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					       Aeronautical
Operational Communication

     Single Focus Workshop
         25 March 2010

        Peter Lemme
    Agenda – wrt “aero operational comms”

•   What is it?
•   How has it evolved?
•   What are its key characteristics?
•   How is it regulated?
•   How does a new radio system get approved for it?
•   Where is it headed (my guess)?




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                           DISCLAIMER
• The information presented is believed to be up-to-date
  and accurate as it applies to air transport
      – I make mistakes
• The purpose is educational, and should not be the relied
  on for any other purpose
      – This is not a formal consultation
• The presenter is not a current and active participant in
  many of the regulatory processes described
      – Changes and mis-understanding are possible
• The presenter has relied on publicly available data
      – May be ignorant of key system attributes



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                                                       safety and regularity
                                                         aeronautical mobile route (R) services
                                                         aeronautical mobile satellite route (R) services

                                                       other purposes
                                                         aeronautical mobile off-route (OR) services
                                                         aeronautical mobile satellite off-route (OR) services




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Aeronautical Mobile Satellite (Route) Service - AMS(R)S
    Aeronautical Mobile (Route) Service – AM(R)S

• Air Traffic Services
      – Governing traffic management
• Aeronautical Operational Control
      – Established between airplane and its operator
      – Information regarding status of flight
      – Promoting efficient and timely service



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 Aeronautical Communication Safety Spectrum

• AM(R)S ONLY
      2.850 – 22.000 MHz
      117.975 – 137.000 MHz
        Note 132-137 MHz may be shared with AM(OR)S
• AMS(R)S ONLY
      1544-1545, 1645.5-1646.5 MHz
• AMS(R)S (SHARED, PRIORITY)
      1545-1555, 1646.5-1656.5 MHz
      1555-1559, 1656.5-1660.5 MHz (US ONLY)

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                                             Priority
Route Service Communications are categorized
                        1.     Urgent / Distress
                        2.     Flight Safety
                        3.     Meteorological
                        4.     Flight Regularity

•       Higher priority communication must get
        preferred treatment over lower communication
      –       Concerns over congestion
      –       More demanding performance assurance



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              Urgent / Distress - ATS
• Generally Voice ONLY
      – No time to “retry”
• Imminent collision – airspace violation
• Airplane emergency




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                               Flight Safety
                        ATS                                              AOC
• Clearance                                                 •    Flight plan uplink
      –   Taxi
                                                            •    Load sheet
      –   Departure
      –   ATC                                               •    Electronic Library
      –   Downstream                                        •    Notice to airmen
• Automatic Terminal
  Information Service (ATIS)
• Significant weather
• Traffic information
• Automatic Dependent
  Surveillance (ADS)

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                 Meteorological - AOC
• Weather reports
      – Textual
             • METAR
             • TAF
      – Graphical
             • Advisory
             • Strategic
             • Supplementary to onboard weather radar



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                        Flight Regularity
          ATS                                                       AOC
• Flight update                                    •    Flight status
      – Sequence / slots                           •    Maintenance
      – Flow management                            •    Out-Off-On-In
      – De-icing                                   •    log book
                                                         Cabin, Technical, Flight
                                                   • Fuel
                                                   • Gate and connecting
                                                     flight status
                                                   • Engine reports

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                        How has it evolved?
           ATS                                                        AOC
         HF voice                                                   HF voice
        VHF voice                                                  VHF voice
  ARINC 623 ACARS                                                VHF ACARS
     Inmarsat Voice
                                                              Inmarsat ACARS
VHF/Inmarsat FANS 1/A
           ATN                                                 Inmarsat Voice
   Iridium FANS 1/A                                               HF ACARS
    Iridium Voice (?)                                            Iridium Voice
                                                               Iridium ACARS

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Aircraft Communication, Addressing and Reporting System
                     ACARS - VHF
• Character-based messaging protocol
   – established in 1978
   – aircraft movement messages (OOOI)
   – Hundreds of message formats and applications

• Legacy VHF
  25 kHz channel
  2.4 kbps simplex

• ACARS over AVLC (AOA)
   25 kHz channel
   31.5 kbps simplex


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Aircraft Communication, Addressing and Reporting System
                ACARS (other than VHF)

• Inmarsat Classic (P, R, T):
       0.3 – 10.5 kbps duplex
       DO-215A, DO-210D, DO-270, ICAO SARPS


• HF Data
       3 kHz channel
       0.3 – 1.8 kbps simplex
       DO-265, DO-277



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Aircraft Communication, Addressing and Reporting System
                  ACARS - Emerging

• Iridium SBD
       up to 15 kbits per message
       DO-262
• Iridium RUDICS
       2.4 kbps duplex circuit
• Inmarsat SBB
       Up to 432 kbps




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Character-Oriented ATS Applicaions
• ARINC 623 ACARS Messages
• Departure Clearance
      ED-85A
• ATIS
      ED-89A
• Oceanic Clearance
      ED-106A, Shanwick, Gandor
• Terminal Weather Information for Pilots

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        Future Air Navigation System
                  FANS 1/A
• Started in 1983, first certificated in June 1995
• ACARS application
        Encapsulated bit oriented message
        Embedded with 32-bit CRC
        Airways Facilities Notification (AFN)
        ARINC 622, DO-258A, ED-100A
        DO-306, ED-122
• Controller-Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC)
        DO-219
• Automatic Dependant Surveillance (ADS)
        DO-212

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     Aeronautical Telecommunications Network
                        ATN
• Initiative begun in 1980’s
      – OSI 7 layer architecture
             • Connectionless network protocol
             • Inter-domain routing protocol
      – Mobility routing
      – Accounting
      – Security
• ARINC 623 and FANS 1/A ACARS ATS applications slowed
  deployment
          FANS 1/A – ATN Interoperability Standard DO-305, ED-154
• 2001 operational
      – ATN Build 1 DO-280B / ED-110B, DO-290 / ED0129
      – VDL-Mode 2 DO-281, ED-92A
      – Inmarsat, HF, Mode S




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                        ATN Applications
• ICAO Doc 9705 defines ATN as
  applications and internetwork
• CPDLC protected mode (PM)
• ADS
• FIS
• Context Management (CM)
• ICAO Doc 9880 revised standard

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                             ATN over IP
• ICAO Doc 9896 specifies ATN operation
  over the Internet Protocol Suite (IPS)
      – Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
      – Mobile IP (MIP)
      – IPsec and IKEv2 security




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                   Broadcast Data Link
• Automatic Dependant Surveillance
      – Mode S Extended Squitter (ES)
        DO-260A
• Flight Information Service (FIS)
      – VDL Mode 2
        DO-267A
• Traffic Information Service (TIS)
      – Advisory ONLY
      – Mode S ES
        DO-286A, DO-260A

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                        AMS(R)S VOICE
• Pilot to Controller direct voice capability
      – HF Voice usually has intermediate radio operator
• Integrated audio controls
      –   Simultaneous, multi-crew support
      –   Audio panel
      –   Headphone, speaker, microphone, oxygen mask
      –   Cockpit voice recorder
• Integrated control and display
      – MCDU
      – EICAS comm messages
• ICAO 24 bit telephone number
• ATC short codes
  DO-231

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International Telecommunication Union - ITU
• Created in 1932
   – International Telegraph Union
   – International Radio Telegraph Union

• August 1947, the United Nations recognized
  the ITU
   – specialized agency in the field of telecommunications

   – other specialized agencies, such as ICAO, would not be
     barred from any kind of work touching upon aeronautical
     telecommunications including standardization activities.


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International Telecommunication Union - ITU
• Agreements made are accorded treaty status
    – full mandatory force
          • without any possibility for variation
                 – Scope
                 – Substance
          • except by agreement at a further conference.


• Treaty requirements are exercised through the Radio
  Regulations
    – For the regulation of the radio frequency spectrum,
    – World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC)
          • held every two to three years.
                          1995 – 1997 – 2000 – 2003 - 2007
                          WRC-12 23 Jan – 17 Feb 2012 Geneva, Switzerland




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International Telecommunication Union - ITU
• All aspects of telecommunications
   – Line
   – Radio transmission
   – 9 kHz to 275 GHz
   – allocated to user services in response to their recognized demands


• Standards
   – Systems
   – Technical parameters
   – Procedures

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  International Civil Aviation Organization
                    ICAO
• United Nations specialized agency with recognized
  competence in matters related to aviation safety
• Under Article 37 of the Convention on International Civil
  Aviation,
      – ICAO is empowered to adopt and amend international SARPs in
        all aviation matters including aeronautical communications
        systems and air navigation aids.
      – the highest practicable degree of uniformity is seen as essential
        to facilitate and improve the safety of air navigation.
• System characteristics are laid down in Annex 10 to the
  ICAO Convention
• Interoperability of systems on a global basis demands
  that frequency allocations be available worldwide and,
  preferably, also exclusive.

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                        ICAO input to ITU
• ITU is the recognized international body for the regulation and use of
  the radio frequency spectrum for aviation
      – ITU Radio Regulations
      – ITU-R Recommendations
• ICAO coordinates the aeronautical input to ITU discussions on radio
  frequency spectrum matters.
• ICAO participates at meetings of the ITU-R study groups
             common system technical standards
             maximum levels of tolerable interference
             measures to control and resolve interference incidents
             frequency planning criteria
             the preparation of frequency plans
             distress and safety procedures.
• ICAO is accorded observer status at relevant ITU WRCs
• National regulation by national telecommunication authorities.


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   ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices
                      (SARPS)
• Annex 10 to the Convention on International Civil
  Aviation
  – Aeronautical Telecommunications
        Volume II – Communication Procedures
        Volume III – part 1 Digital Data Communication Systems
        Volume III – part 2 Voice Communication Systems
        Volume V - Aeronautical Radio Frequency Spectrum Utilization
• SARPS
• Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS)
• Guidance material on aeronautical communication,
  navigation and surveillance systems


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           Performance Assurance
• Means of compliance may not require
  precedence or pre-emption
      – Required Communication Performance (RCP)
• Simultaneous use of a radio for AMS(R)S and
  non-safety application (administrative or public
  communication) is permitted as long as
  performance is compliant and can be assured

       Regulate the performance, not the design

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                                        RCP
• Priority categorization allows consistency
  in performance assurance and thus
  predictable safety margin
      – As applied to tandem communications
        networks
• Suitability is based on the message
      – Some messages have RCP beyond what a
        given radio service can provide


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              RCP 400 AMS(R)S Voice




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AMS(R)S Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS)


 •   Preferred voice and packet data
 •   Preferred multi-channel
 •   ITU frequency allocated for AMS(R)S
 •   Electro-Magnetic Compatible with other
     airplane equipment to support safety and
     regularity



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AMS(R)S Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS)
                     (continued)

 • Communication transmitted in priority
   order
       – No delay from lower priority communication
       – Voice is higher priority than data
 • Loss of comm announced within 30
   seconds of detection
 • Aircraft maneuvering
       +20 to -5 deg pitch
       25 deg roll

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AMS(R)S Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS)
                     (continued)

 • Means to prevent message tampering
 • Protection against denial-of-service
 • Protection against degraded performance
   or reduced capacity due to external attack
 • Means to prevent unauthorized access
       – Spoofing, phantom controller
 • ICAO 24 bit aircraft address

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AMS(R)S Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS)
           Packet Data Service Performance

 • Constituent mobile sub-network of the
   Aeronautical Telecommunication Network
   (ATN)
       – May also support non-ATN data functions
 • Connection establishment less than 70
   seconds



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AMS(R)S Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS)
           Packet Data Service Performance
 • Air to ground transit delay limit (128 octets)
       – 23 seconds for flight safety
       – 28 seconds for meteorological or flight regularity
 • Ground to air transit delay limit (128 octets)
       – 12 seconds for flight safety
       – 28 seconds for meteorological or flight regularity
 • Air to ground data transfer (128 octets, 95th percentile)
       – 40 seconds for flight safety
       – 60 seconds for meteorological or flight regularity
 • Ground to air data transfer (128 octets, 95th percentile)
       – 15 seconds for flight safety
       – 30 seconds for meteorological or flight regularity

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AMS(R)S Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS)
                 Voice Performance

 • Air to ground call initiation (95th percentile)
       – 20 seconds to terrestrial network interface
 • Ground to air call initiation (95th percentile)
       – 20 seconds from terrestrial network interface
 • 485 msec max latency
 • Less than 1% of call blockage
       – Assuming all lower priority calls dropped
       – Erlang analysis (network sizing)


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  ICAO NGSS Acceptability Criteria (1999)
           (beyond SARPS)
• Provide service on non-discriminatory basis
• Commit to six years from initial operational capability for
  AMS(R)S
      – Three years notice to cease service
      – Existing levels of service maintained while new services can be
        added
• Service provider, satellite operator, and avionics supplier
  active participant in ICAO and RTCA/EUROCAE
  standards development
• Disclosure of system implementation including failure
  modes and effects
• Declared, near-global coverage


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                                RTCA, Inc.
• Not-for-profit corporation
• FAA federal advisory committee
• Minimum Aviation System Performance
  Standards (MASPS)
• Minimum Operational Performance
  Standards (MOPS)
• Guidance Documents

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                                EUROCAE
• Recognized by:
      – European Commission
             • Prepare European “norms”
      – European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)
             • Technical documents regarding aviation safety
                    ETSO
      – FAA
             • Collaborator with RTCA, SAE, ARINC in developing aviation
               standards
      – ICAO
             • Participant in study and standardization groups



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    Aeronautical Information Service (AIS)
           Meteorological (MET)
• RTCA SC-206 / EUROCAE WG-76
          DO-308
• Performance based communication requirement - RCP
• Electronic Flight Bag (EFB)
• AIS
      –   Nav data
      –   Charts
      –   Instrument procedure
      –   Terrain and obstacle data
• MET
      – Immediate, near-term, planning decision making
• Flight safety and advisory data

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Standards for Air Traffic Data Communication Services


• RTCA SC-214 / EUROCAE WG 78
      – NextGen (US)
      – Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR)
• CPDLC
• ADS-C
• Safety and Performance Standard for Advanced ATS
  Data Communication
      DO-290
• Interoperability Standard for Data Communication
      –   Via ATN
      –   Via ARINC 623
      –   Via a mix of ATN and FANS 1/A
      –   Via IP


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                        Inmarsat AMS(R)S
• RTCA SC-222
• As applicable to DO-210D, DO-262A, DO-
  270A
      – Harmonize with update ICAO AMS(R)S
        SARPS adopted Feb 2007
      – Harmonize with the FCC sanctioned
        agreement between Inmarsat and MSV
      – Add provision for AMS(R)S using Swift
        Broadband

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    AMS(R)S Next Generation Satellite Services
                and Equipment
• RTCA SC-215 (dormant)
• MOPS for Avionics that support Next-
  Generation Satellite Systems (NGSS)
             DO-262A and Iridium normative appendix
• MASPS for the AMS(R)S as Used in
  Aeronautical Data Links
             DO-270 Iridium System Specific Attachment



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Informal South Pacific ATS Co-ordinating Group (ISPACG)
               FANS Interoperability Team

 • Report from FAA Performance-based
   Operations Aviation Rulemaking committee
   (PARC) evaluation of FANS 1/A ACARS
   messaging using Iridium SBD (FOI)
       – RCP 240 for comm (30/30 separation)
       – Surveillance type 180
       – Testing underway, perfomance comparable to
         Inmarsat
       – Iridium SBD 5.2 upgrade should improve performance
         (April 2010)

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                        Dispatch Relief
• Dual HF voice is mandated
      – SatCom Voice for one HF channel
             • Pilot to radio operator
             • RCP 400




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    FAA AC120-70A Operational Authorization for
      use of Data Link Communication System
•    Design approval (AC 20-140)
•    Part 121 flightcrew qualification
•    Training
•    MMEL / MEL
•    Differences
•    Maintenance
•    Procedures and good practices
•    Event reporting

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FAA AC 20-140 Guidelines for Design Approval of
    Aircraft Data Communications Systems




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                   New Radio Systems
• Aircell (849-851, 894-895 MHz) FCC
  commercial Air-Ground Radiotelephone
  Service
• 802.11
      – ISM 2.4-2.5 GHz
      – ISM 5.725-5.875 GHz
• 802.16 (licensed/unlicensed 2 – 66 GHZ)
• Cellular (GSM)
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   New Satellite Radio Systems
• L band
      – Inmarsat SBB
             • capable of AMS(R)S bands
             • In-process MOPS, MASPS, SARPS
      – Iridium
             • MOPS, MASPS, SARPS adopted
             • AMSS, secondary
             • ITU AMS(R)S designation
                   – unable to confirm per footnote 5.367
• Ku band (secondary AMSS)
      –   Row 44
      –   Panasonic
      –   Viasat Yonder
      –   ARINC Skylink


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            Where are we headed?
          next five years – my guess
• Iridium approved for FANS 1/A, ACARS, voice
• Inmarsat SBB AMS(R)S approval
• AMS(R)S voice = one HF radio
• ATN applications support
      – Native Inmarsat classic, to be confirmed SBB
      – Iridium ATN support over IP
• Other public IP networks near-term Route designation not
  likely
      – Supplementary service
             • Can’t ignore technology if it truly can benefit
             • Can’t ignore safety and approving regulatory basis
      – No dispatch relief

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