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					Obtaining routine vertical profiles of aerosol distribution worldwide:
            why, how, and what to do with all that data

                                          Judd Welton
                                     GEST/UMBC & Code 912


  Collaborators:

  MPLNET: James Campbell, Tim Berkoff,
  Jim Spinhirne, Brent Holben, Si-Chee Tsay

  GLAS: Dennis Hlavka, Bill Hart, Steve Palm,
  Ash Mahesh, Jim Spinhirne

  CALIPSO: Chris Hostetler, Mark Vaughan, Ali Omar,
  Dave Winker, John Reagan, Tad Anderson

  … and a long list of other folks at NASA Centers:
  GSFC, LaRC, and Ames. As well as other government
  agencies such as ARM and NOAA. Finally, many              CALIPSO
  university research groups around the world.              Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared
                                                            Pathfinder Satellite Observations
                         Outline:

• Introduction: why do we care about aerosols & their vertical
distribution?

• How to measure aerosol vertical distributions? - Lidar: what
is it? how to use it to study aerosols, and what can be done now
to get routine global observations?

• MPLNET, GLAS, CALIPSO: what are they?

• Recent results from MPLNET, expected results from GLAS
and CALIPSO, and how they can work together

• Conclusion
       EARTH SCIENCE ENTERPRISE MISSION, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its
response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved
prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and
future generations.

1. Science
Observe, understand, and model the Earth system to learn how it is
changing and the consequences for life on Earth.

2. Applications
Expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal
benefits from Earth science, information, and technology.

3. Technology
Develop and adopt advanced technologies to enable mission success
and serve national priorities.
       EARTH SCIENCE ENTERPRISE MISSION, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its
response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved
prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and
future generations.

1. Science
Observe, understand, and model the Earth system to learn how it is
changing and the consequences for life on Earth.

2. Applications
Expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal
benefits from Earth science, information, and technology.

3. Technology
Develop and adopt advanced technologies to enable mission success
and serve national priorities.




                                                            One Planet
       EARTH SCIENCE ENTERPRISE MISSION, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its
response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved
prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and
future generations.

1. Science
Observe, understand, and model the Earth system to learn how it is
changing and the consequences for life on Earth.

2. Applications
Expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal
benefits from Earth science, information, and technology.

3. Technology
Develop and adopt advanced technologies to enable mission success
and serve national priorities.




                                                            One Planet


         Land                                              Atmosphere    Water
       EARTH SCIENCE ENTERPRISE MISSION, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its
response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved
prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and
future generations.

1. Science
Observe, understand, and model the Earth system to learn how it is
changing and the consequences for life on Earth.

2. Applications
Expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal
benefits from Earth science, information, and technology.

3. Technology
Develop and adopt advanced technologies to enable mission success
and serve national priorities.




                                                            One Planet


         Land                                              Atmosphere                      Water


                                    Gases              Clouds         Aerosols   Plasmas
       EARTH SCIENCE ENTERPRISE MISSION, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its
response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved
prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and
future generations.

1. Science
Observe, understand, and model the Earth system to learn how it is
changing and the consequences for life on Earth.

2. Applications
Expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal
benefits from Earth science, information, and technology.

3. Technology
Develop and adopt advanced technologies to enable mission success
and serve national priorities.




                                                            One Planet


         Land                                              Atmosphere                                 Water


                                    Gases              Clouds         Aerosols   Plasmas

                                                                                           … and it continues ...
       EARTH SCIENCE ENTERPRISE MISSION, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its
response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved
prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and
future generations.

1. Science
Observe, understand, and model the Earth system to learn how it is
changing and the consequences for life on Earth.

2. Applications
Expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal
benefits from Earth science, information, and technology.

3. Technology
Develop and adopt advanced technologies to enable mission success
and serve national priorities.




                                                            One Planet


         Land                                              Atmosphere                                 Water


                                    Gases              Clouds         Aerosols   Plasmas

                                                                                           … and it continues ...
       EARTH SCIENCE ENTERPRISE MISSION, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its
response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved
prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and
future generations.

1. Science
Observe, understand, and model the Earth system to learn how it is
changing and the consequences for life on Earth.

2. Applications
Expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal
benefits from Earth science, information, and technology.

3. Technology
Develop and adopt advanced technologies to enable mission success
and serve national priorities.




                                                            One Planet


         Land                                              Atmosphere                                 Water


                                    Gases              Clouds         Aerosols   Plasmas

                                                                                           … and it continues ...
       EARTH SCIENCE ENTERPRISE MISSION, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its
response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved
prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and
future generations.

1. Science
Observe, understand, and model the Earth system to learn how it is
changing and the consequences for life on Earth.

2. Applications
Expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal
benefits from Earth science, information, and technology.

3. Technology
Develop and adopt advanced technologies to enable mission success
and serve national priorities.




                                                            One Planet


         Land                                              Atmosphere                                 Water


                                    Gases              Clouds         Aerosols   Plasmas

                                                                                           … and it continues ...
                                                  Aerosols:
• Dry or aqueous particles suspended in the atmosphere
• Size range:
      • Aitken < 0.1 mm
      • fine mode < 1 mm
      • coarse mode > 1 mm
• Origins:
      • nucleation
             • formation of sulfate
             • typically Aitken sized
      • sublimation
             • deposition of nitrate onto sea-salt
             • fine - coarse mode sizes
      • coagulation
             • merging of two aerosol droplets
             • fine - coarse mode sizes
      • surface matter
             • sea-salt, dust, soot
             • fine - coarse mode sizes
• Caused by natural and anthropogenic sources
• Particle Shapes vary:
      • spheres (sulfate)
      • irregular (dust)
• Lifetimes & Transport:
      • vary depending upon origin, convection
      mechanism, size, hydroscopicity
      • typically days to weeks, volcanic aerosols can
      be years
      • can transport long distances (around the world)
                                                  Aerosols:
• Dry or aqueous particles suspended in the atmosphere
• Size range:
      • Aitken < 0.1 mm
      • fine mode < 1 mm
      • coarse mode > 1 mm
• Origins:
                                                          Land use processes and surface conditions directly relate
      • nucleation
                                                          to the production of certain types of aerosols
             • formation of sulfate
             • typically Aitken sized
                                                          Example of aerosol interaction with other aspects of the
      • sublimation
                                                          earth system
             • deposition of nitrate onto sea-salt
             • fine - coarse mode sizes
      • coagulation
             • merging of two aerosol droplets
             • fine - coarse mode sizes
      • surface matter
             • sea-salt, dust, soot
             • fine - coarse mode sizes
• Caused by natural and anthropogenic sources
• Particle Shapes vary:
      • spheres (sulfate)
      • irregular (dust)
• Lifetimes & Transport:
      • vary depending upon origin, convection
      mechanism, size, hydroscopicity
      • typically days to weeks, volcanic aerosols can
      be years
      • can transport long distances (around the world)
                                                    Aerosols cont:
Why do we care about them?
                                                            From IPCC 2001 3rd Assessment Report
Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth
system and its response to natural and human-
induced changes to enable improved prediction of
climate, weather, and natural hazards for present
and future generations.

• They have a direct effect on climate
     • scatter and absorb radiation
     • primarily fine and coarse mode
     • change the amount of sunlight
     reaching the earth’s surface & what is
     reflected back to space
     • absorption can alter heating budget

• They have an indirect effect on climate
     • interaction with clouds
     • create new clouds or modify
     existing ones
     • change cloud albedos
     • can effect precipitation
                                                    Aerosols cont:
Why do we care about them?
                                                               From IPCC 2001 3rd Assessment Report
Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth
system and its response to natural and human-
induced changes to enable improved prediction of
climate, weather, and natural hazards for present
and future generations.

• They have a direct effect on climate
     • scatter and absorb radiation
     • primarily fine and coarse mode
     • change the amount of sunlight
     reaching the earth’s surface & what is
     reflected back to space
     • absorption can alter heating budget

• They have an indirect effect on climate
     • interaction with clouds
     • create new clouds or modify
     existing ones
     • change cloud albedos
     • can effect precipitation
                                                      Above graph contains global mean forcing values ….
                                                      Regional forcing can be much higher:
                                                      Northern Indian Ocean INDOEX Results (direct+indirect):
                                                      TOA Forcing: -5 to -15 W/m2
                                                      Surface Forcing: -15 to -35 W/m2
                                                      Atmosphere Forcing: 10 to 25 W/m2
                                                      (Ramanathan et al, JGR, 2001):
                                                    Aerosols cont:
Why do we care about them?
                                                               From IPCC 2001 3rd Assessment Report
Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth
system and its response to natural and human-
induced changes to enable improved prediction of
climate, weather, and natural hazards for present
and future generations.

• They have a direct effect on climate
     • scatter and absorb radiation
     • primarily fine and coarse mode
     • change the amount of sunlight
     reaching the earth’s surface & what is
     reflected back to space
     • absorption can alter heating budget

• They have an indirect effect on climate
     • interaction with clouds
     • create new clouds or modify
     existing ones
     • change cloud albedos
     • can effect precipitation
                                                      Above graph contains global mean forcing values ….
                                                      Regional forcing can be much higher:
                                                      Northern Indian Ocean INDOEX Results (direct+indirect):
                                                      TOA Forcing: -5 to -15 W/m2
                                                      Surface Forcing: -15 to -35 W/m2
                                                      Atmosphere Forcing: 10 to 25 W/m2
                                                      (Ramanathan et al, JGR, 2001):
                                                    Aerosols cont:
Why do we care about them?
                                                               From IPCC 2001 3rd Assessment Report
Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth
system and its response to natural and human-
induced changes to enable improved prediction of
climate, weather, and natural hazards for present
and future generations.

• They have a direct effect on climate
     • scatter and absorb radiation
     • primarily fine and coarse mode
     • change the amount of sunlight
     reaching the earth’s surface & what is
     reflected back to space
     • absorption can alter heating budget

• They have an indirect effect on climate
     • interaction with clouds
     • create new clouds or modify
     existing ones
     • change cloud albedos
     • can effect precipitation
                                                      Above graph contains global mean forcing values ….
                                                      Regional forcing can be much higher:
• Indirect effect is another example of
aerosols interacting with other parts of              Northern Indian Ocean INDOEX Results (direct+indirect):
the earth system                                      TOA Forcing: -5 to -15 W/m2
                                                      Surface Forcing: -15 to -35 W/m2
                                                      Atmosphere Forcing: 10 to 25 W/m2
                                                      (Ramanathan et al, JGR, 2001):
                                                    Aerosols cont:
Why do we care about them?

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth
system and its response to natural and human-
induced changes to enable improved prediction of
climate, weather, and natural hazards for present
and future generations.


Lets go one further, and say:
“… natural and anthropogenic hazards …”
                                                    Aerosols cont:
Why do we care about them?

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth
system and its response to natural and human-
induced changes to enable improved prediction of
climate, weather, and natural hazards for present
and future generations.


Lets go one further, and say:
“… natural and anthropogenic hazards …”


          • Human Health Hazards
          • Traffic Hazards
                                                    Aerosols cont:
Why do we care about them?

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth
system and its response to natural and human-
induced changes to enable improved prediction of
climate, weather, and natural hazards for present
and future generations.


Lets go one further, and say:
“… natural and anthropogenic hazards …”


          Human Health Hazards:
          • Small aerosols can enter the lungs
          • EPA standard from 1997: particles smaller than 2.5 mm as cutoff for regulation
               • Pope et al., JAMA, 2002: Mortality rates & long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution
                     • Each 10 mg/m3 elevation in < 2.5 mm aerosol concentration associated with:
                            4% increased risk of all-cause mortality
                            6% increased risk of cardiopulmonary mortality
                            8% increased risk of lung cancer mortality
                     • Conclusion: long-term exposure to small aerosols is important risk factor
                     • Caveat: heavily focused on “urban” type aerosols
          • Aerosols, especially dust, can also carry microbes long distances
                • Griffin et al., Aerobiologia, 2001:
                       • bacteria-like & virus-like particle counts in the US Virgin Islands greater during African dust
                       events relative to clear periods
                                                    Aerosols cont:
Why do we care about them?
                                                       Human health issues and ...
Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth
system and its response to natural and human-          Deposition of dust over oceans:
induced changes to enable improved prediction of
climate, weather, and natural hazards for present
                                                       • can effect growth of certain types of phytoplankton & algae
and future generations.                                • impacts the health of coral reefs

                                                       • both are examples of aerosols interacting with other
Lets go one further, and say:                          aspects of the earth system
“… natural and anthropogenic hazards …”


          Human Health Hazards:
          • Small aerosols can enter the lungs
          • EPA standard from 1997: particles smaller than 2.5 mm as cutoff for regulation
               • Pope et al., JAMA, 2002: Mortality rates & long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution
                     • Each 10 mg/m3 elevation in < 2.5 mm aerosol concentration associated with:
                            4% increased risk of all-cause mortality
                            6% increased risk of cardiopulmonary mortality
                            8% increased risk of lung cancer mortality
                     • Conclusion: long-term exposure to small aerosols is important risk factor
                     • Caveat: heavily focused on “urban” type aerosols
          • Aerosols, especially dust, can also carry microbes long distances
                • Griffin et al., Aerobiologia, 2001:
                       • bacteria-like & virus-like particle counts in the US Virgin Islands greater during African dust
                       events relative to clear periods
                                                    Aerosols cont:
Why do we care about them?

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth
system and its response to natural and human-
induced changes to enable improved prediction of
climate, weather, and natural hazards for present
and future generations.


Lets go one further, and say:
“… natural and anthropogenic hazards …”


          • Human Health Hazards
          • Traffic Hazards
                                                    Aerosols cont:
Why do we care about them?                                           New York City Skyline on July 7, 2002

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth
system and its response to natural and human-
induced changes to enable improved prediction of
climate, weather, and natural hazards for present
and future generations.


Lets go one further, and say:
“… natural and anthropogenic hazards …”


          Traffic Hazards:
          • Reduced visibility creates hazards to both air and ground transportation
                 • USA Today, AP, 2002: Multiple highway accidents in California blamed on dust storms
                        • March 13 ,2002 - 2 seven car pile ups on I-15
                 • MSNBC, AP, 2002: Smoke from Quebec forest fires effects air traffic in NY
                        • July 7, 2002 - all major airports report “smoke and haze visibility restrictions of two miles”
                 • Prospero et al, Eos Trans., 1999: Kennedy plane crash in July 1999 attributed in part to haze
                        • large-scale aerosol event occurred at same time, aerosols were at altitudes capable of
                        effecting Kennedy’s visibility on approach for landing
          • Ingestion of aerosols into aircraft engines has also been a concern
                                 Aerosols cont:
Why do we care about them?


                 If all those reasons don’t matter:

                 How about “poor air quality makes the
                 atmosphere look dirty and ugly”



                                standard of living!
                                 Aerosols cont:
Why do we care about them?


                 If all those reasons don’t matter:

                 How about “poor air quality makes the
                 atmosphere look dirty and ugly”



                                standard of living!


                 Of course, it makes pretty sunsets so I guess
                 “who cares”
       EARTH SCIENCE ENTERPRISE MISSION, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its
response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved
prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and
future generations.

1. Science
Observe, understand, and model the Earth system to learn how it is
changing and the consequences for life on Earth.

2. Applications
Expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal
benefits from Earth science, information, and technology.

3. Technology
Develop and adopt advanced technologies to enable mission success
and serve national priorities.




                                                            One Planet


         Land                                              Atmosphere                                 Water


                                    Gases              Clouds         Aerosols   Plasmas

                                                                                           … and it continues ...
                                                 Aerosols cont:
Ok we care about aerosols, but why their vertical distribution?

• Aerosol’s altitude determines where in the atmosphere they scatter and absorb sunlight
      • Height of absorbing aerosols effects heating rate profile and analysis of some satellite data
      • Aerosol height is required to determine altitude at which radiative forcing occurs
• Vertical distribution is tied to how aerosols transport from source region to elsewhere
      • In order to transport long distances, aerosols must get high enough to offset their settling and
      removal by other processes along the trip
      • To have direct health effects, transported aerosols must eventually reach the surface

 Yes, dust arrives to Caribbean & US                                                        Dust blows from Africa,
                                                                                            across Atlantic

      Column Radiation Meas.


                   Surface Sampling
                                                 Aerosols cont:
Ok we care about aerosols, but why their vertical distribution?

• Aerosol’s altitude determines where in the atmosphere they scatter and absorb sunlight
      • Height of absorbing aerosols effects heating rate profile and analysis of some satellite data
      • Aerosol height is required to determine altitude at which radiative forcing occurs
• Vertical distribution is tied to how aerosols transport from source region to elsewhere
      • In order to transport long distances, aerosols must get high enough to offset their settling and
      removal by other processes along the trip
      • To have direct health effects, transported aerosols must eventually reach the surface

 Yes, dust arrives to Caribbean & US                                                        Dust blows from Africa,
                                                                                            across Atlantic
                                              But what happens along the way?
      Column Radiation Meas.                  How does it transport?


                   Surface Sampling
So what do we really want to know about aerosol vertical distribution?
•   detect the presence of aerosols
•   determine their altitude
•   calculate their optical properties
•   deduce their concentration
•   determine if they interact with clouds and/or if they reach the surface
•   figure out what type of aerosols are present
•   find out how the aerosols got to a particular location and where they will go afterwards
So what do we really want to know about aerosol vertical distribution?
•   detect the presence of aerosols
•   determine their altitude
•   calculate their optical properties
•   deduce their concentration
•   determine if they interact with clouds and/or if they reach the surface
•   figure out what type of aerosols are present
•   find out how the aerosols got to a particular location and where they will go afterwards


Which type of study to choose?
                                                                              Global
• Global observations
      • planetary climate                                    Regional
      • seasonal/yearly studies                                                                Regional
      • regional connections
• Regional studies
      • regional climate
      • seasonal/yearly studies
                                                                                         Case Studies
      • begin to connect case studies
      to big picture & assess their
      relevance
• Case studies
      • can analyze aerosol in much
      more specific detail
      • often best way to get point
      across, but should be done with                             Regional
      relevance to bigger picture in
      mind
So what do we really want to know about aerosol vertical distribution?
•   detect the presence of aerosols
•   determine their altitude
•   calculate their optical properties
•   deduce their concentration
•   determine if they interact with clouds and/or if they reach the surface
•   figure out what type of aerosols are present
•   find out how the aerosols got to a particular location and where they will go afterwards


Which type of study to choose?
                                                                              Global
• Global observations
      • planetary climate                                    Regional
      • seasonal/yearly studies                                                                Regional
      • regional connections
• Regional studies
      • regional climate
      • seasonal/yearly studies
                                                                                         Case Studies
      • begin to connect case studies
      to big picture & assess their              Routine, long-term, globally distributed measurements with
      relevance                                  enough spatial and temporal resolution to be of use to regional
• Case studies                                   and case studies are most desired
      • can analyze aerosol in much
      more specific detail                       The IPCC 2001 3rd assessment report:
      • often best way to get point              need development and support of systematic ground-based
      across, but should be done with                              Regional
                                                 measurements, in particular, a dramatic increase in systematic
      relevance to bigger picture in             vertical profile measurements
      mind
       EARTH SCIENCE ENTERPRISE MISSION, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its
response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved
prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and
future generations.

1. Science
Observe, understand, and model the Earth system to learn how it is
changing and the consequences for life on Earth.

2. Applications
Expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal
benefits from Earth science, information, and technology.

3. Technology
Develop and adopt advanced technologies to enable mission success
and serve national priorities.




                                                            One Planet


         Land                                              Atmosphere                                 Water


                                    Gases              Clouds         Aerosols   Plasmas

                                                                                           … and it continues ...
What instruments can measure aerosol vertical distribution?
What instruments can measure aerosol vertical distribution?

• Direct sampling from aircraft
• Direct sampling from sonde
• Lidar
What instruments can measure aerosol vertical distribution?

• Direct sampling from aircraft
• Direct sampling from sonde
• Lidar

What is best for global, routine, long-term monitoring?
What instruments can measure aerosol vertical distribution?

• Direct sampling from aircraft
• Direct sampling from sonde
• Lidar

What is best for global, routine, long-term monitoring?

• Aircraft
   • best platform for direct sample
   • problems: not routine, not long-term, difficulty with ambient meas.
What instruments can measure aerosol vertical distribution?

• Direct sampling from aircraft
• Direct sampling from sonde
• Lidar

What is best for global, routine, long-term monitoring?

• Aircraft
   • best platform for direct sample
   • problems: not routine, not long-term, difficulty with ambient meas.
• Sondes
   • routine - yes, long-term - yes
   • problems: hard to do aerosol sampling, same ambient issues,
               and resource is lost upon sampling
What instruments can measure aerosol vertical distribution?

• Direct sampling from aircraft
• Direct sampling from sonde
• Lidar

What is best for global, routine, long-term monitoring?

• Aircraft
   • best platform for direct sample
   • problems: not routine, not long-term, difficulty with ambient meas.
• Sondes
   • routine - yes, long-term - yes
   • problems: hard to do aerosol sampling, same ambient issues,
               and resource is lost upon sampling
• Lidar
   • routine - yes, long-term - yes
   • lidar can provide most of the desired data listed previously
What is a lidar?

• an instrument that sends pulses of laser light into the atmosphere
to measure an atmospheric parameter’s vertical structure
• many types of lidar exist - here we only discuss those used to
measure aerosols (and clouds)
 • Lidar systems:
    • Backscatter
    • Raman                                               Elevated Layer

    • DIAL                                              Molecular Scattering
    • Hyperspectral

                                                        Boundary Layer


                                                           Ground


                          Laser
What is a lidar?

• an instrument that sends pulses of laser light into the atmosphere
to measure an atmospheric parameter’s vertical structure
• many types of lidar exist - here we only discuss those used to
measure aerosols (and clouds)
 • Lidar systems:
    • Backscatter
    • Raman                                                Elevated Layer

    • DIAL                                               Molecular Scattering
    • Hyperspectral

                                                         Boundary Layer


                                                            Ground


                          Laser               Receiver
What is a lidar?

• an instrument that sends pulses of laser light into the atmosphere
to measure an atmospheric parameter’s vertical structure
• many types of lidar exist - here we only discuss those used to
measure aerosols (and clouds)
 • Lidar systems:
    • Backscatter
    • Raman                                                Elevated Layer

    • DIAL                                               Molecular Scattering
    • Hyperspectral

                                                         Boundary Layer


                                                            Ground


                          Laser               Receiver
                      The Backscatter Lidar Equation:

Raw signals are background subtracted and normalized to range, energy. Any other instrument
Effects are also corrected for. Resulting equation is an uncalibrated lidar signal:


             PNRB (r)  CM (r)  P (r) M 2 (r)TP 2 (r)TO 2 (r)
                                          T

                                    where

                                  2 r  (r  r 
                       T (r)  exp r i )d 
                             2
                            i
                                   L              
C, (extinction, and  (backscatter) are unknown. We can model molecular and ozone terms,
particulate  and  are what we want to determine. To solve equation we must know the
relationship between the two.


                  i (r )                                    4
        Si (r)                                    Si 
                 i (r)                                  o Pi (180)
What we want is global, routine, long-term monitoring to start now

• Lidar requirements
    • exists
    • proven, relatively simple design
    • capable of deployments for global observation - cost implication
    • eye-safe
What we want is global, routine, long-term monitoring to start now

• Lidar requirements
    • exists
    • proven, relatively simple design
    • can be deployed for global observations - cost implication
    • eye-safe
• Backscatter lidars are easiest to build and can meet the above requirements
    • more limited data set
    • form basis for future deployment of more sophisticated lidars
        What we want is global, routine, long-term monitoring to start now

        • Lidar requirements
            • exists
            • proven, relatively simple design
            • can be deployed for global observations - cost implication
            • eye-safe
        • Backscatter lidars are easiest to build and can meet the above requirements
            • more limited data set
            • form basis for future deployment of more sophisticated lidars


What we want to know about aerosol vertical distribution:
•   detect the presence of aerosols
•   determine their altitude
•   calculate their optical properties                                                    Molecular Scattering
•   deduce their concentration
•   determine if they interact with clouds and/or if they reach the surface
•   figure out what type of aerosols are present
•   find out how the aerosols got to a particular location and where they go afterwards    Boundary Layer

                                                                                             Ground
             PNRB (r)  CM (r)  P (r) M (r)TP (r)TO (r)
                                                       2        2        2
                                          T
                            The Backscatter Lidar Equation:
                                Ground-based example

PNRB (r)  CM (r)  P (r) M 2 (r)TP 2 (r)TO 2 (r)
                             T
                                                          Molecular Scattering
                            a (r)
                Sa (r) 
                           a (r )
                                                              Boundary Layer

                                                                Ground
                             The Backscatter Lidar Equation:
                                 Ground-based example

PNRB (r)  CM (r)  P (r) M 2 (r)TP 2 (r)TO 2 (r)
                             T
                                                                               Molecular Scattering
      Solving for backscatter and extinction


                                                                                 Boundary Layer
      Standard Fernald [Appl. Opt., 1984] type solution used,
      Assume Sa is constant throughout the boundary layer:                          Ground


                             a
                        Sa 
                             a


                  … But a co-located sunphotometer can provide aerosol optical depth (AOT): tP
                     A modified version of the solution uses the sunphotometer AOT as a constraint.
                     The normal process is iterated until successive values of Sa agree:

                                                  tp
                              Sa          top
                                       0
                                                 a (r  r
                                                        )d
                              The Backscatter Lidar Equation:
                                  Ground-based example

PNRB (r)  CM (r)  P (r) M 2 (r)TP 2 (r)TO 2 (r)
                             T
                                                                             Molecular Scattering
      Calibrating the lidar


                                                                              Boundary Layer

                                                                                 Ground




                      co-located sunphotometer provides aerosol optical depth (AOT):   tP
                      Calculate Calibration parameter: C




                        TP 2 (r)  exp2t P  r > boundary layer
                          The Backscatter Lidar Equation:
                              Ground-based example

PNRB (r)  CM (r)  P (r) M 2 (r)TP 2 (r)TO 2 (r)
                             T
                                                                    Molecular Scattering



                                                                     Boundary Layer

                                                                        Ground


                 Net Results:
                 • Aerosol height can be determined
                                     
                 • MPL can be calibrated
                               S  a
                                   a
                                       a
                 • backscatter and extinction profiles can be calculated,
                 along with an average Sa, for the aerosol layer
                 • extinction profile will integrate to the correct AOT,
                                        tp
                 however the extinction value at any given altitude within
                 the layer may under-or-over- estimated due to
                           Sa be top
                                      ( Sa)d
                 assumption of a constantr  r
                                   0     a
                          The Backscatter Lidar Equation:
                              Ground-based example

PNRB (r)  CM (r)  P (r) M 2 (r)TP 2 (r)TO 2 (r)
                             T
                                                                    Molecular Scattering



                                                                     Boundary Layer

                                                                        Ground


                 Net Results:
                 • Aerosol height can be determined
                                     
                 • MPL can be calibrated
                               S  a
                                   a
                                       a
                 • backscatter and extinction profiles can be calculated,
                 along with an average Sa, for the aerosol layer
                 • extinction profile will integrate to the correct AOT,
                                        tp
                 however the extinction value at any given altitude within
                 the layer may under-or-over- estimated due to
                           Sa be top
                                      ( Sa)d
                 assumption of a constantr  r
                                   0     a
What we want is global, routine, long-term monitoring to start now

• Lidar requirements
    • exists
    • proven, relatively simple design
    • can be deployed for global observations - cost implication
    • eye-safe
• Backscatter lidars are easiest to build and can meet the above requirements
    • more limited data set
    • form basis for future deployment of more sophisticated lidars
• Two options
    • ground-based network
    • space-based platform
What we want is global, routine, long-term monitoring to start now

• Lidar requirements
    • exists
    • proven, relatively simple design
    • can be deployed for global observations - cost implication
    • eye-safe
• Backscatter lidars are easiest to build and can meet the above requirements
    • more limited data set
    • form basis for future deployment of more sophisticated lidars
• Two options
    • ground-based network
    • space-based platform




                                                       CALIPSO
                                                       Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared
                                                       Pathfinder Satellite Observations
              Determining Optical Depth and Extinction from Satellite Lidars: The Missing Link
                                                        --> Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio (Sa)
Determining Optical Depth and                  Much more difficult to get co-located AOT meas.
Extinction: Comparison between
boundary and elevated layers

                                               If cannot directly calculate optical depth, need to guess S



           Elevated Layer



        Molecular Scattering



         Boundary Layer

            Ground

Conclusion:
Sometimes can directly calculate optical
depth, extinction, and S for elevated
layers -- NEVER for boundary layer



             E.J. Welton, Goddard Earth Sciences & Tech. Center NASA/GSFC, Code 912
                                     Default Scenario: Lookup Table for Sa




                                                     • GLAS Index Functions based on:
• Different lookup table for boundary layer
                                                          • 4, 7, 11, 13 based on model from Ackermann, 1998
      and elevated layers                                 • 12 based on Welton et al., 2000
                                                     • Current Efforts to improve knowledge of Sa:
• Different lookup table for each month of
                                                           • MPL-Net:
      the year                                                   • field exps: target key regions/aerosols
                                                           • CALIPSO Science Team:
                                                                 • John Reagan, compilation of all meas.
                                                                 • Tad Anderson, in-situ meas. of Sa
                                                                 • Ali Omar, calculate Sa from AERONET data
                                                           • Several other research groups worldwide

             E.J. Welton, Goddard Earth Sciences & Tech. Center NASA/GSFC, Code 912
What we want is global, routine, long-term monitoring to start now

• Lidar requirements
    • exists
    • proven, relatively simple design
    • can be deployed for global observations - cost implication
    • eye-safe
• Backscatter lidars are easiest to build and can meet the above requirements
    • more limited data set
    • form basis for future deployment of more sophisticated lidars
• Two options
    • ground-based network
    • space-based platform




                                                       CALIPSO
                                                       Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared
                                                       Pathfinder Satellite Observations
       EARTH SCIENCE ENTERPRISE MISSION, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES

Develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its
response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved
prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and
future generations.

1. Science
Observe, understand, and model the Earth system to learn how it is
changing and the consequences for life on Earth.

2. Applications
Expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal
benefits from Earth science, information, and technology.

3. Technology
Develop and adopt advanced technologies to enable mission success
and serve national priorities.




                                                            One Planet


         Land                                              Atmosphere                                 Water


                                    Gases              Clouds         Aerosols   Plasmas

                                                                                           … and it continues ...
                   The Micro-pulse Lidar Network :                                 (MPL-Net)
Mission: Long-term, world-wide observations of aerosol and cloud vertical structure using common instrument/data processing
Funding: NASA Earth Observing System (sites/field exp), NASA SIMBIOS Program (ocean cruises)
Activities:
      • Setup new MPL-Net funded sites, co-located with AERONET sunphotometers (and BSRN radiometers)
      • Incorporate existing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program MPL sites
      • Partner with other independent research groups interested in MPL measurements (federated network)
      • Participate in field experiments and research cruises (connection to regional studies)
Satellite Lidar Calibration/Validation: GLAS - ICESat (2002), CALIPSO - ESSP3 (2004)




                                                                                                  NASA Site

                                                                                                  Proposed NASA Site

                                                                                                  ARM Site

                                                                                                  Nat. Inst. Polar Res. Japan

                                                                                                  Proposed NRL Site

                                                                                                  Field Experiment

                                                                                                     Ship Cruise




    E.J. Welton, UMBC/GEST - NASA/GSFC, Code 912            MPL-Net: http://virl.gsfc.nasa.gov/mpl-net/
• Micro-pulse Lidar Systems (MPL)
    • compact & semi-autonomous
    • 523 nm wavelength
    • PRF 2500 Hz
    • eye-safe, output energy in µJ
    • small FOV, no multiple scattering


Transceiver:
20cm Cassegrain Telescope on top
Laser Head, Detector, & Optics below



Scalar Unit:
Data Binning at 30, 75, 150, 300 m res



  Laser Power Supply:
  1 W Nd:YLF Laser Diode
  (Doubled to 523nm on Head)



Laptop Computer:
Data Acquisition & Storage (1 min res)




           E.J. Welton, Goddard Earth Sciences & Tech. Center NASA/GSFC, Code 912
                                         MPL-Net Data Products

* uncertainties calculated for all data products listed below, except Level 0
* data files available from MPL-Net web-site for all operational products, all file formats in NetCDF
* user can browse through images of all operational data products on web-site


• Level 0.0: Raw data, automated, download to GSFC and archived, but not available on the web-site (operational)

• Level 1.0: Real-time Normalized Relative Backscatter Signals (operational)

• Level 1.5a: Real-time Aerosol Height & Extinction Profile, Not Quality Assured (operational)

• Level 1.5b: Real-time Multiple Cloud Heights, Not Quality Assured (not operational, testing underway)

• Level 2.0a: Aerosol Height & Extinction Profile, Quality Assured (operational)

• Level 2.0b: Multiple Cloud Heights, Quality Assured (not operational, no testing yet)

• Level 3.0a: Continuous, Gridded, Multiple Cloud and Aerosol Data Products (not operational, testing on field exps)




              E.J. Welton, Goddard Earth Sciences & Tech. Center NASA/GSFC, Code 912
                                         Satellite Lidar Projects:




                                                       CALIPSO
                                                       Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared
                                                       Pathfinder Satellite Observations


• Platform                                                • Platform
     • ICESat, launch date 2002 ? … 8)                         • ESSP-3, launch date 2004
                                                               • formation fly with CloudSat & Aqua
• Mission
     • Polar Altimetry                                    • Mission
     • Cloud and Aerosol Profiler                              • Cloud and Aerosol Profiler
• Specs                                                   • Specs
     • 532 and 1064 nm lidar                                   • 532 and 1064 nm lidar
     • 40 pulses/second, 76m vertical resolution               • 20 pulses/second, vertical res. varies
                                                               • polarization meas. at 532 nm
• Key Data Products
    • cloud & aerosol layer heights, 0 - 40 km            • Key Data Products (still under development)
    • layer optical depths, extinction profiles               • cloud & aerosol layer heights, 0 - 40 km
                                                              • layer optical depths, extinction profiles
• Development and Science Teams (Lidar only)
    • Algorithm Development: GSFC Code 912                • Development and Science Teams
    • Science Team: GSFC Code 912                             • Algorithm Development: LaRC
                                                              • Science Team: LaRC and International

             E.J. Welton, Goddard Earth Sciences & Tech. Center NASA/GSFC, Code 912
                                         MPL-Net Data Products

* uncertainties calculated for all data products listed below, except Level 0
* data files available from MPL-Net web-site for all operational products, all file formats in NetCDF
* user can browse through images of all operational data products on web-site


• Level 0.0: Raw data, automated, download to GSFC and archived, but not available on the web-site (operational)

• Level 1.0: Real-time Normalized Relative Backscatter Signals (operational)

• Level 1.5a: Real-time Aerosol Height & Extinction Profile, Not Quality Assured (operational)

• Level 1.5b: Real-time Multiple Cloud Heights, Not Quality Assured (not operational, testing underway)

• Level 2.0a: Aerosol Height & Extinction Profile, Quality Assured (operational)

• Level 2.0b: Multiple Cloud Heights, Quality Assured (not operational, no testing yet)

• Level 3.0a: Continuous, Gridded, Multiple Cloud and Aerosol Data Products (not operational, testing on field exps)




              E.J. Welton, Goddard Earth Sciences & Tech. Center NASA/GSFC, Code 912
Real-time MPL-Net Data Products:

Level 1.0 - lidar signal




                                   E.J. Welton   GEST/UMBC   NASA/GSFC/912
Real-time MPL-Net Data Products:

Level 1.0 - lidar signal


Level 1.5a - extinction profiles
            correlated with
            AERONET data




                                   • uncertainties are calculated
                                     for all data products




                                      E.J. Welton   GEST/UMBC   NASA/GSFC/912
                    Example Level 1.5b Results: ARM SGP Dec 11, 2001 (Multiple Cloud Heights)

                20
                19
                18
                17
                16
                15
                14
                13
Altitude (km)




                12
                11
                10
                 9
                 8
                 7
                 6
                 5
                 4
                 3
                 2
                 1
                 0
                  345.0   345.1     345.2     345.3     345.4    345.5   345.6        345.7        345.8   345.9   346.0
                                                          Day of Year (UTC)




                                              0.0                 0.2                    0.3
                                                              NRB Signals


                          E.J. Welton, Goddard Earth Sciences & Tech. Center NASA/GSFC, Code 912
Example Level 1.5b Results: ARM SGP Dec 11, 2001 (Multiple Cloud Heights)
             (Data from existing ARM cloud height algorithm)



                False Positives




     E.J. Welton, Goddard Earth Sciences & Tech. Center NASA/GSFC, Code 912
                     Example Level 3.0 Results: GSFC May 1 - 4, 2001



                           GSFC May 1 - 4, 2001: NRB Signals
                14
                13
                                                                       1.00
                12
                11                                                     0.75
Altitude (km)   10
                 9
                 8
                 7                                                     0.50
                 6
                 5
                 4
                 3                                                     0.25
                 2
                 1
                                                                       0.00
                     121       122             123         124   125
                                       Day of Year (UTC)



                              Level 2.0 Calibration Values
                                 0.00 0.25 0.50  0.75 1.00
                                          NRB Signals
                            GSFC May 1 - 4, 2001: NRB Signals
                14                                                            1.00
                13
                12
                11                                                            0.75
                10




Altitude (km)
                 9
                 8
                 7                                                            0.50
                 6
                 5
                 4
                 3                                                            0.25
                 2
                 1
                                                                              0.00
                     121          122               123           124   125
                                            Day of Year (UTC)




                                   Extinction Profiles (1/km)
                                    0.00 0.25    0.50     0.75 1.00
                14                            NRB Signals                     0.5
                13
                12
                11                                                            0.4
                10
Altitude (km)




                 9                                                            0.3
                 8
                 7
                 6                                                            0.2
                 5
                 4
                 3                                                            0.1
                 2
                 1
                                                                              0.0
                     121          122               123           124
                                            Day of Year (UTC)



                                   Aerosol Optical Thickness
                                    0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
                                            Extinction   (1/km)

                           Black: MPL-Net
                           Red: AERONET
Validation of MPL-Net Data Products (primarily extinction):

Major effort on our part

Essential before using MPL-Net data to validate
satellite-based lidar systems

Previous validation efforts (pre MPL-Net):
• ACE-2 (1997): NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS)
• INDOEX (1999): Co-located nephelometer/PSAP measurements (NOAA PMEL)

Recent/Ongoing validation efforts:
• PRIDE (2000): NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS)
• SAFARI (2000): NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS)
                 Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL)
• ACE-Asia (2001): NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS)
                   Co-located nephelometer/PSAP measurements (NOAA PMEL)
                   Airborne nephelometer/PSAP measurements (Univ Washington)

AATS - B. Schmid, P. Russell, J. Redemann, J. Livingston (NASA Ames)
NOAA PMEL - T. Bates, P. Quinn
University of Washington - T. Anderson, S. Masonis
CPL - M. McGill, D. Hlavka, B. Hart (GSFC)
           Examples of Validation of MPL Extinction Profiles:
Comparisons with the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS)




                       Data from ACE2 (1997):        Data from PRIDE 2000:
                       Welton et al., 2000           Livingston et al., 2002




                       Data from SAFARI 2000:
                       Schmid et al., 2002
                       (includes comparions with
                       Results from the ER-2 based
                       Cloud Physics Lidar -CPL -
                       Also based in 912)
    Some Examples of Science and applications:

• Using MPL data to characterize aerosol regionally
   • put together results from different regions in the
   network and we build global view

• Tying MPLNET results together with aerosol
modeling and satellite data to study transport

• Using MPLNET as a ground calibration/validation
tool for GLAS and CALIPSO
Aerosol vertical structure over the Northern Indian Ocean?
       Data from INDOEX 1999 --- Welton et al., JGR, 2002


                   Aerosol extinction, humidity, and temperature according to key
                   air mass trajectories during the experiment
Aerosol vertical structure over the Northern Indian Ocean?
       Data from INDOEX 1999 --- Welton et al., JGR, 2002




                   Sa values recorded during the experiment in relation
                   To other measurements over the ocean
                              First Year Results from GSFC site: Seasonal Study
                                                      Apr 2001 - July 2002
                                     (using level 1.5a results, not screened for bad data)


                               Monthly averages of aerosol extinction profiles
                 12                                                                                         12
                 11                                                                                         11
                 10                                                                                         10
                  9                                                                                         9
                  8                                                                                         8
Altitud e (km)




                  7                                                                                         7
                  6                                                                                         6
                  5                                                                                         5
                  4                                                                                         4
                  3                                                                                         3
                  2                                                                                         2
                  1                                                                                         1

                      1   2      3       4        5        6           7      8        9     10   11   12
                                                               Month




                                      0.00        0.05        0.10        0.15        0.20
                                                   Aero sol Extinction (1/km)
      First Year Results from GSFC site: Seasonal Study
                        Apr 2001 - July 2002


Monthly averages of aerosol results from MPLNET & AERONET*




                                               * AERONET results from 2001 climatology
      First Year Results from GSFC site: Seasonal Study
                        Apr 2001 - July 2002


Monthly averages of aerosol results from MPLNET & AERONET*




                                               * AERONET results from 2001 climatology
        MPL-Net Validation Efforts for Satellite Lidar Projects:




                                           CALIPSO
                                           Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared
                                           Pathfinder Satellite Observations




MPL-Net can be used for the following:

Post-launch Validation:
• cloud and aerosol heights
• layer optical depths and extinction profiles

Help tackle the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (Sa) problem
• improve determination of Sa for specific aerosol types & geographic regions
• assess utility of using aerosol transport models to help infer aerosol type
     • result then used to calculate Sa




 E.J. Welton, Goddard Earth Sciences & Tech. Center NASA/GSFC, Code 912
        MPL-Net Validation Efforts for Satellite Lidar Projects:




                                           CALIPSO
                                           Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared
                                           Pathfinder Satellite Observations




MPL-Net can be used for the following:

Post-launch Validation:
• cloud and aerosol heights
• layer optical depths and extinction profiles

Help tackle the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (Sa) problem
• improve determination of Sa for specific aerosol types & geographic regions
• assess utility of using aerosol transport models to help infer aerosol type
     • result then used to calculate Sa




 E.J. Welton, Goddard Earth Sciences & Tech. Center NASA/GSFC, Code 912
           Issues Involved in Validating Satellite Lidar Using Ground-based Lidar:
               Example from SAFARI: Comparison between MPL and CPL




Degree of Horizontal and Temporal Homogeneity is a key factor

Same applies to comparisons between Lidar and Ground/Airborne Sunphotometers
(ACE-2, PRIDE, SAFARI, ACE-Asia, CLAMS)
        MPL-Net Validation Efforts for Satellite Lidar Projects:




                                           CALIPSO
                                           Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared
                                           Pathfinder Satellite Observations




MPL-Net can be used for the following:

Post-launch Validation:
• cloud and aerosol heights
• layer optical depths and extinction profiles

Help tackle the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (Sa) problem
• improve determination of Sa for specific aerosol types & geographic regions
• assess utility of using aerosol transport models to help infer aerosol type
     • result then used to calculate Sa




 E.J. Welton, Goddard Earth Sciences & Tech. Center NASA/GSFC, Code 912
   MPLNET Results from Various Field Experiments are being used to help determine Sa Values



                                   Southern Africa:
                                   Biomass, pollution, some
                                   dust




Caribbean:
Dust, sea-salt, some
pollution




                               China:
                               Dust, some pollution


                              Pacific, Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan:
                              Sea-salt, dust, pollution
        MPL-Net Validation Efforts for Satellite Lidar Projects:




                                           CALIPSO
                                           Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared
                                           Pathfinder Satellite Observations




MPL-Net can be used for the following:

Post-launch Validation:
• cloud and aerosol heights
• layer optical depths and extinction profiles

Help tackle the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (Sa) problem
• improve determination of Sa for specific aerosol types & geographic regions
• assess utility of using aerosol transport models to help infer aerosol type*
     • result then used to calculate Sa

     * closely tied to using lidars to study aerosol transport, example shown



 E.J. Welton, Goddard Earth Sciences & Tech. Center NASA/GSFC, Code 912
       Default Sa Lookup Table:
            Aerosol type required
Transport models may help identify aerosol type
    Comparisons between MPLNet observations and GOCART Results:
                     Early April 2001 - Massive Dust Storms in Asia

              MPL Systems Operating as part of MPLNet in April 2001


       NSA


                             GSFC                       Dunhuang
                                                                           Ship

                                                    M          T   G
                    SGP                     Sah




GSFC: MPL-Net Site                                   GOCART Dust Sources:
SGP and NSA: ARM Sites                               Sah: Saharan   T: Taklamakan
Ship: R/V Ronald Brown (ACE-Asia/SIMBIOS)            M: Middle East G: Gobi D: Distrubed Soils
Dunhuang: China, ACE-Asia (S. Tsay)                  (GOCART Data courtesy P. Ginoux, M. Chin)

  E.J. Welton, Goddard Earth Sciences & Tech. Center NASA/GSFC, Code 912
April 7, 2001

          Image by R. Husar, Washington Univ.
                               MPL-Net Level 1.0 Data for several sites during April 2001
                 16

                 14

                 12
                                                                                                          Dun Huang, China
Altitud e (km)
                                                                                                          April 9, 2001
                 10

                  8

                  6

                  4

                  2

                  99.00                99.25                 99.50                  99.75        100.00
                                                         Day of Year (UTC)

                 14

                 12                            0.00   0.03        0.05       0.08   0.10                  R/V Ron Brown
                 10
                                                                NRB Signal
                                                                                                          Sea of Japan
Altitud e (km)




                  8
                                                                                                          April 10, 2001
                  6

                  4

                  2

                  0
                      100.00            100.25                      100.50              100.75
                                                             Day of Year (UTC)




                                               0.00   0.03        0.05       0.08   0.10
                                                               NRB Signals




                                                                                                          and ……..
GOES Imagery April 13, 2001 at 1400 UTC
    (image courtesy A. Chu and S. Tsay 913)
                               MPL-Net Level 1.0 Data for several sites during April 2001
                 16

                 14

                 12
                                                                                                              Dun Huang, China
Altitud e (km)
                                                                                                              April 9, 2001
                 10

                  8

                  6

                  4

                  2

                  99.00                99.25                 99.50                  99.75        100.00
                                                         Day of Year (UTC)

                 14

                 12                            0.00   0.03        0.05       0.08   0.10                      R/V Ron Brown
                 10
                                                                NRB Signal
                                                                                                              Sea of Japan
Altitud e (km)




                  8
                                                                                                              April 10, 2001
                  6

                  4

                  2

                  0
                      100.00            100.25                      100.50              100.75
                                                             Day of Year (UTC)


                 14

                 12                            0.00   0.03        0.05       0.08   0.10                      ARM Southern Great Plains
                                                               NRB Signals
                 10                                                                                           Oklahoma
Altitud e (km)




                  8
                                                                                                              April 13, 2001
                  6

                  4

                  2


                  103.00               103.25                 103.50                  103.75         104.00
                                                         Day of Year (UTC)




                                           0.000                 0.125              0.250
                                                               NRB Signals
                                                                                                              and ……..
          GSFC Data: April 13-14, 2001 (First Observation of Asian Dust at GSFC)
                         15                                                                                                15
                         14                                                                                                14
                         13                        April 13, 2001               April 14, 2001                             13
                         12                                                                                                12
                         11                                                                                                11
                         10                                                                                                10
                          9                                                                                                9


             Altitud e
                          8                                                                                                8
                          7                                                                                                7
                          6                                                                                                6
                          5                                                                                                5
                          4                                                                                                4
                          3                                                                                                3
                          2                                                                                                2
                          1                                                                                                1
                          0                                                                                                0
                           103.0   103.2   103.4   103.6      103.8     104.0    104.2         104.4   104.6   104.8   105.0
                                                                  Day of Year (UTC)



                                                          GSFC AERONET AOD and Angstrom Exponent: April 13-14, 2001
Discontinuity in AERONET                           0.00       0.25      0.50       0.75
                                                            NRB Signal (Uncalibrated Signal)
                                                                                                1.00

data at same time as appearance
of aerosol layer at 5-6 km

AOD increases by ~ 0.05

Angstrom Exponent drops below
1, indicating sudden presence of
large particles
a             GSFC Data: April 13-14, 2001 (First Observation of Asian Dust at GSFC)
                             15                                                                                                15
                             14                                                                                                14
                             13                        April 13, 2001               April 14, 2001                             13
                             12                                                                                                12
                             11                                                                                                11
                             10                                                                                                10
                              9                                                                                                9


                 Altitud e
                              8                                                                                                8
                              7                                                                                                7
                              6                                                                                                6
                              5                                                                                                5
                              4                                                                                                4
                              3                                                                                                3
                              2                                                                                                2
                              1                                                                                                1
                              0                                                                                                0
                               103.0   103.2   103.4   103.6      103.8     104.0    104.2         104.4   104.6   104.8   105.0
                                                                      Day of Year (UTC)



                                                              GSFC AERONET AOD and Angstrom Exponent: April 13-14, 2001
    Discontinuity in AERONET                           0.00       0.25      0.50       0.75
                                                                NRB Signal (Uncalibrated Signal)
                                                                                                    1.00

    data at same time as appearance
    of aerosol layer at 5-6 km

    AOD increases by ~ 0.05

    Angstrom Exponent drops below
    1, indicating sudden presence of
    large particles
Ship: Sea of Japan April 10

                              * GOCART still shows
                              more Saharan dust than
                              all 3 of these sources




                 Comparisons between results
                 from MPLNET and GOCART

GSFC: April 13
                                  Conclusion:
• Aerosols are an important part of the earth system for studies of climate, health, and
traffic hazards
• Determining aerosol vertical distribution is required for a complete understanding of
their effects and how they transport
                                    Conclusion:
• Aerosols are an important part of the earth system for studies of climate, health, and
traffic hazards
• Determining aerosol vertical distribution is required for a complete understanding of
their effects and how they transport

• Lidars are capable of providing information on aerosol vertical distribution
• At this time: the simplest type, the backscatter lidar, is best suited for coordinated global,
routine, long-term measurements
                                    Conclusion:
• Aerosols are an important part of the earth system for studies of climate, health, and
traffic hazards
• Determining aerosol vertical distribution is required for a complete understanding of
their effects and how they transport

• Lidars are capable of providing information on aerosol vertical distribution
• At this time: the simplest type, the backscatter lidar, is best suited for coordinated global,
routine, long-term measurements

• Projects such as MPLNET, GLAS, and CALIPSO are capable of generating useful data
on global, regional, and even case study scales
                                    Conclusion:
• Aerosols are an important part of the earth system for studies of climate, health, and
traffic hazards
• Determining aerosol vertical distribution is required for a complete understanding of
their effects and how they transport

• Lidars are capable of providing information on aerosol vertical distribution
• At this time: the simplest type, the backscatter lidar, is best suited for coordinated global,
routine, long-term measurements

• Projects such as MPLNET, GLAS, and CALIPSO are capable of generating useful data
on global, regional, and even case study scales

• When (or if) GLAS and CALIPSO begin data collection we will enter a new stage of
lidar analysis
      • large data sets, massive spatial scales, and seemingly unending temporal coverage
      • how to handle all that data, and work with it, is the focus of much thought
                                    Conclusion:
• Aerosols are an important part of the earth system for studies of climate, health, and
traffic hazards
• Determining aerosol vertical distribution is required for a complete understanding of
their effects and how they transport

• Lidars are capable of providing information on aerosol vertical distribution
• At this time: the simplest type, the backscatter lidar, is best suited for coordinated global,
routine, long-term measurements

• Projects such as MPLNET, GLAS, and CALIPSO are capable of generating useful data
on global, regional, and even case study scales

• When (or if) GLAS and CALIPSO begin data collection we will enter a new stage of
lidar analysis
      • large data sets, massive spatial scales, and seemingly unending temporal coverage
      • how to handle all that data, and work with it, is the focus of much thought

• To the future: if (when) these types of projects are successful and useful, then serious
thought should be given to implementing more sophisticated lidars into global
measurement strategies
                                    Conclusion:
• Aerosols are an important part of the earth system for studies of climate, health, and
traffic hazards
• Determining aerosol vertical distribution is required for a complete understanding of
their effects and how they transport

• Lidars are capable of providing information on aerosol vertical distribution
• At this time: the simplest type, the backscatter lidar, is best suited for coordinated global,
routine, long-term measurements

• Projects such as MPLNET, GLAS, and CALIPSO are capable of generating useful data
on global, regional, and even case study scales

• When (or if) GLAS and CALIPSO begin data collection we will enter a new stage of
lidar analysis
      • large data sets, massive spatial scales, and seemingly unending temporal coverage
      • how to handle all that data, and work with it, is the focus of much thought

• To the future: if (when) these types of projects are successful and useful, then serious
thought should be given to implementing more sophisticated lidars into global
measurement strategies
      • what if the data from these more simple lidars turns out to be sufficient to answer
      the big questions (aerosol only)? or worse - no uses the data?

				
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posted:8/15/2011
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