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Intelligence What is it? How would you define intelligence? What behavior is the best evidence of intelligence? • Logic • Problem solving All of these? None of these? • Common sense Something else? • Creativity • Knowledge of facts • Quick thinking • Emotional stability What is your definition of intelligence? How would YOU measure intelligence? What kind of test would it be? This is your operational definition Intelligence Definitions: View #1 • Charles Spearman • Intelligence is a single power or ability • The basic factor that underlies ALL behavior is called the “g” factor (general intelligence) Theories that explain intelligence as a single power or ability that underlies all behavior have been very popular. People usually think of intelligence in this way. Intelligence Definitions: View #2 • # of neuron connections determines intelligence • Intelligence is a function of the physical brain Intelligence Definitions: View #3 • Intelligence is not just one factor, but a combination of multiple intelligences such as: – Kinesthetic – Visual – Interpersonal / emotional – Linguistic • Big Names: Howard Gardner, Robert Sternberg, Daniel Goleman History of Intelligence Testing • Early ideas focused on physical qualities Strong and fast = smart Modern Standardized Testing • First standardized test created by a team led by Alfred Binet • France - Early 1900’s • Problem: How to teach mentally disabled children in the public schools IQ = intelligence quotient • Binet’s first tests compared mental age to chronological age Mental Age ÷ Chronological Age x 100 = IQ Average IQ = 100 Distribution of IQ Scores “Distribution” means how the scores are spread out. If you were to test a large number of people, and then graphed the results, you would see something like this: 68% of IQ scores fall between 85-115 95% of IQ scores fall between 70-130 99.7% of IQ scores fall between 55-145 Categories of IQ Tests • Group tests are taken by individuals, but can be given to many people at one time. – Paper and pencil - can be scored by machine – Takes less time (cheaper!) – Less accurate • Individual tests are taken one-on-one with a psychologist. – More time consuming, more expensive, more accurate World War • During World Wars I and II, the Army needed to identify mental abilities of soldiers • The Army created screening tests to determine who was/was not officer quality • Do you think these were group or individual tests? Specific IQ Tests • Stanford-Binet – updated version of the original Binet test – Developed by Lewis Terman, Stanford , 1916 • WISC and WAIS – Traditional IQ test used in most schools – Developed by David Wechsler, 1945-1955 WISC and WAIS • Verbal Scale • Performance Scale – Information – Picture completion – Similarities – Picture arrangement – Arithmetic – Block design – Vocabulary – Object assembly – Comprehension – Coding Achievement and Aptitude Tests • Aptitude tests measure • Achievement tests ability or potential measure what you have – Intelligence tests accomplished – Vocational aptitude – School subject tests – Predict your ability – Reflect what you have to learn (future) learned (past) Differences between aptitude and achievement tests are not clear cut. Making a test that exclusively measures one of these qualities is virtually impossible! 3 Qualities of a Good Test • Reliability = the test is • Validity = the test consistently dependable measures or predicts – Test/retest what it is supposed to – Split half – Content validity – Predictive validity Standardization = defining meaningful scores relative to a pretested group Test this Friday over thinking, language, and intelligence! • Read chapters 10 and 11 in your textbook • Read chapter 11 in Barron’s study guide and try the practice questions. • Go to our textbook website and try some of the practice questions! INTERESTING. . .
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