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Theodore Roosevelt “Teddy or TR”

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					Theodore Roosevelt
  “Teddy or TR”
 26th President of the United
           States
Warm Up
 How did Roosevelt view the role of gov’t
 in reform?
 What progressive reforms did Roosevelt
 create, and what are their lasting effects
 today?
 What does the phrase, “Speak softly,
 and carry a big stick..” mean?
Early Life
 B. 10/27/1858 D. 1/6/1919
 Born into a wealthy family living in New
 York City
 Mother, Martha, came from a wealthy
 plantation owning family
 Father, Theodore Sr., was a well known
 philanthropist, founded hospitals and
 museums in New York City
   Metropolitan Museum of Art, American Museum of
   Natural Art, and NY Children Orthopedic Hospital
Early Life cont..
 TR was a very sick, and weak boy
   Suffered from a bad case of asthma
   Had poor eyesight
 This forced his parents to hire private tutors
 and self-educate their child
 These illnesses that he faced, will lead TR to
 embrace a strenuous life
   Boxing, weight lifting, outdoorsy things
   All to help him develop physically fit and strong
Early Life cont..
 As a boy, he showed curiosity and an intense
 desire for learning
 Was able to attend Harvard University
 Graduated in 1880, and went onto Columbia
 Law School
   Stayed here briefly, and then went into politics
 Met and married his 1st Wife, Alice Hathaway
 Lee
 They a daughter, Alice
 TR was serving in the NY state assembly
 when his daughter was born (2/12/1884)
Early Life cont..
 2/14/1884-- Alice (wife) died from a kidney disease
 AND TR’s mother died a couple hours later
 On the same day, TR lost the two most important
 women in his life
 His diary entry that day had a huge X written in it and
 this phrase: "The light has gone out of my life.”
 He could never again look at Alice's photographs and
 gave them away, and would seldom if ever mention
 her name again.
 He put his infant daughter in the care of his sister
 Anna for two years and went to the Dakota Territory
 to escape his personal tragedy
Life in the Dakota’s
 TR took the death of his wife hard
   Went 2,500 miles to try and escape it
 Here, he began working as a typical cowboy
   Ranching, herding, riding--the typical Western life
 BUT…
 He would have his shirts hand-made, and mailed out
 to him from New York
 He was not accepted by the other real cowboys
   They made fun of him, and called him a dandy
 Despite the mockery, TR grew to love this life and the
 challenges
 His experiences out west would impact his future
 presidency
Dakota’s cont..
 The lessons TR learned in the west
 shaped the man he would eventually
 become
 His experience had taught him self-
 reliance and helped him conquer
 feelings of self-doubt
 When he returned to the political scene
 of New York, he was a tougher and
 more able man than before
Political Scene
 In 1886 he remarried--a childhood sweetheart
 named Edith Kermit Carow
 They had five children, and lived the rest of
 their lives together
 In the NY State Assembly, Roosevelt fought
 against the corrupt political machines
   What is political machine?
 Was a member of the U.S. Civil Service
 Commission (1889-95)
 Appointed assistant secretary of the navy by
 President William McKinley
   TR spoke up for a bigger navy, and became a war
   hawk for war against Spain
War with Spain
 U.S. declared war on Spain in 1898
 TR organized the 1st Volunteer Cavalry,
 known as the Rough Riders
 They were sent to fight in Cuba
 The Rough Riders became famous for their
 charge up Kettle Hill/San Juan Hill
   Even though an all black regiment actually went
   up first, and killed all the Spanish
 TR became a national hero
After the War
 TR was so popular after the war that the
 (corrupt)Republicans of NY made him run for
 Governor in 1898
 They thought they could control him
 He won!!! Bad for them!! WHY?
   They were all corrupt, and that is what he will fight
   against!
 He became an energetic reformer
   Removed corrupt officials and created laws to eliminate
   monopolies and trusts
 The Republican bosses now had to get rid of him--
   How do you get rid of one of the most popular people
   in America, who just happens to be the person you
   made Governor?
After the War cont..
 You make him the Vice-Presidential
 candidate (1900)-- haha!
   They viewed this job as ceremonial; that the V.P.
   of the U.S.A does nothing!
   At least he will be out of NY
 William McKinley won the Presidency, and
 TR was his VeePee :)
 TR hated this job!!
 He was relatively powerless
 Until….September of 1901
President TR
 A man named Leon Czolgosz assassinated
 McKinley
 At 42, TR became the youngest President of
 the United States
 Uh Oh!!
 This worried many people
   Conservatives, Corrupt officials, BIG BUSINESS
   owners
 America is about to get introduced to a man
 who spent his adult life trying to make up for
 all the short comings his childhood brought
President TR cont..
 Many felt he was an aggressive hot-head: that he
 would act without thinking
 He was quite the opposite
 He was very responsible and that kept his anger
 in check--he always thought things through
 He moved slowly, and would always get what he
 wanted by using his executive power
   Huh?
   He was the President!!
 He promised to continue with McKinley’s policies,
 BUT this was his time
Change
 TR renamed the executive mansion
   Now called it the White House
   And he opened it’s doors to all kinds of
   people
     Cowboys, boxers, writers, explorers, artists:
     HIS kind of people
 TR wanted to change a few things, and
 this is what he will be famous for
Change cont..
 1. Need to get rid of the trusts that
 monopolized businesses and the economy
   Railroads, Oil companies, tobacco industry
   They have WAY too much power
   He was known as the Trust-buster: enforced the
   Sherman Antitrust Act
 2. America must be THE world power
 3. All political corruption must end
   Patronage and spoils system
 4. Conserve (protect) the natural beauty
 America has
The Square Deal
 TR felt that industries should be controlled for
 the public interest
 He felt that it was his right to be a mediator-
 an umpire- in certain affairs
 P. 641-- “..I believe in a square deal..”
 He wanted fairness for all workers,
 businesses, and consumers (buyers)
 It was now time to get rid of all the corruption
 Brought back and enforced the Sherman
 Antitrust Act
Square Deal cont..
 The trustbuster set his sights on other
 monopolies
   What was his weapon against these trusts?
 TR went after the railroads, and broke up their
 monopoly
 He went after tobacco trusts, and broke them up
 He even went after Standard Oil!
   He won that battle too
 TR was not against big business; he was
 opposed to any trust that worked against national
 interest
 All in all he “busted” 44 trusts during his
 presidency
Foreign Policy
 He believed that “civilized” nations had a
 responsibility for taking care of “barbarous” ones
   Explain
 The U.S is no longer an isolated country
   They have colonies-- why is this ironic?
      Philippines, Cuba
   They now can move about the world and enforce
   their will upon other countries, if needed
 By the end of his presidency he had built the
 U.S. Navy into a major force at sea and
 reorganized the army along efficient, modern
 lines
 Launched his Great White Fleet in 1907 to prove
 to the world the U.S. had arrived
Monroe Doctrine
 The Monroe Doctrine (1823) warned all
 European powers to “leave America for the
 Americans.”
   That the U.S. could no longer be colonized
 It also stated that the U.S. could “police” any
 country who tried to colonize a weaker country
 The U.S. had trouble enforcing this because it did
 not have the navy to do so
 BUT.. TR just improved and built up the navy
 Now it’s his turn to add to the Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt Corollary
 European powers threatened to invade smaller,
 Latin American countries
   They said to collect “war debts”--What did they really
   want?
 TR said oh no you don’t!
 Created the Roosevelt Corollary (to the Monroe
 Doctrine)
   No one (Europe) is allowed to interfere in Latin
   American affairs
   AND..the U.S. would police the area and make sure no
   Latin American country was doing anything wrong
 This created a sphere of influence and critics
 called the U.S., hemispheric policemen
“Speak Softly, and carry a big stick..”
 TR claimed this was the right way to conduct
 foreign policy
    Don’t say much, just show up with guns!
 He used this philosophy, in 1903, by helping
 Panama secede from Columbia
 Panama rewarded the U.S. by giving them a
 canal zone
    TR needed a shortcut to get his navy from the Atlantic
    to the Pacific
 PRESTO!!! The Panama Canal was built
 TR visited Panama in 1906 becoming the 1st
 President to leave the country while still in office
           Preserving America
Roosevelt was the first President concerned with
the environment-- he was a conservationist or
preservationist
He observed how the country was loosing it’s
natural resources
  Forests were disappearing, wildlife was vanishing
Through a series of Acts and Presidential orders,
TR was able to:
  Preserve more than 200 million acres of public land
  Establish the nations 1st wildlife refuge (Pelican Island,
  Fla)
  Doubled the number of national parks
  Grand Canyon, Yosemite, Petrified Forest in AZ-
         End of his Presidency
TR’s term ended in 1909
Many feel he abused his presidential powers
A regiment of some 160 African American soldiers
were involved in a brawl, where a man was killed
  TR dishonorably discharged all of them
  Some even held the medal of honor
Congress declared his actions to be too severe
He replied-- “The only reason I didn’t have them all
hung…was because I did not know who fired the
shot!
This incident, and the fact that he bypassed
Congress and abused his executive powers, are what
some historians believe modern Presidents use as an
example for their abuses of power
See Ya Later, TR

				
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