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CO2 Sequestration Potential in the Lotsberg Salt_ Alberta

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					               Carbon Sequestration
              in Sedimentary Basins

       Module VII: Weyburn, Sask.
                    Maurice Dusseault
               Department of Earth Sciences
                  University of Waterloo

Geological Sequestration of C
   Weyburn: CO2 as EOR Agent
      The Weyburn project started in 2000 and is
       located in an oil reservoir discovered in 1954
       in Weyburn, Southeastern Saskatchewan,
       Canada. The CO2 for this project is captured
       at the Great Plains Coal Gasification plant in
       Beulah, North Dakota which has produced
       methane from coal for more than 30 years. At
       Weyburn, the CO2 will also be used for
       enhanced oil recovery with an injection rate
       of about 2 million tonnes per year. (Quote)

 http://www.engineerlive.com/european-process-engineer/17576/carbon-dioxide-capture.thtml#
Geological Sequestration of C
  Weyburn, CO2 Source, Pipeline
     250 MCF/d CO2: -                     Regina
      coal gasification
                                     Weyburn                     Manitoba
     95 MCF/d contrac-
      ted for Weyburn           Saskatchewan        Estevan
      CO2 EOR project
     7000 t/d in 2006          Montana
                                                              North Dakota
     320 km pipeline
     CO2 purity 95%                                          30-36 cm
     CO2 @ 15 MPa                                             pipeline
     CO2 RF ~ 0.16                                               Bismarck
     Total RF ~42-43%
                                                        Beulah

                                >50 BCF injected to date
Geological Sequestration of C
   Weyburn Geological Disposition




        k ~ 10-15 mD
        Φ ~ 15-30% Dan Olsen, GEUS, 2007
Geological Sequestration of C
   Weyburn Field History




Geological Sequestration of C   Dan Olsen, GEUS, 2007
   Injection Strategy at Weyburn




Geological Sequestration of C   Dan Olsen, Geus, 2007
   Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring




Geological Sequestration of C
   Time-Lapse Seismic
      Take a survey at time t1
      Take another survey at time t2
      The difference in seismic velocities,
       reflection coefficients, and attenuation
       can be attributed to changes in CO2
       distribution, thickness, SCO2…
      This is a “snapshot” method used also in
       Sleipner, Permian Basin, etc.
      Also, Δ(gravity, EM, resistivity, …)
Geological Sequestration of C
   Permian Basin, USA
      Largest CO2-
       EOR region in
       the World
      ~150,000 b/d
       oil is produced
       from Permian
       Bsn using CO2
      This requires
       about 30×106
       tonnes/yr CO2

Geological Sequestration of C
   Permian Basin CO2 History
      Permian Basin
       fields are largely
       carbonate reefs
      Seals generally
       excellent, the                                                      SACROC

       level of tectonic
       activity minor
      O&G E&P Infra-
       structure exists
      Anthropogenic
       CO2 sources
Geological Sequestration of C   David Coleman: Westminister Energy Forum
   Permian Basin Stratigraphy




Geological Sequestration of C
   SACROC Location




Geological Sequestration of C
     Reservoir Model of
     Northern Platform, Sacroc
     Field
                 F. Jerry Lucia, Charles Kerans,
                    Fred Wang, Hongliu Zeng

                          Bureau of Economic Geology
                         Jackson School of Geoscience
                       The University of Texas at Austin




Geological Sequestration of C
                                                Salt Creek
             From oil atlas                     356 MMBO



                        Make small production table
                                                 Cogdell
                                                  264 MMBO

                                               Sacroc
                                               1,264 MMBO




Geological Sequestration of C
Geological Sequestration of C
 Structure Top of
  Sacroc North
     Platform




Geological Sequestration of C
                      Cross Section of Northern Platform
                                 Sacroc Field

      West                                                                                                          East
              40-8   40-5   38-4   38-5   34-11   34-9    34-6   34-10    35-5     35-4     32-3   32-5   34-24   32-16




                                                         Late Cisco                       EC 1




      300                                                                        CN 3

       (ft)                                                                      CN 2

         0
                                                                                 CN 1


                                                            Three Miles




Geological Sequestration of C
                                     Sacroc Northern Platform Reservoir
                             5
                           10

                             4
                           10


                         1000
     Permeability (md)




                          100


                           10


                             1


                           0.1


                          0.01


                         0.001
                                 0           1                   10       100
                                                  Porosity (%)


Geological Sequestration of C
                                Problem
      •Only porosity and gamma-ray logs available.
      •Highly variable rock fabrics typical of icehouse conditions.

                                Approach
        •Calculate average apparent rock-fabric number from
        core data for each stratigraphic layer.

        •Calculate permeability profile for each well using
        apparent rock-fabric number from stratigraphy and
        total porosity from logs as input into global permeability
        transform.

        •Interpolate permeability between wells constrained by
        seismic stratigraphy.
Geological Sequestration of C
                                Total Porosity (fraction)



Geological Sequestration of C
                                           8
                                           2
                                           +
                      Apparent Rock Fabric Number
                                           8
                                           .
               Assuming total porosity = interparticle porosity
                                           6
                                           7
                                           1
                                           1
   ARFN =10^((9.7982+8.6711*LOG10(cpor)-LOG(Cperm))/(12.0838+8.2965*LOG(cpor)))
                                           *
                                           L
           Core Data            ARFN       O
                                           G
         Phi       Perm                    1
                                           0
           0.11         0.3         3.06   (                         ARFN Profile
                                           c
          0.128         0.6         3.07   p
                                                        0

                                           o
          0.123           1         2.63   r
                                                       ARFN = 2.8                       Cycle 2
                                                        2
                                           )
          0.174        14.9         2.25   -
                                           L            4
          0.187         3.2         3.11   O
                                           G
             0.2        4.1         3.14   (            6
                                           C
          0.167         7.4         2.45


                                               Depth
                                           p
                                           e            8
           0.15           1         3.20   r
                                           m
          0.178         3.3         2.98   )
                                                        10

                                           )
          0.123         1.1         2.58   /
                                                  ARFN = 1.6
                                                    12
                                                                                        Cycle 1
                                           (
          0.028        0.01       121.62   1
          0.033        0.01    113204.12   2            14
                                           .
           0.11         3.2         1.73   0
                                           8            16

          0.151        54.3         1.51   3                 0   1      2   3       4      5

                                           8
          0.185       251.3         1.49   +                            ARFN
                                           8
Geological Sequestration of C              .
                      Cross Section of Northern Platform
                                 Sacroc Field

      West                                                                                                          East
              40-8   40-5   38-4   38-5   34-11   34-9    34-6   34-10    35-5     35-4     32-3   32-5   34-24   32-16




                                                         Late Cisco                       EC 1




      300                                                                        CN 3

       (ft)                                                                      CN 2

         0
                                                                                 CN 1


                                                            Three Miles




Geological Sequestration of C
               Location of Core Analysis Data                  CN 3
                      Canyon 2 and 3
          Legend
       New Core Analysis
      Old Core Analysis
      and core
      Old Core Analysis
      no core
                             19-6
                                          17-5
                           20-15
                                   20-1
                                                 18-5


                                          27-7

                                      34-6
                                             34-8
                                                        32-5   CN 2
                                      37-2   37-4

                             49-2

                                    56-2 56-4




Geological Sequestration of C
Geological Sequestration of C
   SACROC Unit CO2-EOR
                                David Coleman: Westminister Energy Forum

      Chevron & Shell
       1970-1973 pro-
       ject collaboration
      SACROC unit
       placed on large-
       scale CO2 flood
      First SC-CO2
       pipeline – 280 km
      Generous tax
       breaks negotiated

Geological Sequestration of C
   Extensions – 1979-1990
                                David Coleman: Westminister Energy Forum

      Natural CO2
       discovered
      Infrastructure
       extended to
       include many
       more fields
      Tax credits (15%)
       provided + other
       tax breaks
      Majors come in

Geological Sequestration of C
   Maturity - 1990 to 2005
                                David Coleman: Westminister Energy Forum

      Extension to
       other fields in
       the basin
      More pipelines,
       compression, etc.
      Tax incentives
       remain in place




Geological Sequestration of C
   Permian Basin Statistics (2004)
      > 109 bbl produced using CO2-EOR
      380×106 tonnes CO2 sequestered
          However, only 30×106 t anthropogenic CO2
      2500 km of CO2 pipelines, since 1973
      70 fields under CO2 injection in 2005
      Shell, Mobil, Amoco, Arco, Chevron plus,
       more recently, Apache, Kinder-Morgan,
       etc., as the majors have largely left
      Tax incentives exist
Geological Sequestration of C       David Coleman: Westminister Energy Forum
   Comments…
      Without tax breaks + incentives, this
       development would have been improbable
          One billion barrels of CO2-EOR oil
      Natural CO2 is cheap
        Pure CO2 gas reservoirs
        CO2 separated from CH4 to meet pipelining

         specifications
        Recycled, re-sequestered at the end of EOR

      Anthropogenic amine-separated CO2
       from power plants is far more expensive
Geological Sequestration of C
   DOE-NETL Research?




Geological Sequestration of C
   CO2 Compression and Transport
      Compression requires energy…
      Also, generated heat must be dissipated
      Is there an optimum p, T for CO2
       transport by pipeline?
      Are there other options?




Geological Sequestration of C
   Issues in CO2 Compression and
   Transport (Pipelines)
      Compression requires energy
      Heat of compression must be dissipated
      Avoiding corrosion is necessary
          Special grade of steel is required
      Avoiding hydrate formation is necessary
          H2O + CO2 form solids at certain p & T




Geological Sequestration of C

				
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