SILICONES IN TEXTILE

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					SILICONES: MANUFACTURE AND APPLICATION IN
                 TEXTILES
                                                  2
                                                                                       Hitesh R.Wadher



                                          CONTENTS


1.    INTRODUCTION                                                                                 1


2.    CHEMISTRY OF SILICONES AND PROPERTIES                                                        2

3.    CLASSIFICATION                                                                               4

4.    MANUFACTURE OF SILICONES                                                                     9

5.    ROLE OF SILICONE IN TEXTILES                                                                 12

6.    APPLICATIONS IN TEXTILES

       6.1   SILICONE SOFTNER AND FINISHING AGENTS                                        14

       6.2   SILICONE WATER REPELLENTS                                                    15

       6.3   SILICONE FABRIC COATING AGENTS                                               16

       6.4   SILICONE ANTIFOAMING AGENTS                                                           17

       6.5   SILICONE GREASE, ADHESIVES AND SEALENTS                                               18

       6.6   SILICONE DYE RELEASING AGENTS IN TRANSFER PRINTING                           18

       6.7   SILICONE IN GLASS FABRIC FINISHING                                           19

       6.8   SILICONE AS FLAME PROOFING AGENTS                                                     19

       6.9   SILICONE AS ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS                                                     20

       6.10 SILICONE IN WASH-WEAR / DURABLE PRESS FINISHES                                20

7.    METHOD OF APPLICATION                                                                        22

8.    PRECAUTIONS DURING APPLICATION                                                      24

9.    APPLICATION OF SILICONE BY FOAM FINISHIG TECHNOLOGY                                 26

10.   EVALUATION OF FABRIC SOFTNESS BY KAWABATA INSTRUMENTATION                           27

11.   SILICONE FINISHES ARE PROCESSING PROBLEM SOLVERS                                    29

12.   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS                                                                          30

13.   ENVIROMENTAL FATE AND EFFECTS                                                       31

14.   CONCLUSION                                                                          33

15.   RE.FERENCES                                                                         34



                                                      Silicones: Manufacture and Application in Textiles
                                                3
                                                                                     Hitesh R.Wadher



                                  1. INTRODUCTION

       Silicones are the synthetic compounds containing the elements silicone and oxygen.
They are abundantly available on earth, is hardly found in elemental form. The silicone
content in earth crust is approximately 26 %.


       Silicones are among the most versatile polymers and play an important role in Textile
Industry. Today Textile Industry is largest consumer of silicones in India.


       Silicones have been used as fabric finishers for many years because of the unique
handle and durability, which makes it extremely cost effective.


       Silicone imparts softening to the fabric and also improves physical properties, such as
wrinkle resistance, abrasion resistance and tear strength. The utility of silicone has also been
diversified for many other purposes like antifoaming, thread lubrication and glass fabric
finishing. Silicones give flameproofing and also wash - n- wear finish to the fabric.




                                                    Silicones: Manufacture and Application in Textiles
                                                4
                                                                                       Hitesh R.Wadher

            2. CHEMISTRY OF SILICONES AND PROPERTIES
         Silicones are long chain polymers having silicone - oxygen – silicone back bone.
Apart from two oxygen bonds, the tetravalent silicone atom also has two pendant organic
functional groups. These organic functional determine the specific properties of the
polysiloxanes required for the specific substrate.

                                     CH 3       CH3        CH3
                              R1     Si     O   Si    O    Si     R1
                                     CH3        R2         CH3


                              R1: CH3 or OH

                              R2: Amino, epoxy, carboxyl etc



       The specific properties imparted to the fabric by silicones depend upon the nature of
the organic functional groups that are incorporated in the structure of silicone molecule.
Hence, there is a broad spectrum of silicone products to choose from and some of them are
given below:

1)     Dimethyl siloxane

       These give the fabric water repellency without affecting its breath ability.

2)     Methylhydrogenpolysilxanes

       This give better softness and water repellency to the fabric than dimethyl siloxane. An
       added advantage is that it needs lower curing temperature than the latter.

3)     Amino modified siloxanes

       This imparts an enhanced softness and smooth feel to the fabric apart from tear
       resistance.

4)     Epoxy modified siloxanes

       This gives the fabric bounce, softness, water repellency and wrinkle and crease
       resistance. The finish is extremely durable and also enhances the colour of the fabric.




                                                      Silicones: Manufacture and Application in Textiles
                                              5
                                                                                    Hitesh R.Wadher




5)   Carboxy modified silicones

     Its improves the feel of nylon fabric and can be used along with amino and epoxy
     modified silicones.

6)   Hydrophilic modified siloxanes

     This acts as a wetting agent by reducing the kinetic friction between the fabric-fibres.

7)   Mercapto modified silicones and amido modified silicones.

     These fluids prevent discolourisation by sunlight and are used in making car polish
     cloth and furniture polish napkins respectively

8)   Polyether modified silicones

     These are used as lubricants for fabrics due to their low coefficient of the friction.

                                                                                      (Ref – 1,4)




                                              
				
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i did m.tech in IIT delhi.Atpresent working as senior lecturer in KCT coimbatore.I am having 6 years of industrial experience in areas such as production,R & D and maintenance departments of yarn manufacturing unit.