can engage in reckless conduct that may place another
person in danger of a serious injury.

This is an indictable offence with maximum penalty applying of:
 5 years imprisonment and/or $198,216 (individual)
 $991,080 (body corporate)
  July 2007 (indexed annually)



 Discussion
 A 16 year old apprentice was bound with masking tape, had his
 faced sprayed with accelerant, was set alight and was thrown inside
 an oil drum. The workers and owners of the suburban car
 dealership remarked that this was just a workplace prank. As a
 result of this incident, the apprentice suffered serious burns and
 damage to his psychological health.

 Consider Section 32, 21, 25




39                 Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Duties of Employers
Section 73(2)




Liabilities of Officers
Discuss the responsibilities of officers and managers.

Senior managers are responsible for workplace OHS.

The aim of the OHS Act is to make the buck stop at the top. Managers
are responsible for OHS. A case in WA Jan 2000 a Director was fined
$25,000 & company $40,000 for the same incident.

Officers who are volunteers are excluded.




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   40
                                                            Resolution of Health and Safety Issues
Workplace Consultation and
Workplace Representation                                    Ask
                                                                What Occupational Health and Safety problems do you come
                                                                 across in your role?
                                                                How do you solve these issues?
   (Duties to consult commenced January 2006)




                                                            Consultation
                                                  S35&36
Consultation                                                Lead a discussion on:
Employer must
Consult employees on OHS matters that directly
affect them especially for:                                     the differences and similarities between the role of health and
• Health monitoring
• Workplace environmental monitoring
                                                                 safety representative and manager/supervisor
• Providing information and training
• Membership of any health and safety committee                 the problems that both health and safety representatives and
• Proposed changes – workplace, plant, substances,
  other things, conduct of work performed
                                                                 supervisors may face in carrying out their role
                                                                how these problems may be overcome

                                                  S35&36
Consultation
Employer must
Consult employees on OHS matters that directly
affect them especially when:

• Identifying or assessing hazards and risks
• Making decisions about control measures
• Making decisions about the adequacy of facilities
• Issue resolution procedures
• Consultation procedures




Issue Resolution and Roles
of Inspectors




                                                   S73(2)
Workplace Issue Resolution
Duties of Employers

• employer’s representative
     is not a health and safety representative
     has an appropriate level of seniority
     is sufficiently competent
     resolve health and safety issues




                                                            41                  Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
                                                                           Workplace Issue Resolution

                                                                           Step 2
                                                                           • Issue is reviewed and is resolved – acceptable
                                                                             solution is implemented
                                                                           Step 3
                                                                           • Issue is not resolved – health and safety
                                                                             representative can issue a PIN
                                                                           Step 4
                                                                           • Inspector can be called in to resolve the issue




                                                                           Issue
                                                                           Resolution
                                                                           Flow Chart




                                                                            Roles and Responsibilities of
                                                                            WorkSafe Inspectors
                                                                            • Monitor and enforce compliance with
                                                                              OHS legislation
                                                                            • Provide information and advice to
                                                                              workplace parties
                                                                            • Assist in resolving OHS issues and
                                                                              disputes
                                                                            • Investigate incidents and complaints
                                                                            • Initiate prosecutions, as required




                                                                            Technology Area

                                                                            eg. Inspectors may be looking for
                                                                            • Unsafe machinery
                                                                            • Storage of hazardous substances
                                                                            • Storage of materials
                                                                            • Safe work practices




                                                                                                                                                 S99
                                                                             Inspectors
                                                                             General Powers of Entry

                                                                             (a)       inspect, examine and make enquiries
                                                                             (b)       inspect and examine any thing
                                                                             (c)       bring any equipment or materials
                                                                             (d)       seize any thing (including documents)
                                                                             (e)       seize any thing for further testing or examination
                                                                             (f)       take photographs and measurements, make
                                                                                       sketches and recordings
                                                                             (g)       exercise any other power
                                                                             (h)       any other thing that is reasonably necessary




                                                                             Directions and Notices
                                                                             issued by Inspectors
                                                                             • Directions
                                                                                      Verbal or written Directions if there is an immediate threat
                                                                                       to health and safety
                                                                             • Non-Disturbance Notice
                                                                                      Stop use, movement of, interference with any plant,
                                                                                       substance or thing (no more than 7 days)
                                                                             • Improvement Notice
                                                                                      Situation must be remedied by a given date, can include
                                                                                       directions and interim directions and conditions
                                                                             • Prohibition Notice
                                                                                      Prohibits the carrying on of an activity, or the carrying on
                                                                                       of the activity in a specified way




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   42
Session 2: Plant and Equipment

 This section can be done after the participants have used the
 equipment on Day 3




Session                    To give participants an opportunity to
Objectives:                become familiar with the OH&S
                           Regulations 2007 Part 3.5 that applies to
                           Victorian workplaces and schools.


Learning                   Participants will be able to:
Outcomes:                   Develop understanding of hazards in
                                technology and the application to
                                machinery safety



Time:                      1 hour 45 minutes

Method:                    Presentation, case study

Resources:                 Workbook & Resource book
                           Laptop
                           Data projector
                           Class set of photographs of plant or
                           equipment
                           Or piece of machinery




43                 Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Plant regulations are performance based and do not provide specific
details to solve different situations.                                     Session 2



Compliance with Australian Standards would be a reasonable
                                                                                           Plant Safety
requirement for most workplaces.


Background to OHS Regulations 2007 Part 3.5 Plant



Discuss the definition of plant                                            Controlling OHS Hazards & Risks




Highlight the difference between plant in the OHS Act & the OHS
Regulations 2007 Part 3.5 Plant


Is the following plant under the regulations?

         Bicycle                                 No
         Builder‟s power saw                     No
         Photocopier                             Yes                       Hazard

         Paper shredder                          Yes                       the potential to cause injury, illness or property damage


         Air conditioner or fan                  Yes
         TV                                      No
         Computer                                No
         Jackhammer                              No
         Air compressor                          Yes



                                                                           Hazards

                                                                           Examples of hazards:
                                                                           • air borne contaminants
                                                                           • noise
                                                                           • dangerous chemicals or harmful
                                                                             substances
                                                                           • moving vehicles
                                                                           • manual handling
                                                                           • oil spills
                                                                           • naked flames
                                                                           • operating machinery




                                                                           Hazard Groups

                                                                           • Physical                   • Ergonomic
                                                                             noise, vibration,            manual handling, workplace
                                                                             lighting, electrical,        layout, equipment design,
                                                                             temperature, radiation,      workstation design
                                                                             machinery, fire and
                                                                             explosion                  • Biological
                                                                                                          Infections, bacteria, viruses
                                                                           • Chemical
                                                                             gases, dusts, fumes,       • Psychological
                                                                             vapours, liquids             stress, personal threat




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   44
                                                                     Occupational Health and Safety Regulations
                                                                     2007 Part 3.5 - Plant
Physical Hazard - Noise
Effect on Hearing   Sound Level in dB(A)   Typical Sound Source
Very Dangerous               140           Jet Engine
                             130           Rivet Hammer
PAIN LEVEL
                             120           Aircraft Propeller

Dangerous                    110           Rock Drill




                                                                     Plant Safety Package
                             100           Chain Saw (2-stroke)
                                           Sheet Metalwork
                             90            Heavy Truck

Risky                        85            Noise exposure standard
                             80            Heavy Traffic

Irritating                   70            Family Car

                             60
                             50
                             40
                             30
                                           Normal Conversation
                                           Quiet Conversation
                                           Background Radio
                                           Whispering
                                                                         Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004
                                                                     
                             20            Quiet Room
                             10
                              0
                                           Rustling Leaves
                                           Silence
                                                                          Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2007: Part 3.5 Plant
                                                                         Equipment (Public Safety) Act 1994
                                                                         Equipment (Public Safety) Regulations 2007

Physical Hazard - Vibration
                                                                     What is plant?
• Whole body
• Segmental
                                                                     Plant as defined under the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004:
• White finger
                                                                     “includes any machinery, equipment, appliance, implement and tool; any
                                                                     component of any of those things; and anything fitted, connected or related
                                                                     to any of those things.”
                                                                     Under the OHS Act all plant and equipment is covered. ie.
                                                                     screwdrivers, bulldozers, chainsaws.

                                                                     Plant as defined under OHS Regulations 2007:
Technology Hazards
                                                                         plant which processes material by way of a mechanical action. ie.
•   Poor design
•   Cutting                                                               bench grinder
                                                                     
•   Crushing
•   Striking                                                              plant designed to lift or move people or materials. ie. forklift
                                                                     
•   Protrusions stabbing
•   Impact                                                                pressure equipment ie. boilers
                                                                     
•   Abrasion friction
•   Entanglement                                                          tractors
                                                                         earthmoving equipment ie. bulldozers
                                                                         lasers
                                                                         scaffolds
                                                                         temporary access equipment
Physical Hazard - Electric                                               explosive powered tools
Cause                                                                    turbines
                                                                     
Death and Serious Burns
Prevention
• Check power tools and leads
                                                                          amusement structures
• Test and tag
• Use qualified electricians
• Use Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers (ELCBs)
• Use rubber insulation                                              The OHS Regulations 2007 do not cover plant:
• Establish safe work practices
                                                                      which relies exclusively on manual power for its operation ie.
                                                                        bicycle, shovel
                                                                      which is designed to be primarily supported by hand ie. chainsaw,
                                                                        jackhammer
                                                                      ships, boats, aircraft
Physical Hazard - Light
                                                                      vehicles designed to be used primarily as a means of transport on
• Australian Standard 1680 –
  Interior and Workplace Lighting                                       public roads and rail ie. motor car
• Amount of light
• Number and position of lights
• Interior lighting                                                  Refer to Risk Assessment chart.
• Tasks and activities performed


                                                                     Discuss why it is important to use this in controlling hazards in the
                                                                     workplace.
                                                                     Discuss how to implement controls.


                                                                     45                  Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
                                                                           Temperature




                                                                                      Cold        21°C      26°C            Hot



                                                                                       16°C                          30°C

                                                                                                    Comfort Range




                                                                               Physical Hazard
                                                                               Slips, Trips and Falls
                                                                           •   Spills                        •   Heights
                                                                           •   Cleaning agents               •   Ladders
                                                                           •   Poor housekeeping             •   Lighting
                                                                           •   rushing                       •   Floor coverings




                                                                           Chemical Hazards

                                                                           • Gases- oxygen, acetylene, nitrogen
                                                                           • Solids - metals,minerals
                                                                           • Liquids - acids, alkalis
                                                                           • Dust - asbestos, wood dust
                                                                           • Mist - paint spray
                                                                           • Vapour - petrol




                                                                           Ergonomic Hazards
                                                                           Fit the workplace to the worker
                                                                           NOT the worker to the workplace




                                                                           Ergonomic Hazards

                                                                           • Use mechanical handling devices rather than
                                                                             physical (manual) handling




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   46
Hazard Identification

•     workplace inspections
•     product information
•     reports
        incident - illness - injury

•     legislative requirements
•     employees
        personal knowledge

        experience and observation

•     industry/trade associations, unions
•     consultant reports
•     health & safety committee minutes




    Risk

    • Means the likelihood of injury or illness arising from
      exposure to any hazard




Risk Assessment
    The following needs to be considered:
• Who is exposed to the hazard?
• How often are people near the hazard?
• Has this hazard already caused any problems?
• How easily could someone be hurt?
• How common is it for this hazard to cause problems in
  other workplaces?
• Which factors relating to that hazard need to be taken
  into account, according to health and safety law?
• Which factors or specific aspects of the work are
  increasing the likelihood of injury or illness?




    Step One - Likelihood

A. Very likely -             expected to occur

B. Likely            -       will probably occur

C. Moderate          -       might occur

D. Unlikely          -       could occur

E. Rare              -       may occur




Step Two - Consequence

1.     Insignificant     -      no injuries

2.     Minor             -      first aid

3.     Moderate          -      medical treatment

4.     Major             -      extensive injuries

5.     Catastrophic      -      death




                                                               47   Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
                                                                           Step Three – Risk Table

                                                                                                                           Consequence

                                                                           Likelihood            Insignificant    Minor         Moderate     Major     Catastrophic
                                                                                                       1            2              3          4             5
                                                                           Very likely    A           H             H              E          E             E
                                                                           Likely         B           M             H              H          E             E
                                                                           Moderate       C            L           M               H          E             E
                                                                           Unlikely       D            L            L              M          H             E
                                                                           Rare           E            L            L              M          H             H


                                                                                 Extreme risk    consider stopping work

                                                                                  High risk      should be reduced as soon as possible

                                                                                Moderate risk    management responsibility and action dates must be specified

                                                                                   Low risk      manage by routine procedures




                                                                           Hierarchy of Control

                                                                                    •         Elimination
                                                                                    •         Substitution
                                                                                    •         Engineering
                                                                                    •         Administrative
                                                                                    •         Personal Protective Clothing
                                                                                              and Equipment




                                                                           What are the key features of the
                                                                           Plant Regulations?
                                                                           • No mandatory government approval or inspection of
                                                                             plant
                                                                           • No mandatory requirement for compliance with the
                                                                             relevant Australian Standards
                                                                           • Specified duties for designers, manufacturers,
                                                                             importers and suppliers of plant, employers, and the
                                                                             self-employed




                                                                           “Performance based” legislation

                                                                           • Does not specify minute detail
                                                                           • Sets the standard
                                                                           • Flexibility in developing solutions
                                                                           • Code of Practice for Plant 1995
                                                                           • Australian Standards or equivalent
                                                                           • Alternative methods




                                                                           What is plant?

                                                                           As defined under the OHS Act 2004

                                                                           • includes any machinery, equipment, appliance,
                                                                             implement and tool
                                                                           • any component of any of those things; and
                                                                           • anything fitted, connected or related to any of
                                                                             those things




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   48
OHS Regulations 2007
Part 3.5 - Plant
What is plant?
Plant that processes material, by way of a mechanical
action, which –
(1) cuts, drills, punches or grinds the material; or
(2) presses, forms, hammers, joins or moulds the
     material; or
(3) combines, mixes, sorts, packages, assembles,
     knits or weaves the material




OHS Regulations 2007
Part 3.5 - Plant
Do not apply to:
• Plant which relies exclusively on manual power for its
  operation
• Plant which is designed to be primarily supported by the
  hand
• Ships, boats or aircraft
• Vehicles designed to be used primarily as a means of
  transport on public roads or rail




Employer Duties
1.   Plant under their management or control
2.   Hazard identification and control of risk
3.   Information, instruction and training
4.   Consultation with health and safety representatives
5.   Review of risk control measures
6.   Specific risk control duties in relation to:
          guarding
          operator controls and emergency stop
          warning devices
          installation, erection and commissioning of plant
          use of plant and plant not in use
          records of inspection and maintenance
          powered mobile plant
          rollover protection on tractors
          electrical hazards
          lift trucks
          scaffolds
          lifts




Hierarchy of Controls - Plant

          • Elimination
          • Substitution
          • Engineering Controls
             • design modification

             • guarding

             • enclosures

             • ventilation

             • automation

          • Isolation
          • Administrative Controls
          • Personal Protective Equipment




                                                               49   Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   50
Session 3: Manual Handling


Session              To give participants an understanding of the
Objectives:          Occupational Health and Safety Regulations
                     2007 Part 3.1 Manual Handling


Learning             Participants will be able to:
Outcomes:             Maintain awareness of all relevant OHS
                        Risk Management requirements for
                        managing risks in technology


Time:                1 hour 15 minutes



Method:              lecture, group discussion, syndicate exercise


Resources:           Laptop
                     Data projector
                     Powerpoint slides
                     Code of Practice for Manual Handling
                     DVD/video
                             Safe Manual Handling - 3 Steps to a
                              Safer Workplace




51            Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
                                                                               Health and Safety Problems
                                                                               with Manual Handling


                                                                                       physical                            muscular/joint
                                                                                      tiredness                            pain & injury



                                                                                  back injuries

                                                                                                                             abdominal
                                                                                                                               hernia
                                                                                  impact injury




                                                                               Manual Handling
                                                                               Legislative Framework

                                                                                               Occupational Health and
                                                                                                  Safety Act 2004


                                                                                               Occupational Health and
                                                                                               Safety Regulations 2007


                                                                                                  Compliance Code or
                                                                                                  Code of Practice for
                                                                                                   Manual Handling




Using the slide define Manual Handling –

                                                                               Manual Handling
  any activity requiring the use of force exerted by a person to LIFT,
  PUSH, PULL, CARRY or RESTRAIN any animate or inanimate                       .... any activity requiring the use of force exerted by a
                                                                                   person to lift, lower, push, pull, carry or otherwise
                                                                                   move, hold or restrain any object.
  object




Show the definition of a musculoskeletal disorder
                                                                               Musculoskeletal Disorder

                                                                                 …..means an injury, illness or disease that arises in
                                                                                whole or in any part from manual handling in the
                                                                                workplace, whether occurring suddenly or over a
                                                                                prolonged period of time,




Activity
                                                                               but does not include an injury, illness or disease that is
                                                                               caused by crushing, entrapment or cut resulting primarily
                                                                               from the mechanical operation of plant.




Complete a list of manual handling tasks that you
perform in your workplace.


                                                                              The Problem with Manual Handling

                                                                               Traditional Approach – Safe Lifting Technique
                                                                               • Assessment mainly for weight and worker capability
                                                                               • No real long term controls and solutions
                                                                               • Workers still have to lift objects
                                                                               • Requires reinforcement and supervision
                                                                               • Pressure of work affects performance




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide      52
                                                             Briefly outline Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2007 Part
                                                             3.1 Manual Handling.
 OHS Regulations 2007
 3.1 Manual Handling
 Require an employer to:
 • identify hazardous manual handling activities
 • implement controls – to eliminate or reduce the risk
   associated with those manual handling activities
 • Review the risk control measures                          Emphasise that the Regulations and therefore the Code are designed to
                                                             identify hazardous manual handling.



                                                             Discuss the difference between normal activities and hazardous
Hazardous Manual Handling
                                                             manual handling.
• repetitive or sustained application of force
• repetitive or sustained awkward posture
• repetitive or sustained movement
• application of high force
• exposure to sustained vibration
• manual handling of live person or animals
• manual handling of unstable or unbalanced loads or loads
  which are difficult to grasp or hold
                                                             Discuss manual handling statistics in Victoria and relate to
                                                             participants, industry and workplace.

                                                             Discuss causes of manual handling.

                                                             Using the Code identify and discuss Hazardous Manual Handling in
                                                             the participants workplace.

                                                             Ask for examples in each category.

                                                             Ask participants if they know what weight they are allowed to lift in
                                                             the workplace.

                                                             Discuss the absence of weight limits (See page 22 of the Code of
                                                             Practice for reference)



                                                                                  Show video - Safe Manual Handling 3 Steps to
                                                                                  a Safer Workplace

                                                                                  Discuss




                                                             53                 Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
ACTIVITY


Select one of the manual handling tasks and complete
the manual handling assessment in your workbook.



Working in pairs or small groups, participants discuss the identified
manual handling problems. Use the Manual Handling Form (in
participant's workbook) to identify, then assess the manual handling
risks and suggest controls.

1.     Using the Hazard Identification Worksheet identify any aspects
       of the tasks that involved hazardous manual handing. Discuss.

2.     Complete the Risk Assessment

3.     Complete the Risk Control Worksheet

Discuss group findings allowing all participants to comment on the
feasibility of identified hazards.

Discuss any issues with the Risk Assessment.
                                                                              Risk controls must consider:
Work through the Risk Control Worksheet as a group allowing all               • postures
participants to comment on the feasibility of identified solutions and        • movements
                                                                              • forces
any other relevant aspects of the task.                                       • duration and frequency
                                                                              • environmental factors



Emphasise the importance of “Can you eliminate the task?”

Can the hazardous manual handling be eliminated?

Ask participants to think outside the square, and don‟t consider just          Risk Control

the obvious solutions to a problem.                                           Once a hazardous manual handling task has been
                                                                              assessed, eliminate or reduce the risk by:
                                                                                 • altering the workplace layout
                                                                                 • altering the environmental conditions

Emphasise the importance of the hierarchy of control. Discuss.                   •

                                                                                 •
                                                                                   altering the system of work
                                                                                   changing the objects
                                                                                 • using mechanical aids
                                                                                 • any mechanical aids
                                                                                 • any combination of the above
Discuss and Summarise safe lifting principles.                                   • aroviding information, training and instruction (if the
                                                                                   above are not practicable)

Demonstrate using a simple object.


Inform participants that they can obtain a copy of Officewise – A
Guide to Health and Safety in the Office from Worksafe to emphasise
how to set up a workstation and/or chair.




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide      54
Session 4: Noise

Session              To enable participants to identify noise
Objectives:          levels in the workplace and develop
                     strategies to control and implement them.


Learning             Participants will be able to:
Outcomes:              • Assess noise levels in the workplace
                       • Use a noise level meter
                       • Help develop a strategy for controlling
                         noise in the workshops


Time:                1 hour



Method:              Lecture, group discussion




Resources:           Laptop
                     Data projector
                     Powerpoint slide
                     Participant‟s workbook
                     Noise meter




55            Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
High noise levels can lead to hearing loss and most industrial hearing
loss is preventable                                                         Introduction

                                                                            • High Noise Levels can lead to

What is noise? Noise is a form of energy transmitted by pressure                Industrial deafness

                                                                                Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)




fluctuations of various frequencies through a material – solid, liquid or       Disturbance

                                                                                Immediate damage with very high levels




gas                                                                         Noise induced hearing loss is preventable




Some facts
Speed of sound at sea level:
       Air             344m/s at 21oC
       Steel           approx 5000 m/s
       Seawater        approx 1500 m/s

Frequencies - Noise can be considered as a wave. The frequency is
measured in Hertz (Hz) or 1 wavelength per second.
Low frequency low notes, high frequency high notes.
       Piano                         27.8 Hz to 4186
       Speech                        30 – 8000 Hz commonly around
                                     2-4000 Hz
       Human hearing frequencies 20 – 20,000 Hz


Sounds can be a pure frequency but commonly a range of frequencies.
You can hear music as one note but listen carefully and you can hear
the bass, lead drums etc or violin trumpet etc. You can also hear
different frequencies if you listen carefully to some machines.


Decibel
A decibel is an arbitrary scale. It is a log/log measurement.
3 dB      represents a doubling of sound pressure level or loudness
0 dB      is the quietest sound most people can hear.
120 dB very loud & painful

Common noise levels                   lawn mower 85-88 dB


How the human ear works
Pressure fluctuations are moved from the eardrum to the inner ear
(cochlea) via the smallest bones in the body.

Intensity or loudness measures in decibel.




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide    56
                                                                Explain and discuss the Noise Exposure Standard.
Noise Exposure Standard
                 Sound Level
                    dB(A)
                                     Duration per
                                         Day
                                                                Look at the summary of the OHS Regulations 2007 Part 3.2 Noise and
                     85               8 hours
                     88
                     91
                     94
                                      4 hours
                                      2 hours
                                      1 hour
                                                                Noise Exposure standard.
                     97               30 minutes
                    100               15 min
                    103               7.5 min
                    106               3.8 min
                    109
                    112
                    115
                                      1.9 min
                                      57 seconds
                                      28.5 secs
                                                                Discuss the variation of exposure time with increasing noise.
                    118               14.3 secs
                    121               7.1 secs
                    124               3.6 secs
                    127               1.8 secs
                    130               0.9 secs




                                                                Discuss the hierarchy of controls
Noise Induced Hearing Loss

• Due to damaged nerve cells in the cochlea.
• Caused by prolonged exposure to loud noises.
                                                                The regulations state that employers must reduce noise levels
• It can be temporary or permanent. Temporary
  hearing loss will return after 4 to 20 hours rest.
                                                                How does this work in your school?
• Noise induced hearing loss is usually slow, painless and
  permanent.


It cannot be cured. It can be prevented.




                                                                Hearing Protection

Hearing Protection                                              Indicate how hearing protection is measured.
SLC80 System                                                    Using SLC80 or Class levels of hearing protection
Noise at the workers ear dB(A)
= Measured noise level - SLC80 of PPE

Class System
           Class     SLC80dB        For use in noise
                                                                SLC Sound Level Conversion 80 means this is the noise reduction in
             1
             2
                       10-13
                       14-17
                                    Less than 90dB(A)
                                    90 to less than 95dB(A)     dB for 80% of the population wearing this type of hearing protective
             3         18-21        95 to less than 100dB(A)

             4
             5
                       22-25
                    26 or greater
                                    100 to less than 105dB(A)
                                    105 to less than 110dB(A)
                                                                device.

                                                                The Class labels for hearing protectors makes it easier for people to
                                                                select the appropriate equipment as it indicates which class to select
                                                                for a noise range.

                                                                Note ear protection must be worn 100% of the time to be effective.




                                                                57                 Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
ACTIVITY
Discuss the noise in your workplace.

What is noisy? Unpleasant noise levels – eg minor background
noise
What is legal noise level in a workplace? 85 dB


Conductive hearing loss can occur by physically blocking the path for
the sound.


Discuss noise induced hearing loss



Tinnitus
There is no known cure.
There is an Australian website “Facts about Tinnitus”.
Tinnitus may be caused by some prescription drugs, heavy metals and
solvents.
17-20% population has it – it is severe for about 1% population.



Hearing Loss & Ageing
Most people have a reduced hearing capacity as they get older.

With aging, there is often a loss of cells in the cochlea that pick up the
tones, particularly in the high-frequency portion of the cochlea. As
these cells are damaged, they lose their ability to transmit sound in the
form of pitch. This causes a high-frequency hearing loss.
Someone with this type of hearing loss has trouble deciphering higher-
frequency sounds. These include the consonants f, s, t, p, k, and ch.

Age-related hearing loss is usually so gradual that a person may not
know that it has happened. Some signs are:
    if another person complains that the older person cannot hear
       him or her speaking
    if the older person finds it hard to hear conversation when
       there is background noise
    if the older person has frequent ringing in the ears
    if the older person turns up the volume on the television and it
       is too loud for others




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide     58
                                                         Audiograms

                                                         What happens when you get your ears tested?
                                                         What do you hear?
                                                         What is normal hearing? – note this changes with age.
                                                         Each person is compared to the average hearing loss for their age



                                                         OHS Regulations 2007 Part 3.2 Noise
Hierarchy of Control - Noise
   • Elimination
                                                         Identify, assess and control noise in the workplace.
   • Substitution
   • Engineering Controls
       isolation by enclosures, barriers or vibration

      
        isolation mountings
        any other physical control to reduce noise
        generation or transmission
                                                         Identify
   • Administrative Controls
       increasing distance from the source
                                                         No employee is to exceed the exposure standard
                                                             8 hour continuous sound pressure level of 85 dB(A) at the ear
       limiting entry

       reducing duration to noise exposure

       other systems of work to reduce noise exposure

   • PPE
                                                                (LAeq8h ) ie for simplicity consider this as the average noise
                                                                level 85 dB over 8 hours
                                                             Peak noise level 140 dB(C)

                                                         Explain the Noise exposure standard

                                                         Assess
                                                         Assess the workplace if the noise exposure standard is likely or
                                                         possible to be exceeded in the workplace.

                                                         Control
                                                         Use the hierarchy of control.




                                                         59                  Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   60
Session 5: Hazardous Substances

Session               To enable participants to develop an
Objectives:           understanding of chemicals and chemical
                      safety in the workplace.
                      To provide participants with background
                      information and an understanding of aspects
                      of Dangerous Goods legislation and the
                      OHS Regulations 2007 Part 4.1 Hazardous
                      Substances


Learning              Participants will:
Outcomes:                 Learn about the management of
                           hazardous substances in the technology
                           teaching environment


Time:                 1 hour

Method:               Lecture, group discussion, syndicate
                      exercise
Resources:            Laptop
                      Data projector, powerpoint slides
                      Participants workbook and resource book
                      Hazchem Safety cards




61            Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
1. Hazardous Substances

Distinguish between Dangerous Goods, hazardous substances and
explain the difference in relation to prescribed environmental waste.

Refer to the ASCC website (www.ascc.gov.au) and the Hazardous
Substance Information System (HSIS).
                                                                                   Hazardous Substances

                                                                                   Can be:
Explain that hazardous substances can be either chemicals, dusts,                  •     Chemicals
                                                                                   •     Dusts
biological hazards or radiation.                                                   •     Biological Hazards
                                                                                   •     Radiation




2. Hazardous Substances Health Effects
                                                                                   Hazardous Substances

Explain the health hazards associated with being exposed to hazardous              Health Effects

substances.                                                                        •
                                                                                   •
                                                                                        Very Toxic
                                                                                        Toxic
                                                                                   •    Harmful




Very Toxic:
Toxic:                                                                                 Hazardous Substances

                                                                                       Health Effects
Harmful:
                                                                                       Corrosive
                                                                                       capable of causing damage to living tissue
Corrosive:                Substances which cause visible necrosis of skin              Irritant
                                                                                       may cause inflammation or irritation to skin, eye or other

                          tissue at site of contact when tested on intact              tissue
                                                                                       Sensitising
                                                                                       may cause specific respiratory hypersensitivity or contact
                          animal skin.                                                 dermatitis



Irritant:                 Substances which cause inflammation of the skin,
                          eye irritation, serious eye effects, irritation to the
                          respiratory system.
Sensitising:              Some people may be sensitive or allergic to the              Hazardous Substances

                                                                                       Health Effects
                          effects of minute quantities of a substance.
                                                                                       Carcinogenic
                                                                                       capable of causing cancer
Carcinogenic:             A substance capable of causing cancer.                       Mutagenic
                                                                                       capable of causing a change in genetic material in cells
                                                                                       (mutation)

Mutagenic:                A substance capable of causing mutation.                     Teratogenic
                                                                                       capable of causing abnormalities in a developing foetus
                                                                                       (birth defects)

Teratogenic:              A substance capable of causing abnormalities in
                          the developing foetus (birth defects).




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide           62
                                                                   3. Material Safety Data Sheets

                                                                   Discuss the OHS (Hazardous Substances) Regulations.
                                                                   Identification, assessment & control are required.

                                                                   Ask participants where to obtain information on workplace chemicals
                                                                       MSDS
                                                                       Labels

                                                                   Note that a Register is required if hazardous substances are kept, or
                                                                   Dangerous Goods are stored.

                                                                   Point out the main components of a chemical label

                                                                   A typical chemical label
Chemical Labels                                                    Ask participants what safety information is required and what
•
•
    Chemical name
    Active constituents
                                                                   precautions should be used when using this chemical from reading the
•
•
    Directions for use
    Limitations on use
                                                                   label.
•
•
    Storage and disposal
    Safety directions and first aid                                Emphasise that more information can be found by using the MSDS.
•   Condition of sale, manufacturer’s name and address
•   Batch number and expiry date
•   United Nations number
•   Dangerous Goods diamonds                                       Ask what precautions should be in place if this substance is used in
                                                                   your workplace?

                                                                   Discuss Material Safety Data Sheets.
                                                                   The 16 heading MSDS was required in all MSDS in Australia after
                                                                   April 2006.

                                                                   Note Some MSDS that are less than 5 years old may still exist in some
                                                                   workplaces in the old 4 heading format. Recommend that new MSDS
                                                                   be obtained.

                                                                   Emphasise that all workplace chemicals must have a contact phone
                                                                   number on the label.
                                                                   To obtain the MSDS phone the contact number or the use the
                                                                   company website.

                                                                   Refer participants to MSDS in workbook.
Material Safety Data Sheets                                        Use the MSDS and describe the various headings.
New Format
1. Identification of material and
   supplier
                                    9. Physical and chemical
                                        properties
                                                                          • Section 7 in the MSDS Handling & Storage
2. Composition/information on
   ingredients
3. Hazards identification
                                    10. Stability and reactivity
                                    11. Toxicological
                                        information
                                                                          • Section 8 Exposure Control. Explain the time weighted
4. First-aid measures
5. Fire fighting measures
                                    12. Ecological information
                                    13. Disposal considerations
                                                                              average (TWA) and refer to the definition in the MSDS.
6. Accidental release measures      14. Transport information
7. Handling and storage             15. Regulatory information                Emphasise the PPE required.
                                                                          • Ask participants what PPE is required when using this
8. Exposure controls and personal   16. Other information
   protection



                                                                              material. Note that the PPE for consumer use is different to
                                                                              manufacturers etc.
                                                                          • Section 11 Toxicological Information
                                                                          • These are the health effects from the chemical for
                                                                              Ingestion, eye contact, skin contact or inhalation


                                                                   63                 Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
If necessary explain the LD50. The LD is the lethal dose of the
chemical tested under a laboratory condition. It is expressed in mg
(orL) per kilogram of bodyweight the test subject (eg mice or rats) and
is tested for inhalation, or dermal exposure.
The animals are tested until 50% of the sample die, hence LD50. The
lower the figure the more toxic it is as less is required to kill off 50%
of the laboratory test animals.

Examples that may be used if necessary to explain the concept of LD50

Very Toxic: LD50 oral rat                 < 25mg/kg (body weight)
            LD50 dermal rat or rabbit     < 50mg/kg (body weight)
            LD50 inhalation rat or rabbit < 0.25mg/1/4hr

Toxic:         LD50 oral rat                 25< LD50<200mg/kg (body weight)
               LD50 dermal rat or rabbit     50< LD50<400mg/kg (body weight)
               LD50 inhalation rat or rabbit 0.25< LD50<1mg/1/4hr

Harmful:       LD50 oral rat                 200< LD50<2,000mg/kg (body weight)
               LD50 dermal rat or rabbit     400< LD50<2,000mg/kg (body weight)
               LD50 inhalation rat or rabbit 1< LD50<5mg/1/4hr

               Section 13                       Disposal considerations
               Section 14                       Transport information




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide            64
                                                         4. Hazardous Substances Requirments

                                                         Hazardous Substances Risk Assessment
Hazardous Substances Information                         Discuss the recommendations of use in the MSDS and compare it with
Read the label
                                                         those from the label.
Read the Material Safety Data Sheet

Find out what the material is before you start working

                                                         Discuss Hazardous substance Risk Assessments.




                                                         Control of Hazardous Substances

                                                         Explain the Employers duties under the OHS Regulations 2007 Part
                                                         4.1 Hazardous Substances

                                                         Discuss

                                                         Summarise and reinforce the need for obtaining information before
                                                         using workplace chemicals.




                                                         65                Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
5. Dangerous Goods Storage and Handling
Requirements


Discuss the dangerous goods diamonds
     - refer participants to dangerous goods diamonds in workbook.         Dangerous Goods Diamonds

     - handout labels for participants to stick in their workbooks

Handout HAZCHEM safety card

Section 7 Legislation
Section 8 Dangerous Goods terminology


                                                                           Dangerous Goods Diamonds

Dangerous Goods legislation in Victoria.
• With reference to the Resource book Note the Asbestos and Lead
  Regulations.
• Point out that asbestos and lead are hazardous substances.
• Refer participants to the information on Asbestos and Lead
  Regulations in the Resource Book.


Discuss chemical storage issues in your areas.
Are things stored in the correct manner in their class rooms?
Are there mixed storage of chemicals?

Discuss better chemical storage.
Do they have access to wash facilities?
As a guide it is best to have the wash & first aid equipment outside the
storage area.




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide   66
Case Study - Chemicals
Working in small groups, participants discuss the case
study in participant’s workbook. Use the information
contained in the Material Safety Data Sheet and help
boxes to develop recommendations and a strategy for
the workplace to adopt.

Discuss suggested strategies and debrief.


 The polishing area is in the back section of the workshop. Raw
 timber furniture and fittings are picked up by the students and are
 either placed on benches or floor space awaiting treatment. Various
 stains, treatments and finishes are then applied to the timber by the
 students. Fine sanding and polishing is required between coats and
 treatments.

 Teachers complain about having no or very little sense of smell.
 Some of them stated that they had dermatitis and occupational
 asthma. A new teacher who had just started two months ago said
 she was having trouble coping with the heavy solvent odour that
 was present throughout the workshop.

 The workshop is vented with kitchen exhaust fans to the outside.
 The ventilation tends to cope with hand rubbing, but not with
 mechanical sanding. The general workshop and finishing areas
 have natural ventilation only, which tends to be reduced on hot or
 cold days.

 Many of the containers in use were old food containers and
 recycled chemical containers. These containers were poorly
 labelled, if at all. When asked about what was in the containers,
 teachers replied that all containers were donations and were
 cheaper than buying the proper containers. The only Material
 Safety Data Sheets found were in a box in the corner of the
 administration area and these were ten years old.




67                 Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Identify the hazards
Housekeeping, identify all chemicals on site.
Identify the fumes, dust, first aid, dipping areas safety risk from fumes
splashes & manual handling.

        Chemicals are stored in incorrect containers
        No MSDS – Obtain for all relevant materials including the
         wood dust – should be < 5 years old
        Consider the measurement of the chemical concentration in
         the air & compare with MSDS and the Exposure Standards
        Monitor the workers health
                    Review manual handling issues

Assess the Risks
        Manual handling
        Chemicals compare with the MSDS
        Monitor the dust levels

Control the risks
        Elimination
             Throw out old chemicals or unlabelled chemicals –
                Read the MSDS for the correct method of disposal

        Substitution – can less dangerous chemical be used

        Engineering
             Install an effective ventilation system in factory and in
               dipping area
             Use a mechanical device for dipping

        Administrative
             Ensure all containers are labelled
             Regular housekeeping & workplace inspections
             Monitor the dust levels & chemical concentration
             Provide training for chemical handling & also manual
               handling

        PPE
            Provide PPE if necessary after modification of plant
             and systems of work after reference to MSDS




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide    68
Session 6: Summary and Feedback

Discussion
• Summarise the day‟s lesson – ie. positives versus negatives
• Ask participants to geve feedback about what worked for them and
  what didn‟t?
• Inform them about the next few days and what they will be doing




Session 7: Assessment and Evaluation

Discussion
• Check for understanding about their responsibilities
• Participants to fill out the course evaluation form, if applicable




69                  Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide
Days 2, 3 and 4
On days 2, 3, and 4 lesson plans have been provided to help prompt
you.

As most schools will have varying types of machinery and equipment
the lesson plans will be used as a guide.

Teachers who deliver this will be able to use these as well as their
knowledge and skills in their respective fields.

Discussion points
•    Check for their knowledge or skills prior to starting the class
•    Ask what department they generally work in
•    Explain why maintenance is important
•    Reinforce the need to review the workshop environment
•    Monitor their progress in the A5 workbook




Course in the Safe Use of Machinery in Technology – Trainer’s Guide    70

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:7
posted:8/16/2011
language:English
pages:70
Description: Technology Trainers document sample