What is it?
How would you define intelligence?
What behavior is the best
evidence of intelligence?
• Problem solving All of these? None of these?
• Common sense Something else?
• Knowledge of facts
• Quick thinking
• Emotional stability
What is your definition of intelligence?
How would YOU measure
intelligence? What kind of test
would it be?
This is your operational definition
Intelligence Definitions: View #1
• Charles Spearman
• Intelligence is a single power or ability
• The basic factor that underlies ALL behavior is
called the “g” factor (general intelligence)
Theories that explain intelligence as a single
power or ability that underlies all behavior
have been very popular. People usually
think of intelligence in this way.
Intelligence Definitions: View #2
• # of neuron connections determines
• Intelligence is a function of the
Intelligence Definitions: View #3
• Intelligence is not just one factor, but a
combination of multiple intelligences such as:
– Interpersonal / emotional
• Big Names: Howard Gardner,
Robert Sternberg, Daniel Goleman
History of Intelligence Testing
• Early ideas focused on physical qualities
Strong and fast = smart
Modern Standardized Testing
• First standardized test created by a team led
by Alfred Binet
• France - Early 1900’s
• Problem: How to teach mentally disabled
children in the public schools
IQ = intelligence quotient
• Binet’s first tests compared mental age to
Mental Age ÷ Chronological Age x 100 = IQ
Average IQ = 100
Distribution of IQ Scores
“Distribution” means how the scores are spread out.
If you were to test a large number of people, and
then graphed the results, you would see something
68% of IQ scores fall between 85-115
95% of IQ scores fall between 70-130
99.7% of IQ scores fall between 55-145
Categories of IQ Tests
• Group tests are taken by individuals, but can
be given to many people at one time.
– Paper and pencil - can be scored by machine
– Takes less time (cheaper!)
– Less accurate
• Individual tests are taken one-on-one
with a psychologist.
– More time consuming, more expensive,
• During World Wars I and II, the Army needed
to identify mental abilities of soldiers
• The Army created screening tests to
determine who was/was not
• Do you think these were
group or individual
Specific IQ Tests
– updated version of the original Binet test
– Developed by Lewis Terman, Stanford , 1916
• WISC and WAIS
– Traditional IQ test used in most schools
– Developed by David Wechsler,
WISC and WAIS
• Verbal Scale • Performance Scale
– Information – Picture completion
– Similarities – Picture arrangement
– Arithmetic – Block design
– Vocabulary – Object assembly
– Comprehension – Coding
Achievement and Aptitude Tests
• Aptitude tests measure • Achievement tests
ability or potential measure what you have
– Intelligence tests accomplished
– Vocational aptitude – School subject tests
– Predict your ability – Reflect what you have
to learn (future) learned (past)
Differences between aptitude and achievement tests
are not clear cut. Making a test that exclusively
measures one of these qualities is virtually impossible!
3 Qualities of a Good Test
• Reliability = the test is • Validity = the test
consistently dependable measures or predicts
– Test/retest what it is supposed to
– Split half – Content validity
– Predictive validity
Standardization = defining meaningful
scores relative to a pretested group
Test this Friday over thinking,
language, and intelligence!
• Read chapters 10 and 11 in your textbook
• Read chapter 11 in Barron’s study
guide and try the practice
• Go to our textbook website
and try some of the practice
INTERESTING. . .