Transcontinental Railroad the railroad that connected the east

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					                     Christopher Shim’s 09-10 First Semester US History Study Guide
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Transcontinental Railroad- the railroad that connected the east and the west from Omaha, Nebraska, to
Sacramento, California. It consisted of the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific; connected at Promontory
Summit, Utah; spurred industrial growth of the nation
  -Union Pacific- (westeast) the laborers faced blizzards, scorching heat, and sometimes angry Indians
  -Central Pacific- (westeast) hired 10,000 Chinese immigrants at $1 per day
Telegraph- electronic device used for long distance, instant communication
Business cycle- A sequence of economic activity typically characterized by recession, fiscal recovery,
growth, and fiscal decline.
Great Railway Strike- The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad announced wage cuts , so many workers walked
off the job. As word spread, many railroad workers across the nation walked off the job as well. Angry
strikers smashed equipment, tore up tracks, and blocked rail service in NY. President Hayes sent in
federal troops to several striking cities. It lasted 12 days for police, state militias, and federal troops to
stop restore order
Bessemer Process- A method for making steel by blasting compressed air through molten iron to burn out
excess carbon and impurities.
Social Darwinism- “survival of the fittest” amongst social classes
Collective Bargaining- Negotiation between organized workers and their employer or employers to
determine wages, hours, rules, and working conditions
Industrial Unions- United all workers in a particular industry (e.g. automotive)
Haymarket Square- a strike in Chicago turned violent and police fired, killing four; the next day the riot
continued and someone threw a bomb, killing a police officer and wounding six other. Police opened fire,
and workers shot back. About 100 people, including 70 police officers, were injured. The police arrested
eight people for the bombings, seven of whom were German advocates of anarchism.
Homestead Strike- A steel mill owned by Carnegie and managed by Henry Frick in Homestead, PA. The
employees were members of the largest craft union in the country, and Frick proposed to cut wages by
20%. He then locked out employees and arranged for the Pinkerton Detective Agency to bring in
replacement workers. When the Pinkertons and strikebreakers approached the plant on barges, the
strikers refused to let them land. Gunfire followed and several Pinkertons and strikers were dead.
Pullman Strike- Workers had begun to strike, has Pullman arranged for his cars to carry US mail.
Interfering with US mail was a crime, so President Grover Cleveland sent in troops to stop the strike to
ensure the delivery of the mail
Morrill Land Grant Act- extended military-style education to land-grant colleges; required the schools to
provide male students with basic military instruction, but the schools could remain civilian institutions
Homestead Act- For a $10 registration fee, an individual could file for a homestead, which could be up to
160 acres of land and receive title to that land after living on it for five years.
Interstate Commerce Act- created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), which could regulate
interstate trade and railroad rates
Populist- A supporter of the Populist Party
Fredrick Jackson Turner- believed that the frontier had provided a “safety valve of social discontent” It
was a place where Americans could always make a fresh start
Frontier Thesis- conclusion put forth by Frederick Jackson Turner that the wellsprings of American
exceptionalism created freedom, constantly named as civilization
Exodusters- name given to African Americans who fled the Southern United States for Kansas in 1879
and 1880. After the end of Reconstruction, racial oppression and rumors of the reinstitution of slavery led
many freed-men to seek a new place to live
Farmers’ Alliance- umbrella term for several grassroots farmers organizations active between 1877-92
Reservations- land set aside for Native Americans after they had been moved off their own land
Assimilation- being absorbed into American culture
Bland Allison Act- he first of several U.S. government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods
The Grange- An association of farmers founded in the United States in 1867
Gold/Silver Debate- farmers wanted congress to mint silver coins, so that the U.S. could increase its
money supply. This would enable the government to print more greenbacks without the risk of inflation/
William Jennings Bryan- Democratic presidential candidate who supported silver

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                     Christopher Shim’s 09-10 First Semester US History Study Guide
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Dakota-Sioux Uprising- The Dakota Sioux launched a major uprising in Minnesota. They agreed to live on
reservations in exchange for annuities which were never paid. Many of them were starving. Chief Little
Crow asked local traders to provide food on credit who rudely declined. Two weeks later the Dakota
Sioux slaughtered settlers in the area and the 307(later 38) Indians were sentenced to death.
Red Cloud’s War/Fetterman’s Massacre - The army was constructing forts along the Bozeman Trail, the
path used to reach the Montana gold mines; Crazy Horse tricked Cpt. Fetterman, the fort commander,
into sending about 80 troops out to pursue what they thought was a small raiding party. The entire unit
was ambushed and wiped out. The Sioux continued for several years and the army eventually abandoned
all posts along the trail.
Sand Creek Massacre- John Evans ordered the Cheyenne to surrender at Fort Lyon and Chief Black
Kettle brought several hundred Cheyenne to negotiate a peace treaty, not surrender. Col. John
Chivington was ordered to attack them despite Black Kettle waving a white flag and an American flag.
Battle of Little Bighorn- People were overrunning the Lakota Sioux reservation in the Dakota Territory to
mine gold in the Black Hills. The Lakota no longer cared about the treaty they had signed to stay on
reservations when American settlers were violating it, so many left to hunt elsewhere. George Custer was
then ordered to send a unit out to bring them back. On his own initiative, he launched an attack against
the largest group of Indians ever assembled on the Plains. 210 soldiers and Custer were killed.
Flight of the Nez Perce- Chief Joseph refused to be moved to a small reservation In Idaho, they
embarked on a 1,300 mile journey when the army came to relocate them. Joseph eventually surrendered
and he and his followers were exiled to Oklahoma.
Tragedy at Wounded Knee- Native American resistance came to a final and tragic end on the Lakota
Sioux reservation. Defying the orders of the government, the Lakota continued to perform the Ghost
Dance, a ritual that celebrated a hoped-for day of reckoning when the settlers would disappear, the
buffalo would return, and the Native Americans would reunite with their ancestors. Federal authorities
arrested Sitting Bull who had returned from Canada. Gunfire was exchanged and the chief was killed.
Dawes Act- allotted to each head of household 160 acres of reservation land for farming; single adults
received 80 acres, and 40 acres were allotted for children. The remaining land would be sold to settlers
from which the profits were put into a trust for Native Americans.
Deflation- an increase in the value of money
Civil Service- Those branches of public service that are not legislative, judicial, or military and in which
employment is usually based on competitive examination.
Gilded Age- Twain and Warner were sounding an alarm when they coined the era this name. It referred to
how an age of peace and prosperity covered the terrible conditions of the poor class
Laissez-Faire- French phrase meaning “let the people do as they choose.” Supporters of this believed
prices should be set by supply and demand, not by the government
Pendelton Civil Service Act- required that some government positions must be filled based on merit
James A. Garfield- didn’t believe in spoils of office; was shot and killed because of this
Chester A. Arthur- Garfield’s VP
Political Machine- informal political group designed to gain and keep power
Immigration 1890's: eastern immigrants land at Ellis Island; western immigrants land at Angel Island
  -Europe- consisted of southern and eastern European countries, predominately Catholic
  -Asia- China was suffering from over-population, famine, severe unemployment, and poverty
Munn v. Illinois- historic ruling that tests the constitutionality of state police power, through legislation, to
regulate private business. Coming in the industrial upheaval of the late nineteenth century, the case gave
vitality to the recently enacted Fourteenth Amendment.
William McKinley- President of the United States during the Spanish-American War
Theodore Roosevelt- Young and energetic progressive who took the Oath of Office after President
McKinley's assassination
Gentleman's Agreement- agreement between the US and Japan. Japan promised to restrict its
immigration to the US and in turn, we promised fair treatment of their citizens. This is known as the
Gentleman’s Agreement because it was a verbal, non-official agreement
Jacob Coxey- led a march of unemployed workers to Washington, D.C., in 1894.
Prohibition- the banning of the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcohol
Purity Crusade- group of people who wanted moral reform
Settlement House- community center where reformers resided and offered everything from medical care
and English

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Charity Organization Society- private charity that existed as a clearing house for information on the poor
Andrew Carnegie- born poor in Scotland, worked as a secretary to Thomas Scott, a superintendent; was
promoted when Scott was to his position; invested in companies that built railroad bridges; quit that job to
manage his investments; learned a cheap way to make steel from Sir Henry Bessemer in Europe;
Created Carnegie Steel; achieved vertical integration
John D. Rockefeller- owned Standard Oil; built oil refineries instead of drilling; achieved an oil monopoly
Niagara Movement- demanded full rights for African Americans; leaders met at Niagara Falls
Public Education- the free and mandatory attendance of children to attend public schools
Plessey v. Ferguson- Supreme Court decision that established the legality of racial segregation so long
as facilities were "separate but equal."
W.E.B. Dubois- leader of a generation of African American activists
Madam C.J. Walker- African-American businesswoman, hair care entrepreneur and philanthropist. Her
fortune was made by developing and marketing a hugely successful line of beauty and hair products
Alexander Graham Bell- invented the telephone
Thomas Alva Edison- in his laboratory in Menlo Park, NJ, he invented most notably the phonograph,
perfected the electric generator, perfected the light bulb, improved the battery, improved the Dictaphone,
and improved the motion picture.
George Westinghouse- invented the air-brake system for trains so that all of the cars would stop at once
and could brake rapidly and smoothly; also developed the alternating current (AC) system to distribute
electricity using transformers and generators
Thaddeus Lowe- invented the ice machine which was the basis of the fridge
Gustavus Swift- invented the refrigerated railroad car to keep meat fresh and free of disease
Cyrus Field- Laid a telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean to more easily communicate with Europe
Booker T. Washington- influential African American educator who focused on economic goals
Vaudeville- French theatre with an American flavor; essentially a circus
Movie Industry- motion pictures were a huge part of pop culture in the 1920s
Trolley Parks- picnic and recreation areas along or at the ends of streetcar lines in most larger cities
The Adventures of H.F.- Novel by Mark Twain which spoke of life in the Mississippi River
NAACP- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; believed that voting rights were
essential to end lynching and racial discrimination
Yellow Journalism- exaggerated/mad up stores used to attract readers
Jim Crowe Laws- laws that enforced discrimination (mostly in southern states)
Poll Tax- a sum ($2) required to be paid to vote, too much for many African Americans
Grandfather Clause- allowed any man to vote if they had an ancestor who could vote in 1867
13th Amend.- Abolition of slavery
14th Amend.- equal rights to protection for all citizens
15 Amend.- Voting rights for American men of all races (of the voting age)
Monroe Doctrine- declared the West Hemisphere off-limits to European colonization
Spanish American War- See chapter 7 section 2 summary towards the back of the review
William Hearst- owner of the New York Journal which swayed public opinion against the Spanish
Joseph Pulitzer- owner of the New York World which swayed public opinion for Cuba
Panama Canal- The United States wanted to create a pathway by sea to get from the Atlantic to the
Pacific more quickly than going around Cape Horn, south of South America
Anti-Imperialists- worried that cheap Pilipino labor would drive down American wages and that it violated
American values
Pro-Imperialists- emphasized the economic and military benefits of taking the islands, which would
provide the US with another Pacific Naval Base, a stopover on the way to China, and a new market
Isthmus of Panama- An isthmus of Central America connecting North and South America and separating
the Pacific Ocean from the Caribbean Sea.
Treaty of Paris 1898- Cuba became an independent nation, and the US acquired Puerto Rico and Guam
and agreed to pay Spain $20M for the Philippines; the senate ratified this bill
China Trade- After the Japanese easily defeated the Chinese, countries around the world realized China
was far weaker than they had originally thought. Countries, now ignoring Chinese threats, set up trade in
China. To avoid conflict, China later passed the Open Door policy.
Open Door Policy- all countries would be allowed to trade freely with China
Russo-Japanese War- war between Japan and Russia in which Japan conquered parts of Russia

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Imperialism- Reasons: A desire for new markets, a feeling of superiority (Anglo-Saxonism), and the belief
that the nation needed a large navy for security, with bases over seas
Platt Amendment- Cuba couldn’t make any treaty with another nation that would weaken its
independence, Cuba had to allow the US to buy or lease naval stations in Cuba, Cuba’s debts had to be
kept low to prevent foreign countries from landing troops to enforce payment, and the US would have the
right to intervene to protect Cuba and keep order
Teller Amendment- authorized the use of U.S. military force to establish Cuban independence from Spain
Roosevelt Corollary- the US would intervene in Latin American affairs to enforce the Monroe Doctrine
Dollar Diplomacy- Taft’s policy through imperialism in Latin America, that American businesses would
increase their trade and profits and the poor countries would rise out of poverty
Commodore Matthew Perry- took a naval expedition to Japan to negotiate (force) a trade treaty
Cpt. Alfred T. Mahan- wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783. In this book, he
pointed out the need for a large navy to protect the country from other world powers
Gunboat Diplomacy- Diplomacy involving intimidation by threat or use of military force
Great White Fleet- Roosevelt sought to demonstrate growing American military power and blue-water
navy capability by circumventing the globe with this fleet of 16 naval ships
Progressive Movement- a reaction against laissez-faire economics and its emphasis on an unregulated
market. Progressives generally believed that industrialization and urbanization had created many
economic and social problems. After seeing the poverty of the working class and the filth and crime of
urban society, reformers began doubting the free market’s ability to address these serious problems.
Henry George- Progressive journalist who published Progress and Poverty, a discussion of the American
economy that quickly became a national best seller
Edward Bellamy- published the best selling novel, Looking Backward, about a man who falls asleep in
1887 and awakens in the year 2000 to find that the nation has become a perfect society, with no crime,
poverty, or politics. In this fictional society the government owns everything.
Sherman Anti-trust Act- prohibited any “combination… or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce
among the several states”
William Howard Taft- 27 President of the US, Republican
Tariffs- taxes on foreign imported goods; in turn other countries raised their tariffs on American goods
Political Machine- in formal political group designed to gain and keep power
Alice Paul- Headed NAWSA’s congressional committee
Women's Suffrage- the right to vote
Woodrow Wilson- 28 President of the US, Democrat, PhD
Public Utilities- A private business organization, subject to governmental regulation, that provides an
essential commodity or service, such as water, electricity, transportation, or communication, to the public
Clayton Anti-Trust Act- This act outlawed practices restricted competition
Susan B. Anthony- founded the Boston-based American Woman Suffrage Association
Suffrage Movement- Women during the 1800s and early 1900s banded together to gain the right to vote
Federal Trade Commission- monitors American business; can regulate companies practicing unfair trade
16 Amend.- Income tax
17 Amend.- Direct election of senators by citizens
18 Amend.- Prohibition (the banning of the manufacturing, sale, and consumption of alcohol)
Square Deal- Roosevelt’s progressive reforms
Muckrakers- Group of crusading progressive journalists
Triangle Shirtwaist Company- A fire started at this sweat shop and the doors were locked to keep
employees in. The women died in the blaze because of this careless mistake.
Open Shops- Workplace where employees were not required to join a union
Closed Shops- Companies that only hire union workers
American Federation of Labor- dominant union of the late 1800s; promoted interests of skilled workers
Upton Sinclair- Wrote The Jungle which spoke of the poor sanitary conditions of slaughter houses and
other meat facilities
Yellow Dog Contracts- A contract by which the employee agrees not to join a union while employed
Recall- Provided voters an option to demand special election to remove officials
Referendum- allowed citizens to vote on proposed laws directly
Direct Primary- Allowing party members to choose their candidate
Initiative- permitted a group of citizens to introduce legislation

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19th Amendment- Woman suffrage
Convoy System- highly maneuverable warships called destroyers that would escort fleets of merchants
Wartime Economy- created new agencies and policies like the War Industries Board and victory gardens
Vladimir Lenin- leader of the Bolshevik party which took over in Russia in 1917
League of Nations- a general association of nations; never really worked
Archduke Franz Ferdinand- next in line for the Austrian throne; assassinated while visiting the Bosnian
capital of Sarajevo by Gavrillo Princip; triggered World War I
Schlieffen Plan- instead of aiming the first strike against Russia, Germany should aim a rapid, decisive
blow with a large force at France's flank through Belgium, then sweep around and crush the French
armies against a smaller German force in the south
Central Powers- Consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire
Allied Powers- Consisted of Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Belgium, the US, Serbia, Romania, and Greece
Policy of Preparedness- countries were aloud to have armies just strong enough to protect themselves
U-Boats- German submarines
Unrestricted Sub. Warfare- Attacking and sinking any ship in a certain area of the sea
Declaration of War (US)- The US declared war on Germany because of the Zimmerman Note, the sinking
of the Lusitania, and Germany reinstated unrestricted submarine warfare
Zimmerman Note- A telegram from Germany to Mexico offering to help it regain the land it lost in the
Mexican-American war if they joined Germany in the war; intercepted by Great Britain
Article 10 (League of Nations)- The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against
external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the
League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the Council
shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled.
Sedition Act- made it illegal to speak against the war publicly
Espionage Act- made it illegal to aid the enemy, give false reports, or interfere with the war efforts
Fourteen Points- President Wilson’s peace plan
Gen. John J. Pershing- commander of the American Expeditionary Force
Lusitania- British passenger ship with 128 Americans
Causes of WWl:
  -Militarism- the aggressive build up of war materials and soldiers
  -Alliances- treaties among nations agreeing to aid each other if attacked
  -Imperialism- the domination of a weaker country by a stronger one
  -Nationalism- feeling of intense pride in one’s homeland
Selective Service Act- new draft system which chose men by random lottery
Mass Media- radio, movies, newspapers, and magazines aimed at a broad audience
Heroes of the 1920s:
  -Jacob Lawrence- African American artist and painted the Great Migration
  -Langston Hughes- African American poet
  -Louis Armstrong- famous African American jazz player
  -Duke Ellington- band leader and a piano player
  -Babe Ruth- famous baseball player and played for the New York Yankees
  -Amelia Earhart- first person to fly solo across the Pacific Ocean
  -Charles Lindbergh- first person to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean
Ohio Gang- President Harding’s old poker-playing friends whom he appointed to high offices
Flappers- young women, especially in the 1920s who showed disdain of conventional dress and behavior
Prohibition- the banning of the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcohol
Evolution Controversy- southern Protestants known as Fundamentalists were outraged by the teaching
that humans had evolved from a lower form of life, as they believed it contradicted what the Bible says
Scopes Trial- Widely publicized trial (called the "Monkey Trial") in Tennessee. John T. Scopes, a high-
school teacher (who accepted a paid “job” from the American Civil Liberties Union to do so), was charged
with teaching Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, which violated a state law (1925) prohibiting the
teaching of any doctrine that denied the divine creation of humans. The trial was broadcast live on radio
and attracted worldwide interest. The prosecutor was three-time presidential candidate, William Jennings
Bryan. The judge limited arguments to the basic charge to avoid a test of the law's constitutionality and a
discussion of Darwin's theory. Scopes was found guilty and fined $100; he was later acquitted on the
technicality that he had been fined excessively. The law was repealed in 1967.

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Marcus Garvey- dynamic black leader from Jamaica who captured the imaginations of millions of African
Americans with his “Negro Nationalism,” which glorified black culture and traditions
Teapot Dome Scandal- Harding’s Secretary of the Interior allowed private interests to lease lands
containing US Navy oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming and Elk Hills, California
Al Capone- one of the most successful and violent gangsters of the era, who had many police officers,
judges, and other officials on his payroll. His organized crime thrived on the illegal trade of alcohol.
Lost Generation- Group of U.S. writers who considered themselves "lost" because their inherited values
could not operate in the postwar world and they felt spiritually alienated from a country they considered
hopelessly provincial and emotionally barren.
Great Migration- hundreds of thousands of African Americans fled the south to the north in hope of a
better life with an industrial job and less racism
Harlem Renaissance- African American artistic development, racial pride, and political organization
thrived and flowered in Harlem
Auto Industry- industry begun by Henry Ford which revolved around the manufacturing of automobiles
Calvin Coolidge- became President after Harding died of a heart attack
Palmer Raids- Palmer ordered a series of raids on Union and Russian workers’ offices in 12 cities. Many
people accused of being communists were deported to Russia
Red Scare- fear of a violent communist revolution in the US
Communists- those who believe a central government should have full control over everything
Bolsheviks- Political party in Russia who were communists and took over Russia in 1917
Sacco & Vanzetti- Two men robbed and murdered two employees of a shoe factory in MA. Police
subsequently arrested two Italian immigrants, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti for the crime. The
two were anarchists and it was found that Sacco owned a gun similar to the murder weapon. The
evidence was questionable, but the two were sentenced to death and killed six years later.
Alfred E. Smith- four-time governor of New York who the Democrats chose to run against Hoover
Cost of Living- The average cost of the basic necessities of life, such as food, shelter, and clothing.
Credit- the reliability of an individual borrowing money with the intent of paying it back with interest
Laissez-faire (Republican policy)- They were against all forms of government economic interference
Isolationism- the idea that the US will be safer and more prosperous if it stays out of world affairs
Riots (1919)- wave of strikes in 1919 in which the strikers were thought to be communists
Henry Ford- Invented the moving assembly line, which allowed the mass production of his automobiles
"Talkies"- A movie with a sound track.
Buying on Margin- making a small down payment to pay for the purchase of stocks
1937 New Deal Relief Programs:
SEC- Securities and Exchange Commission; regulated the stock market; prevented fraud
CCC- Civilian Conservation Corps; men 18-25 had the opportunity to work planting trees and fight fires
WPA- Works Progress Administration; constructed millions of miles of highways and roads
TVA- Tennessee Valley Authority; built dams to control floods
AAA- Agriculture Adjustment Act; paid farmers not to grow certain crops to raise prices
Eleanor Roosevelt- First lady; went around the country making speeches for FDR because of polio
Black Cabinet- Federal Council of Negro Affairs, group of African American public policy advisors to FDR
Father Coughlin- Catholic priest from Detroit who favored massive taxes to help the economy
Huey Long- Louisiana governor who improved schools, hospitals, and built roads and bridges
Brain Trust- group of experts who serve as advisers and policy planners, especially in a government
Nat. Recov. Adm.- companies could choose to follow certain codes; encouraged to only buy from them
R.F.C.- Reconstruction Finance Corporation; provided loans to railroads, banks, and businesses
Hawley-Smoot Tariff- heavy increase of tariffs; hurt American companies and farmers
Hoover & the Depression- Hoover’s idea of laissez-faire was a tad too extreme
1929 Stock Market Crash- prices of all stocks crashed one day and many people lost their life savings
21st Amendment- repealed the 18 amendment (prohibition)

Possible Essay Topics. There will be 3 choices. You will need to complete 2:
Mass Media: Yellow journalism, muckrakers, and media in the 1920s
1920’s: Women, prohibition, and Scopes trial
WWI: Causes, assassination, 14 points, Treaty of Versailles
Progressives: Presidents, foreign policy, and impact

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                            Europe in World War I

                 Blue = Allied Power Orange = Central Power           Green = Neutral
1. Portugal        2. Spain            3. Ireland                  4. England             5. France
6. Switzerland     7. Italy            8. Belgium                  9. Netherlands         10. Germany
11. Norway         12. Sweden          13. Austria-Hungary         14. Russia             15. Romania
16. Bulgaria       17. Ottoman Empire 18. Greece                   19. Serbia             20. Montenegro
21. Albania        22. Black Sea       23. Mediterranean Sea       24. Atlantic Ocean     25. Baltic Sea

Elections: Only know the winner (and running mate); know everyone if election is bolded
Election of 1XXX: (R)Republican Candidate (pres. After death) vs. (D)Democrat Candidate vs. Other
Election of 1864: (R)Abraham Lincoln ([D]Andrew Johnson 1865) vs. (D)George B. McClellan
Election of 1868: (R)Ulysses S. Grant vs. (D)Horatio Seymour
Election of 1872: (R)Ulysses S. Grant vs. (No Democrat) Horace Greeley (Liberal Republican)
Election of 1876: (R)Rutherford B. Hayes vs. (D)Samuel J. Tilden
Election of 1880: (R)James Garfield (Chester A. Arthur 1881) vs. (D)Winfield Hancock
Election of 1884: (R)James G. Blaine vs. (D)Grover Cleveland
Election of 1888: (R)Benjamin Harrison vs. (D)Grover Cleveland
Election of 1892: (R)Benjamin Harrison vs. (D)Grover Cleveland vs. James Weaver (Populist)
Election of 1896: (R)William McKinley vs. (D)William Jennings Bryan
Election of 1900: (R)William McKinley (Theodore Roosevelt 1901) vs. (D)William Jennings Bryan
Election of 1904: (R)Theodore Roosevelt vs. (D)Alton B. Parker
Election of 1908: (R)William Howard Taft vs. (D)William Jennings Bryan
Election of 1912: (R)William Howard Taft vs. (D)Woodrow Wilson vs. Theodore Roosevelt (Bull Moose)
Election of 1916: (R)Charles Evans Hughes vs. (D)Woodrow Wilson
Election of 1920: (R)Warren G. Harding (Calvin Coolidge 1923) vs. (D)James M. Cox
Election of 1924: (R)Calvin Coolidge vs. (D)John W. Davis vs. Robert M. La Follette, Sr. (Progressive)
Election of 1928: (R)Herbert Hoover vs. (D)Al Smith
Election of 1932: (R)Herbert Hoover vs. (D)Franklin D. Roosevelt
Election of 1936: (R)Alf Landon vs. (D)Franklin D. Roosevelt
Election of 1940: (R)Wendell Willkie vs. (D)Franklin D. Roosevelt
Election of 1944: (R)Thomas E. Dewey vs. (D)Franklin D. Roosevelt (Harry Truman 1945)

                                             Page 7 of 14
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Chapter 4: Settling the West, 1865-1890
Section 1 discusses how miners and ranchers migrated West after the Civil War to search for economic
opportunities. The West's rich deposits of gold, silver, and copper attracted droves of settlers to the Rocky
Mountains. News of a mineral strike could turn a sleepy frontier outpost into a bustling boomtown
seemingly overnight. The flurry of mining activity throughout the West spurred the building of railroads
through the Rocky Mountains and turned supply posts into large cities. Not all settlers headed west to find
their fortunes in mining. Some Americans began establishing huge cattle ranches on the Great Plains. On
the open range, cowhands rounded up Texas longhorns and drove them along cattle trails to the railroad
for shipment east. The open-range cattle industry was beset with problems as "range wars,"
overproduction, and nature affected ranchers' profits. The arrival of new settlers changed life for the
original Hispanic inhabitants of the Southwest. Over time, the Hispanic population found their status
Section 2 describes the settlement of the "Great American Desert"—the Great Plains. The construction of
the railroads provided settlers easy access to the vast western Plains. Settlers were drawn by the
railroads' offers of cheap land and a new law that protected their property rights. Life on the Great Plains
was difficult, and settlers faced threats of fire, insect swarms, and extreme weather. Both small family
farms and huge bonanza farms profited from new farming methods and machines, and by the 1880s the
United States had become the world's leading exporter of wheat. In the 1890s, farmers fell on hard times
when overproduction dropped the price of wheat and drought destroyed crops. By 1890, the growing
populations of settlers in the West signaled that the frontier was closing.
Section 3 explains how the Plains Indians struggled as American settlers moved West. The farmers,
miners, and ranchers that poured onto the Plains during the late 1800s deprived Native Americans of
their hunting grounds and often forced Plains Indians to relocate. Between 1862 and 1890, the Plains
Indians attempted to defend their land and preserve their way of life. Battles between Native American
nations and the American army led to bloodshed. Congress tried to put an end to Native American
resistance by establishing reservations on the Plains and giving the army authority to deal with those who
refused to report or remain there. Within a few years, Native Americans began leaving the reservations to
hunt the dwindling numbers of buffalo that lived on the open Plains. As the army tried to rein in Native
Americans, bloody battles ensued. In 1890 at Wounded Knee, Native American resistance came to an
end. Attempts by the government to replace Native American culture with a new lifestyle failed. Their
traditional way of life, based on the migrating buffalo, had been wiped out with the herds.
Chapter 5: Industrialization, 1865-1901
Section 1 discusses the factors that contributed to the industrialization of the United States in the late
1800s. With an abundance of natural resources and able workers, the United States turned its focus to
technology and industry after the Civil War. Entrepreneurs and European investors financed industries
and a flood of new inventions that transformed American communications and manufacturing and
improved transportation. In the late 1800s, the federal government's laissez-faire approach—low taxes,
low spending, and little interference—fostered the growth of free enterprise. At the same time, the
government's high tariffs encouraged American industrial growth by reducing demand for foreign goods.
As industry expanded, millions of Americans left their farms to work in mines and factories. By the early
1900s, American entrepreneurial skill and technology had transformed the United States into the world's
leading industrial nation.
Section 2 describes how the rapid construction of railroads after the Civil War spurred the nation's
industrial growth. With the Pacific Railway Act in 1862, the nation set off on a mission to connect its
distant regions in a transportation network. The transcontinental railroad was the first of many lines to
crisscross the nation. Eventually, railroad consolidation connected hundreds of small railway lines across
the country, making the transportation of goods more efficient and economical. Railroads revolutionized
transportation, broadened markets, and stimulated the economy. The federal government helped finance
railroad construction by giving many railroad companies land grants. Corruption plagued the land grant
system, and robber barons reaped huge profits from manipulating the system.

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Section 3 follows the rise of large corporations and how they came to dominate American business.
During the late 1800s, corporations developed new technologies and built large manufacturing facilities.
Because corporations increased manufacturing productivity and decreased production costs, they were
able to operate even in poor economic times. Small companies who could not compete were forced out of
business, and by the 1870s many industries were dominated by a few large corporations. Shrewd
corporate leaders used company mergers to build huge empires. Laws designed to prevent monopolies
did not address trusts or holding companies, and corporations grew even larger. New methods of selling
introduced consumers to the products of American industrialization.
Section 4 traces the growth of American labor unions. In the late 1800s industrial workers labored long
hours under difficult, often dangerous, conditions. Many workers decided to improve their situations by
organizing trade and industrial unions. Union organizers, however, found opposition in employers, the
courts, and those who thought unions threatened basic American institutions. Confrontations with owners
and government often led to violence and federal intervention. While industrial unions generally failed,
trade unions—unions limited to people with specific skills—survived. The leader of one trade union, the
AFL, helped unions become acceptable in American society. Women, who were excluded from most
unions, organized their own unions to promote women's labor issues. Despite their gains, unions
remained relatively weak as the 1900s began.
Chapter 6: Urban America, 1865-1896
Section 1 discusses the reasons why millions of immigrants settled in the United States after the Civil
War. Of the fourteen million immigrants that arrived in the United States between 1860 and 1900, most
came from Asia and eastern and southern Europe. Although the reasons why they immigrated varied,
many Europeans came to avoid religious persecution and forced military service, or to break free of
Europe's class system. Chinese immigrants wanted to escape China's unemployment, poverty, and
political unrest. Most Europeans endured a difficult voyage to the United States aboard a steamship and
disembarked at Ellis Island—an immigrant processing center. Many of the immigrants from Japan and
China who arrived on the West Coast during the late 1800s disembarked at Angel Island. Most
immigrants settled in cities and formed ethnically separated groups. Economic concerns and religious and
ethnic prejudices led many Americans to discriminate against immigrants. They treated immigrants poorly
and pushed for laws restricting immigration.
Section 2 looks at the urbanization of the United States. In the years following the Civil War, the number
of American cities greatly expanded, and urban populations grew rapidly. Immigrants and farmers poured
into the cities, creating almost unbearable congestion. New technologies paved the way for skyscrapers,
suspension bridges, and new methods of mass transit. Distinct neighborhoods emerged, separating the
cities' social classes. The majority of urban dwellers were the working class who suffered deplorable living
conditions in dark and crowded tenements. The problems of rapidly growing cities included threats of
crime, violence, fire, disease, and pollution. Political machines, controlled by party bosses, addressed
urban problems by providing essential city services in return for the loyalty of urban immigrant groups.
Corruption plagued political machines, however, since party bosses also controlled cities' finances.
Section 3 describes how the late 1800s, an era called the Gilded Age, gave rise to new values, art, and
forms of entertainment. During the era, many Americans firmly believed in individualism—an idea that the
individual had the power to create his or her own future. Social Darwinism, another powerful idea of the
era, reinforced individualism and suggested that only the fittest people within a society would survive.
New movements in art and literature focused on capturing the world realistically. As industrialization
increased the disposable incomes and leisure time for many, people began to enjoy new forms of
entertainment and recreation. Change was seen in politics, as well. The civil service was reformed, and
government began to regulate business to benefit the public. Social reformers became a powerful force,
through organizations such as the Salvation Army and the YMCA. The number of public schools nearly
tripled during this period.

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Section 4 details the emergence of populism. In the years immediately following the Civil War,
overproduction and deflation created economic hardships for many farmers. Many blamed railroads and
banks and decided they needed more political muscle to effect economic changes. Farmers organized
into the Grange, the Greenback Party, and the Farmers' Alliance. When farmers and reformers organized
the People’s Party, their demands included allowing the free coinage of silver, ending national banks and
protective tariffs, applying tighter restrictions on railroads, and allowing the direct election of U.S.
senators. The main objective of the party was to expand the powers of the federal government to protect
farmers. The People’s Party declined after 1896. They had failed to ease economic hardships of farmers.
However, some of their reforms, such as the graduated income tax, came about in later decades.
Section 5 describes how Southern states passed laws during the late 1800s that disenfranchised African
Americans and imposed segregation on them. After Reconstruction, many African Americans tried to
escape the grinding poverty of the rural South. While thousands of "Exodusters" migrated to Kansas,
some African Americans joined farmers' alliances. When African Americans joined the Populist Party,
Democratic leaders used racism to put an end to the Populist threat in the South. Election officials
employed strategies at the polls that barred nearly all African Americans from voting. Encouraged by a
Supreme Court decision, Southern States passed a series of laws that reinforced segregation. Another
Supreme Court ruling endorsed "separate but equal" facilities for African Americans, and the South found
its legal basis for discrimination. As racial brutality, mob violence, and lynchings increased during the late
1800s, African Americans responded with protests against violence, calls for compromise, and demands
for equality.
Chapter 7: Becoming a World Power, 1872-1917
Section 1 identifies the attitudes and actions that transformed the United States into a world power. By
the 1880s the western frontier was finally filling up, and American business leaders began looking
overseas to find new markets. Increased European imperialism led many Americans to justify expansion
with the idea of Anglo-Saxonism—the belief that it was the nation's destiny to spread its civilization to
other people. New markets were forced upon first in Japan, when the United States made a show of
force, and then in Hawaii, when American business leaders led a successful campaign for Hawaiian
annexation. In Latin America, leaders attempted to increase American influence. Meanwhile, the United
States became increasingly assertive in foreign affairs. As Americans became more willing to risk war in
defense of overseas markets, interest in a powerful navy and overseas bases grew.
Section 2 describes the Spanish-American War. In 1895 many Americans sided with Cuban rebels in an
uprising in the Spanish colony of Cuba. Americans had close economic and trade ties to Cuba, and
yellow journalism played to their sympathies. President William McKinley tried to negotiate a peaceful end
to the rebellion. However, when the U.S.S. Maine exploded off the coast of Cuba, the press blamed
Spain, and Americans called for war. The U.S. Navy proved its superiority over the Spanish fleet, while
American troops led successful ground attacks. Spanish resistance ended with the surrender of the
Cuban city of Santiago. Under the terms outlined in the Treaty of Paris, Cuba became an independent
country, and Spain ceded Guam and Puerto Rico and sold the Philippines to the United States. Despite
arguments from anti-imperialists, the United States annexed the Philippines along with Guam and Puerto
Rico. With the events of the Spanish-American War, the United States established itself as an imperial
Section 3 explains how the United States wielded its influence on the world stage under President
Theodore Roosevelt. After President McKinley's assassination, young and energetic Vice President
Theodore Roosevelt took charge. Because Roosevelt intended to make the United States a world power,
his administration involved itself in the politics of foreign nations. In Asia, American leaders worked to
maintain an Open Door Policy—full access to China's lucrative markets. Roosevelt gained worldwide
recognition for his role in negotiating a peace between Japan and Russia. He used a "big stick" policy to
secure the right to build the Panama Canal, while the Roosevelt Corollary warned foreign powers that the
United States would intervene to maintain stability in Latin American. President William Taft continued
Roosevelt's mission of enhancing American influence in the Western Hemisphere, but his dollar
diplomacy put less emphasis on military strength and more emphasis on helping Latin American and
Asian industry. President Wilson believed in "moral diplomacy" and tried to encourage democracy in Latin
America, but he still ended up sending troops to Mexico in 1914.

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Chapter 8: The Progressive Movement, 1890-1920
Section 1 discusses the beginnings of progressivism. The Progressive movement emerged in the early
1900s as a series of reform efforts designed to respond to the problems created by unregulated growth of
cities and big business. Most progressives shared a strong faith that science and knowledge could
improve society, and many believed that government should take an active role in solving society's
problems. However, progressives differed widely in their views and actions. Some progressives focused
on making government more efficient, while others worked to make government more responsive to
voters. Together these activists impacted government on the local, state, and national levels. Many
progressive women concluded that they needed the vote to promote social reform, and they rallied behind
the suffrage movement. Progressives, who focused on social welfare issues such as alcohol abuse, child
labor, and the health and safety of Americans, created charities and won reforms on specific issues.
Some progressives advocated the creation of government agencies to regulate big business, while others
thought socialism would solve society's problems.
Section 2 describes how progressivism entered national politics during Theodore Roosevelt's
administration. Roosevelt's expanded use of presidential power changed the nature of the presidency and
significantly increased the powers of the federal government. In promoting progressive reforms, he
wanted to ensure that the interests of private concerns did not hurt public interest. His threat of military
intervention during a miner's strike expanded the government's role in preventing conflicts between the
nation's different groups. Roosevelt's efforts to conserve the nation's resources and to prevent
unregulated exploitation of public lands became a distinguishing mark of his presidency. As Theodore
Roosevelt's most trusted lieutenant, Taft seemed a logical candidate to continue Roosevelt's progressive
policies. However Taft angered progressives when he threw his support behind a senator who worked
contrary to progressive goals. Even though Taft had attacked trusts and increased federal regulation
during his presidency, voter discontent led to a sweeping Democratic victory in the 1910 congressional
Section 3 discusses progressivism under President Woodrow Wilson. At the Republican national
convention in 1912, conservatives gave Taft the Republican nomination, while progressives followed
Roosevelt to his newly formed Progressive Party. The Democrats nominated Woodrow Wilson, whose
New Freedom brand of progressivism rejected monopolies and promoted competition. With the
Republican vote split, Wilson won the election. Wilson enhanced the power of the presidency by taking an
active role in crafting and promoting legislation. His reforms expanded the role of government and
affected tariffs, the banking system, trusts, and workers' rights. Wilson's presidency enacted laws that
demonstrated Progressive era ideals. Progressivism led many Americans to begin expecting their
governments to play an active role in regulating the economy and solving problems. Although
progressives ignored some groups, their efforts expanded democracy and improved the quality of life for
millions of Americans.
Chapter 9: World War I and Its Aftermath, 1914-1920
Section 1 discusses the events that pushed the United States into World War I. In 1914 tensions
between nations of Europe had led to alliances, militarism, and nationalism. That same year, the heir to
the Austro-Hungarian throne was assassinated, and the alliances launched into the first world war. The
Allies—Russia, France, Italy, and Britain—squared off against the Central Powers—Germany, Austria-
Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria. Wilson was determined that the United States would remain
neutral even though American ties to Allied heritage, business, and finances swayed many to sympathize
with the Allied cause. When German U-boats sank passenger liners with Americans onboard, Wilson
issued strong warnings and secured a pledge from Germany that kept the peace a little longer. His
peacekeeping efforts won him reelection, but the peace would not last long. A message indicating a
Mexican-German alliance and another series of U-boat attacks finally pushed Wilson to ask for a
declaration of war on April 2, 1917.

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Section 2 describes how the United States mobilized to fight World War I. When the United States
declared war on Germany, Americans at home united to support the war. Congress created special
boards to coordinate the efforts of business and labor. To fund the war effort, the government raised
taxes, instituted new taxes, and sold bonds. While soldiers fought the war overseas, the Committee on
Public Information used propaganda to urge cooperation at home. Selective service, a new conscription
system, increased military forces. Women served in the military for the first time, a "Great Migration" of
African Americans and Mexican Americans headed north to take wartime factory jobs. In their eagerness
to support the war, legislators passed laws that curtailed citizens' civil liberties, and a climate of suspicion
settled over not only German Americans, but also labor activists, socialists, and pacifists.
Section 3 looks at the battles of World War I and the end of the war. New technologies and old-fashioned
strategies resulted in heavy casualties and a devastated Europe by the spring of 1917. When American
doughboys marched into the European stalemate, Allied morale lifted. The Bolshevik Revolution pulled
Russia out of the war and allowed Germany to focus its forces in the west. A massive German offensive
pushed into French territory, but American and French forces blocked the German drive. Massive
counterattacks and an American offensive in the Argonne Forest pushed the Germans back and
shattered their defenses. As the Central Powers crumbled, Germany signed an armistice. While the
Treaty of Versailles treated Germany more harshly than Wilson's Fourteen Points plan for peace, it still
called for the creation of the League of Nations—an international peacekeeping organization. Wilson
returned home anxious to win approval for the treaty, but the Senate rejected the treaty along with his
League of Nations.
Section 4 reviews the turbulent aftermath of World War I. When the government removed its economic
restrictions from businesses and consumers, demand increased and inflation set in. Workers wanted
increased wages to keep up with inflation, and a series of strikes broke out. The rise of communism in
Europe caused many Americans to wonder if Communists or foreign radicals had inspired the strikes. A
Red Scare spread nationwide as Americans worried that Communists would seize power. A special
government division investigated thousands of foreign residents and deported nearly 600 of them, often
disregarding their civil liberties. As the Red Scare influenced attitudes about immigrants, frustration and
racism led to violence between whites and African Americans. Weary of reform and reeling from the
events of recent years, voters hoped to return to "normalcy" with the election of Warren G. Harding in
Chapter 10: The Jazz Age, 1921-1929
Section 1 discusses the presidencies of Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge. With a pledge to return
the nation to normalcy, Harding won the presidential election of 1920. However, the Harding years proved
to be far from normal. Scandals rocked the administration as some of the members of Harding's Ohio
Gang accepted bribes, pocketed taxpayers1 money, and sold government jobs and pardons. When
Harding died suddenly, Vice President Calvin Coolidge took the presidential oath. Reserved and frugal,
Coolidge aligned himself with business and prosperity, and he calmly worked to restore the integrity of the
presidency. In the 1924 presidential election, he easily defeated the Democratic and Progressive
challengers. During the 1920s, Republicans in power cut spending and taxes and worked to help
businesses. In its foreign relations, the government worked with its allies and worked to limit arms
Section 2 describes the economic prosperity of the 1920s. During the 1920s, Americans enjoyed higher
wages and more leisure time than ever before. New technologies, such as automobiles, airplanes, and
radios, led to new industries, while new production methods increased output and lowered the prices of
consumer goods. The economy was rolling, and Americans fueled the manufacturing boom by
purchasing a flood of new goods. While advertising introduced new products, easily available credit
encouraged consumer spending. The middle class rapidly grew as industries hired professional
managers, and welfare capitalism helped industrial workers prosper. While the prosperity of the 1920s
brought a better standard of living to many Americans, farmers struggled with debt and surplus crops.

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Section 3 explains how the 1920s saw clashes between Americans' traditional and modern values. In the
early 1920s, economic recession, increased immigration, and racial and cultural tensions led to a general
rise in nativism and racism. A pseudo-scientific belief reinforced nativism, and a new Ku Klux Klan
targeted groups it considered "un-American." Many Americans who worried that immigration would
threaten traditional social orders applauded new laws that limited immigration and heavily discriminated
against certain groups. Other social changes swept through the nation during the 1920s. A new morality
glorified youth and personal freedom, and women enjoyed new economic, social, and intellectual
freedoms that were reflected in their fashions and behaviors. As Americans responded to what some saw
as a decline of American morality, a new religious movement emerged, and interest in the temperance
movement renewed. The Eighteenth Amendment and the Volstead Act made prohibition a federal cause,
but public response to the laws ended up encouraging organized crime.
Section 4 describes how the modern age of the 1920s strongly influenced American art, literature, and
popular culture. During the 1920s, writers, artists, and intellectuals challenged traditional ideas as they
searched for meaning in an industrialized world. Artists worked in a diverse range of styles, each trying to
express the individual, modern experience. The works of many poets, playwrights, and novelists often
had tragic underpinnings as they described the human experience with concise, realistic images. The
1920s offered many Americans more time and money to enjoy leisure activities. They eagerly attended
movies and sporting events, participated in sports, and listened to radio broadcasts. Sports figures, movie
stars, and aviators emerged as the new American heroes. During the 1920s, mass media not only helped
broaden Americans' interests, but they also enhanced Americans' feelings of a shared national culture.
Section 5 discusses how the African American voice found new expressions during the cultural
renaissance of the 1920s. During the Great Migration, hundreds of thousands of African Americans
escaped segregated Southern society and poured into the industrial cities of the North. One
neighborhood in New York City stood out as the center of African American cultural rebirth and
expression. The artists of the Harlem Renaissance expressed their frustrations and their dreams in an
explosion of literary, musical, and theatrical works. Artistic achievements of the Harlem Renaissance
reinforced racial pride and fueled interest in community and political involvement. African Americans
found a political voice with the vote and in organizations such as the NAACP. While some worked to
improve the political and economic positions of African Americans, other groups emphasized black pride
and advocated African American separation from white society.
Chapter 11: The Great Depression Begins, 1929-1932
Section 1 identifies the causes of the Great Depression. An aura of optimism surrounded the nation as
President Herbert Hoover took office in 1928. As industrial production flooded markets, stock prices
reached new highs. Many investors confidently purchased stocks on margin and engaged in speculative
trading. Optimism disappeared, however, when on October 21, 1929, sliding stock prices triggered a
massive sell-off, and the stock market crashed. Banks that had loaned to speculators and invested
depositors' funds lost their cash reserves. Bank failures caused Americans to not only lose their bank
savings, but also their faith in the banking system. Several factors added to the nation's economic
troubles. An uneven distribution of income left most families with little expendable income. When
Americans cut back on spending, manufacturing slowed production, which in turn led to lower wages and
unemployment. As high tariffs restricted foreign demand for American goods and the Fed tightened
available credit, the economy spiraled downward.
Section 2 describes the hardships of the Great Depression. By 1933 more than 12 million workers were
unemployed—about one-fourth of the nation's workforce. Families often went hungry, and many lost their
homes. Some of the homeless constructed makeshift shacks in shantytowns called Hoovervilles, while
others simply wandered about the country, riding the rail lines. The economic troubles that farmers had
experienced in the 1920s worsened with the drought of the 1930s. Drought transformed the unplanted
fields of the Great Plains into a vast "Dust Bowl." Many farmers who couldn't pay their mortgages lost
their land. Some headed west looking for migrant work in California, but their living conditions only
seemed to worsen. While movies and radio programs offered Americans a temporary escape from
despair, Depression-era writers and artists focused on revealing families' real suffering.

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Section 3 discusses President Hoover's response to the Depression. In the months following the stock
market crash, President Hoover kept an optimistic outlook. He hoped that the voluntary actions of
business leaders and labor and government officials would provide relief, but his programs proved
inadequate against deepening economic troubles. Hoover was unwilling to use deficit spending to fund
relief efforts, and he strongly opposed federal participation in direct relief. However, the programs he
created failed to impact the growing financial crisis. In 1932, despite Hoover's protests, Congress
provided federal funds for public works and loans to the states for direct relief. By then it was too late to
reverse the economy's accelerating collapse. Frustrated Americans participated in hunger marches, while
farmers destroyed crops in a desperate attempt to raise crop prices. When World War I veterans' asking
for their bonus met with violence in Washington, Hoover's chances of reelection looked slim.
Chapter 12: Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1933-1941
Section 1 explains Franklin D. Roosevelt's plan for economic recovery. With the country deep in the
Depression, Americans looked for a president who would lift them out of economic despair. They voted in
the confident Democratic candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt and his promise of a New Deal. During his first
three months in office, a period called the Hundred Days, Roosevelt delivered his First New Deal to the
American public. His first priority was to reform the banking industry and restore Americans' faith in the
banking system. The Roosevelt administration placed new regulations on banks, brokers, and the stock
market, while a slate of programs controlled industrial production and prices, reduced agricultural surplus
and raised farm prices, and granted federal money to relief efforts. Millions of workers went back to work
thanks to a series of programs that created jobs in construction and conservation. Roosevelt's programs
were not enough to restore the nation's prosperity, but the New Deal had begun to restore the people's
faith in the nation.
Section 2 describes President Roosevelt's Second New Deal. After two years of Roosevelt's recovery
programs, the economy had only slightly improved, and millions of people were still unemployed. Critics
of the New Deal complained that either the government wasn't doing enough or that it was interfering too
much. Roosevelt, undeterred even when the Supreme Court overturned key New Deal legislation,
launched his Second New Deal. The Works Progress Administration put 8.5 million unemployed people
back to work. New labor legislation stimulated a burst of labor activity, and unions gained strength and
acceptance. The Social Security Act, an important piece of American legislation, provided financial
security for the elderly and for unemployed workers. Roosevelt was confident that these programs would
speed up recovery, provide economic security to every American, and ensure his re-election in 1936.
Section 3 examines the achievements and challenges of President Roosevelt's second term in office.
During Roosevelt's first term, African Americans and women gained some political recognition. With new
support among African Americans and the continued popularity of the New Deal, Roosevelt won
reelection by a landslide. Roosevelt still found opposition, however, in the Supreme Court. A court-
packing scheme, deficit spending, and a recession in 1937 weakened Roosevelt politically and limited his
second-term successes. The last of the New Deal programs subsidized housing for the poor, gave loans
to tenant farmers, and established pro-labor regulations. While the New Deal had limited success in
ending the Depression, it set the precedent that government should be responsible for the financial
welfare of the nation's citizens. During the New Deal years, the federal government expanded its
influence, took on a new role, and increased its power over the economy.

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