Docstoc

Strategy for Sustainable Development in Mediterranean-Black Sea Area

Document Sample
Strategy for Sustainable Development in Mediterranean-Black Sea Area Powered By Docstoc
					International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                      Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED




  Strategy for Sustainable Development in Mediterranean-Black Sea Area
      A system for environmental sustainability and shared prosperity

                          FISPMED WORK PROPOSAL
                          1ST DRAFT of JANUARY 2008




                                                                                   1


                    office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                             Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                   info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
      International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                            Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED


1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN THE MEDITERRANEAN-BLACK SEA AREA

WHY A MEDITERRANEAN STRATEGY?
Premise
          The definition of sustainable development as a mean to “guarantee present needs
without compromising the possibilities of future generations of getting the same”, is a conquest of
the end of the past millennium. According to this proposition, sustainable development requires
the achievement of a good quality of life, of peace and of a growing and right prosperity in a clean
and safe environment.
          Nevertheless, it also needs of deep changes into the current development patterns and
the socio-economic relations.
          Each environmental action, taken one by one, neither accomplishes the goal of
sustainable development, nor can be simply bearer of prohibitions.
          The economic sustainability is a matter of a stable and lasting development which
includes high levels of employment, low inflation rates and stability in international trade.
          Social sustainability deals with distributive equity, human and civil rights, migration and
relationships among nations.

          With reference to the sustainable development of the Mediterranean-Black Sea area,
multiples geopolitical and economic factors as well as the complex environmental issues must be
taken into account.

          In fact, the Mediterranean-Black Sea area suffers of political instability, a difficult cultural
situation, moderate economic development vs. a strong increase of foreign public debt in multiple
countries, demographic pressures that increase migratory fluxes, the spreading of authoritarian
ideologies, conflicts extension, religious fundamentalism, terrorism and the long-lasting conflict
between Israel and Palestine.

          Although some countries have reached a successful socio-economic development and
positive results in the process of democratization, instability in the area is increasing, even because
of the worsening of the situation in the Balkans and the Middle East.
           Fundamentalism has generated terrorist acts at a local level as well as all over the world.
           The inner demographic pressures of the countries bordering the Mediterranean and the
Black Sea, together with those deriving from the sub-Saharian ones, have increased uncontrolled
migratory phenomena.
          Finally, even if the Barcelona Process has furnished incentives for positive outcomes,
thanks to the bilateral and multilateral cooperation agreements, moderate socio-economic
progresses have not produced significant results in the whole area.
         All these negative factors that concur to the chronicle instability caught the attention of
the countries bordering the northern shore of the Mediterranean Sea as well as those composing
the European Community since the end of „80s, when the Mediterranean issues become a priority.
         As the Berlin Wall fell down and the Warsaw Pact was dissolved, the European Community
(then European Union since 1992) shifted both its attention and its resources from the Southern
countries of the Mediterranean toward East.
        Bilateral relationships with consequent investments in the Mediterranean can be seen as a
function of the degree of proximity of the northern countries with respect to the southern ones.
        For instance, during 1993-1994 Sweden and Italy invested respectively the 1.1% and the
24.6% in the Mediterranean and the 11.2% vs. the 7.8% in the Eastern countries.

                                                                                                        2


                              office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                       Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                             info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
      International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                            Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

          All the above mentioned geopolitical factors are interlaced together with the
environmental ones and they determine a complex situation. The latter is worsened by the fact
that many countries do not pursue homogenous and coherent policies with the goal of reaching
sustainable development.
         Although there‟re considerable differences, the environmental factors characterizing the
whole area can be listed as the following ones:
-demographic increase: in 50 years it has determined almost the doubling of the population that is
prevalently concentrated in the coastal zone;
-pollution because of industrial waste (i.e. obsolete technologies used by a number of companies
and firms) and waste disposal, especially all along the coastal areas near the big conurbations;
-urbanization of a substantial part of the rural population, with a disproportioned increase of the
urban areas;
-augmentation of sea transports, especially of the oil ones, with creation of dangerous zones
closed to the fixed routes and to the access areas of the ports;
-increasing use of energy, as a consequence of the acceleration of growth in the southern
countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, by deeply contributing to the pollution in the
atmosphere;
-rising use of water whereas there is a reduction of water reserves because of precipitation drops;
-climate changes that will presumable provoke the elevation of the sea level, the acceleration of
coastal erosion, the intrusion of sea water in the subsoil one, in the estuaries and in the river
zones.
         Therefore, sustainable development is a global goal.
         The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) approved by 189 countries in September 2000
and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation adopted in 2002 by the World Summit on
Sustainable Development, emphasize the urgent need for greater commitment to reduce
inequalities and assist poor countries in their development process. The need to change
unsustainable production and consumption patterns –as it has also been stated by the Marrakech
process- , to protect and manage natural resources in a sustainable way for the social and
economic development, for the safeguard of the health and with the aim to integrate efficiently
the sustainable development goal within the globalization process, are clearly stressed among the
objectives of the above mentioned documents.
         The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSDD) also invokes coordination among
regional as well as national strategies, while the international prescriptions must be adapted to the
local circumstances and to the specific conditions of the eco-regions.
         Despite the progress made, there is a latent, but growing awareness from end to end of
the Mediterranean-Black Sea area, that current development trends are not still sustainable.
         Mediterranean and Black Sea inhabitants know that they cannot any more keep using
resources, building up coastal areas and developing industries, especially the tourist ones, without
an adequate and integrated planning, a reduction of the gap between north and south and
adequate political reforms.
         The Mediterranean partners have already made many progresses in this direction, thanks
to the Barcelona Declaration and the Mediterranean Commission on Sustainable Development
(MCSD).
         The Strategy represents an excellent opportunity for these partners to make substantial
progresses toward sustainable development, as based on genuine partnership and cooperation.

        The Strategy requires actions aimed at pursuing sustainable development goals with a
view to strengthening peace, stability and prosperity, by taking into account threats and
weaknesses as well as strengths and opportunities of the area. It also stresses the need to reduce
the gap between developed and developing countries.
                                                                                                   3


                             office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                     Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                           info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
      International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                            Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

       Therefore, the challenge for all Mediterranean countries is to use this Strategy as a mean
and an opportunity to implement coordinated actions and reach joint progresses in the fields of
economic, human development and of the environmental and cultural protection.


2. TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE MEDITERRANEAN:
THE NEED AND THE WAY FORWARD
       The solution of Mediterranean-Black Sea environmental problems represents the base for
the development of the region: this is why it is indispensable to put an end to the deterioration of
the environment which is responsible for the economic and social costs increase.
       The region also needs to redirect its development to meet the economic and social needs,
which are considerable in its south-east part, by definitively limiting and banking the process of
deterioration of the environment.
       Therefore, the Strategy focuses mainly on the integration of environmental issues into key
economic development sectors, while giving due consideration to the socio-cultural dimensions.
       As a basis for building up a dynamic regional progress of sustainable development, the
Strategy outlines the main needs and challenges in the region, before going on to identify the four
major objectives and define the sets of actions to be carried out in seven priority fields of action.


2.1. Sustainable development, an essential need to face development challenges in the
Mediterranean- Black Sea area

         In general terms, the environmental challenge is one of most critical ones. Due to the
environmental degradation, the Mediterranean-Black Sea area can loose its main resources,
especially the agricultural and tourist ones that are those which make it a unique place.
          Continued poor management of the already scarce natural resources, like water,
agricultural lands, energy and coastal zones, will compromise economic development, the quality
of life and social stability.
          Endogenous and exogenous population dynamics, unemployment, social issues, lack of
attention and laziness in entrepreneurial activities complete this framework.
          Besides, the globalization process might worsen and accelerate the negative trends without
an efficient regional cooperation and better patterns of governance.

The environmental challenge
In the last decades, environmental deterioration has accelerated, by setting in motion irreversible
trends like:
     The loss of valuable agricultural lands due to urbanization and salination. More than 80%
        of arid and dry areas are affected by desertification, while consequences will be
        exacerbated by the impact of climatic changes.
     The exploitation of water resources that are already threatened by depletion and
        degradation.
     The worsening of urban life and health standards due to traffic congestion, noise, bad air
        quality and the rapid growth of waste generation.
     Contamination of coastal areas and sea, edification and/or erosion of coastlines, depletion
        of fish resources.
     The loss of unique landscapes and biodiversity; highly populated coastal lands vs. inland
        abandoned ones, caused by over-exploitation vs. abandonment of territories.


                                                                                                   4


                             office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                     Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                           info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
       International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                             Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

       The exposition of the region to flooding, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, droughts, fires
        and ecological imbalances which have a direct and immediate impact on the livelihood and
        the welfare of a large proportion of population.

        Despite the difficult to assign specific values, the costs of environmental degradation are
evidently significant. The potential increase of environmental pressures on coastal regions over the
coming 20 years is considerable, particularly in the tourist areas where more than 137 million of
visitors are foreseen. Nevertheless it has been planned to redouble the volume of transports, to
increase the energetic infrastructures, while the uncontrolled urban development will have to
satisfy the requirements of more than 33 million persons.
        Continuous growth of unsustainable production and consumption patterns is likely to
increase deterioration of the environmental costs. According to the World Bank, the amount of
these costs is more or less the 3-5% of the GDP.
Environment should not be considered as an additional constraint, but as a driving force, an asset
and an incentive.
         Mediterranean and Black Sea inhabitants are now much more aware of the threats to their
environment and to their unique natural and cultural heritage. Important political initiatives which
have been adopted in almost all the countries of the area are useful to demonstrate that solution
for specific problems of the different Mediterranean-Black Sea areas can be found.
        Nevertheless, such efforts are not sufficient to reverse current unsustainable development
trends. Unless significant changes are made, the Mediterranean-Black Sea area – the world‟s
leading tourist region- could jeopardize its major assets, by generating additional economic
constraints and a deterioration of living standards.

The demographic, economic, social and cultural challenges
       There is a stark contrast in the demographic situation between northern and southern
countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea area.
        Northern Mediterranean countries face with the problem of an ageing population; on the
contrary, population growth is still a major issue in southern and eastern countries, with an
expected increase of 90 million people by 2025. However, a spectacular fall in fertility rates over
the past ten years is now resulting in a demographic transition in these countries.
       Although Mediterranean-Black Sea area is traditionally a region of trade and transit, it has
only occasionally succeeded in being competitive on international markets.
       Despite the success of some dynamic growth poles and clusters, too often its enterprises –
which are prevalently small and medium sizes – lack of dynamism and competitiveness. They have
not generally stood out in terms of innovation, as they were based for too long on a rent economy
fostered by a mining-like exploitation of the region‟s geographical position and natural resources.

       A dramatic problem of labour market integration exists, particularly among youth. The
north is not able to absorb the considerable pressure for emigration from southern and eastern
Mediterranean countries which are faced by the need to create over 30 million new jobs by 2025.
       Unlike in comparable regions in other parts of the world, these countries have not yet
managed to take off economically and average GDP per capita in purchasing power parity of
several for them is still one-fifth of the level in Mediterranean EU-Black Sea countries.

        Most Mediterranean-Black Sea country economies, which have been insufficiently dynamic
for the last 20 or 30 years, if compared with other regions of the world, are experiencing difficult
employment situations, with unemployment rates ranging generally between 8 and 25 per cent.
Poverty is tightly connected to the employment situation, as well as changes which marginalize
categories of society, such as the rapid transformation of rural sectors, agricultural and handicraft.
                                                                                                    5


                             office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                      Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                            info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
      International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                            Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED


        Social issues are, also, a major concern, particularly in southern and eastern
Mediterranean-Black sea countries. Despite the progress, they are still backward in terms of
literacy and gender equality. Poverty, especially in rural areas, is still a dominant problem in many
countries, despite there is a relatively little extreme poverty. The situation is aggravated by
iniquitous wealth distribution.
        Populations of many southern or eastern Mediterranean countries suffer, also, from
insufficient access to drinking water and sanitation.
        Situation among countries with regard to their cultural capacity is extremely unequal,
although it is partly hidden by the lack of cultural indicators that are surely more difficult to be
individuated and developed than for other sectors. The Strategy work has contributed to point out
both the broad handicaps and elements of diversity that need to be respected insofar as they
demonstrate the will to reaffirm natural diversity in a context of globalization, and promote unique
Mediterranean culture as a basic economic and social asset.

The challenges of globalization, regional cooperation and governance
         Globalization challenge requires widespread regional cooperation, political stability, efficient
governance and social protection. Unfortunately, Mediterranean and Black Sea countries suffer
from an unbalanced situation.
         Integration into EU has considerably improved the political and economic situation of
Mediterranean EU member state (Spain, Portugal, Greece and now Slovenia, Malta Cyprus and
Romania). Further enlargement of the EU, with the possible membership of other Eastern Adriatic
countries and Turkey, would reinforce this trend and it would lead to greater convergence in terms
of politics as well as economic and environmental policies.
         Mediterranean EU countries are facing globalization challenges with the strong support
coming from the European Union.
         Mediterranean and southern and eastern Black Sea countries, which are obviously dealing
with the same issues, do not benefit from such dynamic regional cooperation.
         Situation is worsened by inadequate levels of north-south and south-south cooperation and
by continuous conflicts, especially in the northeast, even though some long-term political solutions
seem to emerge. By considering the slowness of democratic improvements, it can be pointed out
that governance is still weak and political and structural reforms - especially to improve respect for
human rights and gender equality- are not going to be quickly adopted.

       This trend toward a growing political, socio-economic and environmental divide between
the two shores of the Mediterranean and Black Sea basin will result in growing instability and it will
emphasize existing level of social economy asymmetry, whether no relevant reforms are
implemented on urgent basis. The alternative is to maximize opportunities and complementarities
between north and south, in a context of different, but joint processes toward sustainable
development with the goal of optimizing positive effects of globalization.

       Therefore, the long term choice is between either unequal or joint north vs. south
development. The latter is based on the strong sense of common destiny in the region. From this
perspective, the best way for Mediterranean and Black Sea countries, both European and non-
European ones, to meet globalization challenges and compete with success in the emerging multi-
polar world, is that of joining forces and giving strength to an enlarged regional space
encompassing the European Union, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, then, by ensuring that
the Mediterranean-Black Sea area might become a space of stability, shared prosperity, democracy
and tolerance.

                                                                                                       6


                              office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                      Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                            info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
      International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                            Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

        The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), launched by the EU in 2003/4 follows this
direction. The ENP seeks to deepen political cooperation and economic integration between EU
countries and its immediate neighbours, as well as to promote and support better governance and
reforms in Mediterranean countries. Through mutually agreed Action Plans, EU and its ENP
partners will address issues of common interest and they will devise beneficial measures in favour
of economic growth and social cohesion, by raising living standard and protecting environment,
thereby contributing to the long term goal of sustainable development in the Mediterranean basin.
        The adoption of a strategy in the Black Sea in favour of dialogue and regional cooperation
is also important because Moldova, Ukraine and countries of southern Caucasus border both on
the EU and on different countries like Russia and Turkey. The European Neighbourhood Policy
should develop deeper policies in the Black Sea countries since they represent a new EU frontier
since ‟07.
        Apart from the need to maintain formal bilateral relationships with these countries taken
one by one, the EU must include all the countries bordering the Black Sea in regional cooperation
policies (i.e. within the ENP programme, or in the strategic partnership programme with Russia, or
with pre-accession programmes like Turkey).
        Concrete sectorial issues can be tackled with pertinent initiatives, like reciprocally
advantageous scientific cooperation assisted by political dialogue or assemblies like the Committee
for the protection of Black Sea.
        Besides, a stronger cooperation (synergy) in the Black Sea region could favour long date
regional conflicts solution. The Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization (BSEC) represents a
useful instrument for dialogue and cooperation into the whole region.
        The “synergy” of the Black Sea should consider other regional initiatives as the Baku one
for transports and energy.
        In the whole Mediterranean basin the ENP represents a new and important complement for
dialogue and regional integration after the Barcelona process, and it allows EU to approach its
southern partners in the political, economic, commercial, social and cultural spheres.
        The five years programme plan, which was arranged in 2005 during the Barcelona Summit
on the base of the ENP document, contains precise indications about the way to strengthen
regional cooperation for the next years.
        The reform commitments, as they were indicated in each of the five Action Plans that are
being implemented (Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Palestinian Authority and Tunisia) have already
showed concrete results, as it is evident in the reports.
        The action plans have clearly fixed common priorities; they have allowed us to insert
various kinds of matters of in a unique dialogue and they have tangibly improved the situation.
        With the almost ready Egypt and Lebanon action plans, it is evident that bilateral dimension
of the Euro-Mediterranean relationships will be important as the regional one.

        To foster economic reforms and sustainable growth in the Mediterranean-Black Sea area,
synergies with other economic assemblies like the Gulf Council Cooperation (GCC) can be found,
so to jointly mobilize resources and investments for these purposes.
        Greater flexibility as offered by new tools for cooperation will have a great impact on the
areas of the Mediterranean basin and the Black Sea. For example, the new cooperation programs
within the ENPI framework will allow, for the first time, to promote cooperation among local as
well as regional bodies and will face matters of common interest like environment, transports,
communications, maritime safety, sea environment, regional economic development, tourism and
socio-cultural exchanges.



                                                                                                  7


                            office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                     Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                           info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
      International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                            Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

2.2 The underlying principles and long-term perspectives
The underlying principles
        The underlying principle of the Mediterranean - Black Sea Strategy stresses that
sustainability should be based on the interdependence of its three pillars, that is to say economic
development, social equality and environmental protection, as well as on improved governance.
Environment, culture and development in the region are tightly interlinked and it is therefore vital
and urgent to accelerate progresses towards sustainable development. To do this, it is necessary
to create jobs on a large scale and to focus on poverty reduction, although it also depends on
policies which are partly beyond the scope of the Strategy. From a social point of view, life quality
standards should be based on the principles of access to basic services and financial resources, on
the achievement of gender equality and equity between generations.
        The promotion of better governance, together with justice and full recognition of human
rights is also required to implement the Strategy. Approaches based on local development, on the
involvement of civil societies, of the private sector and of ngos, on the participation of multiple
stakeholders, as well as the creation of partnerships and the reinforcement of corporate
accountability should be strongly supported.

        In the matter of international cooperation, the Strategy is based on the principles of
solidarity and shared but differentiated responsibility between developed and developing countries.
The strategic value of cultural diversity is reaffirmed as well as the need to avoid the paradigm of
a single pattern for development. Therefore, current trends must be reversed through collective
efforts aimed at avoiding unequal, unbalanced, standardized and wasteful development in the
Mediterranean-Black Sea area and their sub-regions, even to avoid the risk of an unbalanced and
an inefficient future perspective of development.

A long term perspective for the Mediterranean-Black Sea Area
        The Strategy is based on a long-term view of a “sustainable” Mediterranean-Black Sea area
with political stability, prosperity and peace. This view is based on a proactive choice of a “win-
win” scenario, in which the North-South co-development is promoted, while exploiting the positive
synergies of an efficient environmental, developmental and economic management.
        Joint efforts are required to make progresses in the sustainable management of resources
and of coastal zones, and to enhance natural and cultural diversity in the area. Complementarities
and exchange based-dynamics between Europe and its Mediterranean and Black Sea neighbours
must be developed around a strong concept of “shared destiny” and of common but differentiated
responsibilities.
        Once the Strategy will be collectively endorsed and implemented through national policies,
the area should move towards a highly integrated Mediterranean-Black Sea eco-region of
prosperity and stability. Strong regional unity should emerge in the Mediterranean-Black Sea area,
where development will be based on the recognition of the strategic value endorsed by
environment and diversity, and will be supported by the involvement of communities in the
process of governance for economic growth, sustainable development and the improvement of life
quality standards.

        In this scenario, the new Mediterranean/Black Sea region will be able to participate
successfully in the globalization process, by enhancing specificities, complementarities and
synergies with neighbouring countries of the European Union and of the Arab League States.
Domestic and inter-country economic and social divisions will be gradually reduced and the
Millennium Development Goals will be effectively achieved. Public goods will be protected and in
certain cases restored, while the management of natural resources will be evidently improved.

                                                                                                   8


                             office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                     Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                           info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
      International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                            Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

       People of the region will increase their awareness about the enormous potential
represented by diversity and quality of their heritage for increased and diversified forms of tourism
that might be developed in synergy with agriculture and other economic activities. Cities will
become real vectors for regional development, while jobs will be created in new promising sectors:
research and development, access to basic needs, clean technologies, industries, water and
energetic saving technologies, high quality agriculture and food products, the enhancement of
biodiversity and of public transports. The EU and its southern neighbours will understand their
mutual interests and they‟ll recognize the benefits to be drawn from their complementarities and
exchanges in order to deal with global competitions.


2.3 Four major objectives
       The followings four objectives are established with the aim of promoting progresses in
socio-economic and environmental fields as well as sustainable governance.

Objective 1: To contribute to economic development by enhancing Mediterranean-
Black sea goods.

       Based on the belief that environmental protection and economic growth are not necessarily
incompatible, the Strategy is intended to enhance economic development, while reducing
pressures on natural resources. This should lead to equilibrium between the satisfaction of
people‟s necessities, the requirements of economic development and environmental protection,
thereby complying with the demand for employment and social needs. It would reduce the
growing gap and the asymmetry between developing and developed countries and would promote
growth.


       In order to meet the goals related to employment and income generation, regional and
national initiatives aimed at reinforcing international and private investment, as well as public
development aid in Mediterranean countries, with special emphasis on southern and eastern
countries, need to be supported.
        To this end, emphasis is placed on the opportunities deriving from the future Euro-
Mediterranean Free Trade Area (EMFTA), as well as from the relationships with the other Middle
Eastern countries, while also encouraging partnerships for bilateral investments between northern
and southern countries. Even the results of the Sustainability Impact Assessment of the EMFTA,
launched by the European Commission, must be taken into account.

       To attain these goals, the Strategy calls for cumulative flows of added value to be drawn
from the region‟s unique cultural and natural assets, while also exploring new ways for the
promotion of technological innovations, professional and cultural skills. New activities should,
therefore, be promoted in services, clean production, new technologies for the reduction of natural
resources consumption, and the promotion of SMEs-SMEs as a vehicle for economic development
and employment generation.

         Stronger local interactions are needed between the private sector, the training and
research fields, together with the creation of dynamic local cluster and enterprises. A more
balanced distribution of the new activities in developing countries has also to be sought in order to
provide with local job opportunities, thereby helping to limit the brain drain. Balanced regional
development must also be encouraged with the scope of avoiding the excessive concentration of
activities in coastal areas.
                                                                                                   9


                             office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                     Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                           info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
      International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                            Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED


Objective 2: To reduce social disparities by implementing the Millennium Development
Goals and by strengthening cultural identities
         The development of human resources and the increase in value of the stakeholders‟
qualities is of crucial importance. The protection of environment, the economic and sustainable
development cannot be achieved with such a large proportion of population that is illiterate and
lack of access to essential services. It is necessary to strengthen measures to foster gender
equality, promote the role of women in society, support the upgrading of rural areas – which are
often ignored - and plan a sustainable urban development.

      To contribute to these objectives, the Strategy endorses the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) with a view to improve life quality standards and gender equality.

        The social trends are a major component in the formulation and the implementation of
sustainable development policies. The relevant Millennium Development Goals must be addressed
in the region and continuously monitored on the basis of adequate indicators.

        The Mediterranean- Black Sea region, as soon as it will start to be conceived as a whole,
will deeply benefit from the dialogue on employment issues.

        The promotion of cultural diversity, values and traditions in the Mediterranean-Black Sea
area is also of vital importance. Specifically, certain Strategy components are devoted to different
cultural aspects like education for sustainable development, cultural exchanges, incentives to
establish Mediterranean and Black Sea labels, the promotion of new forms of cultural tourism and
cooperation for the increase of the cultural heritage.

Objective 3: To modify unsustainable production and consumption patterns and ensure
the sustainable management of natural resources
         Development cannot be “sustainable” unless unsustainable practices, that are affecting
basic common goods, are not brought to an end. Priority must be given to the protection of the
sea, coasts, climate and air quality, water resources, soil and biodiversity, traditions, nature,
cultural and landscape heritage, together with the reduction of exposure to natural hazards such
as floods, fires, droughts, earthquakes and tsunamis. Moreover, the progressive degradation of
soils, landscapes and coastal areas must be halted and the objectives of the Earth Summit must be
fulfilled through the protection and the enhancement of marine, coastal and continental
biodiversity.

        It is urgent to break the vicious circle that makes economic development dependent on an
intensive exploitation of natural resources, and, therefore, it is necessary to separate economic
growth from increased environmental pressures, thereby contributing to the achievement of the
relevant Millennium Development Goal. To this end, changes must be firstly promoted in
consumption and production patterns, by giving incentives for the use of renewable sources of
energy, clean technologies, suitable infrastructures, more efficient public transports and the
establishment of green public areas. A better access to information, education, training and
professional upgrading is needed so to move from an “emergency” to a “prevention” culture. Even
the management of water, energy, soil and coastal areas resources must be improved, while the
growth in waste generation and pollutant emission reduced. These improvements will benefit both
enterprises and the environment, by offering a win-win scenario.


                                                                                                 10


                            office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                     Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                           info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
      International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                            Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

Goal: Changing unsustainable production and consumption patterns and ensuring
sustainable management of natural resources
         Development cannot be “sustainable” unless the unsustainable practices, which are
affecting basic common goods, are brought to an end and assistance is provided for the
restoration of these common goods. Priority has to be given to the protection of the sea, the
coast, the climate and air quality, water resources, soil and biodiversity, traditional knowledge of
nature, the cultural and landscape heritage, together with the reduction of exposure to natural
hazards, such as floods, fires, droughts, earthquakes and tsunamis. The continuing degradation of
soils, landscapes and coastal areas must also be stopped and the goals of the Earth Summit have
to be fulfilled the protection and the valorisation of marine, coastal and continental biodiversity.

       It is vital to break the links which make economic development dependent on a
corresponding, or even more intensive exploitation of natural resources, and therefore to decouple
economic growth from increased environmental pressures, thereby contributing to the
achievement of the relevant Millennium Development Goal. To this end, change must first be
promoted in consumption and production patterns through the use of renewable sources of
energy, clean technologies, suitable infrastructures, more efficient public transports including
greening public procurement. Access to information, education, training and professional
upgrading is needed so as to move from an “emergency” to a “prevention” culture. The
management of water, energy, soil and coastal areas resources must also be improved and the
growth in waste production and pollutant emissions reduced. Such a decoupling will benefit both
enterprises and the environment, offering a win-win scenario.

Goal: improvement of the local, national and regional governance
        Sustainable development is only achievable through appropriate governance, which
requires the exercise of power within an environment of openness, participation, accountability,
effectiveness and coherence. The Mediterranean and Black Sea Strategy therefore endorses the
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation which, on its turn, requires: genuine economic, social and
environmental policies and democratic institutions sensible to people‟s needs. Essential is also the
role of law, anti-corruption measures, gender equality and the arrangement of favourable
conditions to investments as the basis for sustainable development. Indeed, without a more
efficient governance and an active participation of the various actors, the other goalss of the
Strategy will not be attained. In order to achieve this aim, there will be the need to support
regional and national efforts in order to grant a better governance, the participatory local
development, the involvement both of civil society and NGOs and finally, to establish partnership
with the private sector.
        The application of the Aarhus Convention‟s principles will encourage the involvement of civil
society in achieving sustainable development.
It has also to be placed emphasis on the importance of both environmental management and
integrated territorial planning under a system of shared responsibility. There is the need to
develop a network of dialogue between actors and to favour also the spread of a knowledge and
training in management practices. Regional and sub-regional efficient cooperation between
Mediterranean countries will also have to be promoted, especially through the development of
more efficient and rational channels of participation and working procedures. Both education and
training, and in particular education for sustainable development (ESD), are recognized as a
prerequisite for an improved governance. In view of the adoption by the 13 Contracting Parties of
the Strategy for Education for Sustainable Development (SESD, Vilnius 2005), it should be used as
a blueprint for concerted regional action.
        Finally, an important component of the Strategy is the development of synergies to
enhance the process of implementing global Conventions, including the UN Framework Convention
                                                                                                  11


                             office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                     Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                           info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
      International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                            Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

on Climate Changes and its Kyoto Protocol, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention
to Fight Desertification and the UN Conversion of the Law of the Sea, in relation to Barcelona
Convention and other relevant regional instruments.


2.4 Seven priority fields of action and synergy
   Seven interdependent priority fields of action and synergy have been identified in which it is
essential to achieve real progress:
   1. better management of water resources and demand;
   2. improvement in the rational use of energy, increase in renewable energy use and both
       mitigation and adaptation to climate change;
   3. sustainable mobility through appropriate transports management;
   4. sustainable tourism as a leading economic sector;
   5. sustainable agriculture and rural development;
   6. sustainable urban development;
   7. sustainable management of the sea, coastal areas and marine resources

2.4.1 Improvement in the running of both water resources and water demand.
        Water is a scarce and fragile resource which is unequally distributed in time and space, and
climate change is expected to lead to more irregular and lower volumes of rainfall. The shortage of
water due to irregular rainfall and aridity, is a major constraint for agriculture. Irrigation is the
largest consumer of water. The number of people in the region with less than 1000 cubic meters
of water a year is currently 108 million and may reach 165 million within 2025. Some countries are
facing a critical situation.

       National strategies have favoured provisioning policies through the construction of dams
and boreholes. Nevertheless, many dams in numerous countries of both the southern and oriental
Mediterranean are loosing most of their storage capacity because they are silting up and few
countries will still be able to exploit them in the long term. Aquifers, many of which are made up of
non renewable fossil water, are being over-exploited or irreversibly degraded by saline intrusion.
Hydrological systems are deteriorating as a result of the degradation and the over-exploitation of
basins and the disappearance of wetlands. The management of cross-border water resources is a
potential source of conflicts.

   Most Mediterranean countries are facing several water-related issues:
    How to manage their scarce water resources in a sustainable manner; how to grant the
      access to drinking water for those groups who do not have it yet;
    How to educate individual consumers to contain the use of water.

       -      The first challenge requires policies related to water demand management to reduce
              loss and misuse; it is also important the development of value added through
              greater efficiency in both irrigation and the use of water in industry and urban areas
              and the meeting of economic and social needs reducing costs. It also requires the
              integrated management of basins and wetland ecosystems and an increase in water
              supply, especially through the development of non conventional sources of water.
       -      The second challenge requires the achievement of the MDGs concerning
              the access to safe drinking water and sanitation.
       -      The third challenge needs the strengthening of the partnerships
              with local water users and water management bodies. Moreover, it requires
              awareness-raising campaigns on how to save water.
                                                                                                    12


                             office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                     Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                           info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
       International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                             Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED


       Some countries in both the north and the south, have begun to undertake a more efficient
water management, as it was established during the Johannesburg Summit. The EU, whose
Mediterranean component represents a cooperation framework which leads to the attainment of
the MDGs in this region, has launched a water initiative.

Goals:
        Stabilizing water through reduction of water losses and wasteful use of water (mainly this
         goal aims to reduce the demand of water in the north and to control the increase in water
         demand in the south and the east) and increase the value added per cubic metre of used
         water.
        Promoting the integrated management of both watersheds, including surface, and
         groundwater, and ecosystems, and foster goals of pollution reduction.
        Achieving the Millennium Development Goals concerning the access to safe drinking water
         and sanitation.
        Promoting participation, partnership, active cooperation, and solidarity for the sustainable
         management of water, at local and national level.


2.4.2 Ensuring sustainable management of energy and mitigation in order to adapt to
the effects of the climate changes
         The energy consumption in the Mediterranean countries, which are highly dependent on
fossils fuels, has more than doubled over the past 30 years. Many Mediterranean countries have
established pricing and tax structures which are not ensuring energy saving. Moreover, the
encouragement to the use of renewable sources of energy is not sufficient. Should this trend
continue, the Mediterranean‟s contribution to total global greenhouse gas emission could rise from
7% to 9%. In addition, the region energy dependence could increase greatly.

        This situation is even more regrettable since the Mediterranean is an eco-region which is
particularly vulnerable to climate change with a significant potential for renewable energy from
natural sources (sun, wind, etc.). Moreover, it is a region which really could take advantage of the
rational use of energy. Policies which follow these orientations would encourage technological
progress, creating employment opportunities and increasing the productivity. Decisive
implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Changes and of its Kyoto
Protocol, by the countries which have already ratified it or those which will do it in the future,
could provide short and long-term local and global benefits, in particular by strengthening regional
cooperation and funding sustainable development projects in Mediterranean Black Sea developing.

Goals:
        Promoting the rational use of energy.
        Enhancing the potential of renewable energy.
        Controlling, stabilizing or reducing the emission of gas responsible for the greenhouse.
        Introducing, within national development plans, measures to adapt to climate changes.
        Increasing the access to electricity in rural areas.




                                                                                                    13


                              office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                       Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                             info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
       International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                             Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

2.4.3 Ensuring sustainable mobility through the appropriate management of
transports

        The need of both passenger and freight transport is growing faster than the rate
of economic and demographic growth. In view of these trends, transport systems are
not sustainable in the long-term anymore. The use of maritime transport on long
distances and coastal shipping is expanding dramatically, causing the increase of both
pollution and accident risks. Linkages between the two shores of the Mediterranean
and the Black Sea’s basin are not much rational and competitive. Land transport is
dominated by road traffic, which accounts for 88% of passenger traffic and 82% of
freight.
As the transport concerns one third of total energy consumption, in northern countries
it is a major contributor to gas emission responsible for both greenhouse and
pollution. Traffic congestion costs are constantly increasing. Trends in relation to
transports in the southern countries give rise to the same concerns. They are often
aggravated by systems of public investment, subsidies and taxations which favour a
mobility based on the use of private motor vehicles and roads, rather than collective
forms of transport.

        Although these trends raise difficult issues, if appropriate regional and national policies
were applied, they could be managed in a sustainable way. Some countries, and a growing
number of local authorities, have adopted policies which promote a more sustainable management
of transport. Compulsory standards for motor vehicles are being applied in the European Union
and they are encouraging technological improvements. Moreover, promising results have been
attained thanks to successful experiments in the combination of sea, rail and road transport.

Goals:
        Supporting regional and national initiatives to promote a more competitive and sustainable
         transport systems and to improve euro-Mediterranean and Black Sea transport linkages and
         networks.
        Encouraging integrated transport systems which ensure a better combination of road, rail
         and sea transport, including a significant shift from road to sea and rail.
        Improving the integration of the transport policies within economic planning in order to
         achieve continuous progresses in decoupling the growth of motor transport from GDP
         growth.
        Encouraging the use of cleaner or less polluting fuels.


2.4.4. Promoting sustainable tourism
       The Mediterranean, is the world leading tourist region, whilst the basin of the Black Sea
posses the same possibilities. Tourism is a major industry in terms of employment and incomes in
the region and it consists mainly on the model of the seasonal seaside resort.

        The intense competition between tourist destinations is exacerbated by the business
practices of the main tour operators and the lack of capacities at local level to control
unsustainable trends in the development of tourism. This has led to a certain standardization in
the supply of tourist facilities, to a development not sufficiently controlled and to a loss of the
quality in several destinations both known and in rapid development. This situation has been
encouraged by public policies which emphasize tourists‟ number and the development of related
infrastructures, rather than favouring both the enhancement of Mediterranean diversity and the
                                                                                                      14


                             office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                      Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                            info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
       International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                             Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

cultural and social development. While tourism is important for the economy of many countries, its
benefits are unequally distributed and the negative environmental impacts on transports, the
increase of both acoustics pollution and waste production, the space exploitation, and the
degradation of landscapes, coasts and ecosystems are not taken into consideration in national
economic statistics related to tourism.

       Some 637 million tourists (international and not) are expected in the region by 2025; it
means an additional 270 million in comparison with 2000. Approximately half of them will stay in
coastal regions. By anticipating these flows, there is a real opportunity not only to influence
international tourism but also to encourage a cultural and rural tourism more responsible, which
could favour inland areas and cities and which could solve some concerns related to environment
such as costal and historical sites protection.

Goals
       Reducng the negative territorial and environmental impacts of tourism, especially in the
        existing coastal tourist areas.
       Promoting sustainable tourism, reinforcing, at the same time, social and cultural cohesion
        and economic development. The aim is also to strengthen Mediterranean diversity and
        specificities and to reinforce synergies with other economic sectors, especially agriculture.
       Increasing the value added of tourism for local communities and actors in developing
        countries.
       Improving governance for sustainable tourism.

4.5 Promoting sustainable agricultural and rural development
        Agriculture in the northern Mediterranean is concentrated in plains and foothills and it is
partly based on irrigation. Nevertheless, water is not generally used efficiently. It is frequently
over-exploited and it is often polluted or too much salty. More and more good quality farmlands
are being lost as a consequence of urban development. These trends are also affecting modern
agriculture in southern Mediterranean and black Sea‟s countries.

        Inland areas in developed countries, and particularly mountain areas, were abandoned
extensively over the past century, consequently vulnerability to flooding and fires have increased,
and biodiversity has been lost. These areas have experienced a decrease in traditional activities
and have a low level of public services, but, at the same time, they have benefited from the
growth of tourism, from a residential economy and also from local agricultural products. However,
their landscapes are often at risk of degradation which is likely to be irreversible.

        Agriculture in the southern and oriental countries still plays an important economic and
social role, even though productivity is generally low and little importance is accorded to the
efficient and sustainable management of water and soil resources. Despite emigration, rural
inhabitants, who are still numerous, are mainly poor and have a low education level. Rural women,
who perform most of the farm jobs, are still socially marginalized, and they have limited access to
economic and financial tools. Natural resources have been intensively exploited, causing
deforestation, erosion, the silting up of dams, a reduced control of run-off water, the
desertification and an irreversible loss of biodiversity. For this reason, emigration is considered as
the main solution to a situation of persistent poverty.

       The considerable disparities that already exist in agricultural productivity levels between
developed and developing countries and between modern agriculture and subsistence farming are
widening. In addition, Mediterranean-Black Sea agricultural and rural models, which are the origins
                                                                                                      15


                             office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                      Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                            info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
        International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                              Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

of the identity of this area, are constantly threatened with the predominance of imported
consumption patterns. This trend is illustrated in particular by the decline of the Mediterranean
dietary model despite its recognized positive effects on health. The consequences related to trade
liberalization, climate change and the lack of efficient rural policies in some southern and oriental
Mediterranean and Black Sea‟s countries will probably determined the growth of regional
imbalances, of ecological degradation and of social instability. There is the clear need for an
alternative sustainable agriculture and strategies of rural development at both national and
regional levels in order to reduce rural poverty, to revitalize inland areas, to develop internal and
foreign market outlets and finally to safeguard environmental public goods. The growth of
national and international demand for both typical Mediterranean food of high quality and
agricultural products, offers a major opportunity to make the Mediterranean agriculture more
competitive at the global level. If there were the possibility to increase the value added of the
region‟s landscapes, of its culture and its tradition, in broader terms, if the multifunctional aspect
of the agriculture could be enhanced, the region would acquire a considerable competitive
advantage.

Gaols
Taking into account the opportunities and the risks related to the process of trade liberalization at
the European-Mediterranean level in order to consolidate the penetration of Mediterranean
agricultural products on global markets by enhancing the advantages coming from the
competitiveness of Mediterranean quality (promoting quality labels, organic agriculture and
traditional products), mainly to avoid social and environmental collapse.

           Promoting technical and commercial adaptation of Mediterranean agriculture favouring the
            growth of its value added and exploiting in a sustainable manner the factors of production
            which are under the greatest threat: water and soil.
           Ensuring the future of rural communities and reducing the poverty by providing rural
            infrastructures and basic services, by diversifying the rural economy and by improving local
            governance.
           Reducing the irreversible loss of agricultural land and biodiversity, preventing the
            degradation of landscape and improving the adaptation of agriculture to climate change.


2.4.6. Promoting sustainable urban development
        In the northern Mediterranean countries, the size of urban population is expected to
stabilize. However, in most cases, the principles of sustainable development are not taken into
account in urban development, as shown by the over-extension of urban areas, the excessively
high level of energy consumption and wasted, the high and growing production of urban waste
and the increasing cost and inconvenience of traffic congestion and the dangerous loss of social
cohesion in urban areas.

            In southern and oriental Mediterranean and Black Sea‟s countries, urban issues are no less
critical.
        In the next 20 years, nearly 82 million more urban inhabitants are expected in these
countries and at least one-third of them will be located in coastal urban areas.
        If these growth rates will not be controlled, current problems, which are already alarming,
will aggravate, as shown by the low levels of social cohesion, the spread of poverty, the expansion
of informal settlements – which sometimes account for over 60% of new built-up areas - the rising
levels of air pollution, the inadequate supply of clean water, ineffective waste management and

                                                                                                     16


                                 office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                          Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                                info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
      International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                            Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

the accumulated effects of these factors on population‟s health. Moreover, the problems are likely
to get worse with the current changes in consumption patterns.

        Successful examples of urban recovery on both shores of the Mediterranean, show the
possible impact that Mediterranean cities, when properly managed, can have on sustainable
development. However, the efforts which have been made so far are not sufficient. It seems that
less than 600 urban areas have applied the procedures of the Agenda 21. The reason of this
choice is the consequence of the limited technical and financial capacities of the cities in the
developing countries, above all small and medium-sized cities, and the insufficient levels of
decentralized cooperation between northern and southern cities, preventing in this way effective
assistance in the promotion of sustainable urban development.

Goals
   Promoting a sustainable urban economy and different approaches to development planning
      which anticipate the growth of urban population in the next future.
   Integrating into an economic and spatial planning the exceptional cultural, historical and
      landscape heritage of Mediterranean cities.
   Improving the quality of urban life by expanding green areas and by reducing negative
      environmental factors (air pollution and waste‟s production), as well as social disparities
      and inequalities in the access to services, especially in southern and eastern
      Mediterranean- and Black Sea‟s cities.


2.4.7.Promoting sustainable management of the sea and the coastal zones and taking urgent
action to stop the degradation of coastal zones
        Coastal zones, being developing areas very desired, constitute a priority focus
for numerous activities. They have also to be considered as a fragile space of great
ecological, social and cultural value.
        The accumulation of stress factors is considerable. Holiday home urbanization,
illegal construction and the building up of coastal areas, land-based pollution (which
accounts for up to 80% of total marine pollution) waste production, the extraction of
sand and water, the poor management of basins and of some leisure activities, fishing
and aquaculture practices and the invasion by exogenous species are all consequences
of degradation.
        This situation is leading to the deterioration of landscapes, of cultural heritage sites and
living standards, of salt-water invasion and coastal erosion, of sand dunes destruction, of wetlands
and sea-bed meadows, and finally, it is leading to the often irreversible loss of underwater and
coastal biodiversity. The human and economic costs, which include the loss of local job, are
increasing as a result of the over-exploitation of fish resources.

       Despite representing only 0.7% of the earth‟s ocean surface, the Mediterranean Sea
supports 30% of the world‟s maritime traffic. Pollution from ships is mainly of “operative” nature,
included illegal oil discharges and ballasts water. However, despite prevention policies, the risk of
accidents remains high,.

         Without any change in the policies, vast interconnected urban areas will develop in coastal
regions and nearly 50% of the 46.000 km of the Mediterranean coastline could be occupied by
urban conglomerations, compared with about 40% in 2000. There could also be a considerable
rise in the costs of environmental degradation and in the vulnerability to flooding, tsunamis and
marine pollution.
                                                                                                    17


                             office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                      Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                            info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
       International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                             Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED


        There is also the risk of a growing disparity of responses between current and future EU
Member States and other countries. EU Member States are subject to strict environmental
management standards, such as the Water Framework Directive, the Erika Packages 1 and 2 and
the Birds and Habitat Directives. The less advanced countries benefit from substantial assistance
programmes and Community funds. Other countries do not have such a support, and they are
facing with much higher rates of urban, industrial and tourist growth in their coastal areas, which
constitute a vital resource for their development.

       The variety of situations needs differentiated strategies. In some degraded areas, the
emphasis should be put on the recovery of lost resources, while in other areas it would be more
advisable to anticipate degradation so as to safeguard and promote a development based on the
protection of environmental, cultural and social heritage.

       Much progress has been made in regional cooperation; however, the percentage related to
coastal protected zones is still highly inadequate and the implementation of the Protocols and
action plans adopted under the of Barcelona Convention is moving at a slow pace. Laws, agencies,
land surveys, economic tools, master plans and jurisdictions are still not adequate to ensure the
integration of environment and development. In many countries, the coasts‟ protection, the
integrated coastal zones management and the mobilization of international funding and local
professionals actors to combat pollution must be improved.

Goals
       Strengthening international cooperation
       Integrating management and development of coastal zones
       Preventing and reducing pollution from ships
       Preventing and reducing land-based pollution
       Providing protection to marine and costal biodiversity and marine resources


3. Implementation Of Strategy
   For its implementation, the Strategy requires:
   1. A regional space of solidarity and commitment.
   2. The participation of State (through national strategies), of local authorities, of socio-
       economic actors, of associations and populations.
   3. New methods of governance, which are essential in achieving sustainable development.
   4. Collective follow-up at the Mediterranean level.

Such commitments imply profound changes and reforms. The Strategy‟s success therefore
depends on the capacity of governments, local authorities, enterprises and other actors in civil
society to promote convergences in their politics, decisions and actions. This requires the
mobilization of human resources and the development of an appropriate institutional framework. It
also requires the monitoring of its implementation, in which progress will necessarily be gradual
and differentiated, starting with a clear short-term action which could show the way for a longer-
term action.




                                                                                                  18


                             office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                     Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                           info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
    International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                          Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED


List of potential sources of funds according to the main FISPMED
thematic areas:

         a. better management of water resources and demand;
         b. improvement in the rational use of energy, increase in renewable energy use and
            both mitigation and adaptation to climate change
         c. sustainable mobility through appropriate transports management
         d. sustainable tourism as a leading economic sector;
         e. sustainable agriculture and rural development
         f. sustainable urban development
         g. sustainable management of the sea, coastal areas and marine resources

  1. better management of water resources and demand

        The EU Structural Funds for Territorial cooperation:

                   - Transnational Co-operation (Interreg IVB).: water management

                     - Inter-regional Co-operation (Interreg IVC): exchange of experience
                      and best practices: priority 2: prevention of environment and risks, sub-
                       priority: water management

        LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance Programme
                 -Objective n.2: water. It contributes to the improvement of the quality of
                    water, by developing effective measures to reach a good ecological status
                    in provision of the development of the 1st plan for the management of the
                    river basin under the WFD (Water Framework Directorate).

        LIFE + Information and Communication Programme
                 -Objectives: supporting preparatory actions, campaigns for increasing
                   awareness, training activities, communication and dissemination activities,
                   project management and monitoring

        The European Neighborhood Partnership Instrument (ENPI)
                    -The European Neighborhood Partnership Instrument Regional Strategy
                    Paper (2007-13) and Regional Indicative (2007-10) for the Euro-
                    Mediterranean Partnership. Among its objectives:
                            a. Environmental programmes
                            b. Support for regional water initiatives

        The European Investment Bank
                    It finances projects that also contribute to the EU economic policy
          objectives.
                     -Environment: Address of environmental and health issues , under which :
                                A) funds for water supplies and sanitations
        The Jessica Programme:
          Joint European Support for Sustainable Investment in City Areas
          Promoted by EC and EIB. It also finances Water Infrastructures
                                                                                             19


                          office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                   Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                         info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
 International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                       Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

       http://www.eib.org/projects/publications/jessica.htm


     The Council of Europe Bank
       By granting loans, the Bank participates in the financing of social projects,
       responds to emergency situations and thus contributes to improving living
       conditions and social cohesion in the less advantaged regions of Europe. One
       of its three main aims is:
       - To participate in responsible management of the environment
       I.e. through the construction or rehabilitation of infrastructures for water
       supply and the treatment of liquid.

     The World Bank
       It may help developing countries of the Mediterranean-Black Sea area: it may
       finance projects on water resource management

       http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/0,,menuPK:64140075~pag
       ePK:64133621~piPK:64140076~theSitePK:40941,00.html


     The Global Environment Facility (GEF)

           o   It was established in 1991, may help Mediterranean-Black Sea developing
               countries fund projects and programs that protect the global environment. GEF
               grants support projects also related to international waters and
               persistentorganic pollutants.
           o
               http://www.gefweb.org/interior.aspx?id=50

2. improvement in the rational use of energy, increase in renewable energy
   use and both mitigation and adaptation to climate change

     The EU Structural Funds for territorial cooperation:

           o   Interregional Cooperation (INTERREG IV C):
                   a. priority 1: prevention of environment and risks: sub-priority: natural
                      and technological risks (included climate changes);
                   b. priority 2: prevention of environment and risks: sub-priority: energy
                      and sustainable transports

     LIFE+ Environment Policy and governance

         - objective n.1: climate changes. To stabilize the concentration of gas to a level
         that might prevent the global warming for more than 2 degrees.

     LIFE+ Information and Communication




                                                                                              20


                       office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                      info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                      Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

          o   supporting preparatory actions, campaigns for increasing awareness, training
              activities, communication and dissemination activities, project management
              and related monitoring

    Cohesion Fund

     It may intervene in sectors linked to the sustainable development, like the      energy
     efficiency and the renewable energies


    FP7 funds (for research)

     Under the Cooperation umbrella: -energy : The objective of energy research Is to aid
     the creation and establishment of the technologies necessary to adapt current energy
     system into a more sustainable, competitive and secure one.

     It should also depend less on imported fuels and use a diverse mix of energy sources,
     in particular renewables, energy carriers and non polluting sources.

     Empasis will be given also on these activies:

                 a. smart energy networks;
                 b. energy efficiency and savings;
                 c. Knowledge for Energy policy making

     - Under the Cooperation Umbrella: environment (including climate change). The Main
     objective of research for the environment is to promote sustainable Management of
     both man-made and natural environment and its resources. To this End, increased
     knowledge on the interaction between the climate, biosphere, Eco-systems and human
     activities is sought and, new environmentally-friendly Technologies, tools and services
     are developed. Funded actions focus on:
     Funded actions focus on:

                   1) tools and technologies for monitoring, prevention and Mitigation of
                      environmental pressures and risks including on health;
                   2) sustainability of the natural and man-made environment.

    The European Neighborhood Partnership Instrument (ENPI)
     The European Neighborhood Partnership Instrument (ENPI) Regional Strategy Paper
     (2007-13) and Regional Indicative (2007-10) for the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership.
     Objectives: -energy: a) the potential of renewable energy sources and support the
     Kyoto process; b) Promote more efficient energy demand management

    European Investment Bank (EIB)

     It finances projects that also contribute to the EU economic policy objective:
     Environment . One of the main areas of interest is: tackling climate change, including
     energy efficiency and renewable energy. Specifically, it finance projects focusing on
     Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency and Reduction of greenhouse gases other
     Than CO2 in industries and utilities.
                                                                                              21


                      office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                               Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                     info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
     International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                           Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

         The Jessica Programme

Joint European Support for Sustainable Investment in City Areas

             Promoted by EC and EIB. It also finances energy Infrastructures

              http://www.eib.org/projects/publications/jessica.htm
       The European Bank for reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
      It finances projects in the central-Easter European countries. Among its main Topics:
                o Projects on energy efficiency and climate changes;
                o Projects for environmental performance, including supporting actions to
                    address the climate change issue

         The Council of Europe Bank

      By granting loans, the Bank participates in the financing of social projects,
      responds to emergency situations and thus contributes to improving living
      conditions and social cohesion in the less advantaged regions of Europe. One of its three
      main aims is:
             a) To participate in responsible management of the Environment i.e. through the
      production of clean and renewable energies

                 http://www.coebank.org/en/activites/frnature.htm

       Agence Française de Développement
      The AFD is also setting up a strategy for “emerging countries”. The goal is to promote
      global public goods (to fight climate change, preserve biodiversity, fight pandemics,
      promote social and environmental responsibility)

          http://www.afd.fr/jahia/Jahia/lang/en/home/NosProjets

         The World Bank

          The World Bank may help developing countries of the Mediterranean-Back Sea area: it
          may finance projects on climate change, pollution management nd environmental
          health.

          http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/0,,menuPK:64140075~pageP
          K:64133621~piPK:64140076~theSitePK:40941,00.html


         The Global Environment Facility

          Established in 1991, it may help Mediterranean-Black Sea developing countries
          fund projects and programs that protect the global environment. GEF grants
          support projects also related to climate change, the ozone layer, and persistent organic
          pollutants.

          http://www.gefweb.org/interior.aspx?id=50

                                                                                                  22


                           office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                    Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                          info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
 International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                       Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

3. sustainable mobility through appropriate transports management

     The EU Structural Funds for territorial cooperation

          o   Interregional Cooperation (INTERREG IV C) priority 2: prevention of
              environment and risks: sub-priority: Energy and sustainable transports


     LIFE+ Information and Communication

          o   Objectives: supporting preparatory actions, campaigns for increasing
              awareness, training activities, communication and dissemination activities,
              project management and related monitoring


     EU Cohesion Fund

          o   It may intervene in the sector of transports, railways, floatable fluxes ways,
              maritime transport, multimodal system of transport and their interoperability,
              management of road, maritime and aerial traffic, urban clean traffic and public
              transports.


     FP7 funds (for research)

          o   Under the Cooperation umbrella: -transports: The central objective of
              transport Research under FP7 is to develop safer, ‟greener„ and ‟smarter„ pan-
              European transport systems that will benefit all citizens, respect the
              environment, and increase the competitiveness of European industries in the
              global market.

              Emphasis will be given to the following activities:

              a) Aeronautics and air transport :

                    1. reduction of emissions, work on engines and alternative fuels
                    2. air traffic management, safety aspects of air transport,
                    3. environmentally efficient aviation

              b) sustainable surface transport:
                      development of clean and efficient engines and power trains
                      reducing the impact of transport on climate change
                      inter-modal regional and national transports
                      clean and safe vehicles


     The European Neighborhood Partnership Instrument (ENPI)

      The European Neighborhood Partnership Instrument (ENPI) Regional Strategy
      Paper (2007-13) and Regional Indicative (2007-10) for the Euro-Mediterranean
                                                                                          23


                       office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                               Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                     info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
 International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                       Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

      Partnership. Objectives: transport: d) strengthening the safety and security of
      transport modes, especially in maritime and air transport; e) support sub-regional
      cooperation initiatives


     The EU Marco Polo Programme

               It also finances common learning actions

     The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)

               It finances projects in the central-Easter European countries. Among its main
               Topics: transport. It mainly finances transport infrastructure


4. sustainable tourism as a leading economic sector

     European fisheries fund

           o    Under Axis 4 – Sustainable Development of Fisheries Areas: support for
                tourism infrastructure projects – including those dependent upon a flourishing
                marine bio-diversity

                        http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/structural_measures_en.htm



     The EU Structural Funds for Territorial Cooperation


           o    Cross-border co-operation (Interreg IV A). Eligible projects may include: The
                development of eco-tourism
           o    Inter-regional Co-operation (Interreg IVC): exchange of experience and best
                Practices

     LIFE+ Information and Communication

           o    Objectives: supporting preparatory actions, campaigns for increasing
                awareness, training activities, communication and dissemination activities,
                project management and related monitoring


     The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)

           o    It finances projects in the Central-Eastern European countries. Among its main
                topics: property and tourism i.e. it finances projects for promoting international
                standards of quality



                                                                                               24


                        office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                 Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                       info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
 International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                       Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

5. sustainable agriculture and rural development

      The EU Structural Funds for Territorial Cooperation

                      1. Cross-border cooperation ( Interreg IV A) : management of natural
                         Resources along the territorial borders: strengthening links between
                         urban and rural areas

                    Inter-regional Co-operation (Interreg IVC): exchange of experience and
  best practices


     European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development

          o     Axis 1: Improving the competitiveness of the farming and forestry sectors

          o     Axis 2: Improving the environment and the countryside

          o     Axis 3: Rural quality of life and diversification of the rural economy


          http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/rurdev/index_en.htm


     LIFE+ Information and Communication

          o     Objectives: supporting preparatory actions, campaigns for increasing
                awareness, training activities, communication and dissemination activities,
                management and related monitoring


     Agence Française de Développement

          o     The AFD focuses its actions on sectors where it has acquired recognized
                know-how: land management, infrastructures, , rural development
                and environmental protection

                   http://www.afd.fr/jahia/Jahia/lang/en/home/NosProjets


     The Global Environment Facility

          o     Established in 1991, it may help Mediterranean-Black Sea developing countries
                fund projects and programs that protect the global environment. GEF grants
                support projects also related to land degradation and persistent organic
                pollutants.

              http://www.gefweb.org/interior.aspx?id=50

     The Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN)
                                                                                            25


                         office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                 Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                       info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
 International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                       Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED


          o   It focuses on health, education, culture, rural development, institution-building
              and the promotion of economic development. It is dedicated to improving
              living conditions and opportunities for the poor, without regard to their faith,
              origin or gender. For the member countries: Egypt, Portugal, Switzerland,
              Syria, UK .

          o   Programmes:

                 a. support for civil society. It also seeks to promote an "enabling
                    environment" for the emerging non-profit citizen sector in ountries
                    where the Foundation works.

                 b. programmes        on     environment: Health,    education    and
                    capacity development programmes also help to raise awareness of
                    environmental issues and encourage people to manage change in the
                    best interests of the community.

              http://www.akdn.org/agency/akf_concerns.html#rural


6. sustainable urban development


      The EU Structural Funds for Territorial Cooperation

          o   Cross-border cooperation (Interreg IV A):Strengthening links between urban
              and rural areas
          o   Transnational Cooperation (Interreg IV B): priority sustainable urban
              development
          o   Inter-regional Co-operation (Interreg IVC): exchange of experience and best
              practices


     LIFE+ Environment Policy and Governance

          o   Objective 5: urban environment. To contribute to the improvement of
              environmental performances in the European urban areas.



     LIFE+ Information and Communication

          o   Objectives: supporting preparatory actions, campaigns for increasing
              awareness, training activities, communication and dissemination activities,
              project management and related monitoring


     EU Cohesion Fund

                                                                                            26


                      office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                               Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                     info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
 International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                       Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

          o   It may intervene in the sector of clean urban transport


     European Investment Bank

          o   It finances projects that also contribute to the EU economic policy objective:
                   a. Environment. One of the main areas of interest is the: improvement of
                      the quality of life in the urban environment, particularly through urban
                      renewal and sustainable urban transport projects. Specifically, EIB
                      Urban environment policy focus on:
                           sustainable urban transport;
                           sustainable urban renewal


     The Jessica Programme: Joint European Support for Sustainable Investment
      in City Areas

          o   Promoted by EC and EIB. It also finances Urban Infrastructures

                  http://www.eib.org/projects/publications/jessica.htm


     Agence Française de Développement

          o   The AFD focuses its actions on sectors where it has acquired recognized know-
              how: it supports projects also in Nothern Africa and Middle East on Urban
              Development

                   http://www.afd.fr/jahia/Jahia/lang/en/home/NosProjets


7. sustainable management of the sea, coastal areas and marine resources

      The EU Structural Funds for Territorial Cooperation

          o   Cross-border cooperation (Interreg IV A): management of natural Resources,
              of the water basin even along the maritime borders
          o   Transnational Cooperation (Interreg IV B): priority prevention of risks,
              Maritime security that is to say the protection and management of river
              basins, coastal zones, marine resources, and wetlands;
          o   Inter-regional Co-operation (Interreg IVC): exchange of experience and
              best practices. Priority 2: prevention of environment and risks:

                 a. sub-priority water management;
                 b. sub-priority : natural and technological risks;
                 c. sub-priority : bio-diversity and preservation of the natural heritage


     European Fisheries Fund

                                                                                            27


                      office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                               Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                     info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                      Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

         o   Under Axis 4 – Sustainable Development of Fisheries Areas: measures to
             protect     the    coastal environment, including in   the  framework
             of Natura 2000, where sites of community interest directly concern
             fishing activities

                  http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/structural_measures_en.htm

    LIFE+ Information and Communication

         o   Objectives: supporting preparatory actions, campaigns for increasing
             awareness, training activities, communication and dissemination activities,
             project management and related monitoring


    FP7 Seventh Framework Programme (for research)

         o   Under the cooperation umbrella: food, agriculture and fisheries, and
             Biotechnologies: sustainable production, management of biological Resources
             from land, forest and aquatic environments


    The European Neighborhood Partnership Instrument (ENPI)

         o   The European Neighborhood Partnership Instrument (ENPI) Regional
             StrategyPaper (2007-13) and Regional Indicative (2007-10) for the Euro-
             Mediterranean
         o   Partnership. Objective: Environmental Programme: it supports projects for de-
             pollution of the Mediterranean Sea




                                                                                        28


                     office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                              Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                    info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
      International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                            Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

1

Other EU/ international funds for Cross-cutting issues related to FISPMED priorities.

EU structural funds for environment
http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/index_en.htm

The Community‟s Strategic Guidelines for 2007-2013 seek to focus spending in the Member States
from the Structural Funds on the priorities of the Lisbon Strategy – including capitalising on the
synergies between environmental protection and growth (2). Particular emphasis is given in the
Guidelines to:
    Investments in environmental infrastructure, particularly in the new Member States, to
        comply with EU environmental legislation in the fields of water, waste, air, nature and
        species protection and bio-diversity;
    Improving the attractiveness of the physical environment to businesses, including the
        development of natural and cultural assets, where these are linked to the development of
        innovative and job-creating businesses on the sites concerned;
    To meet the EU‟s Kyoto and post-Kyoto commitments, investments in energy efficiency (for
        example in buildings and through low energy intensive development models); and
        renewable energy sources.

Priority is also given to strengthening administrative capacities at national, regional and local
levels, including better programme and policy design, monitoring, evaluation and impact
assessment.


FP7 funds (for research)
   a) Socio economic sciences and humanities
Funding 'Socio-economic sciences and the humanities' (SSH) will contribute to an in-depth, shared
understanding of the complex and interrelated socio economic challenges confronting Europe
Research in this theme will help us study and provide answers to questions related to:
      sustainability, environmental challenges, demographic change, migration and integration,
    quality of life and global interdependence.
   b) Coordination of research activities


The Competitiveness and innovation framework Programme (CIP)
The Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) aims to encourage the
competitiveness of European enterprises
-under Programme: IEE Interlligent Energy Europe
What will be funded?

Capacity building; building and spreading of know-how, skills and methods; exchanges of
experience; development of market and intelligence; policy input; awareness raising and
information provision; and education and training

          European projects


1

                                                                                                    29


                             office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                      Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                            info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
      International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                            Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED

          Setting up of new local/regional energy agencies

   Only local/regional public authorities can apply

The European Neighbourhood Policy Instrument

It can support projects related to environment and the FISPMED priorities:

   1) in each of the neighbouring countries, according to the Country reports and the Action
      Plans.
      http://ec.europa.eu/world/enp/documents_en.htm#2

   2) by financing the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership priorities, according to the European
      Neighbourhood Partnership Instrument (ENPI) Regional Strategy Paper (2007-13) and
      Regional Indicative (2007-10) for the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. Among its three
      main priorities there‟s the sustainable economic development, whose third component
       focus on the need to ensure environmental sustainability of the Euro-Med free trade area,
       reform environmental standards and infrastructures and implement the Horizon 2020 plan
       for de-pollution of Mediterranean Sea and tackle all major sources of pollution.

       The Environmental Programme under the ENPI Regional Strategy Paper (2007-13) and
       Regional Indicative (2007-10) for the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership also finance the
       developing of regional networks and contacts and the support to civil society actors.
       http://ec.europa.eu/world/enp/pdf/country/enpi_euromed_rsp_en.pdf

    3) Through the ENPI Interregional Programme
         Priority area3: Promoting cooperation between local actors in the EU and in the partner
         countries
Expected results
Cooperation and transfer of knowledge leading to sustainable improvement of governance, with
special reference to democratic accountability and sustainable development, of the participating
partner country local and regional authorities, with dissemination effects to other local
authorities. Strengthened ties between local and regional authorities, including at their political
level.
Priority area: Promoting investment projects in ENP partner countries Main themes: transport,
energy and environment
http://ec.europa.eu/world/enp/pdf/country/enpi_interregional_en.pdf

   4) Through the ENP CBC Cross border Cooperation Programme
Objective: Working together to address common challenges:
            environmental protection, trans-border environmental pollution and risks, including
               joint planning and monitoring activities as well as possible small-scale infrastructure
               projects where appropriate;
            improving the management of natural resources, including fisheries resources,
           Objective: Promoting local, “people-to-people” type actions -include support for
           enhanced cooperation among local and regional authorities, NGOs and other civil
           society groups
       http://ec.europa.eu/world/enp/pdf/country/enpi_euromed_rsp_en.pdf


                                                                                                      30


                             office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                      Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                            info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net
     International Federation for Sustainable Development and Fight to Poverty in the
                           Mediterranean-Black Sea – FISPMED



The World Bank
The World Bank may help developing countries of the Mediterranean-Black Sea area: it may
finance projects also on environmental policies and institutions

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/0,,menuPK:64140075~pagePK:6413362
1~piPK:64140076~theSitePK:40941,00.html




                                                                                           31


                           office: Stazione Marittima, Fabbricato 255 – 30135 Venice
                                    Tel.0039.3455401704- fax. 0039.3455016429
                          info@fispmed.net- www.mediterraneanblackseanetwork.net

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:6
posted:8/16/2011
language:English
pages:31