“COSMETIC INDUSTRY" CONTENTS Acknowledgement CHAPTER I : Introduction. CHAPTER II : Company Profile. CHAPTER III : Products Profile CHAPTER IV : The Study Research Methodology. CHAPTER V : Findings and Analysis. CHAPTER VI: Conclusion CHAPTER VII : Suggestions CHAPTER VIII : Limitations Bibliography Annexure CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION Chapter I INTRODUCTION Cosmetics ( pronunciation: cosmetic (help·info)) are substances used to enhance or protect the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user‟s appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics. The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes, as well, any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category. History The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Egypt around 3500 BC.] The Ancient Greeks and Romans also used cosmetics. The Romans and Ancient Egyptians used cosmetics containing poisonous mercury and often lead. The ancient kingdom of Israel was influenced by cosmetics as recorded in the Old Testament—2 Kings 9:30 where Jezebel painted her eyelids—approximately 840 BC. The Biblical book of Esther describes various beauty treatments as well. In the western world, the advent of cosmetics was in the middle ages, although typically restricted to use within the upper classes. Cosmetic use was frowned upon at some points in Western history. For example, in the 1800s, make-up was used primarily by prostitutes, and Queen Victoria publicly declared makeup improper, vulgar, and acceptable only for use by actors. Adolf Hitler told women that face painting was for clowns and not for the women of the Master Race.] By the middle of the 20th century, cosmetics were in widespread use by women in nearly all industrial societies around the world. Cosmetics have been in use for thousands of years. The absence of regulation of the manufacture and use of cosmetics has led to negative side effects, deformities, blindness, and even death through the ages. Examples of this were the prevalent use of ceruse(white lead), to cover the face during the Renaissance, and blindness caused by the mascara Lash Lure during the early 1900s. The worldwide annual expenditures for cosmetics today is estimated at U.S. $19 billion. Of the major firms, the oldest and the largest is L'Oréal, which was founded by Eugene Schueller in 1909 as the French Harmless Hair Colouring Company (now owned by Liliane Bettencourt 26% and Nestlé 28%, with the remaining 46% are publicly traded). The market was developed in the USA during the 1910s by Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein, and Max Factor. These firms were joined by Revlon just before World War II and Estée Lauder just after. Like most industry, cosmetic companies resist regulation by government agencies like the FDA, and have lobbied against this throughout the years. Makeup Types Lipstick, lip gloss, lip liner, lip plumper, lip balm, lip conditioner and lip boosters. Foundation, used to color the face and conceal flaws to produce an impression of health and youth. Usually a liquid, cream, powder or mousse. Powder, used to set the foundation, giving a matte finish, and also to conceal not-so-noticeable flaws. Rouge, blush or blusher, cheek stain used to color the cheeks and emphasize the cheekbones. This comes in powder, cream, liquid and gel forms. Bronzer, used for contouring purposes and to create a more tan look to the skin. Mascara and lash extender, lash conditioner used to enhance the eyelashes. Can be of different colors and even waterproof. Eye liner, eye shadow, eye putty, eye shimmer, and glitter eye pencils as well as different color pencils used to color and emphasize the eyelids (larger eyes are a sign of youth). Eyebrow pencils, creams, waxes, gels and powders are used to fill in and define the brows. Nail polish, used to color the fingernails and toenails. Concealer, Makeup used to cover any imperfections of the skin. Also included in the general category of cosmetics are skin care products. These include creams and lotions to moisturize the face and body, sunscreens to protect the skin from damaging UV radiation, and treatment products to repair or hide skin imperfections (acne, wrinkles, dark circles under eyes, etc.). Cosmetics can also be described by the form of the product, as well as the area for application. Cosmetics can be liquid or cream emulsions; powders, both pressed and loose; dispersions; and anhydrous creams or sticks. CHAPTER-II COMPANY PROFILE Chapter II COMPANY PROFILE LAKME Lakmé is an Indian brand of cosmetics, owned by Unilever. Lakme started as a 100% subsidiary of Tata Oil Mills (Tomco), part of theTata Group, it was named after the French opera Lakmé, which itself is the French form of Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth, also renowned for her beauty. At the time of its establishment, Indian cosmetic industry was rather nascent, and there was a very small market base. Lakme was started in 1952, famously because the then Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru was concerned that Indian women were spending precious foreign exchange on beauty products, and personally requested JRD Tata to manufacture them in India. Simone Tata joined the company as director, and went on to become it's chairman. When the Tatas saw a bigger growth potential in the retail market, and greater competition from global companies in cosmetics, they enetered into a 50-50 joint venture with Hindustan Lever Limited (the Indian subsidiary of Unilever) in 1995 to form Lakme Lever. In 1998 Tata sold off their stakes in Lakmé Lever to HLL, for Rs 200 Crore (45 million US$), and went on to create Trent and Westside. Even today, when most multinational beauty products are available in India, Lakme still occupies a special place in the hearts of Indian women. Lakme also started its new business in the beauty industry by setting up Lakme Beauty Salons all over India.Now HUL (Hindustan Unilever Limited) has about 110 salons all over India providing beauty services. Lakme's new make up line has been fashioned to give you the best of Both Worlds. The luxury of international quality, high performance make up which has been specially formulated for the Indian skin. AVON It's a bond forged by everything from shared causes to biology, tracing back through more than a century of beauty and business opportunity. And as we stride past the threshold to the next hundred years, that natural affinity is strengthened by energetic new initiatives, a bolder vision, and a wider, more diverse community of customers. In a dynamic new world, Avon continues to connect, reaching women through a vibrant image and outstanding products, personal relationships, cutting-edge technology, exciting new channels, and unparalleled support for gender and family issues. When we say we're the Company for Women ... we mean it. Incorporated: 1886 as the California Perfume Company NAIC: 32562 Toilet Preparation Manufacturing; 45439 Other Direct Selling Establishments The oldest beauty company in the United States, Avon Products, Inc. has grown from a modest line of perfumes sold door-to-door to one of the world's leading brand of cosmetics. It manufactures and sells cosmetics, fragrances, toiletries, accessories, apparel, and various decorative home furnishings. Avon employs a unique direct-selling method, which was greatly responsible for its incredible success in the 1950s and 1960s, when women were easily found in the home for sales purposes. After unsuccessful efforts at diversification into the health-care service industry left the company with massive debts in the late 1980s and early 1990s, Avon began to refocus on its roots: beauty products and direct selling. The company's products are sold through catalogs, mall kiosks, its prestigious day spa in Trump Tower in New York, the Internet, and in J.C. Penney stores. Its products are also sold directly to customers in nearly 143 countries by 3.5 million independent sales representatives, making Avon the number one direct sales company in the world. The beginnings of Avon Products, Inc. can be traced to the mid-1880s, when a door-to-door book salesman named David H. McConnell attempted to bolster declining sales by offering small samples of perfume to housewives who would listen to his sales pitch. It soon became clear, however, that his customers were more interested in the perfume, and McConnell left the book-selling business to create an entire line of perfumes to be sold door-to- door. He brewed the perfume in a pantry-sized space in New York City, naming the product line the "Little Dot Perfume Set," which consisted of five scents: white rose, violet, lily of the valley, heliotrope, and hyacinth. His endeavor was named the California Perfume Company in an effort to invoke images of the beauty and excitement of that state. McConnell's intent was to build a business around quickly used products sold directly to the consumer through use of the national network of sales agents he had organized during his years as a bookseller. The nation's first Avon Lady was Mrs. P.F.E. Albee of Winchester, New Hampshire, the wife of a U.S. senator. Within the first six months of operation, Albee had assembled a solid base of 100 salespeople and their customers; within 12 years, Albee had recruited and trained nearly 5,000 representatives. In addition to new scents, other products were quickly added to the California Perfume Company's product line. Popular early items included spot remover, Witch Hazel Cream, machine oil, mending cement, Almond Cream Balm, food flavorings, Tooth Tablet, and carpet cleaner. In 1896, ten years after the company was conceived, McConnell hired Adolf Goetting, a noted perfumer who had been in the business for 25 years. The following year, a new laboratory was built in Suffern, New York, and the first illustrated catalog was produced. By the company's 20th year, its product line had expanded to include more than 100 items, and in 1914 the company's rapid expansion was marked by the opening of an office in Montreal, Canada. The first products in the California Perfume Company's line of Avon Products--a toothbrush, cleanser, and vanity set--appeared in 1920. The Avon name was inspired by the area around the Suffern lab, which McConnell thought resembled the countryside of William Shakespeare's home, Stratford-on-Avon, England. Never wavering from its strategy of door-to-door sales and catalogs filled with low-cost home and beauty products, the company surpassed the $2 million sales mark in 1926, the year of its 40th anniversary. By the end of the 1920s, the company was doing business in 48 of the United States and in Canada. During this time, thousands of female sales representatives, under Albee's supervision, were partaking in one of the first opportunities for American women to experience a degree of economic freedom without upsetting their culturally accepted role as homemakers. The company launched three-week sales campaigns and a "specials" strategy in 1932. Five years later, in 1937, McConnell died and was replaced by his son, David H. McConnell, Jr., who headed the company for the next seven years. Under his supervision, the company's growth remained steady. In 1939, the California Perfume Company was renamed Avon Products, due to that product line's immense popularity and success. During World War II, cosmetic production slowed while nearly half of the staff in the Suffern lab devoted themselves to wartime production of such things as insect repellent, pharmaceuticals, and paratrooper kits. In 1944, W. Van Alan Clark replaced McConnell as the company's chairman. The new Avon then instituted several changes during the 1950s, the most notable of which was its entry into overseas markets and the rapid expansion of its sales force. Following the war, many more housewives began seeking extra income and work that did not interfere with family life. In the early 1950s, the Avon sales force almost quadrupled in size. Sales representatives' territories were downsized by several hundred homes, a strategy that enabled more representatives to be added and sales to increase sixfold over the following 12 years. Avon advertisements appeared on television for the first time, including the famous slogan, "Ding Dong, Avon Calling," which was first televised in 1954. That same year, Avon opened offices in Venezuela and Puerto Rico, marking its first venture into what would become a very lucrative Latin American market. It also penetrated the European market in 1957 with the institution of Avon Cosmetics, Ltd. in the United Kingdom. Under the leadership of W. Van Alan Clark, Avon also saw changes such as the rapid expansion of foreign sales and Avon's listing on the New York Stock Exchange in 1964. Clark was replaced by J.A. Ewald in 1966, who was followed by W. Hicklin a year later. Under Hicklin, the traditional three-week sales cycle was changed to two weeks to improve sales. The three-week campaign was still used overseas, particularly in Asia, a market which was entered by Avon in 1969 through the opening of operations in Japan. Japan remained one of Avon's key foreign markets, along with Brazil, Mexico, and the United Kingdom. The 1970s presented Avon with its greatest challenges in the company's history. Though sales topped $1 billion in 1972, and its profitable costume- jewelry line--begun in 1971--had made Avon the world's biggest jewelry manufacturer in just five years, Avon's growth stalled in 1973. The company was hit hard by a recession and the mass entry of women into the workforce. The direct-selling system, Avon's innovation and strength, was nearly toppled by social changes that management had not anticipated. The status of the U.S. dollar reduced the company's international profits; recession and inflation crippled its high-sales decanter products line; in 1975, about 25,000 Avon Ladies quit; and Avon products were outpaced by retail cosmetic firms offering jazzier products to women with new attitudes. All of these factors converged and led to troubled times--and Avon's eventual restructuring. In response to these hardships, the most visible change Avon made was to become more sensitive to its market. Sales representatives began to follow women into the workplace, where about 25 percent of Avon's sales are made today, and new businesses such as direct-mail women's apparel were tested. Changes were also made to the cosmetics product line and its overall pricing as a result of market studies. Fred Fusee, who had advanced through the manufacturing side of Avon to become its chairman in 1972, was replaced in 1975 by David W. Mitchell, whose years with Avon had been spent in marketing. Mitchell worked to solidify Avon's presence in the beauty business via consumer and product research, product development, and promotion. Avon's image was overhauled to give it a more contemporary appeal, advertising time was more than tripled, and sales were revamped. In 1979, Avon made another strategic move to update its product offerings through the purchase of Tiffany & Company, the upmarket jeweler, for $104 million. The Tiffany purchase set the tone for the next decade: diversification through acquisition. This included an ill-fated billion-dollar plunge into the health-care industry and a later entry into the prestige- fragrance market. In 1983, Hicks Waldron, who had previously helped turn around General Electric, left his post at R.J. Reynolds to become Avon's chairman. Shortly before Waldron's appointment, Avon had purchased Mallinckrodt, a chemical and hospital supply company. Waldron followed this purchase with the acquisition of Foster Medical Corporation in 1984. Initially thriving in the home and health-care equipment field, Foster became the fastest- growing division of Avon. Just as the company began to celebrate its success, however, Foster was devastated by Medicare cost-containment efforts. At the same time, Tiffany's profits were steadily declining--in part because customers had become alienated by the introduction oflower-priced merchandise--and the Tiffany subsidiary was sold in 1984. Avon then tried to focus on health care for the elderly with the 1985 acquisitions of the Retirement Inns of America and The Mediplex Group, both of which were nursing home operations. Unfortunately, only 15 percent of Avon's sales came from its health-care holdings that year. This failure, combined with the fact that annual profits overall were about half of what they were in 1979, caused Waldron to rethink his strategy and abandon the diversification plan. Mallinckrodt was sold in early 1986 and Foster in 1988, both at a great loss to Avon, and plans to sell the remaining health-care divisions were announced. The company sold Retirement Inns of America in 1989 and The Mediplex Group in 1990. Avon's brief health-care industry foray left it $1.1 billion in debt. Diversification into prestige fragrances later proved to be a more stable endeavor. First came a joint venture with Liz Claiborne in 1985, followed by the acquisitions of Parfums Stern and Giorgio, Inc. in 1987. Parfums Stern, which produced Oscar de la Renta, Perry Ellis, and other designer perfumes, was a chief competitor of Liz Claiborne, and before long Claiborne dissolved its agreement with Avon. Strapped for cash, Avon then sold Parfums Stern in early 1990. Giorgio remained a top-selling national brand well into the 1990s, however, and under the parentage of Avon introduced several new products in the Giorgio line. Waldron retired in 1989, and his successor, James E. Preston, immediately faced several takeover attempts. Avon fought off a bid by Amway Corporation in partnership with Irwin L. Jacobs, a Minneapolis, Minnesota- based raider who then launched a takeover attempt himself. While these efforts receded in the early 1990s, a new suitor appeared in the form of the Chartwell Association, an investment group that included the chief financial officer of Mary Kay Cosmetics. Interestingly, the Avon sales force proved to be the greatest deterrent to these takeover bids; in massive letter-writing campaigns, the sales representatives told aggressors that they will be unwilling to work for them. In 1990, Avon continued to focus on rejuvenating its domestic sales figures, while selling approximately 40 percent of Avon Japan to the Japanese public for $218 million in revenues. Meanwhile, the company entered further into the business of selling items in the United States through direct-mail means, using full-color catalogs to promote its products. These measures helped the company increase 1990 sales to $3.45 billion, marking an increase of over $150 million from the previous year. As Avon began to stand on firmer ground financially, it was able to focus once again on expanding its scope worldwide. The early 1990s were spent establishing sales headquarters and networks in other countries, while also continuing to boost sales in the United States. Avon entered the sales market in Poland in 1992 through the recruitment and training of more representatives to work in direct sales capacities there. The company also entered the Russian market in 1993. Annual sales broke the $4 billion mark that year, and the per-share price of Avon's stock rose to over $32. The company also began selling its product on the Internet, taking advantage of the increasing popularity of the information superhighway. In 1994, Avon sold off its Giorgio product line, which was becoming a less important asset as time went on. The company instead focused on promoting products carrying its own name. It further strengthened its standing in the foreign market in 1995 with the addition of a sales office in India, and the acquisition of Justin (Pty) Ltd. in South Africa, the country's second largest direct-selling cosmetics company. 1995 sales topped off at almost $4.5 billion. Expansion continued as Avon also began selling sportswear and apparel for women in its direct-mail catalogs after finalizing a joint venture with fashion designer Diane Von Furstenberg to introduce a line of moderately-priced casual wear. Avon tied the addition in with the company's corporate sponsorship of the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, and a multi- million dollar advertising campaign that named sports figures such as Jackie Joyner-Kersee as "Just Another Avon Lady." Also in 1996, Avon introduced "Lifedesigns," a corporation developed to offer goal-setting and management seminars to women. Early the following year, Avon also purchased Discovery Toys, Inc., a direct-sales marketer of educational toy products for children. Discovery Toys continued operations separate from those of Avon, with the hope that Avon's immense global sales network would help the small company attain higher sales and thus contribute to its new parent's yearly revenues. The sales from this unit did not reach expected levels, however, and Discovery was sold in 1999. Avon entered the late 1990s trimmed of its unwieldy diversification into the health-care industry. The company continued to hire sales representatives throughout the world to sell products directly to consumers, while also working to expand various other sales outlets. The majority of its efforts during the last years of the decade, however, were spent fine-tuning its brand as it faced fierce competition and slowing American sales. By this time, Avon products had developed a somewhat stodgy image and held little appeal to young women. In 1998, revenue grew by just three percent--far from the company's goal of reaching levels of eight-to-ten percent annual growth by 2000. As a result, the firm began to devote millions to various advertising campaigns. In an attempt to launch the Avon brand with more of a trendy, upscale appeal, the firm opened a day spa, The Avon Centre, in Trump Tower in New York City. Avon's president at the time, Andrea Jung, commented on the company's objective in a 1999 Fortune article, stating that the firm wanted to position Avon as a "world-class beauty brand" and that it needed to "change people's minds about Avon." Jung--who joined Avon in 1994--was named CEO in 1999, becoming the company's first female CEO. Under her leadership, Avon began its brand turnaround and also focused on bolstering U.S. revenues, which accounted for nearly 30 percent of company sales in 2000. The company started to make sweeping changes to its advertising, manufacturing, packaging, and selling strategies. Adopting the tagline, "The Company for Women," Avon set out to increase market share, break into new selling channels, and prove that the faltering Avon Lady and her products could enter the new millennium with a fresh, innovative appeal. During 2000, Avon increased its advertising budget to $90 million--nearly doubling what it spent in 1999--and also invested in revamping its Web site. It signed celebrity tennis stars Serena and Venus Williams to its "Let's Talk" ad campaign. The firm also spent heavily in research and development, increasing its budget in 2000 by 46 percent over the previous year, and pushed to reduce the time it took to launch new products on the market. During that year, the firm introduced Anew Retroactive, an age reversal cream. Avon Wellness, a line of nutritional, aroma therapy, fitness, and relaxation products, hit the market in 2001. The company also began its foray into store branding by teaming up with J.C. Penney to position its retail brand beComing in a department store setting. Jung also tapped Avon's newly elected president Susan Kropf to overhaul the company's manufacturing and distribution operations. Kropf cut the number of Avon suppliers from 300 to 75 and completely automated the ordering processing. Her efforts saved the company $400 million and reduced errors in shipments and customer orders. While Jung--named chairman in 2001--pressed for further growth for 2002 and beyond, she faced several challenges. While company stock had increased by 70 percent since her election to CEO in 1999, it began to fall after the September 11th terrorists attacks on the U.S. Consumer spending slowed, and foreign markets such as Argentina faltered due to economic crises. During 2001, the company posted revenues of $5.9 billion, a small 4.9 percent increase over the previous year. Jung, while optimistic, prepared for the challenging future. "The next couple of years are going to be no walk in the park," she commented in an October 2001 Fortune article. "This turnaround is far from complete. I'm probably thinking that we need to be even bolder and faster." RAVLON Revlon was founded in the midst of the Great Depression, 1932, by Charles Revson and his brother Joseph, along with a chemist, Charles Lachman, who contributed the "L" in the REVLON name. Starting with a single product — a new type of nail enamel — the three founders pooled their resources and developed a unique manufacturing process. Using pigments instead of dyes, Revlon developed a variety of new shades of opaque nail enamel. Successful in salons from the start, in 1937 Revlon started selling the polishes in department stores and drug stores. In six years the company became a multimillion dollar organization. By 1940, Revlon offered an entire manicure line, and added lipstick to the collection. During World War II Revlon created makeup and related products for the U.S. Army, which was honoured in 1944 with an Army-Navy Award for Excellence. By the end of the war, Revlon listed itself as one of America's top five cosmetic houses. Expanding its capabilities, the company bought Graef & Schmidt, a cutlery manufacturer seized by the government in 1943 because of German business ties. This acquisition made it possible for Revlon to produce its own manicure and pedicure instruments, instead of buying them from outside supply sources. In 1952 Revlon launched a fragrance called "Fire and Ice", which was heavily publicized over the radio with ads featuring Bob Hope and Red Skelton. By 1955, Revlon sponsored the CBS television show The $64,000 Question. The same year rival Hazel Bishop brought formal allegations of wiretapping. Revlon argued they monitored their employees' telephone calls for "training" purposes, but agreed to stop the practice. The same year Revlon reorganized as Revlon, Inc. In November 1955, Revlon went public. The IPO price was $12 per share, but it reached $30 per share within 8 weeks. In the 1960's, Charles Revson segmented Revlon Inc into different divisions, each focusing on a different market. He borrowed this stratedgy from General Motors. Each division had its own target customer: Princess Marcella Borghese was an upscale, international line; Ultima 2 was the premium line; Revlon was the largest, and popular-priced brand; Natural Wonder was aimed at the junior customer; Moon Drops was aimed at dry skins; and Etherea was a hypo-allergenic brand. There is an unsettled debate as to whether Estee Lauder stole Revson's idea and created Clinique, or the other way around. However, there is no debate which hypo-allergenic line became successful. Revlon's non-beauty ventures were not so successful, either. In 1957, Revlon acquired Knomark, a shoe-polish company, and sold its shoe-polish line Esquire Shoe Polish in 1969. Other poorly chosen acquisitions, such as Ty-D-Bol, the maker of toiler cleansers, and a 27 percent interest in the Schick electric shaver company were also soon discarded. Evan Picone, a women's sportswear manufacturer which came with a price tag of $12 million in 1962, was sold back to one of the original partners four years later for $1 million. However, the 1967 acquisition of U.S. Vitamin and Pharmaceutical Corporation did make Revlon, for a while, a leader in diabetes drugs. The company had begun to market its products overseas at the end of the 1950s. By 1962, when Revlon debuted in Japan, there were subsidiaries in France, Italy, Argentina, Mexico, and Asia. Revlon's entrance into the Japanese market was typical of its international sales strategy. Instead of adapting its ads and using Japanese models, Revlon chose to use its basic U.S. advertising and models. Japanese women loved the American look, and the success of this bold approach was reflected in the 1962 sales figures, which were almost $164 million. In 1968, Revlon introduced Eterna27, the first cosmetic cream with an estrogen precursor called Progenitin (pregenolone acetate), as well as introducing the world's first American fashion designer fragrance, Norman Norell. Later, Revlon launched Braggi and Pub for men, and a line of wig maintenance products called Wig Wonder. In 1970 Revlon acquired the Mitchum line of deodorants. In 1973, Revlon introduced Charlie, a fragrance designed for the working woman's budget. Geared to the under-30 market, Charlie model Shelley Hack in Ralph Lauren clothes personified the independent woman of the 1970s. This is the first perfume ad to feature a woman wearing pants. Charlie was an instant success, helping to raise Revlon's net sales figures to $506 million for 1973 and to almost $606 million the following year. Their follow-up fragrance, Jontue, quickly began the number 2 best seller. In 1975, Charles Revson died. Michel Bergerac, who Revson had hired as President of the company, continued to grow the organization. Revlon acquired Coburn Optical Industries, an Oklahoma-based manufacturer of ophthalmic and optical processing equipment and supplies. Barnes-Hind, the largest U.S. marketer of hard contact lens solutions, was bought in 1976 and strengthened Revlon's share of the eye-care market. Revlon purchased Armour Pharmaceutical Company, a division of Armour and Company, from the Greyhound Corporation in 1977. Other acquisitions included the Lewis-Howe Company, makers of Tums antacid in 1978. These health-care operations helped sales figures to pass the $1 billion mark in 1977, bringing total sales to $1.7 billion in 1979. By the mid-1980s, Revlon's health-care companies, rather than Revlon's beauty concerns, were innovating and expanding. Reluctant to initiate beauty-product development or department store promotions, Revlon lost ground to Estée Lauder, a privately held company whose marketing strategy of high prices with accompanying gifts had earned it almost universal center-aisle department store space. This caused Revlon's share to drop from 20 percent to 10 percent of department store cosmetics sales. Sales at the drugstore also declined as Revlon lost share to Noxell's Cover Girl brand. Revlon compensated with more acquisitions; Max Factor, Ellen Betrix, Charles of the Ritz, Germaine Monteil, Almay, Fermodyl, Lancaster, Aziza, and Halston. The 1977 acquisition of Carlos Colomer, a Spanish professional beauty supply distributor, brought Fermodyl and Roux and helped introduce Revlon to the world of ethnic care: Creme of Nature, Realistic, Lovely Color and Milk and Honey became highly successful international. In 1983 the company attempted an unsuccessful hostile takeover of Gillette. On November 5, 1985, at a price of $58 per share, totaling $2.7 billion, Revlon was sold to Pantry Pride (later renamed to Revlon Group, Inc.), a subsidiary of Ronald Perelman's MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings. The highly leveraged buyout--engineered with the help of junk bond king Michael P. Milken--saddled Revlon with a huge $2.9 billion debt load, which became an albatross around the company's neck for years to come. Pantry Pride Inc. offered to buy any or all of Revlon's 38.2 million outstanding shares for $47.5 a share when its street price stood at $45 a share. Initially rejected, he repeatedly raised his offer until it reached $53 a share while fighting Revlon's management every step of the way. Forstmann Little & Company swooped in at $56 a share, a brief public bidding war ensued, and Perelman triumphed with an offer of $58 a share. Perelman paid $1.8 billion to Revlon's shareholders, but he also paid $900 million of other costs associated with the purchase. Perelman had Revlon sell 4 division: 2 for $1 billion, vision care division for $574 million and National Health Laboratories division became a publicly owned corporation in 1988. Additional makeup lines were purchased for Revlon: Max Factor in 1987 and Betrix in 1989 later selling them to Procter & Gamble in 1991. In the late-1980's and early 1990's, fashion photographer Richard Avedon began shooting up and coming top fashion models for the advertising campaign "The Most Unforgettable Women in the World wear Revlon". As of June 2007, Revlon has reported 27 consistent quarterly losses, with only minor relief through selling off divisions and businesses. Today Revlon is but a fraction of the size it once was, only housing the Revlon, Almay, Mitchum, and Jeanne Gatineau lines. It still owns Ultima 2, which is no longer sold in North America, and is rumored to be next on the chopping block. Revlon Cosmetics Glamour. Excitement. Innovation. This is the vision of Revlon, one of best known names in cosmetics. Revlon has been known for its range of the finest quality beauty and grooming products, meeting the highest international quality standards. With a highest blend of fashion and superior technology. Revlon has consistently produced products which help women look and feel good. Take a look at some of the products that have endeared Revlon to the hearts of women around the globe. It started with one single product ... a nail enamel ... which was like nothing else anyone had ever seen. Then followed the subsequent fashion breakthroughs which turned Revlon into an undisputed leader in the cosmetic world. The images evoked by its very mention are of s the world� most beautiful women - those with glorious hair, perfect nails, flattering make-up and a glowing skin. Modi-Revlon is the formidable alliance between the Modi Group and the world famous Revlon of USA. Modi-Revlon has entered the Indian market and has redefined the concept of beauty care in India. It brings to the Indian women an exciting range of international cosmetics, toiletries and fragrances - all adapted to suit the local conditions and preferences. Modi-Revlon draws s on the expertise of Revlon� premier Research Centre in Edison, New Jersey (USA), to harmonise its international product offerings with the needs and preferences of the Indian women. Mr. Jerry Lewin (Revlon); Mr. Umesh.K.Modi and Mr. Paul Block The company � . thinks Global, but acts Local� The manufacturing standards of Modi-Revlon are as exacting as elsewhere in the world. The toughest QC standards in line with the global norms are followed. The products� advertising features international celebrities and super models. s Modi-Revlon� product portfolio currently consists of Lipsticks, Nail Enamels, Eye and Face Make-up, Flex Shampoos, Flex Conditioners, Charlie Cologne, Body Sprays, Talc and Fire and Ice cologne. GARNIER Garnier is a division of L'Oréal that produces hair care products, including the Fructis line, and most recently, skin care products under the name, Nutritioniste, that are sold around the world. One of their key ingredients is a fruit concentrate used in all their products. It is a combination of fruit acids, vitamin B3 and B6, fructose and glucose. CHAPTER-III PRODUCT PROFILE Chapter III PRODUCT PROFILE LAKME Face Lips Make Up | Enrich Lip Colour | Lipgloss | | Lipliner | | Dual Definition LipColor 'n' Liner Nails Eyes | True Wear Nail Enamel | | Eye Shadow, Liner & Kajal | Lakme Pure Defense Cleansers Anti-Pollution System | Detoxifying Facial Wash | Night Cream | |Day Lotion | Serum | Cleansers Sun Care Body Care Sun Care Body Care Matte Effect Hairnext Matte Effect Hairnext Discover Glow Moisturisers Moisturisers Lakme now brings you a whole new concept 'Lakme Fundamentals', a truly advanced and sophisticated range of skin care solutions. Aimed to make daily skin care an integral part of the Indian woman's beauty regime, this range has been especially innovated for Indian skin. Lakme Fundamentals introduces a whole new level of skin care to its consumers by bringing in a lot of firsts: Lakme Intense Body Milk Lakme Intense Body Milk Enriched with the goodness of sweet almond extracts and honey, Lakme Intense Body Milk provides indulgent nourishment for your whole body. Fortified with antioxidants like Vitamin E, that condition the skin. Sweet almond oil softens and nourishes the skin. Lakme Deep Pore Cleanser Formulated with natural avocado extracts, Lakme Deep Pore Cleanser gently cleans the skin of all surface impurities. Contains anti-oxidants like Vitamin E which condition the skin. Its light moisture based formula, nourishes while it deep cleans the skin. Lakme Peach Milk Moisturiser Formulated with natural peach extracts, Lakme Peach Milk Moisturiser leaves your skin radiantly soft. Natural peach extract contains Vitamins and Pectin which tone and hydrate skin, giving it a natural glow. AHA's and Antioxidants (Vitamin C and E) work to condition and rejuvenate your skin. Lakme Winter Care Moisturiser Enriched with the goodness of Shea Butter, Lakme Winter Care Moisturiser has an active moisture replenishment system to relieve and revitalize dry skin. Maximises moisture retention for upto 12 hours. Revitalises dry skin in winter and makes skin feel soft and supple. Lakme Strawberry Crème A rich soft cream that pampers the skin with the luscious fragrance of fresh strawberries leaving it soft and delicately perfumed for hours. A combination of real strawberry extracts and active moisture balancer ensure the optimal level of moisture for your skin. It is fortified with UV filters to protect against skin damaging elements. Offers visibly soft, fragrant skin that glows with health. FLAWLESS MAKE UP A high performance foundation that keeps you looking flawless through the day; this long lasting formula does not smudge or streak. It has a pump dispenser that avoid messy spills and make application easy and hygienic, leaving your skin feeling comfortable and supple for hours. Exclusively formulated for daily use, it ensures that your complexion looks its best across the day. Dual Definiton Lip Color 'n' Liner What is it An innovative new product with a long lasting lipcolor at one end and a coordinated lip liner at the other. The Dual Definition lipcolor 'n' liner is just what a woman of today needs, for perfect lips, all day long. How it Works First outline your lips with the liner and then fill in with the lipcolor on the other end to get the maximum impact for the perfectly shaped lips. Lakme tip: For steady application of your lipliner, mark dots at intervals around your lips and then just join the dots. Touch your lips with STARSHINE! Lakme Matteffect Mattifying Most women perceive oily skin as the perfect reason to avoid skin moisturizers. However your skin has a very fine moisture and oil balance, which is disrupted by constant exposure to environmental factors. Using a lightweight, water-based 'mattifier' can restore this balance. Matteffect Mattifying Fluid How it works: A lightweight fluid with unique oil absorbers and sweat controlers, imparts a matte appearance to the face. Results: It lightly conditions skin and controls excess oil. MATTEFFECT Morning Fresh Cleanse, Tone and Mattify your skin with the all-new Matteeffect. Lakme Matteffect Icy Fresh Gel MATTIFYING Most women perceive oily skin as the perfect reason to avoid skin moisturizers. However your skin has a very fine moisture and oil balance, which is disrupted by constant exposure to environmental factors. Using a lightweight, water-based 'mattifier' can restore this balance. Matteffect Icy Fresh Gel How it works: An oil-free cooling gel it is absorbed instantly by the skin and hydrates it. Results: Leaves skin feeling tight and fresh. MATTEFFECT Morning Fresh Cleanse, Tone and Mattify your skin with the all-new Matteeffect. Lakme Peach Milk Moisturiser Formulated with natural peach extracts, Lakme Peach Milk Moisturiser leaves your skin radiantly soft. Natural peach extract contains Vitamins and Pectin which tone and hydrate skin, giving it a natural glow. AHA's and Antioxidants (Vitamin C and E) work to condition and rejuvenate your skin. Lakme Winter Care Moisturiser Lakme Winter Care Moisturiser Enriched with the goodness of Shea Butter, Lakme Winter Care Moisturiser has an active moisture replenishment system to relieve and revitalize dry skin. Maximises moisture retention for upto 12 hours. Revitalises dry skin in winter and makes skin feel soft and supple. Lakme Intense Body Milk Enriched with the goodness of sweet almond extracts and honey, Lakme Intense Body Milk provides indulgent nourishment for your whole body. Fortified with antioxidants like Vitamin E, that condition the skin. Sweet almond oil softens and nourishes the skin. Lakme Butter-Up Deep Moisturizing Body Smoother With Avocado and Shea Pulp Dip into a vat of dairy-fresh butter. Toss in a generous portion of freshly picked avocados. And finally some exotic shea butter. Mix them up together to serve your skin a sinful treat of Lakme's new Butter Up Body Butter. A rich elixir of avocado and shea pulp, that conditions your skin to make it soft and supple. How it Works: 1. The creamy butter gets easily absorbed into your skin, relieving it of dryness instantly. 2. Avocado pulp is a rich moisturiser. It gently smoothens rough skin areas like elbows, knees and feet. 3. Shea pulp is extracted from the nut of the 'Karate nut tree'. It helps in stimulating the natural cell renewal process, leaving your skin smoother and firmer. It's also a natural 'sun block'. How to Use: Apply immediately after a bath or at night just before going to bed. Use twice daily or as required. Ideal for all skin types. Use through the year. Results: Moisturised and radiant skin. Lakme 9 to 5 Intense Volume Mascara An all-day, high performance mascara that pumps up volume to give you framatic Gently run thr brush through your Gently brush some mascara onto your lashes from thr base to the tip of lower lashes using the same technique. your upper eyelash on the under Wait for the mascara to dry before side. applying a second coat. ally long lashes. Defining Eye Liner A color intence formula, with beautiful soft color effects that wii not udge even in hthe evening. This eyeliner glides on smoothly and easily, for a well-defined look that lasts all day. Line your eyes on the upper lid from the inner side of the eye to the outer side. To soften the look, use your ring finger and smudge gently at the comers. Line your lower lid from the out edge, tapering to the innercorner of the eye. Intense Shine Eyeliner Create smouldering eye in just one stroke with this color intense lustrous eyeliner that stays true for hours. Line your eyes in one single stroke on hthe upper lid from hthe inner side of the eye to the outer side. Let it dry. Line your lower lid from the outer edge, tapering to the inner corner of the eye. Free Spirit - Intense Shine Eyeliner Rich, luminous color for an intense metallic shine. Create smouldering eyes with metallic shades that redefine the look of liquid eyeliner. New lakme Kajal in an easy to use pencil form. Soothes your eyes with camphor and castor oil. Innovative manufacturing technology for perfect blending of ingredients to give a smooth finish. LAKME - SHIMMER EYE CUBE An innovative way of wearing eye-make up. QUICK DRY EYE LINER (Insta Liner) Quick drying liquid eyeliner in a creamy, black colour to highlight the eyes and enhance their looks! EYE LINER PERFECT DEFINITION EYE PENCIL LAKME HIGH DEFINITION EYE LINER Lakme High Definition Eyeliner What is it Lakme High Definition Eyeliner Comes with international quality felt-tip brush for easy application. Leak proof packaging makes it perfect for traveling and fits comfortably in your purse. Premium bottle packaging. How it works Lasts longer and gives a fresh 'just applied' look all day long. LAKME THICKLASH MASCARA Lakme Thicklash Mascara What is it Deep black Thicklash Mascara ... to create those Lakme Thicklash extra long, thick fluttering eyelashes! Mascara How it works Gel based formula separates each and every lash for fuller, longer eyelashes. Smudge-free formula stays intact, giving that 'just applied' look. AVON Product Title MD Skincare Hydra-Pure Vitamin C Serum Vitamin C Serum promotes optimal skin function with a high- performance complex of Vitamin C. This nourishing serum contains three forms of Vitamin C to provide maximum efficacy. Vitamin C works in the lipid-soluble and. Vitamin C Vitality Facial Serum 1 Oz by Avalon Organic Botanicals Avalon Organics Vitamin C Skin Care will energize your complexion... More Revision Skin Care Vitamin C Infusion Cream 10% 1.5oz Anti Aging, Anti Wrinkle FREE SHIPPING . Enter code skin at the checkout for extra 10% discount... More MD Skin Care Hydra-Pure Vitamin C Serum 1 oz. MD Skin Care Free Shipping! A deeply nourishing serum with three... Product Title MD Skincare Anti Aging Vitamin C Gel 1 oz MD Skincare Anti Aging Vitamin C Gel This nourishing gel helps... MD Skincare-Anti-Aging Vitamin C Gel ( Unboxed )-30ml/1oz This nourishing gel helps skin restore youthfulness. 3 different... MD Skincare Hydra-Pure Vitamin C Serum 1 oz What it is:A nourishing serum that promotes optimal skin function... MD Skincare Hydra-Pure Vitamin C Serum Free Shipping on All Orders. "By combining the benefits of the... MD Skincare Hydra-Pure Vitamin C Serum, 1.0 oz. Serum delivery system intensifies the effects of the Hydra-Pure... For Men: Clinical Skin Care Vitamin C Serum Extreme C. Stablizied vitamin C, an antioxidant that enhances... MD Skincare Firming Body Lotion with Vitamin C 236ml / 8oz. Product Title This Firming Body Lotion helps to improve skin density, restore... MD Skincare Firming Body Lotion with Vitamin C Sunscreen SPF 8 Retexturizes skin with superior moisturizers and gentle Beta Hydroxy... Loreal Dermo-Expertise Transformance Skin Perfecting Solution 1 Oz 30ml This is a new generation of skincare to truly transform the tone... Lancome Skincare Resurface-C Microdermabrasion Resurface-C Microdermabrasion Radiance Renewing Vitamin C Serum Radiance Renewing Vitamin C Serum infuses your newly polished... Vitamin C - Microdermabrasion Skin Treatment from SMART care for Skin by Connie Elder Product Title Exfoliate, Stimulate and Regenerate your skin in minutes. Immediate... Sewame BASIC SERIES Shining & Whitening Sleep Promotion Facial Mask (150 ml) Innovation Sewame Shining & Whitening Sleep Promotion Facial Mask... Anne Marie Borlind For Men After Shave Balm -- 1.7 fl oz After shaving the skin requires calming and strengthen care. An... BABOR Complex C Cream FREE Shipping, FAST Delivery!!! COMPLEX C - The vitamin that boosts... Sea Moss Moisturizer SPF15, 2 fl oz, ALBA BOTANICA Sea Moss Moisturizer with SPF 15. SPF 15 No synthetic colors pH... Alba Botanica Sea Moss Moisturizer SPF 15 Product Title This complete facial care complex with Irish moss, vitamin C and... Abra Therapeutics, Organic Green Tea, Daytime Defense Cream, 2 oz (56 g) Therapeutic Skin Care Organic Green Tea Vitamin C & Grape Seed... Dr. Michelle Copeland Revitalizing Formula Dr. Michelle Copeland Skin Care Revitalizing Formula with Vitamins... Revision Skin Care Vitamin C 30% Lotion 1oz Revision Skin Care FREE SHIPPING . Enter code skin at the checkout for extra 10% discount... MD Skincare Hydra-Pure Vitamin C Serum 1 oz. MD Skincare Free Shipping! A deeply nourishing serum with three... Product Title Nutra Luxe Skin Firming & Protection Vit C Complex - 1 Nutra Luxe MD Plus Vitamin C Complex is an ALL NATURAL Anti Aging... Pycnogenol Moisturizing Creme with Vitamins E, C, & A Creme 2 Oz by Derma-e Skin Care Pycnogenol Moisturizing Creme MD Skincare-Anti-Aging Vitamin C Gel-30ml/1oz This nourishing gel helps skin restore youthfulness. 3 different... Obagi C-Therapy Night Cream C-Therapy Night Cream is a rich, non-greasy cream for evening... RoC Triple Action Day-Night 30ml, The result of RoC dermatological research on ageing skin, Retinol... philosophy save me pm retinol/vitamin c/peptideserum, 1 oz. Infused with a stable form of vitamin C to help brighten your... REVLON Face Revlon Touch & Glow Moisturising Makeup, Colorstay Makeup Oil-Free, Colorstay Powder Oil-Free, Skinlights Face Illuminator Lotion, Skinlights Face Illuminator Loose Powder. Lips Lips are the best place on your face to experiment with different looks. Define your lipline and add fullness to your lips Provide lip color that complements your skin and hair tones. Eyes From a soft wash of color to a sexy, smoky look, Revlon eyeshadow helps you express your every mood. Choose from a wide-range of shades in shimmering creams or silky powders. Nails The perfect nail enamel sets off any outfit, and complements every mood. From strong, bold colors to subtle, sophisticated tones and sheer nailcolor, you`ll find it all right here. Skin Revlon absolute whitening skin care range is specially formulated by revlon to provide significant skin whitening benefits for the Asian skin. Hair Give your locks every luxury, and preserve your outer beauty with our nourishing hair care products. Revlon Magic Eye Products Mumbai: Revlon launches two products to pamper your eyes. Powder Magic Eye Shadow is a powder eye shadow with intense colour pay-off, in unique and easy to chubby stick format. It is made to glide on effortlessly for hours of crease-resistant wear. It will be available in shades like sky, bronze, violet and copper. This is priced at Rs. 425. Their second product is Magic Eyeliner. It is a waterproof, long lasting liner pencil that gives a silky smooth metallic finish. Sades available are mysterious green, seductive silver, smoky black, antique copper and flirty brown.It is priced at Rs. 275. These products will be available at all leading department and cosmetic stores. Mineral collection from REVLON REVLON introduces Mineral Collection Foundation, Blush and Eyeshadow with colour-stay. The timing is right to bring Estée Lauder to India, said John Demsey, Group President. First Look: Why we covet Sarah Jessica Parker! The actress launched her own perfume 'Covet' in a swanky Paris do. Lancome and Uma Thurman are wrangling over the use of her image in an advertising campaign. Lipstick goes kiss-proof! With this new lipstick you can kiss, eat and drink in all your business meetings, lunch breaks or even dinner for two with zero trace. Avon introduces youth extending cream It prevents protein damage and stimulates the production of your skin's own defensive enzymes. The 'Divine' Scent Want to make a lasting impression with your scent? Oriflame has come out with a seductive scent 'Divine Sensual'. First Look - Celebrity Nose Of The Year Revlon Introduces Absolute White Revlon Absolute White + goes beyond whitening, providing protection and care to your skin. Avon Launches Valentine Shades The Cause-Metics For Charity Peacekeeper Cause-Metics donates all its distributable profits to charity... Cory Wallia's Prediction for Spring-Summer Cory Wallia demonstrates make-up that he thinks will be hot this Spring Summer. Avon Introduces New Cologne Avon introduces cool blue cologne and ultra cool citrus fragrances for men. Must-have Make-up In Budget Look like a million bucks in just Rs 1500. Decorate Your Nails Blossom Kocchar tells us about new trends in nail art and decorating nails... For Radiant Skin What are the best skin care products to bank on? Lucky Lips! Get luscious lips with a lipstick that's made for you. Why Make-Up Turns Disaster! Best brands can be a disaster on your face. Avoid these blunders to get your make-up right… Make-up Tricks for a Younger You Give your tired skin an instant pop of colour with these make-up tips... L'Oreal's Glam Shine Lip Gloss L'Oreal Paris celebrates their latest collection of lip-glosses, Glam Shine Natural Glow. L'Oreal Make-Up Remover Power All products have been both dermatologically and opthalmologically tested. Get That Make-up Right! Doing your make-up every morning can be such a drag. Here are a few smart make-up tips... Enjoy Rain with Waterproof Make-Up With a range of waterproof make-up, you can look your dazzling best without worrying about how to keep it in place. Soothe Skin Irritation with Water! Vichy water is proven to soothe the skin while reinforcing the skin's natural protection functions. Will a Trip to the Salon Affect Your Baby? Spa and other beauty treatments while pregnant could affect your baby. Avon Introduced New Products Avon has introduced Naturals Shampoo Range and kajal. The Brand Ambassador Truth rand ambassadors might try to convince you to buy a product, but it's YOU who has to decide. 15 Top Cosmetic Brands for Indian Skin We spoke to the best in the business to ask them for their favourite cosmetic brands. StreetWear Launches New Range StreetWear introduces new range of eye makeup. Revlon Magic Eye Products Revlon launches its new range of eye products. A Good Foundation Make-up application tips by Nandini Bhalla for flawless complexion. Reese Now Ambassador for Avon Reese Witherspoon named as beauty brand's first-ever global ambassador. L'Oreal Rapped over Mascara Ad The Advertising Standards Authority said the company broke its rules and misled consumers. New face of Lakme, Amrit Maghera Jhoomur Bose in a exclusive interview with Amrit Maghera. Make Your Own Make-Up Kit onfused about what to add and what not to, here is a short list … What Is in Your Purse? Here's a look at the stuff our celebs simply can't do without. Old Makeup is Risky The old lipstick or the forgotten mascara in your handbag is a health hazard. SRK to Get 'Fair and Handsome' Shahrukh Khan will now endorse a fairness cream. Scrub for Healthy Skin Dust and sun gives your skin a hard time. Let your skin breath by exfoliating with body scrubs! The Make-up Check List A wedding day is more than just another day to look good. On this day, all eyes are on you. Benetton Unveils New Fragrances United Colours of Benetton unveils its new range of perfumes inspired by cotton. Love Thy Perfume If perfume is the only thing you plan to wear tonight, make sure you pick the right one to set the mood! The Best Moisturiser for You! Here's a comparison of 5 of the best moisturisers handpicked by skin and make-up experts. Sean John Fragrance for Men This is limited edition fragrance from Sean John. Beauty Parlour at Afghanistan Afghan women enter the beauty business. GARNIER Garnier Nutrisse - Base Shades Garnier Nutrisse - Browns & Golds Garnier Nutrisse - Reds Permanent Hair Color Naturals Fructis Shampoo Fructis Anti-Dandruff Shampoo Fructis Conditioners Ultra Doux Gentle Shampoo Ultra Doux Shampoo & Conditioner Ultra Doux Nourishing Conditioner Ultra Doux Nourishing Hair Oil Cleansers Essential Care Anti-ageing Wrinkle Lift Fairness + Anti Marks Cream Sun Care Firming Body Products Intense Body Moisture Lotion Under Eye Cream Anti-blemish CHAPTER-IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Chapter IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN “The research design is the conceptual structure with in which research is conducted it consist the blue print of the collection measurement and analysis of data.” In that project the research design was adopted for the “Descriptive research study” the exploratory research studies are also termed as formulate research studies. The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypothesis from an operational point of view The main purpose of the study was to tell the consumer perception in „A . The major emphasis was on the discovery of the ideas and opinions of the consumers at different levels in the existing environment. Two methods that are used for the study are: 1. The survey of concerning literature. 2. The experience study. SAMPLE DESIGN A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample. The sample design is determined before data are collected. The sampling used for the study is “Convenience Sampling”. Under this sampling design every item or the universe has equal chance or inclusion in the sample because this is Consumers‟ Perception survey, so we give each person at any place an equal probability of getting into the sample. The LG & SONY Electronic Product of random sampling are: 1. It gives each element in the population an equal probability of getting into the sample; and all choices are independent of one another. 2. It gives each possible sample combination an equal probability of being chosen. DATA COLLECTION TYPES OF DATA In the survey two types of data are collected: 1. Primary data: These data‟s are those which are collected for the first time and therefore original in nature. Secondary data: Data, which have already been collected by someone else and hence passed through the statistical process. DATA SOURCE PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION For the collection of the primary data following methods were used: 1. Interview method: Personal interviews of the customers are taken at different levels to get their opinions and suggestions. And the interview was structured in nature. 2. Questionnaire method: Structured questionnaire on the basis of information collected from different sources. The questionnaire contains both open and ended questions. SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION Secondary data were collected from the following sources: a. Books related to topic b. Organization documents c. Magazines d. Websites DATA APPROACHES Stratified Random Probability Sample Selection Method. Research Instrument Questionnaire Focus Group Observation Direct Method MECHANICAL INSTRUMENT: Telephonic Method POPULATION: Sampling Unit: Customer Preference towards Cosmetics Sample size : Approximate 100 Sample Selection Procedure : Probability Contact Method Direct method Telephone STATISTICAL TOOLS USED Statistical tools used in the project study are: Graph. CHAPTER-V FINDINGS & ANALYSIS Chapter V FINDING AND ANALYSIS 1-Q. Do you use cosmetics? Yes No 15% yes No. 85% 2.Q. Which brand you prefer most ? Revlon Lakme Avon Garnier Lorael 11% 11% Revlon 45% Lakm e Oriflam e Avon 11% Gam ier 22% 3. Q. What attracts you to buy this brand? Brand name Quality Prices 0% 38% 43% Brand name Quality Price Slice 4 19% 4.Q. what is the frequency of purchase? Once in a month Twice in month More than 3 months 17% Once in a m onth Tw ice in a m onth 50% More than 2 m onths 33% 5. Q. How often you use this brand? Everyday In a week Special occasion 20% Everyday in a w eek 50% special occasion 30% 6. Q. Who influences you to purchase this brand Friends Family Celebrity appeal Past experiences 15% Friends 15% Familly Celebrity Appeal 55% Past Experience 15% 7. Q. What is the point of purchase? Small retailer Exclusive showroom Authorized dealer Retailer with multiple brands 11% 11% Revlon 45% Sm all Retailer Exclusicve Autorized 11% Retailer 22% 8. Q. give rating to the factors for preference of your brand which makes it different from other brands Brand name Quality Varieties Availability 0% 38% 43% Brand nam e Quality Price Slice 4 19% 9. Q. Are you Satisfied with the brand? Yes No 30% yes no 70% CHAPTER-VI CONCLUSION Chapter VI CONCLUSION We that you have read this overview of the most common aesthetic surgical procedures, you probably have some questions. If you are considering surgery, you should consult a qualified plastic surgeon—one who is certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery. The surgeon of the Cosmetic Surgery Center of Colorado Springs, Dr. Ian G. Walker, is ABPS certified. We can provide you with additional, detailed information about the specific procedure in which you are interested. This information will include not only the benefits but also the possible risks and complications associated with the procedure. We may wish to discuss with you variations of, or alternatives to, the operations described here. Advances are constantly being made in the field of aesthetic plastic surgery. While "new" procedures do not always prove to be better than established ones, we may feel that you can benefit from some procedures that are performed less frequently than those we have described. If there are aesthetic surgical procedures that you have read about in magazines or heard about on the radio or television, ask about them. We can advise you as to whether a specific procedure would be beneficial to you. If there are problems or safety questions, we will be able to alert you to them. Above all, confide your goals, expectations and concerns. Our most important job is to help you achieve physical well-being and satisfaction with your appearance. We'll leave you with a quote by one of the early practitioners of aesthetic cosmetic surgery: CHAPTER-VII SUGGESTIONS Chapter VII SUGGESTIONS In case of price, price of products should not be too high. Marketer should follow the strategy of „Good quality and services in fewer prices‟. That can attract customers. It was seen that generally customers like to visits those outlets which are frequently visited by other customers, customers generally prefer Multibrands counters because lots of products can be seen at on place (including conmetics products. More intense research works should be initiated, studying the specific needs and attributes sorted by the customer for different kinds of product categories. CHAPTER-VIII LIMITATIONS Chapter VIII LIMITATIONS Difficulty to find secondary data that exactly the needs of some specific research investigation. The facilities or capabilities of the agency that originally collected the data might be questionable. Difficulties in the identification of the source. Accuracy: It is observed that it is rather difficult to measure the degree of approximation used in the collection of information as well as the competence of the investigator in motivating the persons to supply the desired information. Error may be there in recording or transferring information from secondary sources. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS- 1-- Ahmad, Abad, Management and Organisation Development,Rachna Prakashan, Nen Delhi, 1997 2--C.B Mamoria.S.V.Gankar Personnel Management 3--I.I.P.M,op.cit,pp.219-221. 4-Indian Institute of Personnel Management in India , Calcutta,1972,P.418. 5--K..Ashwaatapa-Human Resource and Personnel Management . Internet site: www.lakmeindia.com www.avon.com www.revion.com ANNEXURE ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Sir / Madam, I am a student pursuing my BBA in Finance & Marketing from Teerthankar Mahaveer Institute of Management & Technology, Moradabad and undertaking “COSMETICS”. I need your co-operation in furnishing the following information that is required in the successful completion of my project. I shall be grateful if you answer the following questions and give your honest opinion. 1-Q. Do you use cosmetics? Yes No 2.Q. Which brand you prefer most ? Revlon Lakme Avon Garnier Lorael 3. Q. What attracts you to buy this brand? Brand name Quality Prices 4.Q. what is the frequency of purchase? Once in a month Twice in month More than 3 months 5. Q. How often you use this brand? Everyday In a week Special occasion 6. Q. Who influences you to purchase this brand Friends Family Celebrity appeal Past experiences 7. Q. What is the point of purchase? Small retailer Exclusive showroom Authorized dealer Retailer with multiple brands 8. Q. Give rating to the factors for preference of your brand which makes it different from other brands Brand name Quality Varieties Availability 8. Q. Are you Satisfied with the brand? Yes No Some information about yourself:- a. Name ……………………………….. b Age …………………………………. c. Occupation: Business Service d. Address: ……………………………………………………………… .…………………………………………………………….. e. Contact No. …………………………………………………………… Thanks for your co-operation.
Pages to are hidden for
"brow pencil"Please download to view full document