VIEWS: 26 PAGES: 4 POSTED ON: 8/15/2011
HPW3C Living & Working with Children L. Ryan Reproductive Rights Timeline The 20th Century gave light to some significant changes in reproductive rights and technology, including changes in practices, politics and social acceptance. Using the internet, read the key event and locate the accurate date for it. Some will be centuries (e.g. Late 19th Century), others will be specific dates. Your final product will be a composite historical timeline of the evolution of reproductive rights. Date/Century Key Event, Prevailing Attitudes The age of witch-hunting; witches represented a political, religious and sexual threat to the Protestant & Catholic churches, as well as the state; witches were accused of every conceivable sexual crime against men (impotence, infertility, infection etc) and that all witch’s powers were ultimately derived from her sexuality, which was condemned. Rise of the European medical profession; medicine became a profession, requiring university training, which made it easy to bar women legally from practice. Male takeover of healing roles; by turn of the century, medicine was closed to all but a tiny minority of women and what was left was nursing professions which was in no way a substitute for the autonomous roles women had enjoyed as mid-wives and general healers. Female midwives in England organized and charged the male practitioners with commercialism (lucrative business tactics) and dangerous misuse of forceps and traditional practices. Popular Health Movement was created and became a medical front for feminists and working class movements that created courses such as the “Ladies Physiological Societies” providing simple instruction in anatomy and personal hygiene; emphasis was preventative care and the movement was a radical assault on medical elitism; women still prevented from established medical schools (e.g. Harvard) and forced to attend smaller, secular schools to train. The rare woman who did make it into a “regular” medical school faced one sexist hurdle after another including harassment, a failure to discuss anatomy with a lady present, sexist textbooks. “Women’s Health Movement” began and Elizabeth Blackwell became demanded an end to lay midwifery and a “complete medical education” for all who practiced obstetrics. Parliament passes Canada’s first Criminal code prohibiting abortion as well as the sale, distribution and advertising of contraceptives. A significant number of women continue to seek both regardless of the law. Medicine had become a predominantly white, male, middle class profession due to social, economical and political upheaval of the time HPW3C Living & Working with Children L. Ryan period and nursing became the profession for women. Margaret Sanger began work in a poor slum area of Manhattan and wrote a column for the 'New York Call' called 'What Every Girl Should Know. She also distributed a pamphlet to poor women - Family Limitation - which included information about contraception and risked being arrested because of it. Margaret Sanger opened the International Planned Parenthood Association. First marketing of a contraceptive pill, which Margaret Sanger helped to develop was released. Roe vs. Wade is the historic Supreme Court decision overturning a Texas interpretation of abortion law and making abortion legal in the United States. The Roe v. Wade decision held that a woman, with her doctor, could choose abortion in earlier months of pregnancy without restriction, and with restrictions in later months, based on the right to privacy. Supreme Court struck down the Connecticut law prohibiting the use of contraception, even by married couples. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau’s Liberal gov’t decriminalizes contraception and allows abortion under certain circumstances. Abortions may be performed in a hospital if a committee of doctors decides that continuing the pregnancy may endanger the mother’s life and health. Access is limited. Abortion activist Dr. Henry Morgentaler defies the law and opens an abortion clinic in Montreal. His clinic is raided in 1970 and he is charged with several offences. It marks the beginning of 20 yrs of legal battle. 35 women chain themselves to the parliamentary gallery in Ottawa as part of a two-day demonstration for abortion rights. Morgentaler announces he has successfully performed more than 5,000 abortions. Morgantaler begins serving an 18-month jail sentence after the Supreme Court of Canada rejects his appeal. Earlier, Quebec court had convicted him of conspiracy to commit an abortion. While he’s in jail, Quebec prosecutes him on a second count of conspiracy to commit abortion. This time, he’s acquitted – and the Quebec Court of Appeals does not overturn the verdict. A petition against abortion rights with more than one million signatures is delivered to Parliament. The federal justice minister sets aside Morgantaler’s original conviction and orders a re-trial. Morgantaler is released from jail after serving 10 mths. Morgantaler is acquitted of the original charges laid after his Montreal clinic was raided in 1970. In November, Quebec’s newely elected Parti Quebecois gov’t drops all outstanding charges against Morgantaler. Canada enacts the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Any law found HPW3C Living & Working with Children L. Ryan contravening those rights can be struck down as invalid. Police raid Morgantaler’s newly opened Toronto clinic and charge him. Over the next 5 yrs, the case winds its way to the Supreme court. Former Manitoba politician Joe Borowski launches a case asking the courts to declare the 1969 amendments to the Criminal Code invalid. He argues that the outlay of public money for abortion is unlawful because it contravenes the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which he argues guarantees a fetus’s right to life. A Gallup poll shows that 72% of Canadians believe the decision to abort should rest soley with the pregnant woman and her doctor. The Supreme Court of Canada strikes down Canada’s abortion law as unconstitutional. The law is found to violate Section 7 of the Charter of Rights & Freedoms because it infringes upon a woman’s right to “life, liberty and security of person”. Canada becomes one of a small number of countries without a law restricting abortion. Abortion law is now treated like any other medical procedure and is governed by provincial and medical regulations. Supreme Court of Canada refuses to rule on Borowski’s case, which argues that fetuses have a constitutionally guaranteed right to life. The court says his case is moot since the abortion law had already been struck down. Supreme Court of Canada rules that a man has no legal right to veto a woman’s abortion decision. The ruling comes after the boyfriend of Chantal Daigle obtained a court injunction preventing her from getting an abortion. Nova Scotia bans abortions in clinics outside of hospitals. The federal government introduces Bill C-43, which would sentence doctors to 2 yrs in jail for performing abortions, where a woman’s health is not at risk. The bill is passed by the House of Commons, but dies in the Senate after a tie vote. Morgantaler’s Toronto clinic is firebombed. New Brunswick bans abortion clinics outside of hospitals. 1st Canadian doctor is shot for performing abortions in Vancouver. Provincial and federal rulings force Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to allow private abortion clinics. However, access outside of hospitals continues to be inconsistent across the country and woman may have to pay out-of-pocket. Conservative leader Stephen Harper tries to steer clear of the abortion controversy while campaigning for federal election, claiming he has no plans for changing existing laws. The statement comes after his party’s health critic says women considering an abortion should receive third-party counselling. The last hospital in New Brunswick to perform publicly funded abortions announces it will suspend the service as of July 1 st. New Brunswick is the only province in Canada that refuses to pay for HPW3C Living & Working with Children L. Ryan abortions performed in clinics, despite the 1988 Supreme Court of Canada ruling. Ken Epp introduces a private members bill in the House of Commons that calls for the slaying of a fetus to be considered a separate offence from the slaying of a pregnant woman. The Unborn Victims of Crime Act survives a vote in the House of Commons, but ultimately doesn’t get made into a law. Pro-choice advocates denounce the planned bill as a means to enshrine fetus rights, while the Canadian Medical Association opposes it. Morgantaler, now 85, receives a distinguished award – an honour that sparks outrage among anti-abortion advocates. New legislation drafted to replace Ken Epps’s bill – the proposed bill allows judges to consider a victim’s pregnancy when determining a sentence. New Brunswick Court of Appeal finishes hearings into Morgantaler’s proposed lawsuit against the provincial gov’t, which only pays for abortions that are performed in hospitals and are approved by two physicians. Morgantaler wants to sue the province for not covering the costs. Further Research: 1. What happened in the Chantal Daigle case? What happened in a similar case in Ontario? 2. Who was the Prime Minister that introduced Bill C-43? 3. What was the name of the man who murdered a Buffalo doctor on June 19th, 2007 for performing abortions and what happened to him? 4. On what street is Dr. Morgantaler’s Toronto clinic located? 5. What was the name of the 1st Canadian doctor shot for performing abortions. 6. What recent award did Dr. Morgantaler receive on July 1st, 2008? What were the reactions from society? 7. What was the Roe vs. Wade case all about? Summarize. 8. What was the name of the last hospital in New Brunswick to suspend abortion services as of July 1st.
Pages to are hidden for
"Reproductive Rights"Please download to view full document