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					CONFIDENTIAL                                                                      AP/OCT2006/QSD133




                                  UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
                                      FINAL EXAMINATION




      COURSE                            PRINCIPLES OF STRUCTURES
      COURSE CODE                       QSD133
      EXAMINATION                       OCTOBER 2006
      TIME                              2 HOURS




INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

 1.        This question paper consists of six (6) questions.

 2.        Answer FOUR (4) questions only in the Answer Booklet. Start each answer on a new page.

 3.          Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the
             invigilator.

4.           Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of:

                i)   the Question Paper
               ii)   a one-page Appendix 1
              Hi)    an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty
              iv)    two sheets of graph paper - provided by the Faculty




                      DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO
                             This examination paper consists of 6 printed pages
© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA                                                 CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL                                                            AP/OCT 2006/QSD133


QUESTION 1

a) Explain the following terms:

    i)     structure
    ii)    dead load
    iii)   imposed load
    iv)    force
                                                                                    (10 marks)

b) Figure Q1b shows a simply supported reinforced concrete beam size 400 mm x 800
   mm. The beam is required to carry a 400mm thick solid clay brickwall throughout its
   span, calculate:

    i) the ultimate design load of the beam
    ii) the reactions at support A and B.

    Given:
    The unit weight of reinforced concrete     = 25kN/m3
    The unit weight of brickwall               = 23kN/m3



                                                                                A



                             400mm thick brickwall                                  2.5m


                                                                                A
                               400mm x 800mm reinforced concrete beam           v0.8m

                                                                          B

             t<
              n

                          6m                         8m

                                           Figure Q1b
                                                                         -I
                                                                                    (15 marks)




© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA                                         CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL                                                         AP/OCT 2006/QSD133

QUESTION 2


Based on Figure Q2a, Q2b, Q2c and Q2d, determine the reactions at each support.

                                            50 kN




                                                             30 kN




                                           Figure Q2a
                                                                                  (6 marks)



                      2.0m               10kN                 30kN
                               w
                               A
                      2.0m

                               w                     15kN


                      2.0m
                               v         20kN
                               A
                      1.5m
                               V


                                                Figure Q2b
                                                                                  (6 marks)



© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MAR A                                   CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL                                                                 AP/OCT2006/QSD133

                                        15kN
                                                                                 ^

                             1
                                          1r


                                   20kN/rr1                    35kN/m
                                                                                 1
                                                                                 fes
                               2m               2.5m                3m
                              <———> ^                  ^   ^                 ^


                                                Figure Q2c
                                                                                              (7 marks)

                                                SOkN
                                                                                       10kN



                                                 5kN/m


                     2m                 5m                     5m                2m


                                               Figure Q2d
                                                                                              (6 marks)

QUESTION 3


a) Figure 3a shows the cross-section of a singly-reinforced concrete beam. Estimate the
   maximum bending moment that the beam can carry.




                                                                            10mm 0 top steel


                       500mm
                                                                           10mm 0 link




                                                                         32mm 0 tension steel



                                                       Figure 3a

© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA                                                  CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL                                                          AP/OCT2006/QSD133



    Given:
                      K' = 0.156
                      K = M/fcubd2
                      K < K' (singly reinforced)
                      z = d [0.5 + V(0.25 - K/0.9)]
                      z < 0.95 d
                      As = M/0.87fyz
                      Concrete - grade 30
                      Reinforcement - mild steel
                      Cover - 25 mm thick
                                                                                 (15 marks)

b) A timber beam spanning 4.5m is required to support a uniformly distributed load of 5
   kN/m including its selfweight throughout the span. If the allowable bending stress of the
   timber is 7 N/mm2, recommend the suitable size of the beam.
                                                                                 (10 marks)



QUESTION 4


a) Give the definitions of moment.
                                                                                  (5 marks)

b) Based on figure Q4b. Calculate the reactions at support A and B and draw the shear
   force and bending moment diagrams.



             10kN                                                   30kN


                I                       20kN/m            10kN/m




                      2m                4m                3m             1m



                                             Figure Q4b
                                                                                 (20 marks)




© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA                                       CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL                                      6                    AP/OCT 2006/QSD133


QUESTION 5

A 300 mm wide singly reinforced concrete beam is required to transmit an ultimate bending
moment of 350kNm, inclusive of its own weight. The beam is composed of grade 35
concrete with high yield reinforcement. Using the simplified stress block formulae given in
BS 8110 Parti

i)     Determine the depth of beam required
ii)    Determine the amount of steel needed
iii)   Sketch the cross-section of the beam and show the dimension details of the bars.

                                                                                  (25marks)


QUESTION 6


A short braced column is required to support an ultimate axial load of SOOOkN using grade
35 concrete and mild steel reinforcement. Assume the percentage of main steel provided is
2%.

a) Calculate the size of the column if the cross-section is square and choose the
   appropriate diameter of main reinforcement required.
                                                                        (15 marks)

b) Sketch the cross-section of the columns in (a) and show the details of the reinforcement
   bars chosen.
                                                                                   (5 marks)

c) Determine the maximum effective height of the column.
                                                                                   (5 marks)
Given:
Equation 38 (a)

N = 0.4 feu (Ag - Asc) + 0.75 Asc fy




                                        END OF QUESTION PAPER




© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA                                        CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL                                      APPENDIX 1                AP/OCT2006/QSD133


  LIST OF FORMULAE


  Reinforced concrete beam
  K' * 0.156
  K = M/!«bd*

  For singly reinforced beam, K < K*


  z < 0.95 d
  A*

  Short braced axlally loaded column
  BS 8110 equation 38(n); N « 0.4f«, (Ag                + 0,75 AM&

  Timber beam

  z = bd*/6
                               Areas of round bar reinforcement <mm*J
                                        Number    of     bars
  Diameter          t


    (mm)           1          2           3        4       §         $     ?                0
                                                                                ————— ,L_
                                                                                       .


        6       28        S7            85       113    142     170      108    22$   255
        8       50        101           151      201    282     302      362    402   453   I
       10       70        157           236      314    393     471      §80    026   707
       12       113       226           339      452    S85     878      791    904   1017
       16       201       402           603      804    100S    1200     1407   1§00  1809
       20       314       828           942      125S   1570    1884     2190   2&12 202©
       25       491       983           1474     196$   2467    2948     S439   3932 4423
       32       804       1608          2412     321$   4020    4S24     5828   6432 723S
       40       1257      2513          3770     5027   6283    5740     8796   10053 11310




© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA                                            CONFIDENTIAL

				
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