Intelligence

Document Sample
Intelligence Powered By Docstoc
					   Intelligence
           What is it?
How would you define intelligence?
        What behavior is the best
        evidence of intelligence?
•   Logic
•   Problem solving       All of these? None of these?

•   Common sense          Something else?

•   Creativity
•   Knowledge of facts
•   Quick thinking
•   Emotional stability
What is your definition of intelligence?

How would YOU measure
intelligence? What kind of test
would it be?

This is your operational definition
 Intelligence Definitions: View #1
• Charles Spearman
• Intelligence is a single power or ability
• The basic factor that underlies ALL behavior is
  called the “g” factor (general intelligence)

     Theories that explain intelligence as a single
     power or ability that underlies all behavior
     have been very popular. People usually
     think of intelligence in this way.
 Intelligence Definitions: View #2



• # of neuron connections determines
  intelligence
• Intelligence is a function of the
  physical brain
 Intelligence Definitions: View #3
• Intelligence is not just one factor, but a
  combination of multiple intelligences such as:
  – Kinesthetic
  – Visual
  – Interpersonal / emotional
  – Linguistic
• Big Names: Howard Gardner,
Robert Sternberg, Daniel Goleman
   History of Intelligence Testing
• Early ideas focused on physical qualities
     Strong and fast = smart
   Modern Standardized Testing
• First standardized test created by a team led
  by Alfred Binet
• France - Early 1900’s
• Problem: How to teach mentally disabled
  children in the public schools
       IQ = intelligence quotient
• Binet’s first tests compared mental age to
  chronological age

  Mental Age ÷ Chronological Age x 100 = IQ


      Average IQ = 100
      Distribution of IQ Scores
“Distribution” means how the scores are spread out.
 If you were to test a large number of people, and
 then graphed the results, you would see something
 like this:
68% of IQ scores fall between 85-115
95% of IQ scores fall between 70-130
99.7% of IQ scores fall between 55-145
         Categories of IQ Tests
• Group tests are taken by individuals, but can
  be given to many people at one time.
  – Paper and pencil - can be scored by machine
  – Takes less time (cheaper!)
  – Less accurate
• Individual tests are taken one-on-one
  with a psychologist.
  – More time consuming, more expensive,
    more accurate
                World War
• During World Wars I and II, the Army needed
  to identify mental abilities of soldiers
• The Army created screening tests to
  determine who was/was not
  officer quality
• Do you think these were
  group or individual
  tests?
             Specific IQ Tests
• Stanford-Binet
  – updated version of the original Binet test
  – Developed by Lewis Terman, Stanford , 1916
• WISC and WAIS
  – Traditional IQ test used in most schools
  – Developed by David Wechsler,
     1945-1955
               WISC and WAIS
• Verbal Scale         • Performance Scale
   –   Information       –   Picture completion
   –   Similarities      –   Picture arrangement
   –   Arithmetic        –   Block design
   –   Vocabulary        –   Object assembly
   –   Comprehension     –   Coding
 Achievement and Aptitude Tests
• Aptitude tests measure      • Achievement tests
  ability or potential          measure what you have
   – Intelligence tests         accomplished
   – Vocational aptitude         – School subject tests
   – Predict your ability        – Reflect what you have
     to learn (future)             learned (past)


Differences between aptitude and achievement tests
are not clear cut. Making a test that exclusively
measures one of these qualities is virtually impossible!
       3 Qualities of a Good Test
• Reliability = the test is   • Validity = the test
  consistently dependable       measures or predicts
   – Test/retest                what it is supposed to
   – Split half                  – Content validity
                                 – Predictive validity



   Standardization = defining meaningful
   scores relative to a pretested group
Test this Friday over thinking,
 language, and intelligence!
• Read chapters 10 and 11 in your textbook
• Read chapter 11 in Barron’s study
  guide and try the practice
  questions.
• Go to our textbook website
  and try some of the practice
  questions!
INTERESTING. . .