Study Skills by wuxiangyu


									               Study Skills
•   Understanding human memory
•   Making better use of human memory
•   To Use this information to develop
    effective study / Revision skills
•   To introduce examination strategies

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April   1
 Study and Examination tips

         Graham Ball Birmingham April   2
The Examiners?

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The reality!

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The Candidate!

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The Fear!!!

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        Basic Assumptions
1. You are studying because you want the
   opportunity to earn more money.
2. You have a limited amount of time to
   spend studying
3. You want to pass your exams with the
   minimum amount of effort
4. In the present economic climate – you
   want to keep your job!
              Graham Ball Birmingham April   7
          Human Memory
• Write down the non-human animals you
  have just seen on the slides
• How many were there?
• Write down the names of the organisations
  I have worked for and the job that I had
  with each of them.
           Human Memory
• Studying often involves learning lists and
  other sets of data – for example:-
• International Accounting Standards
• International Standards of Auditing
• Formulae – Standard costing / Variance
  analysis, FMST
• Algorithms and diagrams – Porters 5
           Human Memory

• Learning requires us to remember facts
• Memory allows us to make sense of all the
  data which is coming our way through our
  senses. This is helped considerably if we
  understand what we are trying to learn.
• Some memory is very short and some is
  very long – the trick is to use the one to
  enhance the other!
               Graham Ball Birmingham April   10
            Human Memory
• I use as my sources Alan D. Baddeley who was,
  when he wrote the book I am using, at Bristol
  University and Gillian Cohen who was at the
  time of my study a Senior Lecturer with the OU
  who wrote Chapter 12 of the OU‟s introduction to
• The latter sparked in me a long term interest in
  how people learn which has informed my
  teaching and I believe kept me in teaching,
  rather than returning to practice or retiring and
  latterly studying for a Masters Degree in

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April    11
           Human Memory
     Memory and learning to pass exams
• If we understand how our memory works
  we can maximise the effect of the limited
  time we have available.
• If you are studying for fun or to broaden
  your mind – then relax and enjoy!

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   12
               Human Memory
• Memory is not the mere reproduction of events – it is a
  perception which informs our actions.
• Memory is an overloaded system and remembering is
• Memory processes involve –acquisition, retention and
  retrieval/ recall. Made easier if we understand the
• New memories are integrated with old ones to form
  knowledge which is used to inform new experiences
• Memory is affected by our emotional state – stress or
  lethargy induce memory loss.

                     Graham Ball Birmingham April           13
              Human Memory
                 Short Term Memory
•   To understand this sentence you have to be
    able to remember the beginning until you get to
    the end.
•   Now multiply 23 by 7
•   To do both these tasks you need some kind of
    accessible memory storage.
•   But having completed the task there is no need
    to remember it – so if it is remembered it just
    clogs up the system

                   Graham Ball Birmingham April       14
             Human Memory
               Digit Span Exercise
•   You‟ll be shown a number of digits for 10
    seconds –
•   You should try to remember them
•   Do not speak aloud
•   Do not write them down until told to do so.

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           Human Memory
             Chunking Exercise
• Similar exercise but digits in chunks of
• Do the same as before

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           Human Memory
            Impact of interference
• Similar exercise but with an intervening

                Graham Ball Birmingham April   17
             Human Memory
• Why was that more difficult?
• Short term memory is both short - about 7
  seconds- and limited in space.
• The time can be increased by rehearsal –
  repetition of the word or digits being
• But this takes up space – fill that space with
  something else and the memory is lost.
• There are exceptions to this – e.g. flashbulb

                  Graham Ball Birmingham April     18
           Human Memory
• Short term memory receives input from
  visual / spatial sketchpad, phonological
  loops (auditory), touch, smell and long
  term memory
• Short term memory includes the working
  memory you use to work out sums and
  understand sentences

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   19
                Human Memory
                visual                  working
                                        Control         memory
Environmental                           processes       store
Input                                   Coding


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               Human Memory
• Working Memory

  Visuo –
  spatial         Central
                  Executive                     Phonological loop
  sketch pad

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            Human Memory
• Central Executive and Phonological loop
  can distinguish between noise and speech
• It can ignore noise but it is more difficult to
  ignore speech.
• It will pick up sudden unexpected noises
• Music without words is less intrusive than
  music with words.

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April   22
           Human Memory
• Central Executive and visuo – spatial
  sketch pad will pick up visual stimuli.
• Will ignore that which is not necessary but
  will not ignore something important
• i.e. when driving or when an attractive
  person goes by!!
• But – left to its own devices it will decide
  what is important and what is not.
                Graham Ball Birmingham April   23
             Human Memory
               Long Term Memory
•   Unlimited in capacity
•   Organised into schema
•   Memory organisation is critical to recall
    and retrieval
•   Schema represent books or files in a filing
    cabinet – get something into the wrong
    one and it is difficult to find.
                  Graham Ball Birmingham April   24
             Human Memory
• So could have a schema entitled picnics.
• Each picnic is recorded in the file. After a few
  entries are made in the file it becomes difficult to
  distinguish between one picnic and another –
  but we recognise a picnic when we see one! So
  individual picnics are not stored – unless
  something serious happens – but generic
  picnics are. The more picnics the bigger the
  generic picnic information stored.
• We call it experience!

                   Graham Ball Birmingham April      25
           Human Memory
• Memory can be dependant on context,
  mood, the external environment and any
  number of other attention grabbing things.
   Things which affect our ability to learn
• Arousal
• Distractions
• Meaning
• Motivation
               Graham Ball Birmingham April   26
            Human Memory
• Arousal
  – Sleep – Normality – Panic
  – Caffeine – Alcohol
  – Music – somnolent or stirring
• Distractions
  – Extraneous thoughts and memories
  – Other people / noises off
  – Stress and worry
  – Music with words
                 Graham Ball Birmingham April   27
            Human Memory
• Meaning
  – If you understand it – you are more likely to
    remember it
• Motivation
  – Why on earth am I going through all this?
  – I‟d rather be on the Golf Course / at Tai Chi
    lesson / Camping – anywhere but here!!!
  – Rewards

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April       28
          Human Memory
• The next slide contains a list.
• I should like you to spend 60 seconds
  learning this list.
• You should not speak to anyone else – but
  you may repeat silently to yourself.
• Do not speak to anyone else during this

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   29
              Human Memory
•   dollar; ladle; golf; hour; beer
•   jade; air; berry; leaflet; scissors
•   nurse; camel; nut; mirror; cello
•   cabbage; ant; trout; board; sand
•   word; iron; boat; queen; canvas

                   Graham Ball Birmingham April   30
            Human Memory
•   Now do the following sums:
•   7 x 271 =
•   8 x 196 =
•   3 x 482 =
•   Now write down all the words you can
    remember from the list.

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April   31
           Human Memory
• Turn over the page so that you cannot see
• In a few seconds I‟d like you to look at the
  list I am going to give you.
• Please tick all the words on this list that
  are in the first list.
• This should only take a couple of minutes

                Graham Ball Birmingham April   32
           Human Memory
• With any luck at all you will have ticked
  more words than you could remember –
  but you will also have ticked some words
  not on the first list
• This has reproduced an experiment to
  demonstrate two aspects of memory
  retrieval – recall and recognition.
• There are others which demonstrate the
  effect of distractions.
               Graham Ball Birmingham April   33
           Human Memory
• Read the Extract A
• Take a few minutes to read the extract –
  once only - do not backtrack – do not
  discuss – do not make notes or highlight
  the words in any way.

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   34
           Human Memory
• When I say GO!
• On a blank piece of paper write out the
  story you read.
• Take no more than 5 minutes.
• Do not refer to anything or anyone – i.e.
  do not look it up, do not discuss.

                Graham Ball Birmingham April   35
            Human Memory
•   Now in small groups share your story
•   Notice the differences
•   Refer back to the original -
•   What have you missed?
•   What have you added that was not there
    in the original?

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April   36
Improving Memory

   Graham Ball Birmingham April   37
         Improving Memory
           Improving your memory
• Let‟s be clear from the start – whether or
  not you can improve your memory is still
  open for discussion.
• Does brain training work – well who
• BUT – you can use your memory more
                Graham Ball Birmingham April   38
           Improving Memory
               Attention and Interest.
• How can some people remember horse race
  winners or the intimate details of football teams.
• How come you can remember some things with
  ease but not always what you study?
• How come you forget someone‟s name the
  instant you‟re told it – but you remember the

                  Graham Ball Birmingham April     39
         Improving Memory
• One answer is attention and interest
• The more attention you give to a topic the
  more you are likely to remember it.
• The more interest you have in a topic the
  more you are likely to remember it.
• Problem is that most of what you have to
  study is boring – or of little immediate
  value and lacks context.
               Graham Ball Birmingham April    40
         Improving Memory
• So how to make it more interesting?
• Well one thing you can do is to use your
  imagination – if you are reading
  Leadership and Management, imagine
  that you are in charge of the office and you
  have a problem with staff – then look for
  the solution to that problem. Visualise the
  office and the people in it as you read – as
  if you were telling them about it.

                Graham Ball Birmingham April   41
          Improving Memory
• Whether we like it or not most human‟s
  fantasise for much of the time. I like to call
  it mind jogging!
• Such mind jogging performs a useful
  function if used correctly – it enables us to
  sort information into a logical memorable
  order, to make sense of disparate facts, to
  strengthen neurological pathways,
  anticipate and prevent problems occurring.

                Graham Ball Birmingham April   42
            Improving Memory
• Pay attention to what you are reading.
• Argue with the author – try to relate it to the world you
  live in. e.g. there‟s a coalition government and public
  spending cuts – for Public Finance and GPP it‟s a boon.
• Teaching a subject helps you learn it – so teach your
• Agree between you who will teach what – all have to
  study the material – one teaches it and a discussion
• What was boring remains of itself boring but you
  generate more interest and a different perspective.

                     Graham Ball Birmingham April         43
          Improving Memory
• Just like the books or DVD‟s on a shelf or
  books in a library - if the storage systems
  is chaos then finding them will be difficult.
• Human memory is the just the same –
  unless information is properly stored its
  retrieval will be difficult. The more chaotic
  the more difficult it becomes.
                 Graham Ball Birmingham April     44
           Improving Memory
• We‟ve already talked about long term memory
  and schema storage systems.
• If properly organised these can help you to
• Organisation helps in two ways –
  – It structures what is being learned so that recall is
    facilitated – remembering a fragment of information
    enables retrieval of the rest
  – It enables new learning to be linked to existing
    knowledge so that the new learning is more easily

                    Graham Ball Birmingham April            45
          Improving Memory
            How to get organised?
• This depends on the material you are
  learning but in general it helps if you can
  relate the material directly to you.
• By making it important in your daily life the
  material takes on a life of its own and is
  more easily remembered.

                Graham Ball Birmingham April   46
         Improving Memory
• Repetition is good for you.
• “Practice makes perfect” is not just a
  saying – it actually works.
• What‟s the difference between an amateur
  and a professional?

              Graham Ball Birmingham April   47
          Improving Memory
• An amateur practices until he/she gets it
  right – a professional practices until he/she
  can‟t get it wrong.
• Sounds trite but think of the truth behind it.
• If you want to remember something - then
  it needs repetition – we‟ve seen this from
  the short term - long term memory earlier.
• Or have you forgotten?????
                Graham Ball Birmingham April   48
           Improving Memory
• We lead busy busy lives – today I got up at 5.45
  – showered etc, wrote a Strategic Management
  Accounting lecture for a Master‟s programme,
  drove to Fiskerton, caught the train here to
  deliver this, will catch the train home, will go to a
  meeting this evening until after 9.00 – and retire
  about 11.00. All in all I‟ll be on the go for about
  18 hours.

                   Graham Ball Birmingham April       49
          Improving Memory
• But wait ….. I sat in a train for two hours
  here – and back! That‟s four hours of
• Most of the time we mind jog during these
  intervals – fantasy plays an important part
  in our psychological health – but we can
  use the interval time effectively for study if
  we incorporate it into our mind jogging.

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April   50
          Improving Memory
• This is called transfer- appropriate processing
  {Bransford (1979)}
• Very few examiners at your level are going to
  ask you to regurgitate the material you have
  learnt but they are going to ask you to
  manipulate the symbols you have learnt to solve
  a new and exciting problem.
• So it‟s a good idea to try to learn as many
  different applications as you can - so that you
  open up a variety of pathways and are thus able
  to apply you knowledge in many different ways.
                 Graham Ball Birmingham April   51
         Improving Memory
• If you concentrate on learning material
  without thinking more deeply about it a
  applying it to many different situations you
  are in danger of finding that you cannot
  apply it to a strange situation at
  examination time.
• The simplest example possible – we all
  know 3 x 18 = 54.

                Graham Ball Birmingham April   52
               Improving Memory
• Best way to learn a subject is to teach it.
• Teaching requires a different set of memory processes
  and requires different forms of re- processing.
• This re- processing creates
   –   stronger links to the stored material
   –   a context in which the material is placed – thus aiding recall
   –   deepens understanding through rehearsal and discussion
   –   widens linkages and diversifies applications making its use in
       new situations easier

                         Graham Ball Birmingham April                   53
            Improving Memory
•   Mnemonics – eg: CCCFLIP : ROYGBIV : PACE
•   Places – using a very familiar place - like your
    house – mentally putting things to remember in
    each room
•   Association – associating the thing to be
    remembered with something already in memory
    i.e. Grumpy Graham, Baldy Ball
•   Memory cards – random testing – self reward

                   Graham Ball Birmingham April    54
         Improving Memory
               Poetry / Songs
• We learn songs and poems quite easily
  because they are associated with a rhythm
  of some kind – be it meter or music.
• Associating what we are trying to learn
  with a song or a poem – using the music
  and changing the words – helps us to
               Graham Ball Birmingham April   55
          Improving Memory
                 Visual imagery
• Associating what we are trying to learn
  with some kind of visualisation helps.
• If the visualisation is striking then the
  memory will be striking.
• “pictures on the wall help you to recall”
  (Alison Kraus – 100 miles or more)

                Graham Ball Birmingham April   56
         Improving Memory
Try this one – nine words – focus on a few
  images that incorporate as many words
  as possible –

shirt eagle paperclip
rose camera mushroom
crocodile sausage mayor

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   57
         Improving Memory
• I got an eagle fighting a crocodile over a
• and
• A photograph of a huge fat Mayor with a
  frilly shirt and a rose on his lapel held on
  with a paperclip eating a magic mushroom

                Graham Ball Birmingham April   58
          Improving Memory
• Human memory is
  – overloaded
  – selective
  – fallible
• Much studying involves learning and
  manipulating symbols which do not of
  themselves have any context.
• Using techniques which help you utilise your
  memory better tends to overcome these

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April    59
               Study Skills
• Socio- cultural
  learning and
  knowledge transfer.

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April   60
              Study Skills
• What we need to do is to make the most
  effective use of the time we have
• Our knowledge of how human memory
  works enables us to develop strategies
  that help it remember, thus reducing stress
  and anxiety, and reducing wasted time
  and effort.

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   61
               Study Skills
                Points covered
•   Time
•   Reading and analysis
•   Note taking
•   Exercises
•   Question practice
•   Difficulties

                Graham Ball Birmingham April   62
                 Study Skills
• Quality time
  – Set objectives for each session
  – Control the environment
  – Control interruptions
  – Choose your best time- not your worst
  – Work consistently until you have achieved
    your objective

                  Graham Ball Birmingham April   63
                     Study Skills
• There is good research evidence to suggest:
   – that we learn slower but more effectively in the
     afternoon than the morning
   – that we learn better if we break our learning into one
     hour sessions
• We learn more effectively if :
   –   our arousal level is appropriate.
   –   we understand the meaning
   –   we are motivated
   –   we are not distracted
                       Graham Ball Birmingham April           64
                   Study Skills
• Read effectively - not superficially
   – Scan Read the section first to get the broad picture.
   – Slowly - taking care to understand each point in turn
     before moving on to the next.
   – Critically - challenge what you have read - test its
     validity – be clear on its meaning before moving on.
   – Analytically - understand its implications and plumb its
     depths before moving on.

                     Graham Ball Birmingham April          65
               Study Skills
– Test your understanding at the end of each section
– Repeat your reading if your understanding is in any
  way in doubt.
– Discuss what you have read with others - with
  colleagues – or even explaining to an innocent
  spouse is extremely helpful in making things clear.
– Do not be afraid to test your understanding - you don‟t
  get kicked for getting it wrong.
– Read regularly and frequently try not to „Blitz‟ it.

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April          66
               Study Skills
• Our attention is governed by that part of the
  memory system called the central executive. It
  allows the short term memory to function and
  controls the amount of attention given to an
• We can read without taking any notice of what
  we read – but if we have to process it somehow
  – then we have to pay attention.
• This helps our longer term memory to react.

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April      67
               Study Skills
                  Note Taking.
•   Acquire a bound note book. Loose leaves
    get lost!.
•   Acquire a card index box and cards.
•   Make notes on each section as you read
    in your bound note book
•   Or these days write a word document on a
    specified computer file.
                 Graham Ball Birmingham April   68
              Study Skills
• What notes to make.
• Note the key points, with cross reference
  to the text.
• Note key examples on practical subjects.
• Note your understanding – the notes do
  not reproduce the text.

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   69
              Study Skills
• At the end of the session note on cards
  the key points, terms and techniques.
• Use these cards for revision. Only file
  them when you know what‟s on them.
• Refer back to your bound note book or
  word file for more information.
• Refer back to the text only in desperation!.

                Graham Ball Birmingham April   70
               Study Skills
• How to make notes.
• Notes should convey enough information
  to remind you of the key points.
  – They are not mere repetition of the text.
  – They explain the text
  – They reflect your understanding
  – Point – Evidence - Implications

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April   71
              Study Skills
• By making notes in this way you have
  processed the information in the following
• Visually as you see it
• Phonologically has you have read it
• Symbolically as you convert it into words
  and muscle movements to write it down
• Schematically as you consider and
  understand it.
               Graham Ball Birmingham April    72
               Study Skills
• Advantages of making notes.
  – forces concentration
  – forces active thinking reading
  – aids understanding
  – aids memory
  – aids revision
  – builds confidence

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April   73
                Study Skills
• Advantages of transferring key information
  to cards.
  – enables short time revision
  – enables practice in unusual places
  – trains the brain to „think‟ the subjects
  – builds confidence

                  Graham Ball Birmingham April   74
               Study Skills
• Advantages of discussions.
  – Forces information reprocessing
  – Forces formulation of arguments
  – Forces assembling of evidence
  – Forces consideration of implications
  – Discussions do not follow the text and
    therefore brings together disparate pieces of

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April       75
              Study Skills
• Many Learning materials have activities /
• These have the function of assisting you to
  memorise and understand the material
  and to put it into practice.
• Do NOT skip the activities / exercises.

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   76
              Study Skills
• Doing the activities / exercises reinforces
  the neurological links to the stored
• You recognise faces better than names –
  you know the names of familiar people
  because you use the retrieval system
  frequently so it becomes stronger.

                Graham Ball Birmingham April    77
                Study Skills
• Repetition is good for you.
• How do we learn to drive? – by driving.
• Lists are learnt by rehearsal and by association
  with something else which is easily learnt.
• Why do we learn poetry and song lyrics more
  easily? Because the words flow or are linked to
• Association makes life easier.
• Hence the benefit of mnemonics.
                  Graham Ball Birmingham April       78
               Study Skills
• Read extract A – just once – do not make
  notes – do not discuss with anyone. In
  small groups – discuss the story – make a
  few notes and try to draw a conclusion
  regarding what it is about – i.e. its context.

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April   79
              Study Skills
• Understanding the context helps us
  understand and remember – a socio –
  cultural view of learning. Though much of
  what we study is for the moment out of
  context – we do not learn facts easily
  when they are out of context.

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   80
              Study Skills
• Try this exercise –
• Fill in the blanks in extract B
• Read it through first to get the meaning –
  then fill in the missing words.
• Again – do not consult with anyone.
• Again in small groups compare and
  discuss and try to reach agreement on
  what the words ought to be.
                Graham Ball Birmingham April   81
            Human Memory
The words were:
wanted; red; he; plans; tried; catch; a; one;
 plans; thin; little; the; to; will; hen; best;
 picked; slung; I; red; he.

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April     82
              Study Skills
• Although not stated the context in extract
  B was clear – it was a familiar story and so
  putting the words in was not difficult – but
  extract A?
• It was from the “War of the Ghosts”

                Graham Ball Birmingham April   83
               Study Skills
  Practice Questions and Question Practice
• Practicing Questions (especially past
  examination questions) is designed to
  – aid you memory
  – aid your understanding
  – give you practice at answering questions
  – develop you examination technique
• Crucially it helps you understand the
                Graham Ball Birmingham April   84
                 Study Skills
          Practice question problem
• The answers are in the book or on the web!!
  – This is designed to enable you to check your answers
    AFTER you have tried them.
  – If you got it wrong – do it again!
  – It tells you what the examiner is looking for.
  – A lot of candidates skip this essential practice and
    look straight at the answers. Thus they never process
    the information and do not remember it.

                   Graham Ball Birmingham April         85
              Study Skills
• Practice numerical and written answers
  until you can produce them in the required
• Repetition is good for you.
• You do not want a new and exciting
  experience in the exam room
• This cannot be over emphasised!!.

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   86
              Study Skills
• Before the examination is the time to make
  and correct mistakes -not during the
• Practice questions take time - you will
  need to allocate at least three one hour
  slots per subject each week for question

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   87
               Study Skills
• Good practice involves
  – attempting the whole question,
  – checking any points of non understanding
  – checking the answer
  – repeating the question if initial answer wrong
• Repetition is good for you!!

                 Graham Ball Birmingham April        88
              Study Skills
         How to handle difficulties
• Two strategies.

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   89
             Study Skills
              Strategy ONE!.
– Denial - ignore difficulty - it does not exist
– Complaint - poor teaching - lack of employer
  support – CIPFA/ CIMA/ ACCA/ ICAEW is
  C**P any way and I don‟t really need to do it
– Scapegoating - all Graham Ball‟s fault
– Panic - realise two weeks before examination
  that no one was listening to your whinging
– Fail!
               Graham Ball Birmingham April    90
                Study Skills
• Strategy TWO.
  – Admission of problem
  – Seek help - tutors - office managers – the
    BOSS, colleagues, help lines
  – Face the Dragon - attack difficult subject
    areas - set aside additional time specifically
    for them
  – Work the problem - keep working at it until the
    penny drops - understanding - no problem!
  – Pass!!        Graham Ball Birmingham April     91
   Examination tips

      Graham Ball Birmingham April   92
            Examination Tips
•   Panic does three things – all bad!
•   Last minute revision over-writes what you
    already know
•   Last minute revision does not stick
•   Raises blood pressure and restricts flow of
    oxygen to the brain – not what you want

                  Graham Ball Birmingham April   93
          Examination Tips
• If you have studied properly there is no
  need for last minute revision
• Use your cards to refresh memory
• Revise solidly those things you do not
  know well
• Re- practice past examination questions

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   94
          Examination Tips
• You already know what to expect in the
  exam room
• So – practice doing past examination
  papers to get used to 3 hour stretches
• Strip the questions – do the easy bits first
• Select best value for money questions
• Allocate time to each question and stick to
                Graham Ball Birmingham April   95
         Examination Tips
              Remember – PEI
• Keep your answers to written questions
  short and sharp.
• One point per paragraph – 3 sentences –
  20 words per sentence – Point Evidence

               Graham Ball Birmingham April   96
       Examination Tips

      Know your enemy!!
• Understand the Examiner
 –Practice past papers
 –Study the answers
 –Learn what the B****** wants of
  you and give it to him / her!
           Graham Ball Birmingham April   97
                Study Skills
•   Quality Time - Make notes - Do the
    activities - Use tutors, the Boss,
    colleagues, help lines, anything!
•   Practice questions
•   Practice questions
•   Practice questions
•   Practice questions
                 Graham Ball Birmingham April   98

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