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					Places de marché
  électroniques

Le cas Holambra

  Marlei Pozzebon
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




    Commerce électronique




                         B2B                         Commerce inter-entreprises

                         B2C                         Commerce entreprise-client




                                                                            Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




     B2B : Commerce inter-entreprises

     Ce type de commerce électronique englobe les liens directs
     inter-entreprises (entreprise-entreprise) et les cybermarchés
     d’entreprises (plusieurs entreprises).
     Ceci implique :
           • Réingénierie de la chaîne d’approvisionnement et des
           liens entre entreprises
           • Intégration des processus inter-entreprises




                                                                Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




       Types d’échanges
       électroniques inter-
       entreprises

     • Système qui fait une demande d’information: vérification du
       statut d’une commande.
     • Systèmes qui interagissent entre eux: vérification du niveau
       de stock et commande si le niveau est trop bas.
     • Systèmes communs qui collaborent entre eux (ex: SAP chez
       le vendeur et l’acheteur).
     • Systèmes qui optimisent la chaîne d’approvisionnement.


                                                             Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




              Modèles d’affaires électroniques
                B2B (Raymond, Talbot et
                Vézina, 2002)

                    – Advantages and limitations
                      of each model.



                                                     Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




                                                     Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




  Site d’acheteur                                    Place de marché électronique

                       Site de fournisseur



                                                                          Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




       B2B: trois approches

       Site d’acheteur (achat direct)
            –     GMsupplypower, GE TPN


       Site de fournisseur (vente directe)
            –     Dell, Cisco, Cintas, CorporateExpress


       Places d’affaires électroniques (intermédiaires)
            –     Merx.com, Avnet , GlobalWine&Spirits, BrokerForum




                                                                      Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




        Places d’affaires électroniques



          Fournisseur 1                              Acheteur A


          Fournisseur 2                              Acheteur B


          Fournisseur 3                              Acheteur C




                                                              Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




  Places d’affaires électroniques




                                                     Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion


        Places de marché
        électroniques ou places
        d’affaires électroniques
     • Il s’agit d’utiliser l’Internet pour faire se rencontrer l’offre et la
       demande.
     • Une communauté réunissant un ensemble d’acteurs d’un
       marché qui soutient l’offre de services (transactionnelle) à
       valeur ajoutée de nature informationnelle (contenus et
       connaissances) et relationnelle (interactivité et
       personnalisation du lien client-fournisseur)

     • Un site spécialisé regroupant acheteurs et fournisseurs, qui
       permet aux acheteurs:
           – D’identifier des fournisseurs potentiels et vice-versa.
           – D’obtenir les informations requises préalables à la transaction.
           – D’émettre la commande, de la payer, etc.


                                                                                Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion


    Places d’affaires
    électroniques : mécanismes
    de transaction
      •   Groupement de catalogues
      •   Coopérative d’achat
      •   Enchères
      •   Appel d’offres
      •   Négociation
      •   Bourse
      •   Marchés




                                                     Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




       Veiling Holambra – Trading Brazilian
          Flowers in the International Market
          Enabled by IT

             – Rogerio OLIVEIRA, Marlei
               POZZEBON and Eric VAN HECK
               (2005)


                                                     Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




      Veiling Holambra

                                       • L’histoire d’Holambra
                                       • Le modèle d’affaires
                                         d’Holambra
                                       • Les aspects culturels
                                       • Le soutien des TI



                                                                 Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




   Flower markets in Brazil and in the world




                                                     Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




         L’histoire d’Holambra




                                                     Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




      L’histoire d’Holambra

     •     La ville d’Holambra
     •     La culture fleurs et la formation de la plus grande
           compagnie de fleurs de l’Amérique Latine




                                                                 Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion



  Le modèle d’affaires d’Holambra


                                                     •   Mode “coopérative”
                                                     •   Les modèles de ventes
                                                          – Veiling Brokers
                                                              (demand-driven)
                                                          – Clock auction
                                                              (supply-driven)
                                                     •   L’information devient
                                                         central



                                                                          Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion



    Veiling Brokers (demand-driven)




                                                     Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion



      The clock auction (supply-driven)




                          http://www.veiling.com.br/klok.htm
                                                               Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




         Présence physique                           « Pre-bid »




                                                                   Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




       Logistique et
       distribution, un
       problème à régler




                                                     Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




    Attention aux aspects culturels

   •      Une combinaison
          des
          caractéristiques
          hollandaises et
          brésiliennes
         – Organisation
         – Improvisation




                                                     Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




             Theoretical frame
                « process/stakeholder » (Kambil et
                Van Heck, 2001)
               – Exchange process with all players




                                                     Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




        Key Market Processes


                                                            Trade Context Processes

      Product              Regulation      Risk         Influence      Dispute
      representation                       management                  Resolution


                  Communications and Computing

        Search              Pricing         Logistics   Payment      Authentication
                                                        and
                                                        settlement

                                                               Basic Trade Processes

                                                                                      Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion



    Basic Trade Processes

     Search             Pricing         Logistics    Payment      Authentication
                                                     and
                                                     settlement


      The processes related directly to executing a trade of any kind include:
      • Search processes that allow buyers and sellers to discover and compare trading
         opportunities.
      • Valuation processes to help buyers and sellers set prices. A variety of different price
         discovery and bidding processes, such as auction methods, exist that enable buyers
         and sellers to discover prices of goods or services.
      • Logistics processes coordinate the transfer of physical and digital goods between
         buyers and sellers.
      • Payment and settlement processes to transfer funds from buyer to seller. Third parties,
         such as banks, provide the infrastructure for these exchanges processes.
      • Authentication processes to verify the quality of the goods sold and the credibility of
         the buyers and sellers. Authentication may involve third parties who provide credit
         check, notarization and other services to reduce the uncertainty of buyers and sellers.

                                                                                   Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion



   Trade Context Processes

  Product              Regulation      Risk          Influence      Dispute
  representation                       management                   Resolution




      Five additional trade context processes enhance trust among trading parties and legitimize
          the trading. These include:
      • Product representation processes that specify the presentation of products and
          services to buyers and sellers. Both the buyers’ and sellers’ costs are reduced by
          informational standards or well-specified languages to represent the key quality,
          functional, or aesthetic attributes of the product.
      • Regulation processes record and recognize the transaction within a framework of laws
          and rules to signal it as legitimate and conforming to a set of market rules and social
          principles.
      • Risk management processes to reduce buyer and seller risks in a transaction. Risk
          management services insure transactions and provide information to help the buyer
          and seller with price, delivery, theft, and other risks.
      • Influence processes to ensure that commitments among trading partners are met.
      • Dispute resolution processes that resolve conflicts among buyers, sellers and
          intermediaries such as auction houses. Firms may elect to settle disputes through
          direct negotiation, or commit to third-party arbitration or court resolution of disputes.

                                                                                      Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion
   Theoretical frame « process/stakeholder »

         Trade processes                      Sellers   Market Makers   Buyers
   1. Search

   2. Valuation

   3. Logistics

   4. Payments and settlements

   5. Authentication

   6. Product representation

   7. Regulation

   8. Risk management

   9. Influence

   10. Dispute resolution

   IT Infrastructure

   Net Benefit
                                                                         Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion
      Trade processes          Flower growers                                         Holambra Auction                                              Flower Buyers

     1. Search            Benefit: Potential access to more buyers.        Benefit: Efficient flower supply and auction         Benefit: Search costs are reduced. Potential access to more
                          No adaptation issues                             database.                                            sellers.
                                                                           No adaptation issues                                 Adaptation: provide different search options

     2. Valuation         Benefit: Higher prices due to more buyers and    Cost: Integrate traditional and electronic auction   Benefit: Less travel costs due to online bidding.
                          a transparent negotiating position.              system.                                              Adaptation: allow proxy-bidding.
                          No adaptation issues                             Adaptation: Fine-tuning auction speed

     3. Logistics         Benefit: One logistical system for offline and   Benefit: No extra logistical system.                 Cost: Greater logistical costs due non-coupling of online
                          online auction.                                  Cost: Cannot satisfy logistical requirements.        bidding with logistics.
                          Adaptation: online system was restricted by      Adaptation: online system was restricted by not      Adaptation: manage logistical complexity.
                          not adapting this process.                       adapting this process.

     4. Payments and      No change and adaptation issues.                 No change and adaptation issues.                     No change and adaptation issues.

     settlements
     5. Authentication    Cost: online requires authentication process     Cost: online requires authentication process         Cost: online requires authentication process
                          No adaptation issues.                            No adaptation issues.                                Adaptation: buyers implement adjusted authentication
                                                                                                                                process.

     6. Product           Cost: limited product quality representation     Cost: define and set up of online quality grading.   Cost: Less product quality information online versus offline.
                          Adaptation: Online system was adapted            Adaptation: Online system was adapted with           Adaptation: Online system was adapted with respect to
     representation       with respect to local process.                   respect to local process.                            local process.

     7. Regulation        Cost: align to online trading regulation.        Cost: align to online trading regulation.            Cost: align to online trading regulation.
                          No changes and adaptation issues.                No adaptation issues.                                No adaptation issues.


     8. Risk management   Cost: avoid online risks                         Cost: avoid online risks                             Cost: avoid online risks
                          No adaptation issues.                            No adaptation issues.                                No adaptation issues.

     9. Influence         Benefit: growers via auction cooperative         Cost: balance growers/buyers influence.              Benefit: buyers could influence online system design.
                          influence online concept design.                 Adaptation: stricter rules for sellers and           Adaptation: incorporate design changes
                          Adaptation: use of producers data to share       provide forecast data
                          responsibility and work with forecasts.

     10. Dispute          No changes.                                      Cost: incorporate online dispute resolution          Cost: incorporate online dispute resolution process.
                                                                           process.                                             Adaptation: adapt to online dispute resolution process.
     resolution                                                            Adaptation: adapt to online dispute resolution
                                                                           process.

     IT Infrastructure    Cost: Implement Internet Protocol (IP) based     Cost: Implement Internet Protocol (IP) based         Cost: Implement Internet Protocol (IP) based infrastructure
                          infrastructure                                   infrastructure                                       Adaptation: implement Internet Protocol (IP) based
                          Adaptation: implement Internet Protocol          Adaptation: implement Internet Protocol (IP)         infrastructure
                          (IP) based infrastructure                        based infrastructure

     Net Benefit          Positive: Wider customer base, less product      Positive: Online system will increase customer       Positive: Online buying benefits, limited logistical and
                          quality information could result in lower        base; unsatisfied logistical customer requirements   product quality functionality
                          prices

                                                                                                                                                                 Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion
                                                Flower growers                                     Holambra Auction                                              Flower Buyers

       Trade processes
     1. Search                   Benefit: Potential access to more buyers.            Benefit: Efficient flower supply and auction         Benefit: Search costs are reduced. Potential access to more
                                 No adaptation issues                                 database.                                            sellers.
                                                                                      No adaptation issues                                 Adaptation: provide different search options

     2. Valuation                Benefit: Higher prices due to more buyers and a      Cost: Integrate traditional and electronic auction   Benefit: Less travel costs due to online bidding.
                                 transparent negotiating position.                    system.                                              Adaptation: allow proxy-bidding.
                                 No adaptation issues                                 Adaptation: Fine-tuning auction speed

     3. Logistics                Benefit: One logistical system for offline and       Benefit: No extra logistical system.                 Cost: Greater logistical costs due non-coupling of online
                                 online auction.                                      Cost: Cannot satisfy logistical requirements.        bidding with logistics.
                                 Adaptation: online system was restricted by not      Adaptation: online system was restricted by not      Adaptation: manage logistical complexity.
                                 adapting this process.                               adapting this process.

     4. Payments and             No change and adaptation issues.                     No change and adaptation issues.                     No change and adaptation issues.
     settlements

     5. Authentication           Cost: online requires authentication process         Cost: online requires authentication process         Cost: online requires authentication process
                                 No adaptation issues.                                No adaptation issues.                                Adaptation: buyers implement adjusted authentication
                                                                                                                                           process.

     6. Product representation   Cost: limited product quality representation         Cost: define and set up of online quality grading.   Cost: Less product quality information online versus offline.
                                 Adaptation: Online system was adapted with           Adaptation: Online system was adapted with           Adaptation: Online system was adapted with respect to
                                 respect to local process.                            respect to local process.                            local process.

     7. Regulation               Cost: align to online trading regulation.            Cost: align to online trading regulation.            Cost: align to online trading regulation.
                                 No changes and adaptation issues.                    No adaptation issues.                                No adaptation issues.

     8. Risk management          Cost: avoid online risks                             Cost: avoid online risks                             Cost: avoid online risks
                                 No adaptation issues.                                No adaptation issues.                                No adaptation issues.

     9. Influence                Benefit: growers via auction cooperative influence   Cost: balance growers/buyers influence.              Benefit: buyers could influence online system design.
                                 online concept design.                               Adaptation: stricter rules for sellers and           Adaptation: incorporate design changes
                                 Adaptation: use of producers data to share           provide forecast data
                                 responsibility and work with forecasts.

     10. Dispute resolution      No changes.                                          Cost: incorporate online dispute resolution          Cost: incorporate online dispute resolution process.
                                                                                      process.                                             Adaptation: adapt to online dispute resolution process.
                                                                                      Adaptation: adapt to online dispute resolution
                                                                                      process.

     IT Infrastructure           Cost: Implement Internet Protocol (IP) based         Cost: Implement Internet Protocol (IP) based         Cost: Implement Internet Protocol (IP) based infrastructure
                                 infrastructure                                       infrastructure                                       Adaptation: implement Internet Protocol (IP) based
                                 Adaptation: implement Internet Protocol (IP)         Adaptation: implement Internet Protocol (IP)         infrastructure
                                 based infrastructure                                 based infrastructure

     Net Benefit                 Positive: Wider customer base, less product          Positive: Online system will increase customer       Positive: Online buying benefits, limited logistical and
                                 quality information could result in lower prices     base; unsatisfied logistical customer                product quality functionality
                                                                                      requirements

                                                                                                                                                                            Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




                                                     Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion




                                                     Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal
HEC MONTRÉAL – MBA
52-701-02 Technologies de l’information en gestion



      Key insigths from Making Markets
      (Kambil et Van Heck, 2001)

    • E-markets are not technological interactions supported by
      humans. They are human interactions supported by technology.
          – It changes the existing relationships between buyers and sellers.
    • E-markets must be as rich, complex and complete as the
      traditional markets themselves.
    • E-markets must create value for all the participants.
          – Preferably, a better value that what the traditional market can offer
    • E-markets must achieve critical mass, fast.
          – For liquidity, it needs enough players to make the market work.
    • E-markets must create fits into existing business processes.
          – Preferably, it must improve some or all of the basic trade processes.
                                                                             Marlei Pozzebon, HEC Montréal

				
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