VIEWS: 24 PAGES: 67 POSTED ON: 8/15/2011
Theodore Roosevelt “Teddy or TR” 26th President of the United States Warm Up How did Roosevelt view the role of gov’t in reform? What progressive reforms did Roosevelt create, and what are their lasting effects today? What does the phrase, “Speak softly, and carry a big stick..” mean? Early Life B. 10/27/1858 D. 1/6/1919 Born into a wealthy family living in New York City Mother, Martha, came from a wealthy plantation owning family Father, Theodore Sr., was a well known philanthropist, founded hospitals and museums in New York City Metropolitan Museum of Art, American Museum of Natural Art, and NY Children Orthopedic Hospital Early Life cont.. TR was a very sick, and weak boy Suffered from a bad case of asthma Had poor eyesight This forced his parents to hire private tutors and self-educate their child These illnesses that he faced, will lead TR to embrace a strenuous life Boxing, weight lifting, outdoorsy things All to help him develop physically fit and strong Early Life cont.. As a boy, he showed curiosity and an intense desire for learning Was able to attend Harvard University Graduated in 1880, and went onto Columbia Law School Stayed here briefly, and then went into politics Met and married his 1st Wife, Alice Hathaway Lee They a daughter, Alice TR was serving in the NY state assembly when his daughter was born (2/12/1884) Early Life cont.. 2/14/1884-- Alice (wife) died from a kidney disease AND TR’s mother died a couple hours later On the same day, TR lost the two most important women in his life His diary entry that day had a huge X written in it and this phrase: "The light has gone out of my life.” He could never again look at Alice's photographs and gave them away, and would seldom if ever mention her name again. He put his infant daughter in the care of his sister Anna for two years and went to the Dakota Territory to escape his personal tragedy Life in the Dakota’s TR took the death of his wife hard Went 2,500 miles to try and escape it Here, he began working as a typical cowboy Ranching, herding, riding--the typical Western life BUT… He would have his shirts hand-made, and mailed out to him from New York He was not accepted by the other real cowboys They made fun of him, and called him a dandy Despite the mockery, TR grew to love this life and the challenges His experiences out west would impact his future presidency Dakota’s cont.. The lessons TR learned in the west shaped the man he would eventually become His experience had taught him self- reliance and helped him conquer feelings of self-doubt When he returned to the political scene of New York, he was a tougher and more able man than before Political Scene In 1886 he remarried--a childhood sweetheart named Edith Kermit Carow They had five children, and lived the rest of their lives together In the NY State Assembly, Roosevelt fought against the corrupt political machines What is political machine? Was a member of the U.S. Civil Service Commission (1889-95) Appointed assistant secretary of the navy by President William McKinley TR spoke up for a bigger navy, and became a war hawk for war against Spain War with Spain U.S. declared war on Spain in 1898 TR organized the 1st Volunteer Cavalry, known as the Rough Riders They were sent to fight in Cuba The Rough Riders became famous for their charge up Kettle Hill/San Juan Hill Even though an all black regiment actually went up first, and killed all the Spanish TR became a national hero After the War TR was so popular after the war that the (corrupt)Republicans of NY made him run for Governor in 1898 They thought they could control him He won!!! Bad for them!! WHY? They were all corrupt, and that is what he will fight against! He became an energetic reformer Removed corrupt officials and created laws to eliminate monopolies and trusts The Republican bosses now had to get rid of him-- How do you get rid of one of the most popular people in America, who just happens to be the person you made Governor? After the War cont.. You make him the Vice-Presidential candidate (1900)-- haha! They viewed this job as ceremonial; that the V.P. of the U.S.A does nothing! At least he will be out of NY William McKinley won the Presidency, and TR was his VeePee :) TR hated this job!! He was relatively powerless Until….September of 1901 President TR A man named Leon Czolgosz assassinated McKinley At 42, TR became the youngest President of the United States Uh Oh!! This worried many people Conservatives, Corrupt officials, BIG BUSINESS owners America is about to get introduced to a man who spent his adult life trying to make up for all the short comings his childhood brought President TR cont.. Many felt he was an aggressive hot-head: that he would act without thinking He was quite the opposite He was very responsible and that kept his anger in check--he always thought things through He moved slowly, and would always get what he wanted by using his executive power Huh? He was the President!! He promised to continue with McKinley’s policies, BUT this was his time Change TR renamed the executive mansion Now called it the White House And he opened it’s doors to all kinds of people Cowboys, boxers, writers, explorers, artists: HIS kind of people TR wanted to change a few things, and this is what he will be famous for Change cont.. 1. Need to get rid of the trusts that monopolized businesses and the economy Railroads, Oil companies, tobacco industry They have WAY too much power He was known as the Trust-buster: enforced the Sherman Antitrust Act 2. America must be THE world power 3. All political corruption must end Patronage and spoils system 4. Conserve (protect) the natural beauty America has The Square Deal TR felt that industries should be controlled for the public interest He felt that it was his right to be a mediator- an umpire- in certain affairs P. 641-- “..I believe in a square deal..” He wanted fairness for all workers, businesses, and consumers (buyers) It was now time to get rid of all the corruption Brought back and enforced the Sherman Antitrust Act Square Deal cont.. The trustbuster set his sights on other monopolies What was his weapon against these trusts? TR went after the railroads, and broke up their monopoly He went after tobacco trusts, and broke them up He even went after Standard Oil! He won that battle too TR was not against big business; he was opposed to any trust that worked against national interest All in all he “busted” 44 trusts during his presidency Foreign Policy He believed that “civilized” nations had a responsibility for taking care of “barbarous” ones Explain The U.S is no longer an isolated country They have colonies-- why is this ironic? Philippines, Cuba They now can move about the world and enforce their will upon other countries, if needed By the end of his presidency he had built the U.S. Navy into a major force at sea and reorganized the army along efficient, modern lines Launched his Great White Fleet in 1907 to prove to the world the U.S. had arrived Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine (1823) warned all European powers to “leave America for the Americans.” That the U.S. could no longer be colonized It also stated that the U.S. could “police” any country who tried to colonize a weaker country The U.S. had trouble enforcing this because it did not have the navy to do so BUT.. TR just improved and built up the navy Now it’s his turn to add to the Monroe Doctrine Roosevelt Corollary European powers threatened to invade smaller, Latin American countries They said to collect “war debts”--What did they really want? TR said oh no you don’t! Created the Roosevelt Corollary (to the Monroe Doctrine) No one (Europe) is allowed to interfere in Latin American affairs AND..the U.S. would police the area and make sure no Latin American country was doing anything wrong This created a sphere of influence and critics called the U.S., hemispheric policemen “Speak Softly, and carry a big stick..” TR claimed this was the right way to conduct foreign policy Don’t say much, just show up with guns! He used this philosophy, in 1903, by helping Panama secede from Columbia Panama rewarded the U.S. by giving them a canal zone TR needed a shortcut to get his navy from the Atlantic to the Pacific PRESTO!!! The Panama Canal was built TR visited Panama in 1906 becoming the 1st President to leave the country while still in office Preserving America Roosevelt was the first President concerned with the environment-- he was a conservationist or preservationist He observed how the country was loosing it’s natural resources Forests were disappearing, wildlife was vanishing Through a series of Acts and Presidential orders, TR was able to: Preserve more than 200 million acres of public land Establish the nations 1st wildlife refuge (Pelican Island, Fla) Doubled the number of national parks Grand Canyon, Yosemite, Petrified Forest in AZ- End of his Presidency TR’s term ended in 1909 Many feel he abused his presidential powers A regiment of some 160 African American soldiers were involved in a brawl, where a man was killed TR dishonorably discharged all of them Some even held the medal of honor Congress declared his actions to be too severe He replied-- “The only reason I didn’t have them all hung…was because I did not know who fired the shot! This incident, and the fact that he bypassed Congress and abused his executive powers, are what some historians believe modern Presidents use as an example for their abuses of power See Ya Later, TR
"Theodore Roosevelt “Teddy or TR”"