Figure in Art

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					Peter Paul Rubens – The Rape Of The Daughters Of Leucippus (1616-1617).
                •Peter Paul Rubens born June 28th 1577 and died May 30th 1640.
                •One of the most renowned northern European artists of his day.
    •His style of art is known as Flemish „Baroque‟ – is known as a period between 17th & 18th
  centuries in Europe. This term is also used to describe the art that arose in Italy around 1600
and spread through most of Europe. The „Baroque‟ art style shows great energy and feeling and
 a dramatic use of light, scale and balance. This art style heavily employed the use of curves and
                                          dramatic action.
•Grew up in an age of intense religious strife, his father an Antwerp lawyer fled Antwerp with the
                          family in 1568 to avoid religious persecution.
•After the fathers death (1587) family moves back to Antwerp where Peter Paul Rubens (aged 11)
                              is raised with Roman Catholic values.
       •By the age of 21 he is considered a master painter after early training as an artist.
 •Arriving in Venice in 1600 he falls under the spell of the radiant colour and majestic forms of
 •Many of Rubens artworks are based upon religious subject-matter no doubt the influence of a
                       childhood of strict Roman Catholic teaching.
•His artworks like the one just viewed inject an energy of movement, glowing colours and flicks
                                             of light.
  •Rubens adored capturing monumental forms and dynamic effects in his many oil paintings.
               The Rape Of The Daughters Of Leucippus (1616-1617)
                             •Based on a Greek legend.

•Rubens depicted the abduction of the daughters of the ancient Greek philosopher
        by the gods Castor and Pollux, who had fallen in love with them.
•The presence of two cupid figures and the expressions of both the men and women
 suggest that this is a scene of passion, clearly not rape in the way we use the word
  •The energy implied by the „serpentine‟ movement of the intertwined figures is
                           typical Baroque expression.
•An usually low eye level contributes to the monumental, superhuman quality of the
                                figures and the event.
•Rubens work here displays voluptuous female nudes and this leads a tendency for
             everything in his paintings to take on such sensuality.

     •His free brushwork influenced many painters well into the 19th century.
Earth & Water. 16th Century.
Eugene Delacroix – The Death Of Sardanapalus (1827)
•In the early to mid 1800‟s France‟s leading „Romantic‟ painter was Eugene Delacroix.
    •„Romanticism‟ was a style of art in the 18th century which stressed passionate
   involvement, colour that is equal in importance to the drawing and spontaneous
  •Academy‟s of Fine Arts taught members “great painting”, demanded “classical”
 technique and “elevated” subject matter found in history, mythology, literature, or
                                 exotic locations.
 •Delacroix accused Academy members of teaching beauty as though it were algebra.
  •Today we still use the term „academic art‟ for generally unimaginative works that
              follow stale formula‟s laid down by an academy or school.
   •Delacroix‟s The Death Of Sardanapalus (1827) exhibits the many qualities that
                            distinguish „Romanticism‟.
•The image of turbulent sensuality is based on Byron's poem, in which the legendary
 Assyrian ruler watches from his death bed after ordering that his palace and all its
                              contents be destroyed.
•Delacroix‟s rich colour and painterly execution (open form and sensual use of paint,
  with shapes defined by changes in colour rather than line) was admired by later
                           painters, particularly Van Gogh.
Henri Matisse –Reclining Nude (1935)
  •Henri Matisse was born in Le Chateau (North of France) in 1869 and died in 1954.
 •Planned to be a Lawyer, however, illness (attack of appendicitis interrupts his plans).
•During a long rehabilitation he attempts painting and his encouraged to further study
                    •At 22 years old he arrives in Paris to study Art.
 •Matisse‟s early paintings are dark and naturalistic, but by 1896 he is working in light
                             colour and short brushstrokes.
         •By 1905 he was the leader of art movement named the „The Fauves‟.
    •This art style concentrates on bright, contrasting colours and simplified shapes.
 •Paul Cezanne who expressed depth through colour was Matisse‟s primary influence.
  •However, Gauguin and Van Gogh influenced his use of colour to express emotion,
encouraged him to simply his drawing and incorporated pattern and rhythmic line into
                                      his art.
      •Matisse‟s paintings are emotional, sometimes serene and always decorative.
    •His artworks are generally extremely simplified with patterns of graceful lines.
 •Matisse told of an incident that illustrated his views on the difference between art and
nature. A woman visiting his studio pointed to one of his paintings and said: “But surely,
 the arm of tis woman is much too long”. Matisse replied, “Madame, you are mistaken.
                          This is not a woman, this is a picture”.
                   •Pablo Picasso – Born Malaga, Spain 1881 and died 1973.
                              •20th Century‟s most famous artist.
•Showed amazing artistic talent at a very early age. Before he could talk Picasso showed skill in
•By the age of 14 he had already mastered the basic techniques of representational drawing and
•Between 1901 (aged 20) and 1904 Picasso depicted his poor, suffering neighbours in blue tones
that deepened an impression of melancholy. Is art of this period was labelled his „blue period‟.
  •By 1905 sales of his artworks had much improved and he become more optimistic and he
 began to substitute the blue in his artworks for delicate reds and warmer shades. This was to
                               become known as his „rose period‟.
•At 25 he became fascinated by the expressive force of outside Western traditions, particularly
                                     African sculpture.
•From 1907 to 1911 his artwork developed a distinctive style which was to be called „Cubism‟.
  •Cubism was an art style based on multiple views of the chosen topic. Subject matters were
   flattened and both the figure and background merged into one. Subject matter was now
 characterized by solid forms and rich colour and texture, rather then line and detail. Cubism
  was the most influential style of the 20th century, developed in Paris by Picasso and Braque,
                                         beginning in 1907.
Pablo Picasso – Les Demoiselles d‟Avignon (1907)
                     •Pablo Picasso‟s Demoiselles D‟Avignon (1907).

  •Radical departure from tradition, rejecting the accepted European notion of ideal
              •Picasso‟s new approach astonished even his closest friends.

•Female figures appear fractured, angular figures intermingle with the sharp triangular
 shapes of the ground. Foreground and background appear to merge and become one.

•African sculpture heavily influenced Picasso as can be seen in the faces of some of these
                         women, some have masks upon them.

  •Picasso went against the rules set in place by artists of the Renaissance, both in his
depiction of the human form and the perspective he choose, in short he over turned the
                               traditions of Western Art.
Pablo Picasso – Guernica
Pablo Picasso –
 Self portrait.
Eric Fischl – Bad boy (1981)
“Boy urinating in pool” (1981)
                         •Eric Fischl born New York 1948.
•He favoured a more figurative and representational style to the painting than Op
               Art and Minimalism that were popular at the time.
•While the figures in his work appeal simplistic, they have unsettling undertones of
                         insecurities, phobias, and anxieties.
   •Audience members are often shocked at the sexual implications he suggests.
Sandro Botticelli – Birth Of Venus (1480)
•Sandro Botticelli‟s Birth Of Venus (1480) one of the first paintings of an
                  almost life –size nude since antiquity.
•This painting depicts the Roman goddess of love just after she was born
  from the sea. She is being blown to the shore by a handsome couple
 symbolising wind. As she arrives, Venus is greeted by a young woman
                          who presents Spring.
  •The lyric grace of Botticelli‟s lines shows Byzantine influence. The
  background is decorative and flat, giving no illusion of deep space.
     •The figures appear to be in relief, not fully three-dimensional.
•Botticelli‟s Venus combines the classical Greek idealised human figure
          with a Renaissance concern for thought and feeling.
  •It was revolutionary for an artist working within the context of a
Christian society to place a nude „pagan‟ goddess at the center of a large
    painting, in a position previously reserved for the Virgin Mary.
                         •John Brack born in 1920 Melbourne.
 •Established himself as one of Australia‟s leading contemporary artists in the 1950‟s
                                     and 1960‟s.
  •Brack‟s style of art particularly in the early period evolved into one of simplified,
       almost stark, shapes and areas of colour, often heavily featuring black.
  •He is most well known for his works on contemporary Australian culture, such as
                   iconic „Collins Street‟ and „Melbourne, 5 O‟Clock
 •In the artwork he produces he tries to achieve a perfect synthesis of line, colour and
              •His surfaces of flat and long perspective lines create space.
  •John Brack‟s world appears to be very much about the notions of balance and the
     state of the world. Towers of pencils and postcards and mannequins are often
positioned on very fragile unstable surfaces. Is Brack telling us that human civilisation
               is a very delicate balance which can be very easily toppled?
              •Most works appear to have uneven borders around them.
   •People have referred to his artworks as “portraying a fatal coldness of heart”.
Gianlorenzo Bernini‟s – David
                        •Gianlorenzo Bernini Naples - (1598 – 1680)
                               •Sculptor, painter and architect.
   •By 1624 his style of expression through art was passionate and full of emotional and
                                    psychological energy.
 •His sculptures have the ability to move into the observers space, the audience must move
                  around the sculpture to witness the multiple viewpoints.
            • Worked with chisel and hammer for seven hours without a pause.
         •Ability to carve marble, and to assemble it together from several blocks.
   •Like Michelangelo he made is sculptures to be only viewed from the one viewpoint, a
                         request often ignored by galleries today.
     •His marble speak, laugh, sigh or even scream depending upon the subject matter.
  •This sculpture of David appears as though he is using every single muscle in his body to
slay the the giant, as the grim set of his jaw confirms:one can feel the sweat and strain in his
                                           whole frame.
                     •This is Realism in sculpture taken to its ultimate.
•Because David is life size rather than monumental, viewers become engaged in the action.
  •Rather than capture David in a „contemplating‟ mood like Michelangelo has, Bernini‟s
   David depicts him in a moment of tension as he prepares to sling the stone at Goliath.
Donatello‟s – David (1425-1430)
  •Donatello had a lasting influence on subsequent Renaissance sculpture and European
                        sculpture and paintings for four centuries.
   •He brought the Greek ideal of what it means to be human into the Christian context.
•Donatello learned bronze casting technique at an early age. His bronze figure of David was
               the first life size, freestanding nude statute since Roman times.
•In this sculpture Donatello went beyond the classical ideal by bringing in the dimension of
                                  personal expressiveness.
    •His sculpture was less idealized and more naturalistic than that of ancient Greece.
•He chose to portray the biblical shepherd, David – slayer of the giant Goliath and later to
     be king of the Jews – as an adolescent youth rather than as a robust young man.
•The sculpture celebrated the sensuality of the boy‟s body by clothing him only in hat and
 •It‟s not so much the face which is expressive, but the body‟s stance itself, the shift of the
                      body weight and the angle which is expressive.
              •The figure‟s position is derived from classical „contrapposto‟.
    •Few „sensual‟ nudes appear in Medieval art as it was associated with pagan idols.
Michelangelo Buonarroti – David (1501-1504)
Donatello‟s “Moses”.
              •Michelangelo Buonarroti was born in 1475 at Caprese, in Tuscany.
                          •His mother died when he was only 6 yrs old.
   •Aged 13 he shocked and enraged his father when he told him he had agreed to become an
                                    apprentice painter.
 •After one year of learning the art of fresco he went on to study at the sculpture school of the
•During these years he began to study human anatomy, he did so by studying human corpses (a
   practice strictly forbidden by The Church). But this contact with the dead bodies caused
 problems with his health and he had to frequently interrupt his human anatomy activities to
 •1498-1500 Michelangelo creates the marble sculpture Pieta , it is the only artwork to ever be
                                     signed of his hand.
•Between 1501 and 1504 Michelangelo creates a gigantic (4.34m/14.24ft) marble sculpture David.
•David is curved from a colossal 19 foot block of marble which is damaged and no other sculptor
                                         is interested in.
  •The character of David and what he symbolises, was perfectly intune with Michelangelo‟s
patriotic feelings. At the time, Florence was going through a difficult period, and its citizens had
 to be alert and mobilised to confront permanent threats. This young biblical hero (shepherd)
                           used a mere sling to overcome Israel‟s enemies.
 •Michelangelo chose to represent David as an athletic, manly character, very concentrated and
  ready to fight. The extreme tension is evident in his worried look and his right hand holding a
Michelangelo‟s „Pieta‟.
John DeAndrea – Sleeping. (1996)
 •Born in 1941 and raised in northwest Denver, Colorado where he currently lives and
• John DeAndrea embraced painting as his medium while a student at the University of
     Colorado at Boulder in the mid-1960‟s. It wasn‟t until graduate school at the
   University of New Mexico that he first turned seriously to Sculpture when he saw a
                      friend casting fibreglass to make kayaks.
 •De Andrea began to use fibreglass to make life casts of body parts. He dropped of of
 the UNM and returned to Denver, where he soon produced the signature that would
bring him world wide recognition. The first sculptures created in his mature style were
     realistically cast nude figures finished in automotive paint, just like kayaks.
•But soon De Andrea was carefully blending latex acrylic paint into realistic flesh tones,
                making sculptures look more and more like people.
•John De Andrea‟s astonishingly realistic figures are cast from real life and rendered in
                                      fine detail.
•Hair is set into plastic scalps and brows are placed in the oil polychrome a few strands
                                         at a time.
 •This product that De Andrea‟s uses is called „oil polychrome‟ and it is able to record
               moles, tiny veins and scars present on the original sitter.

                   •His sculptures are „Photorealism‟ at it‟s extreme.
Marianna Pineda – Eve Celebrant (1991) Bronze Sculpture.
              •Marianna Pineda born 1925 (Illinois) died 1996 (America).
                        •“Eve Celebrant” (1991) bronze sculpture.
 •Pineda‟s sculptures address the universal human themes of creativity, family life and
                            the various stages of existence.
•The artist combines an exploration of the female form with her own life experiences as
                              a human and as a woman.
  •Eve Celebrant, is part of a series of the same title, is a visually powerful image of the
pre-biblical Eve, who with her arm extended offers a fruit of knowledge and abundance,
                      and yet with her open palm seems to warn us.
 •The strong African figures of her face, her garment clinging to her body and revealing
the the full forms underneath, and her outwardly extended limbs all combine to create a
                  beautiful, graceful, and larger than life female figure.
 •A sense of motion is underscored by dance-like gestures typical in other works by this
 artist, who once described herself as a choreographer instilling a sense of movement in
                                and between her figures.
    •Situated outdoors, the green bronze Eve merges with nature‟s colours and thus
                  emphasises the human connection with the Earth.
Patricia Piccinini. (2000)
             •Patricia Piccinini – Born in Sierra Leone in 1965.
                        •Arrived in Australia in 1972.
              •Ambiguous forms which are familiar yet alien?
   •She has often said that she “is trying to make a real experience out of
                              artificial forms”.
•Her art raises questions about the moral responsibility of societies biotech
                           revolution-I.e cloning.
•Her work is designed to bring to the attention of the audience that cloning is
           wrong, it is artwork which the viewer can respond to.
•Her artwork form as a forum for discussion about how technology impacts
                                upon us.
 •She is keenly interested in how contemporary ideas of nature, the natural
                  and the artificial are changing our society.
      •Specific works like the previous „2‟ slides address concerns about
  biotechnology, such as gene therapy and the ongoing research to map the
                                human genome.
•Piccinini often creates acutely aesthetic and appealing works as a means of
discuss sing complex ethical issues; she is also fascinated by the mechanisms
                             of consumer culture.
Patricia Piccinini – Litter of pups. (2002)
Sandy Skoglund -
•Sandy Skoglund is a contemporary artist (that means she is living and working today).
•She is a Photographer who uses the camera to make large, coloured, very detailed prints
                              called „cibachrome‟ prints.
  •Besides the large scale of her photographic prints, there is something else that makes
   them different and special. Skoglund‟s photographs are of environments she creates.
  •Skoglund is an „installation‟ artist and installation artists create environments using
                    props and other three/two dimensional materials.
•In her installations Skoglund strives to maintain a balance between fantasy and reality.
   Many of her works are „dream like‟ in the way they bring together real objects and
   introduce strange elements into the scene. The Surrealists were a group of writers,
 painters, and other artists in the early 20th century who explored the world of the sub-
   conscious by doing what Skoglund does; presenting us with the unexpected and the
               unexplained. Skoglunds work continues that artist tradition.
   •The set-up photographs of Sandy Skoglund challenge viewers in different ways.
 Skoglund draws and constructs dreamlike interior settings in which she then poses live
•In her humorous Revenge Of The Goldfish (1981) Sandy Skoglund took advantage of the
inherent believability of photography to convince the viewer of the truth of her brilliantly
                                  created surreal world.
 •The realisation of her concept entailed sculpting dozens of goldfish, transforming her
                studio with furnishings and colour, and directing models.
“Radio Active Cats”
“Revenge of the gold fish”.
Frida Kahlo –
Self Portrait
                   •Frida Kahlo – Birth Year: 1907 – Death Year: 1954.
        •Was a strong willed woman in a society that taught women to be passive.
•Born in Mexico and when aged 6 she was stricken with Polo, painful disease caused her
   to be isolated for 9 months and left her left leg shorter and thinner than the other.
    •At age 18 she she was in a serious bus accident which left her with a broken spinal
 column, a broken collar bone, broken ribs, a broken pelvis, and 11 fractures in her right
  leg. In addition her right foot was dislocated and crushed, and her shoulder was out of
joint. For a month, Frida was forced to stay flat on her back, encased in a plaster cast and
      enclosed in a box like structure. Her life was plagued by ineffective orthopaedic
              treatments and thirty-two operations over the course of her life.
•Chronic physical suffering caused by her illness and the accident led to a preoccupation
           with her ruined body, often the central subject in her paintings.
 •Largely self taught, Kahlo was decisively influenced by the starkness, high colour, and
            bold, naive figuration of the popular and religious arts of Mexico.
•In many of Kahlo‟s artworks she emphasises her thick joined eyebrows and her soft dark
  hair on her upper lip. She also began to wear and therefore paint herself in traditional
 Mexican clothing/dresses which were long and colourful while wearing exotic jewellery.
  In many ways this cluster of imagery became her trade mark.Her many portraits often
   express personal suffering but they also often reflect on political and social struggles
  involving the relationships among native and European cultures and men and women.
•Frida let out all of her emotions on canvas. She painted her anger and hurt over
  her stormy marriage, the painful miscarriages, and the physical suffering she
                         underwent because of the accident.
 •After the bus accident Frida could not bear children and complications arose.
 •In 1953 she had to have her leg amputated below the knee due to a gangrene
      infection. This caused her to become deeply depressed and suicidal.
  •She attempted suicide a couple of times and on July 13, 1954 Frida died. No
               official autopsy was done. Suicide was rumoured.
•Frida‟s work have been defined as a sort of therapy to survive, an alienation of
  suffering and physical pain. The body surely for Frida was the centre of any
 kind of thought, both about her internal self (as woman and artist) and about
  her external environment (cultural, political and social aspects of her time).
   • Doe‟s Frida idolize herself, she does not depict herself as a divine image?
             •Her style of art was generally known as „Surrealism‟.
•Surrealism was an art style based upon revealing the unconscious mind through
  dream images, the irrational and the fantastic. Artists often used impossible
                   combinations of objects in realistic detail.
  The Broken Column, done in 1944,
 may be one of Frida‟s paintings that
 show her feelings at their maximum.
  The column itself, which is broken,
 shows one of the sources of pain, the
 nails in her body show in a physical
 way the pain she was enduring, and
the tears in Frida‟s eyes show that her
pain was excruciating. Her face shows
both courage, and resignation; Frida‟s
 nudity may suggest that she felt she
 could do little about her situation in
  spite of all her pain, Frida kept on
     expressing herself by making
            outstanding pair

                                          The Broken Column (1944).
The Two Frida‟s was painted during
     the period between her two
marriages to Diego Rivera. The self
   portrait on the right, the Frida
whom Rivera had loved, derives her
   life‟s blood from the miniature
portrait of Rivera that she holds in
   her hand. The blood runs in an
 exposed artery to her heart, which
is laid out on her breast, then, after
winding around her neck, proceeds
to the second Frida, the one Rivera
no longer loves. The rejected Frida
 tries to stop the flow of blood with

                                         The Two Frida‟s. (1939)
Henry Ford Hospital (1950).
Salvador Dali
Salvador Dali – (Narcissi )
   •Salvador Dali was born in 1904 in Catalonia Spain and died in 1989.
•Eccentric Spanish painter who produces over 1500 paintings during his life.
•His dress, his hairstyles and his comments on art helped form this label. He
 did not complete his final art exams and commented that those judging his
               work were not competent enough to grade him!
 •An artist of great talent and imagination, he had a love of doing unusual
                     things to draw attention to himself.
 •Dali moved to Paris where he began to create artwork that would come to
  represent Surrealism to many people. In Paris he met Pablo Picasso and
                              Andre Breton.
  •Was one of the most well known artists of the 20th century. He was best
 known for his Surrealist work identified by its striking, bizarre, dreamlike
  images, combined with his excellent draftsman ship and painterly skills
                  influenced by the Renaissance masters.
•Dali and his wife Gala moved to the United States in 1940, as War started in
•1982 his wife Gala died and he was battling with the debilitating condition
                  •Dali died from heart problems in 1989.
•Later in his career Dali did not confine himself to painting but experimented with
 many unusual or novel media and processes, he claimed to have been the first to
                     employ holography in an artistic manner.
                  •He designed the „Chupa Chups‟ logo in 1969.

                                                                 Crucifixion (1954).
Autumn Cannibalism (1936) Oil on canvas.
Paul Cezanne – Self portrait
                  * Paul Cezanne – (1839 – 1906). Provence, south of France.
   •Enrolled in at a local college to study Law, however, quit and declared himself an artist.
•Early in his career he painted from his imagination, not from nature; his subjects were often
                                       violent or erotic.
    •His style of art was known as Impressionism, this style of art captured the mood of a
particular moment by capturing the way light effected colour and objects. Brushstrokes were
                                     short and obvious.
     •His technique of oil paint upon canvas is laid on thickly, clumsily and passionately.
     •His palette of colours during his Impressionist period (1872-79) became light and he
                     approached his subject matter (nature) with simplicity.
 •His style is characterised by unemotional, non-narrative, closed compositions that are based
 on the reduction of every object in nature to the cone, the cylinder, or the cube. He achieved a
three dimensional effect by using a dark outline around objects and balancing the shapes used.
   •He painted and repainted, altered brushstrokes and attacked his subjects from different
           angles and deliberately falsified perspective to achieve a solidity of form.
                 •Around 1870, Cezanne began to paint directly from nature.
•He exhibited „twice‟ with the Impressionists, but the critics attacked him so viciously that he
refused to show his work again. He then worked for twenty years in a self imposed exile from
                                        the art world.
           •He continued to paint until 6 days before he died of pneumonia in 1906.
Peter Booth – Painting 1982.
•Peter Booth Is a painfully shy artist who has avoided the glare of the public eye throughout his
                                       artist career to date.
  •In the 1970‟s, Booth began his rise to prominence with a series of minimalist black canvas,
black on black: a literal reading was that of a doorway, shadowy and mysterious. In the 1980‟s,
    Booth opened the door, leading to a world of nightmarish figures, with a hint of humour.
           •Booth‟s imagery appears both humorous and terrifying at the same time.
  •Some of his pictures show bizarre elements like a visit to the circus. Barely human forms ,
          deformed, disfigured and pained they inhabit dark and bleak landscapes.
•His landscapes are charged with emotion and symbolic meaning. Memories of his childhood in
  the blackened industrial landscape of „Sheffield‟ seem to infuse the work, especially his well
        known apocalyptic figurative paintings, which look like images of the end of the
   world;illustrations for The Book of Revelations. These images contain an intense image of
  anxiety, evoking the aftermath of some terrible destruction, vividly pictured with menacing
                        forms and agitated, heavily applied brushstrokes.
  •Three connecting elements that drive Booth: humanity, nature, and human nature. “A lot of
humans forget we are organic entities, the same as every other creature on the planet, and we‟ve
 only been here for a short time”, says Booth. “I am very pessimistic about the plight of human
   beings. We don‟t learn much, I mean, we‟ve been wreaking havoc as they did in the Middle
                              Ages. We also have bigger weapons”.
          •“One thing I am not pessimistic about is the ability of nature to heal itself”.
                                      (Booth The Age 2003).
Peter Booth – Blindfold (1978)
 •In many ways, Booth‟s apocalyptic landscapes, are filled with slight humour, a
strange sense of bizarre religiosity and a decidedly humane sensibility, maybe his
                 artwork accurately reflects the world we live in.
•His art captures the clash of when good and evil collide with apocalyptic results.
 •Booth‟s exploration, whether considered nightmarish or simply humanistic, is
                         unique in contemporary art.
•Personal events may play an important role in the direction of Peter Booth‟s art
 as when he was creating art around 1975 he experienced a home invasion and
 was terrorised in his home. He has always remained fuzzy on the details of the
 event, but obviously this incident impacted on his artistic output. There is one
  canvas from 1975 that has mirrors imbedded in it. “After the attack, all of a
  sudden all this trauma made its way into the paintings in a more overt way”
 •Peter Booth suffers from Epilepsy, a condition often accompanied by intense
   visions. It has always been a deeply private matter for him, due largely to
 •Booth suffers from „Limbic Epilepsy‟, which affects the part of the brain that
  deals with intuition and perception. So he frequently experiences visions and
                    hallucinations and he uses these in his art.
 •Not only are these visions bases for the creation of his artworks, but so are his
   dreams, pure imagination and a „acute observation of the world at large‟.
              Peter Booth “Painting” (1977)

    •“Dark red skies, the colour of congealed blood, haunt the
evenings, and caustic smoke sears each lungful of air. The sound of
roaring flames is as persistent as life itself as the earth is torn open
   and the shadowy, almost deformed, figures of miners labour
 through the darkness, their eyes glowing red-rimmed from coal-
                 blackened faces”. (The Age 2003)
•This was the childhood world of the young Peter Booth, growing
     up in the industrial wasteland of Sheffield in England.
Georg Baselitz
              •Georg Baselitz was born in 1938 in Germany as Hans Georg Kern.
                         •He was expelled from painting school in 1956.
•During the period from 1957 to 1962 he adopted the surname „Baselitz‟ taken from the name
                                     of his birth place.
 •Baselitz‟s style is interpreted as by American critics as being Neo-Expressionist, but from a
                          European perspective, it is seen as Post-Modern.
                      •He became interested in the art of the mentally ill.
   •In 1963 he held his first solo exhibition in Berlin, it caused a public scandal and several
       paintings were confiscated for public indecency. One featured an under aged boy
•1966 he painted his first pictures in which the subject is upside down, in an effort to overcome
              the representational, content driven character of his earlier work.
•To put it simply his speciality is to paint his subjects the other way around to free the subjects
                                          from its content.
  •Uses a finger print painting technique particularly in artworks created around the 1970‟s.
Leonardo Di Vinci – Mona Lisa (1503-1507)
                              •Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 – 1519).
         •Known as the genius with diversity associated with the Italian Renaissance.
 •His accomplishments were astonishing, for he was an anatomist, engineer, mathematician,
           naturalist and philosopher, as well as a painter, sculptor and architect.
•The location of his birth is questionable, some say Vinci (about 50km west of Florence), while
                               others believe Anchiano (near Vinci).
      •He was the illegitimate son Ser Piero da Vinci and Caterina (a peasant woman).
•It is unknown whether he spent the first years of his life with his mother or father. But by the
                time he was 5, he was living with his father and step mother.
              •He demonstrated a talent for drawing and design at a tender age.
  •Leonardo rejected „tempera‟, (water based paint that uses egg yolk and glue as a binding
 agent) the medium choice of his master and this was considered as arrogance for he desired
the effects that oil paint made possible., although Leonardo‟s experimental technique used for
        his work failed disastrously, leaving the mural as a sad ruin with peeling paint.
                           •The Last Supper was an incredible piece
  •He was a generation older than the other two supreme artists of the High Renaissance,
 Michelangelo and Raphael and with his balanced designs and heroic figures virtual created
                                         the style.
  •An influential aspect of his work was „sfumato‟ modelling through light and shade which
                            suggested rather than outlined the form.
“The Last Supper” (cleaned version)
•Mona Lisa is a 16th century oil painting on poplar wood by Leonardo da Vinci and is one of the
most famous paintings in Western art history; few other works are as celebrated or reproduced.
      •It‟s owned by the French government and hangs in the Mus‟ee du Louvre in Paris.
•The painting shows a woman looking out at the viewer with what is described as an “enigmatic
  •After Leonardo‟s death the painting was cut down by having part of the panel at both sides
 removed. Originally there were columns on both sides of the figure. The edges of the bases can
                                         still be seen.
   •The painting was not well known until the mid 19th century, when artists of the emerging
                         symbolist movement began to appreciate it.
•The artwork was stolen on August 21, 1911 by a Louvre employee who kept it in his apartment
 for 2 years before he attempted to sell it to a Florence art dealer and was caught for his crime.
•He apparently hid it in a broom closet during work hours and when the museum had closed he
                simply slipped it under his coat and walked out of the Louvre.
•In 1956 the lower part of the painting was severely damaged when someone doused it with acid.
The same year some one throw a rock at it. The result was a speck of pigment near Mona Lisa‟s
              left elbow. The painting is now covered by bullet proof security glass.
        •The Mona Lisa was last valued in 1963 with an estimated value of $100 million.
  •On April 6th 2005 following a period of curatorial maintenance, recording and analysis the
painting was moved, within the Louvre, to a new home. It is displayed in a purpose built, climate
                  controlled enclosure behind unbreakable, bullet proof glass.
 •The identity of the model? Most scholars now agree that the sitter of the Mona Lisa portrait
 was the wife of a socially prominent Francesco del Giocondo the friend of Leonardo‟s father,
                        who no doubt payed his son for the commission.
  •Her name was Lisa Gherardini and she was most likely around 24 years old at the time the
                                  portrait was painted.
•Many rumours continue to fly about the true identity of the Mona Lisa and other rumours are
  that it is of a man or even Leonardo himself, but most evidence at this stage does tend to
                        suggest it is of the woman mentioned previously.
 •Dr. Lillian Schwartz of Bell Labs suggests that the Mona Lisa is actually a self-portrait. She
  supports this theory with the results of a digital analysis of the facial features of Leonardo‟s
 face and that of the famous painting. When flipping a self-portrait drawing by Leonardo and
 then merging that with an image of the Mona Lisa using a computer, the features of the faces
  align perfectly. Claims were made that Leonardo was homosexual and thus wanted to paint
himself as a woman. Critics of this theory suggest that the similarities are due to both portraits
being painted by the same person using the same style. Additionally, the drawing on which Dr.
              Lillian Schwartz based the comparison on may not be a self-portrait.
•The portrait presents the subject from just above the bust, with a distant landscape visible as a
back drop. Leonardo used a pyramid design to place the woman simply and calmly in the space
                                         of the painting.
         •Her chest, neck and face glow in the same light that softly models her hands.
     •Mona Lisa‟s face shows the subtle shading effect of „sfumato‟ particularly around the eyes.
•The blurred outlines, graceful figure, dramatic contrasts of light and and dark, and overall feeling of
                         calm are characteristic of Leonardo da Vinci‟s style.
 •The painting was one of the first portraits to depict the sitter before an imaginary landscape. One
   interesting feature of the landscape is that it is uneven. The landscape to the left of the figure is
 noticeably lower than that to the right of her. This has led critics to suggest that it was added later.
•Sigmund Freud interpreted the „smile‟ as signifying Leonardo‟s erotic attraction to his own mother;
others have described it as innocent and inviting. It is said by some that the painting is centred on the
    •Many researchers have tried to explain why the smile is seen so differently by people. The
  explanations range from scientific theories about human vision to curious thoughts about Mona
                                    Lisa‟s identity and feelings.
 •Dina Goldin has argued that the secret is in the position of Mona Lisa‟s facial muscles, where our
  mind‟s eye unconsciously extends her smile; the result is it stirs subtle yet strong emotions in the
                                      viewer of the painting.
•In late 2005, Dutch researches created a computer software program with “emotion recognition”they
   scanned an image of the Mona Lisa into the program to find the following results. The smile was
   found to be 83% happy, 9% disgusted, 6% fearful, 2% angry and less than 1% neutral, and not
                                            surprised at all.
•The painting has been restored numerous times; X-ray examinations have shown that there are three
  versions of the Mona Lisa hidden under the present one. The thin poplar backing is beginning to
 show signs of deterioration at a higher rate than previously thought, causing concern from museum
                               curators about the future of the painting.
                     •Frank Auerbach was born in Berlin 1931.
•At the age of 8, in 1939, his Jewish parents sent him to school in Kent to avoid the
political situation in Germany (on the eve of the 2nd world war and after 6 years of
   the Nazi Party being in power). That was the last contact he had with them.
•After the second World War he acted in small parts in several London theatres and
                        in 1947 attended painting classes.
 •In Frank Auerbach‟s head portraits the responsiveness to both the reality of the
      subject and the physical nature of paint and painting is highly visible.
•The thick, paste-like quality of oil paint is celebrated rather than hidden, viewers
 can participate in conjuring up their own images when viewing the rough brush
                     strokes and the smears and blobs of paint.
 •Auerbach creates paintings that project strong images when viewed at a distance
        and present amazingly rich tactile surfaces when viewed up close.
 •The wide range of approaches possible with oil paint becomes apparent when you
compare this thick application of the oil paint to the silky smooth application of oils
                 applied in the works completed by Salvador Dali.
The Kiss (1912)
 •Constantin Brancusi was a Romanian sculptor who trained initially as a carpenter
                               and stonemason.
                                 •Born in 1876 – 1956.
  •He settled in Paris in 1904 where his early influences included African as well as
                                     oriental art.
                          •Rodin was another early influence.
•Brancusi decided he wished to make much simpler work and began an evolutionary
                               search for pure form.
 •While never entirely rejecting the natural world, Brancusi undoubtedly succeeds in
     conveying a sense of gravity by reducing his work to a few basic elements.
•Ironically, this process also tends to highlight the complexity of thought that has gone
                                      into its making.
•Brancusi did much to encourage a revival of carving and great respect for an artist‟s
•Monumental, subtle and intimate, Brancusi‟s sculpture‟s are rightly considered to be
                          the work of a modern master.
Francois Auguste
  Rene Rodin
The Kiss (1886)
                          •Born Francois-August Rene Rodin in 1840.
  •He was somewhat shy and near sighted as a child and this proved a hindrance in his early
                                    academic career.
•Devoting himself to drawing early on he enrolled in a government school for craft and design.
 •During these early years he discovered clay and found himself to be a very capable sculptor.
•Although he was awarded two prizes for drawing and modelling at the age of seventeen, Rodin
was unable to gain admittance to a prestigious Arts school which rejected him on three separate
 •After an inspiring trip to Italy in 1875, Rodin began work on a large-scale statue intended for
 submission to the Paris Salon. This life size male nude showed influences of classical sculpture
  but was modelled in amore naturalistic way, without the exaggerated muscles that Greek and
                                    Roman sculptors often used.
 •Critics often attacked his work stating that his work was so realistic that he must be casting
  from a live model (a technique that a true sculptor would never use). Rodin found himself
              continually trying to defend his sculptures from such verbal attacks.
 •From 1880 he started to create sculptures now larger than life, partly to exonerate himself of
                              the previous allegations no doubt!
•Saint John the Baptist was criticed for his uncommon portrayal of the saint, Rodin‟s saint John
  presented an unidealised nude figure without the common attributes and his contemporaries
                            found this improper, ugly and shocking.
  •At the height of his career, Augustine Rodin was regarded as the greatest sculptor since
•Straying from 19th C academic conventions, Rodin created his own sense of personal artistic
                expressions that focused on the vitality of the human spirit.
 •His modelling techniques captured the movement and depth of emotion of his subjects by
                          altering traditional poses and gestures.
Henry Moore‟s – Reclining figure (1937)
Mimmo Paladino
Piccolo Animale
                                •Mimmo Paladino born 1948.
•Contemporary Italian artist working in an art style labelled „transavantguardia‟. This was a
 group of artists that were basically concerned with returning figurative and symbolism back
 to painting, as this had been lost to the current art style practices of „minimalism and colour
                        field abstraction‟ of the late 1960‟s and the 1970‟s.
    •This Italian painting group consisted of other well known and established artists like
                     Francesco Clemente, Enzo Cucchi and Sandro Chia.
  •He combines elements from pagan, primitive and Christian art. He mixes together their
various symbols and rituals to create a strong narrative, although his artworks are not always
                                       easy to decipher.
  •A love of paint is evident with thick licks of paint present on most oil on canvas works he
•Paladino‟s trademarks include: heavy use of reds and yellows, complex symbolism, elongated
                             faces and exotic flora and fauna.
•During the late 1970‟s he produced mostly monochrome paintings in red, blue or yellow and
                                incorporating found objects.
 •Paladino carries out no preliminary drawing on the canvas, he attacks it immediately upon
                                       being inspired.
   •Apart from being influenced by Christian and Classical mythology he was also greatly
                      influenced by Egyptian, tribal and modern art.
•Many of his artworks do tend to emit a preoccupation with the themes of death and sacrifice.
“Visitore Della”
     •Robert Arneson (1930 – 1992)
      •Born in Benicia, California.
    •Arneson almost single-handedly
   transformed ceramics into a major
         contemporary medium.
   •In the early 1960‟s, he became a
 member of the Funk Art movement, a
 California style of Pop-Art focusing on
  absurd images of everyday objects.
•In the 1970‟s, he began using humorous
 portraits as subjects, and his memorial
portrait of San Francisco‟s assassinated
    Major George Moscone was very
    controversial because it included
        references to the assassin.
  •As a young man he was a high school
 teacher, who was assigned the teaching
    of pottery making and becoming
 intrigued by its possibilities, he stayed
    just a step ahead of his students.
•Within a few years, he realised that clay
was his medium, but he did not view it in
 the conventional way of making pots.
 •Arneson wanted to explore the organic and functional qualities of the
 material itself, and in this approach, was influenced by Peter Voulkos.
•Arneson would often give his pieces ironic titles and incorporate graffiti.
   •In the 1970‟s he began using humorous portraits as subject matter,
sculpting his friends, heroes and himself, all with ironic comments on the
                             human condition.
  •His works also become increasingly larger from the 1970‟s onwards.
  •With his coloured glazes, he was part of a generation that integrated
                         painting and sculpture.
•He died in 1992 from a long battle with cancer that had begun in 1975.
 •This ill health darkened the tone of his clay works and paintings, and
many of them took on issues such as nuclear war, assassins, and societies
Nuclear War Head (1983)
Francesco Goya – The Executions on the Third of May 1808.
               •Francisco de Goya born 1746 in Spain and died in 1828.
               •He was classed as a „Romantic‟ Painter and printmaker.
 •He was aware of the French Revolution and he personally experienced some of the
 worst aspects the Napoleon era- when French armies invaded Spain and much of the
                                   rest of Europe.
  •Goya at first welcomed Napoleon‟s invading army, but he soon discovered that the
occupying army was destroying rather than defending the ideals he associated with the
   •Madrid was occupied by Napoleon‟s troops in 1808. On May 2nd, a riot broke out
against the French. Officers fired from a nearby hill, and the cavalry was ordered to cut
  down the crowds. The following night (3rd May), a firing squad was set up to shoot
  anyone who appeared in the streets. Later, Goya vividly and bitterly depicted these
              brutalities in his powerful indictment of organised murder.
•The painting is enormous yet well conceived in every detail that it delivers its meaning
                                   in a visual flash.
   •A clearly structured pattern of light and dark areas organises the scene, giving it
 •Goya focuses attention on the soldiers by means of value (light and dark) shifts that
define wedge shape formed by the edge of the hill and the edge of the brightly lightened
                                 area on the ground.
  •Mechanical uniformity marks the „faceless‟ firing squad, in contrast with the ragged
 group that is the target. From the soldier‟s dark shapes, we are led by the light and the
 lines of the rifles to the man in white. The dramatic painting „spotlights‟ this man, who
                      raises his arms in a powerful gesture of defiance.
•In The Executions of the Third of May, 1808 the firing squad, with their backs to us, are
                        not men but massive threatening shapes.
•This painting is not just a mere reconstruction of history; it is a universal protest against
                         the brutalities of tyrannical governments.
•It‟s impact is similar to that of the photograph of single man defying a row of oncoming
 tanks during the student demonstration in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, China, in 1989.
•Goya finds ways to deny the human figure that heroic role that Renaissance art made so
 •The mouth plays a role in Goya‟s art more prominent than in that of any other artist.
Mouths leer, grin, gape, moan and shriek. “Mouths are focal points in many scenes other
  than those actually depicting oral aggression or symbolising oral sexuality” - (Goya).
 •For Goya, to a degree unknown in any European artist before him, habitually relies on
the mouth to convey the passion possessing a figure. With other artists facial expression is
  conveyed by the face as a whole, and by the eyes to more or less the same degree as the
   mouth. With Goya the mouth dominates the face and not only the face but the whole
                   body. He tends to restrict the body‟s expressive role.
 •His figures have the jerky movements of puppets, not the expansive actions of heroes.
•Goya presents his bodies as looming shapes rather than detailed figures. These silhouettes
 are mysterious in identity and often in their actions. Shadowy figures often loom up in his
   •He often uses drapery, not as other artists use it, but to disguise, to submerge and to
Rene Magritte – The Human Condition.
Rene Magritte - The Son Of Man (1964).
                •Rene Magritte was born in 1898 in Belgium and died in 1967.
•Rene Magritte, the famous Belgian Surrealist, developed his signature techniques early in his
career while working as a commercial artist-designing wallpapers, posters, sheet-music covers
                      and collage illustrations for „Furrier‟s‟ catalogues.
                       •Magritte‟s works are filled with „visual riddles‟.
 •He explores the mysteries lurking in the „unexpected‟ combinations of „every day‟ objects.
                •It makes the viewer experience a self induced „disorientation‟.
       •His paintings include symbols and myths, everything is visible in his paintings.
         •Magritte worked from several sources, which he repeated with variations:
   •Anatomical surprises, such as the hand whose wrist is a woman‟s face; the mysterious
              opening, where the door swings open to an unexpected image.
•He also paints „metamorphic‟ creatures, such as a stone bird flying above a rocky shoreline.
                          •He animates the unreal – a shoe with toes.
                    •He enlarges objects – an apple filling an entire room.
      •There appears to be a logic to Magritte‟s paintings despite their bizarre content.
•“If one looks at a thing with the intention of trying to discover what it means, one ends up no
 longer seeing the thing itself, but of thinking of the question that is raised”. (Rene Magritte).
• The interpretation of the image was a denial of its mystery, the mystery of the invisible. His
                              images are to be looked at, not into.
Portrait (1935)
Rembrandt Harmenszohn Van Rijn –
          Self portrait.
     •Rembrandt Van Rijn was born in 1606 (Leyden, Netherlands) and died in 1669.
•Classed as one of the finest of the Dutch Painters and one of the greatest artists of all time.
   •After attending Latin school school the young Rembrandt studied painting, first in
    Leyden and then in Amsterdam under Peter Lastman, from whom he learned the
             technique of „chiaroscuro‟- the dramatic use of light and shadow.
                      •His teacher learnt it in Italy from „Caravaggio‟.
                •His work divides fairly distinctly into „3‟ different periods.
•His early works are sharply drawn and painted in a varied palette that was to decrease in
            range as his interest grew in the light and shadow of his subjects.
•In the years between 1640 and 1660, the (middle period) he had developed a darker style
with colour applied in thick blobs, quick lines or dabs, and thinner washes that merge into
  a harmonious glow, bursting from a dark background to create rich, shimmering and
                                  uneven surface effects.
  •After 1660, his technique became even freer, possessing a jewel-like richness in colour
                              and expressing intense emotion.
     •Rembrandt was a supreme master in every form of painting: poetic landscapes;
    penetrating psychological portraits; religious and mythological works that reveal a
   personal approach to Christianity; theatrical or exotic subjects; and warm still life's.
  •Characteristics of his work are his use of „chiaroscuro‟, often using stark contrasts,
thus drawing the viewer into the painting; his dramatic and lively scenes, devoid of any
     rigid formality that contemporary artists often displayed; and his deeply felt
                compassion for mankind, irrespective of wealth or age.
 •Rembrandt‟s paintings were rather small, but rich in details (for example costumes
and jewellery). Themes were mostly religious, he also painted biblical and mythological
 •In the late 1630‟s he painted many landscapes, these landscapes were tormented by
            nature, trees being attacked by storms or skies with dark clouds.
 •1650‟s Rembrandt‟s style changed again, paintings increased in size, colours became
   richer, brush strokes stronger. Many portraits and self-portraits were completed.
•According to a medical analysis of Rembrandt‟s self portraits (a study of 36 portraits
in all), Rembrandts eyes failed to align correctly. A condition called „stereo blindness‟.
      Supposedly because his could not form a normal binocular vision, his brain
  automatically switched to one eye for many visual tasks. This disability could have
   helped him to flatten images as he saw, and then put it onto the two-dimensional
            canvas. This could have been a gift to a great painter like him.
Gordon Bennett – The Outsider 1988.
                •Gordon Bennett (born 1955) is an Australian Aboriginal artist.
•Born in Monto, Queensland, of Anglo-Celtic and Aboriginal ancestry, Gordon Bennett grew up
                              in Victoria from the age of four.
   •Bennett left school at age 15 and worked in a variety of trades before beginning formal art
                             studies at the Queensland College of Art.
 •The formative event in Bennett‟s life was his discovery of his aboriginal identity at the age of
   eleven. Throughout the 1990‟s his work consistently explored the Aboriginal experience in
   White-dominated Australia, frequently in extremely confrontational images documenting
                           murder, rape, and cultural destruction.
  •Yet Bennett has also expressed his discomfort with being seen as spokesman for Aboriginal
               people as he experienced a Scottish/English upbringing/heritage.
                          •His artwork is quite strong and in your face.
 •His art also causes people to question Australia and our identity as a nation and where we are
•There‟s a Van Gogh influence evident in this artwork, from the chair in the background, to the
sky above and the painterly like texture. It is an appropriated scene from Van Gogh‟s „Bedroom
                                      Arles, October (1888)
•The painting Outsider (1988) is about the Bennett‟s own feelings of isolation and confusion about
                                         his aboriginality.
  •It‟s quite a shocking and violent looking work which is about many issues, from Aboriginal
                        deaths in custody to his own thoughts and feelings.
  •Frustration is also evident with the suggestion that it can lead people to suicide or self-
         mutilation, as in the case of both Van Gogh and the figure in the picture.
•The painting is rich in symbolism. The Aboriginal figure complete with ceremonial paint is
                             standing in Van Gogh‟s bedroom.
•The man is so frustrated and confused that his head explodes, with blood whiling into Van
                        Gogh‟s „Starry, starry night‟ turbulent sky.
   •The classical (David style) heads with eyes closed may relate to Europe, blind to the
     consequences of its actions and unwilling to acknowledge the blood on its hands.
               •Everything is in chaos, even Van Gogh‟s chair is tipped over!
John Perceval -
                  •John Perceval born in 1923 in Western Australia.
    •In 1938 Perceval contracted Polio and was hospitalised, during which time he
                    developed his skills as a drawer and painter.
  •During the 2nd World war he enlisted in the army but, being physically unfit, was
            assigned to Army Survey Corps where he met Arthur Boyd.
   •From 1943 he began to paint with richly textured surfaces, producing religious
•He works with passionate intensity in both feeling and execution, directly transmitting
                   his response to nature onto canvas and board.
                                                                                The Stairs.

                     • Charles Blackman was born in Sydney in 1928.
                       •Married Barbara Patterson, a Poet in 1951.
•She had impaired sight and her reliance on Blackman‟s eyesight sharpened his observation.
•His empathy with her predicament led him to focus on the face, depicting faces with huge,
                                dark, expressive eyes.
  •He created haunting images of grave women and girls, detached from their surrounds,
                absorbed in day dreams or games and oblivious to reality.
                           •Girl with flowers was one of eleven
                            holding flowers which Blackman
                                    exhibited in 1959.
                           •In these works Blackman shows the
                           girls as vulnerable figures withdrawn
                             into a personal fantasy, watching,
                               waiting, listening. In Girl with
                             flowers he depicted a girl wearing
                                yellow clothing and holding a
                              bouquet of yellow, red and white
                           •He used balance of light and shade
                               to suggest an inner listening,
                           intending the flowers to indicate the
                             emotions of the figures who hold

Girl with flowers (1959)
                                  •Largely self taught.
 •Haunting and enchanting Images of women and girls, absorbed in day dreams or games
                              have an enduring appeal.
 •Two significant themes in his work have been the „Schoolgirl and „Alice in Wonderland‟.
•Deep shadows and the accentuation of his figure‟s eyes occur throughout Blackman‟s works
                          with a pervasive sense of melancholy.
              •His wife‟s presence become a lasting impression in his works.
“The Entombment”
                  •Raffaello (Raphael) Sanzio was born in Urbino in 1483.
                                  •Died on his 37th birthday.
 •Both parents died within a few years of each others deaths leaving Raphael an orphan at
                                           age 11.
               •Italian Painter and architect of the Italian High Renaissance.
  •As an apprentice he learnt from his Master a clear organisation of the composition and
                                avoidance of excessive detail.
•Gradually Raphael began to modify the style he had learnt from his Master and he started
 to assimilate the new techniques of Leonardo and Michelangelo. Both these artists taught
                                      him from 1504.
 •Raphael was particularly influenced by Leonardo‟s „Madonna & Child‟ paintings, which
  are marked by an intimacy and simplicity of the setting, uncommon in 15th Century art.
  •He learnt the Florentine method of building up his composition in depth with pyramidal
figure masses; the figures are grouped as a single unit, but each retains its own individuality
                                         and shape.
  •Raphael was also influenced by Leonardo Da Vinci‟s lightening techniques, he employed
„chiaroscuro‟ (strong contrast between light and dark) in some of his paintings. However, he
 found Leonardo‟s „sfumato‟ (use of extremely fine, soft shading instead of line to define the
                       edges of forms and features) a major influence.
•Michelangelo used the human anatomy as a tool for expressions, this to, was an influenced
                                 to Raphael‟s work.
„School of Athens‟ (15 )
   •But Raphael differed from Michelangelo and Da Vinci, who were both painters of dark
 intensity and excitement, in that Raphael wished to develop a calmer and more extroverted
  style that would serve as a popular, universally accessible form of visual communication.
•Raphael is best known for his Madonnas and for his large figure compositions in the Vatican
                  in Rome, including the the fresco of the „School of Athens‟.
 •The „School of Athens‟ uses interweaving and interlocking patterns to bring the eye to the
                           central figures of Plato and Aristotle.
    •Like Michelangelo‟s „Sistine Chapel‟ ceiling, Raphael also incorporates a number of
 contemporaries into his fresco. The image of „Plato‟ is probably a portrait of „Leonardo Da
  Vinci‟, while „Archimedes‟, bending down to draw on a slate tablet, may be recognised as
„Bramante‟. Raphael also included himself in the scene. (Man looking out towards the viewer
            from beside the pillar at the extreme right-hand edge of the picture).
“The small Cowper Madonna” (1505)

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