PROPOSAL for a Bachelor of Arts Degree
Second Language Studies
School/College and Department/Unit: UH Mānoa
Department of Second Language Studies,
College of LLL, Arts and Sciences
Program Category: New
Level of Program or Major: Undergraduate
Degree or Certificate Proposed: Bachelor of Arts in Second Language Studies
Proposed Date of Implementation: Fall semester 2010
The Department of Second Language Studies, which currently offers an M.A. and a Ph.D. in Second Language
Studies, proposes to offer a B.A. in Second Language Studies. This is primarily an administrative reorganization of
the existing long-standing option within Interdisciplinary Studies, that has consistently attracted students. No new
resources are requested.
I. Objectives of the Second Language Studies Degree Program ................................................. 3
II. Relationship of Program Objectives to the Mission of the College and University ............... 4
III. Organization of Program........................................................................................................ 8
IV. Student Demand................................................................................................................... 10
V. Resource Requirements......................................................................................................... 13
VI. How efficient will the program be? ..................................................................................... 14
VII. Effectiveness ...................................................................................................................... 16
Appendix 1. Career paths of Interdisciplinary Studies/SLS B.A. graduates ................................ 18
Appendix 2. Support letters .......................................................................................................... 19
Appendix 3. Curriculum map ....................................................................................................... 25
Appendix 4: Four-year academic plan & planning sheet.............................................................. 26
Appendix 5: Examples of positions or accomplishments by alumni of SLS ................................ 29
I. Objectives of the Second Language Studies Degree
The mission of the Bachelor of Arts degree program in Second Language Studies is to provide students with a
comprehensive understanding of scholarship and application in the learning and use of second languages. The
program addresses theory, research, and practice in acquisition, utilization, and teaching of additional languages,
including coverage of formal and informal learning contexts as well as standard and pidgin/creole varieties of
This program, in accord with the values of SLS graduate degree programs, takes the broad view that plurilingual and
pluricultural societies stand a much better chance (than those with imposed monolingualism) of getting along and of
getting important cooperative work done; that language mediates the human experience; that linguistic diversity is
directly related to ecological diversity and sustainability; and that communication in and across languages enables
understanding and appreciation, conflict resolution, and the negotiation of values.
The BA in SLS meets local, statewide, national, and international needs for the development of second language
specialists who both understand the nature of second language learning and use in diverse circumstances, and who
are able to act upon related challenges that emerge at the interface between second language learners/users and the
variety of social and educational settings in which they live and act. Graduates of the program contribute locally in
the commercial English language education market, in K-12 and tertiary/post-secondary public/private language
teaching and research, and in social services for child and adult immigrants. Many graduates work nationally and
internationally as language educators, in materials publishing, and at non-profit and governmental organizations.
The BA in SLS also serves as an excellent preparation for entry into graduate programs in a variety of language-
Student Learning Outcomes
Upon graduating from the BA in SLS, students will:
1. manifest the skills, understandings, and dispositions necessary to be exceptional language professionals
2. demonstrate critical thinking and awareness of issues within the context of their professional work and
3. demonstrate an understanding of the value bases of their professional work
4. interpret the history of second and foreign language study and its contemporary issues
5. critically evaluate and make use of research into the learning, use, structure, and pedagogy of second
6. develop and apply sound frameworks to the assessment and evaluation of institutions and agents involved
in second language instruction, planning, and policy
7. show an understanding of local language issues of Hawai‘i and the Pacific in their professional work
8. be able to prepare minority language students to acquire the academic literacies that would allow them to
succeed in educational institutions
9. improve the quality of teaching and learning of second, foreign, and heritage languages, in the state of
Hawai‘i, domestically, and abroad.
Additional program goal: upon graduating from the BA in SLS will be prepared to apply for admission to
graduate programs in second language studies, applied linguistics, or related fields.
II. Relationship of Program Objectives to the Mission of the
College and University
Justification for the B.A. Program
Departmental development and consistent student demand
The Department of Second Language Studies (formerly the Department of English as a Second Language) at the
University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa has a 40-year history, an excellent reputation, and a total student enrollment of
around 100 students at MA and PhD level, and also houses two ESL instructional programs, the English Language
Institute and the Hawai‘i English Language Program. It has offered the MA degree since about 1968, and had its
PhD program approved in 1988. During the four decades of its existence, the Department has also offered a full
sequence of undergraduate courses at the 300- and 400-level, but primarily for administrative reasons, its de facto
Bachelors degree has been maintained through the Department of Interdisciplinary Studies (previously the
Department of Liberal Studies).
It has been standard practice when a major equivalent develops and maintains numbers within Interdisciplinary
Studies, but has a potential departmental home, to transfer it to that department as a major, or as a new program
within a college—for example, Women’s Studies. (See Appendix 2, letter of support from Prof. Drechsel,
Interdisciplinary Studies.) Accordingly, the B.A. degree in Second Language Studies is proposed primarily because
of the steady number of students in the existing B.A. in Interdisciplinary Studies degree program who construct a
major oriented to Second Language Studies. Several additional factors support or encourage this development,
including repurposing of internal resources, external interest in the BA degree, recent surveys of student interest, and
developments in the wider academic discipline. The proposed change will also enhance the strength of the program,
by way of visibility and advising (see p. 9 of this document).
Changing structure of the associated academic discipline
The academic discipline associated with this area is known as “applied linguistics”. For historical reasons, many of
the early practitioners of this area within university settings were indeed “linguists”— people with PhDs in
Linguistics who shifted out of that area to work with applied aspects of the domain, associated with second language
teaching. In addition, as the area developed, many of the practitioners, similarly, were those who had begun as
language teachers and, in moving to the unusual area of second language studies, needed an additional degree to add
to their experiences, and tended to want an advanced degree, rather than a second bachelor's degree. It is still the
case that the area has a top-heavy profile, with proportionately more individuals holding a graduate degree.
However, as this discipline and its associated practice areas has become more established, it is gradually moving
from one in which practitioners have graduate degrees, into one in which there is a possibility of starting with an
appropriate and relevant bachelors degree. These are increasingly found at U.S. and other universities and the
present degree proposal reflects this trend. The move towards bachelor’s degrees in this area also will improve the
overall quality of training in the field. If bachelor’s degrees held by practitioners in the area of SLS are actually
degrees in that area, any future graduate training they might acquire should be the better for being built on a more
Relationship to the Mission of the College of Arts and Sciences
“The mission of the College of Arts and Sciences is to promote excellence in scholarship and to
enrich the quality of community life by providing students a liberal arts education, by fostering
the creation of new knowledge and artistic expression and by addressing important societal
issues (Mānoa at the Millennium, 2000).”
The proposed B.A. degree in Second Language Studies will support this mission as a quality pre-professional
program focused in the language sciences.
Relationship to UH Mānoa’s Strategic Plan
The goals of the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Strategic Plan (Defining our destiny, 2000-2010) include
- deliver a modern, flexible, diverse and multicultural curriculum...
- advance stable, peaceful, prosperous and democratic relations in the region by being an international
center of learning and exchange
- vigorously recruit students from Asia and the Pacific...
- build on our comparative advantages such as our... cultural diversity
- expand leadership in international affairs, emphasizing Hawai‘i, Asia, and the Pacific
- educate a highly skilled, flexible, world-class labor force
- promote environmentally and culturally sensitive economic development in services... tourism and
- increase student enrollment and recruit a greater percentage of non-residents
- partner with the Department of Education to improve the overall effectiveness of public education in
- engage all undergraduates in research and creative scholarship
- support research initiatives where Mānoa is uniquely positioned to excel
The proposed BA program conforms to the requirement for a multicultural curriculum, since it is specifically
oriented towards issues of plurilingual and multicultural societies. It thus reflects and builds on the comparative
advantage of the University of Hawai‘i in regard to its base in the cultural diversity that our Islands manifest. It also
strengthens and rationalizes the offerings of one of the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa’s most internationally
reputed research-oriented departments 1; the strong MA and PhD offerings of DSLS faculty can be extended
systematically to undergraduates through this degree.
Faculty in this department collaborate with the Department of Education on a regular basis, offering workshops and
have recently worked in grant-funded initiatives at Hawai‘i Department of Education schools. Special sections of
least one undergraduate course (SLS 302) have regularly been offered in a dedicated form to HIDoE teachers on
O‘ahu and most recently on the Big Island; as has usually been the case, SLS professors and graduate students have
been involved in workshops for DoE teachers (e.g., 2009 & 2010, Windward District, O’ahu), in collaboration with
The undergraduate SLS program provides the core content courses for the College of Education (COE) Post-
baccalaureate teacher education program in English Language Learners, Heritage/Foreign Languages, Bilingual
Education, and English as a Foreign Language. Working in partnership with the COE, we endeavor to provide
services directly to the University and indirectly to public and private schools through offering undergraduate
instruction in second language theories and methods.
English Language Learners (ELLs) comprised ten percent (10%) of the entire public school population in Hawai‘i in
2007. Three out of five students are in the elementary grades (K-5). In total, ELLs represented 18,357 students in
school year 2007-08 and the population continues to grow (from 15,423 in 2005), while overall enrollment is on the
decline. Nearly every Hawai‘i school reports having English Language Learners among their student population,
with the highest numbers at Farrington High School (539 ELL students) and Waipahu Elementary (461 ELL
students). The typical Hawai‘i school is composed of both English learners and English speakers, and in many
schools the ELL student body affects their ability to meet No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Adequate Yearly Progress
(AYP) measures. Preliminary 2008 NCLB AYP data indicate that the ELL subgroup did not meet the AYP
objectives of 58% proficiency in reading (actual 35%) and 46% proficiency in math (actual 26%).
UH graduate programs rank among tops in the nation Ka Leo News Desk Issue date: 4/23/08
“Five University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa graduate programs ranked among the nation's top 10 in their respective fields of study based on faculty
productivity, according to the Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index. ‘UH Mānoa faculty members in these programs are among the very best in
the world, so our high ranking accurately reflects the quality of their efforts, along with the students and staff working with them,’ said UH
Mānoa Chancellor Virginia Hinshaw.... included in the top nationally ranked programs at UH Mānoa are marine sciences, ranking fourth; teacher
education (second-language acquisition) [=Department of Second Language Studies], ranking sixth; geophysics, ranking seventh; and
epidemiology, ranking eighth.”
Because ELL enrollment has been increasing, there is an even greater need for regular education core content
teachers to be able to address ELL students’ unique needs. Teachers specifically require skills in developing ELL
students’ competency in listening, speaking, reading and writing to ensure equal access to the core curriculum, and
also strategies for making grade-level and academic curriculum comprehensible to English Learners. In addition,
competencies in the areas of language, culture, instruction, and assessment are necessary for all instructional staff.
Given the high percentage of ELLs in the State and increasing State and national demand for bilingual speakers, our
ability to provide undergraduates with a major in ESL will facilitate transition to the College of Education Post-
baccalaureate teacher education program in this area, thus, helping to meet university and community needs.
The UHM College of Education Post-baccalaureate teacher education and licensure program must conform to the
standards of the National Council on the Accreditation of Teacher Education, who in conjunction with the relevant
professional bodies, in this case the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, requires that teachers'
subject-matter knowledge be demonstrated within subject area courses taken outside of the College of Education. In
the case of licensed teachers of ESL, those courses would be taken within the offerings of the B.A. in SLS program.
A general understanding of language issues in a multicultural environment is of use to the “tourism and emerging
sectors” of the Hawai‘i economy (mentioned in the UHM Strategic Plan, quoted above); one of the “emerging
sectors” is the language school component of the “edu-tourism” element of the tourist industry, an area receiving
support from the State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (see letter of support,
Appendix 2). A BA in SLS is an entry-level qualification for this growth area.
The existing BA in IS/SLS attracts a substantial proportion of students from Asia and the Pacific, because of the
reputation of the SLS Department and the need in Asia-Pacific countries for SL teaching, mainly in English but
increasingly in other languages. The proposed BA will continue this and contribute to UHM’s stature as an
international center of learning and exchange.
Relationship to the University of Hawai‘i System Strategic Plan
The goals of the UH System strategic plan (Entering the University’s second century, 2002-2010) are stated under
five main goals with subsidiary objectives and “action strategies”. The goals are:
(1) Educational Effectiveness and Student Success, (2) A Learning, Research, and Service Network, (3) A
Model Local, Regional, and Global University, (4) Investment in Faculty, Staff, Students, and Their
Environment, (5) Resources and Stewardship.
We highlight specific goals, objectives, and action strategies which inform or with which the BA proposal is
consistent, in the following section.
Goal 1, Educational effectiveness and student success
Objective 1: To achieve a shared institutional culture that makes student learning and success the responsibility of
Action strategies in this area include “Enhance the involvement of undergraduate students in the creation and
transfer of knowledge through research-intensive courses; Student research opportunities and related employment;
Joint faculty-student publications; Service learning opportunities.” This would be consistent with broad aspirations
for the proposed BA, and in particular for the capstone course. In this, the strong research orientation of the SLS
department as a whole is prominent.
Goal 2: A Learning, Research, and Service Network
Objective 2: To support Hawai‘i’s economy, workforce development, and improved access and flow of education in
Hawai‘i from preschool through a lifetime of learning by building partnerships within the University and with other
public and private educational, governmental, and business institutions.
The action strategy specified here is “Expand training and workforce development programs in coordination with
state and industry economic initiatives.” This speaks in general terms to the relationship between the proposed BA
program and general state needs for English language learners resident in the state to achieve functional proficiency
in English. More specifically, the growing private language school industry in the state is an employment target for
graduates of the proposed degree.
Goal 3: A Model Local, Regional, and Global University
Transform the international profile of the University of Hawai‘i system as a distinguished resource in Hawaiian and
Asian-Pacific affairs, positioning it as one of the world’s foremost multicultural centers for global and indigenous
Objective 1: To establish the University of Hawai‘i and the state of Hawai‘i as the research, service, and training
hub of Oceania, with bridges to the Asia-Pacific region, the Americas, and the rest of the world.
���� Identify and capitalize on strategic international markets for profit-generating programs (short-term training,
distance learning, and technical assistance) based on existing partnerships and UH program strengths and capacity.
���� Encourage interaction between international students and students from local ethnic groups. Continue support for
the study of diverse cultures and languages to support Hawai‘i students who wish to explore their cultural roots.
���� Expand on- and off-campus intercultural and education abroad opportunities for students; facilitate worldwide
networking and intercultural exchanges involving faculty, visiting scholars, administrative staff, and students.
���� Develop administrative and financial support for international education, integrating teaching and research with
international programs and partnerships.
���� Play an active leadership and participatory role in Oceania/Asia/Pacific-focused organizations.
Increase and celebrate relationships with the East-West Center and strengthen mutually beneficial affiliations with
highly regarded institutions, businesses, and entrepreneurs in the Asia-Pacific region.
The proposed BA in SLS degree program has a strong international orientation. Current enrollments in the
undergraduate courses in the Department of SLS have a substantial international student component, which is
natural as international English instruction is also a curricular component. Thus, the program is fully consistent with
the concept of a model local, regional, and global university. The Department has a long-standing relationship with
the East-West Center; it has formal relationships with a number of university departments in East Asia and is
strongly grounded in this area.
III. Organization of Program
The BA in SLS is managed by a faculty member, a Director of Undergraduate Programs, who takes responsibility
for overseeing the day-to-day administration of courses, instructors, and students. The Director also serves as the
primary academic advisor for undergraduate students, with administrative support from the SLS assistant to the
chairs (in particular for degree checks of graduating students). The BA in SLS undergraduate program committee,
consisting of faculty/instructors as well as undergraduate student representatives, advises the Director on matters
related to curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Admission to the program typically occurs during a student’s sophomore or junior year. Students must be in good
academic standing, as exhibited by performance in university core courses taken prior to admission. Students are
admitted through an initial advising session with the program Director. Throughout their degree process, they will
also receive advising by faculty who are naturally familiar with their range of careers and diversity of students who
chose SLS as a major, which will result in greater student satisfaction than the previous administrative context.
The undergraduate curriculum is designed and sequenced to: (a) introduce students to key concepts, theory, and
applications in the SLS field; (b) guide students through in-depth exploration of methodologies and topics of interest
to SLS professionals; (c) provide students with hands-on experience in applying their learning to real-world issues in
the domain of second language learning and use; and (d) afford students the opportunity to reflect on and
consolidate their learning in support of their dispositions to professionalism in the field and in their future
endeavors. Two prerequisite core courses (SLS 302 and 303) provide a broad-based entry into the major, while
special topics courses (SLS 480-variable alpha courses) taken in the senior year serve as professional preparation
and capstone experiences. All SLS undergraduate courses address theory, research, and practice, and all courses
require students to engage in academic writing and speaking (with many courses designated as ‘intensive’ in several
of the university distribution requirement areas).
To earn a BA in Second Language Studies, students must complete the requirements outlined below and also meet
all of the university’s other baccalaureate degree requirements. Students must obtain a minimum grade of C in all
required courses and prerequisite courses.
1. Courses. Students pursuing the BA in SLS complete 33 credits of courses above the 200-level, which would
typically come from primarily the following:
SLS 302 Second Language Learning
SLS 303 Second Language Teaching
SLS 312 Techniques in Second Language Teaching: Reading & Writing
SLS 313 Techniques in Second Language Teaching: Listening & Speaking
SLS 380 Bilingual Education
SLS 441 Language Concepts for Second Language Studies
SLS 460 English Phonology
SLS 490 Second Language Testing
SLS 418 Instructional Media
SLS 430 Pidgin and Creole English in Hawai‘i
One of SLS 480 Topics in SL Studies variable alpha sequence (480-P Second Language Pedagogy, 480-R Second
Language Research, 480-U Second Language Use, 480-N Second Language Analysis, 480-E, Second
Language Learning) or SLS 499 Directed Reading.
SLS 480-P Topics in SL Studies: Professionalism in SLS [capstone requirement course].
Most of the courses have been in the UH Catalog and offered on a regular basis for the past 20 years. Two courses
serve as prerequisites for all 400-level courses: SLS 302 and SLS 303. Required courses are SLS 302, 303, 380, 430,
441, 490, and the final capstone 480-P course and include all the SLS content courses required by UHM College of
Education programs for licensure. Each required SLS course follows a master syllabus that stipulates student
learning outcomes for the course, student participation and academic performance expectations, and assessment
criteria. Alternatives for other courses may be selected with approval of a student’s advisor.
2. SLS Portfolio. In conjunction with course requirements, students design a portfolio of their learning and
accomplishments. This portfolio serves as one assessment of student learning outcomes and it provides students with
a practical professional tool for advancing their careers and/or subsequent scholarly pursuits. The portfolio is
initiated during the first core courses taken in SLS, when students are instructed to maintain a record of their
accomplishments (including academic writing, presentations, teaching and other service or research experiences,
etc.). The portfolio is formally compiled during the senior capstone course, when students are encouraged to reflect
upon their learning and accomplishments, and when they produce professionally meaningful expressions of the same
(including curricula vitae, teaching philosophy statements, etc.). The portfolio is formally presented by graduating
seniors to the Department of SLS during a regularly scheduled lecture series.
Extra- and co-curricular experiences
In addition to degree requirements, students are afforded a variety of opportunities to expand upon their learning and
development as second language professionals and emerging scholars. Students are included within the departmental
email list, such that they are made aware of events and opportunities related to the SLS community. A fall
departmental retreat provides students the opportunity to interact with faculty, staff, and graduate students each year,
and regularly scheduled after-hours social events further provide for a sense of community. The departmental
student organization, SLSSA, invites undergraduate students to participate as full members in its various academic
and social activities. Students are also invited to attend and otherwise participate in an extensive series of scholarly
lectures, hands-on workshops, and related events. Service learning is encouraged through volunteerism at the many
conferences and other events hosted on a regular basis by the DSLS, as well as in a variety of campus- and non-
campus-based language teaching and tutoring opportunities.
See Appendix 3 for the curriculum map of courses to program SLOs.
See Appendix 4 for the four-year academic plan (program and plan sheets, reviewed and approved for inclusion on
UH Mānoa’s “program sheets” website).
IV. Student Demand
The Intended Student Population
The intended student population is broad and obviously involves all undergraduates, both resident and non-resident,
with a particular interest in second languages and cultures. As manifested in the Interdisciplinary Studies program
that precedes the proposed BA, this certainly includes residents who are from the major ethnic groups that make up
Hawai‘i residents and whose ancestral countries have a strong interest in English language learning, such as Japan
and Korea, at least. It includes residents with backgrounds for whom the learning of English as a second language
locally is important, such as Pacific Islanders. It includes residents for whom preservation of heritage languages is
important. It also includes international students from the entire Asia-Pacific area.
Some students will likely begin the proposed BA after graduating from UH Community Colleges, particularly
Kap‘iolani Community College. Following Board of Regents approval (2004) of the AS degree framework at KCC
for teacher preparation courses (including Special Ed and ESL), KCC has recently developed its AS Degree for
Educational Paraprofessionals (with an Emphasis in SLT) (along with a Certificate of Completion in TESOL).
UHM DSLS faculty have liaised with KCC staff concerning the present proposal to strengthen a campus-to-campus
connection to relevant sectors of the intended student population. Both KCC senior administrators and DSLS faculty
have consulted with College of Education faculty and administrators with particular reference to the connection
between the just-mentioned KCC AS, the present proposal, and the UHM COE post-baccalaureate certificate in
second language education. Articulation for other UH Community College students is also enhanced because the
first two years of the BA in the SLS four-year plan (Appendix 5) involve completion of the General Education
requirements, which is implied by completion of the AA degree.
Evidence of Student Interest; Majors; Service to non-majors
As previously mentioned, the courses that will actually make up the BA in SLS have been offered regularly for
many years at UHM. Thus, there are on record, enrollment figures for the undergraduate courses listed earlier, most
offered in single and occasionally double sections either once or twice a year, and often during the summer sessions,
going back decades. In most years, around 10 sections have been offered. In addition, our Fall 2008 survey showed
strong interest in a dedicated degree in this area, as opposed to the existing Interdisciplinary Studies label, which
students felt was not transparent to employers. We expect the number of majors to be consistent with those emerging
from the existing Interdisciplinary Studies/SLS concentration; and we expect the courses to continue also to be taken
by non-majors as has been the case over many years.
Career Paths of BA/SLS Graduates
After completing a BA in SLS, our graduates typically move into one of three areas: graduate school (or other post-
baccalaureate study or certification), language-related work overseas, or language-related work in Hawai‘i. In a Fall
2008 survey of students enrolled in SLS undergraduate courses, 38% voiced interest in graduate school or other
advanced study, 38% hoped to teach abroad, and 33% were very interested in state licensure to teach in the public
schools in Hawai‘i. A number of other goals were mentioned in the survey, but these three were, by far, the most
commonly expressed. This data concerns the aspirations of currently enrolled students, but the patterns are
consistent with the perceptions of faculty who have taught the courses in question and have interacted with students
and graduates of the existing IS/SLS undergraduate degree. In the following paragraphs, we provide a detailed
breakdown of the options and possibilities that graduates from the proposed degree may look forward to.
Graduate School or Other Advanced Study
Many of the graduates of our Interdisciplinary Studies BA in SLS have continued their studies at graduate school,
several in SLS here at UHM, and others in SLS or other related fields in other universities (e.g., Applied Linguistics,
TESOL, or various specialties in Education), while others have continued study for licensure to teach in the public
sector, other language-teaching certification, or other types of post-baccalaureate certificates. The proposed BA
degree is expected to increase the success and the number of students continuing in graduate school, and to allow
them to enter careers in academia or government research positions.
Professional Employment Abroad
Some graduates of our program initially seek employment abroad, particularly in the area of teaching English as a
foreign language. Two programs that employ a large number of our graduates are the Japan Exchange and Teaching
(JET) program and the English Program in Korea (EPIK), which provide team teachers for English education in
elementary, middle and high schools in Japan and Korea, respectively. However, many other of our graduates
independently seek and find positions as teachers, teacher trainers, or curriculum developers in these and other
countries around the world. After a few years of valuable experience abroad, many return to the Department of SLS
for graduate study.
Professional Employment in Hawai‘i
Within the State of Hawai‘i, there are several areas that need capable professionals from the field of SLS, not only in
the role of teachers of English as a second language (or other languages), but also as assessment specialists,
academic advisors, research analysts, program administrators, curriculum developers, translators and interpreters,
proofreaders or editors, and other fields where knowledge of and sensitivity to issues surrounding intercultural
communication are essential. The Department of SLS receives regular requests to post job announcements in these
areas from potential employers, and we expect to develop more formal connections with employers should the
degree proposal be approved. These areas of potential employment for graduates of SLS include:
Social services for immigrants. Language professionals are needed throughout the state to help programs
that provide a wide variety of social services to immigrants, including legal services, medical services,
vocational training, and development of literacy. In addition to language teaching, SLS graduates may also be
in demand as advisors and consultants to these programs and businesses.
Non-profit organizations. In addition to non-profits which provide social services to immigrants (e.g.,
Catholic Charities of Hawai‘i, Pacific Gateway Center), there are other non-profits with whom graduates with
SLS degrees would be well qualified to work. Among these are programs focusing on curriculum and materials
development (e.g., Pacific Resources in Education and Learning [PREL]) or opportunities for cross-cultural
research and further education (e.g., the East-West Center).
Private language schools. Edutourism, academic preparation, and language-learning opportunities have
made the private language school industry an important and growing industry in the state. In the 2008-2009
academic year, Hawai‘i had over 13,000 international students, who, along with their dependents, spent over
$160 million locally. Besides in our local colleges and universities, one of the most common choices for study,
both short-term and long-term, is in private language schools, which are often able to admit students at any
time, allow them to stay any length of time, and create tailored programs to their needs or wishes. To ensure
success, these schools need well-trained teachers, curriculum and evaluation specialists, and program
administrators. The Department of SLS regularly gets requests to post job announcements from these schools,
and a fairly large percentage of many of these programs’ faculty and administrators come from SLS.
Heritage language programs. Given the volume of immigrants and refugees in Hawai‘i, it is natural that
schools or programs have been developed for heritage language instruction (i.e., language development for
people who have a family and/or cultural connection to a language other than English). Here in Hawai‘i, there
are both public and private heritage language schools and programs, including breakout courses, after-school
programs, and weekend programs in languages such as Chinese, Korean and Japanese. Many students in SLS
are themselves heritage users (or native speakers) of these or other languages, and thus, are well equipped to
make a positive contribution to the success of these programs.
Private K-12 schools. Many of the private K-12 schools in Hawai‘i have ESL classes or programs, as well
as foreign-language (or heritage language) courses. A number of SLS graduates have gone on to teach
languages other than English. Some are hired into full-time positions that involve teaching ESL and a foreign
language. Other potential positions include language lab directors, counselors for college-bound students, or
other types of counseling or advising.
Public K-12 schools. Graduates of SLS have gone on to get licensure to teach in public schools. Some are
now Coordinators or Head Teachers of English Language Learners (ELL) programs; others teach ELL in the
schools. SLS BA students (IS/SLS) have been able to obtain certification via the COE while majoring in SLS or
by following up their BA degree with a post-baccalaureate certificate from COE. As with the private schools,
some SLS graduates become teachers of foreign or heritage languages, or take other related positions in the
schools. Licensure to teach in Hawai‘i transfers to other states, so some of those teachers have also moved
between Hawai‘i and the U.S. mainland.
Private colleges, universities and other institutions of higher education. There are several institutions in
Hawai‘i that offer degrees, certificates, and other forms of higher education. Most of these programs offer
courses in ESL, other languages, or language teacher training, both in face-to-face and online formats. Many of
these institutions regularly contact SLS when seeking teachers, testing or assessment specialists, tech lab
coordinators, or other related employees.
University of Hawai‘i System. With its ten campuses throughout the islands, the UH System offers a
wealth of opportunities for graduates of SLS. While many faculty positions require advanced degrees (which
promotes the option of continuing on to graduate study), there are a number of relevant positions at different
campuses that employ students with a Bachelor’s degree.
o UH-Mānoa. The Mānoa campus offers a range of programs in language study and academic
support, which offer employment to our graduates. There are numerous foreign language programs;
for ESL study, there are four programs, two of which are housed within SLS, and the other two within
Outreach College. The Writing Center, Learning Assistance Center, and Nagatani Academic Center
(Athletics) have all employed graduates of SLS.
o UH-West Oahu. Currently UH-West Oahu does not offer ESL or foreign language courses. Their
Writing Center has hired tutors from among SLS students.
o UH-Hilo. UH-Hilo offers a variety of for-credit foreign language courses, non-credit foreign
language courses, a credit-based ESL program for matriculated students, a non-credit intensive ESL
program, and a non-credit short-term ESL program.
o Kapi‘olani Community College. KCC offers a variety of for-credit foreign language courses, non-
credit foreign language courses, a credit-based ESL program for matriculated students, a non-credit
intensive ESL program, non-credit short-term programs, and a tutoring center. It also is home of the
Honda International Center, which has hired SLS alumni as advisors and coordinators.
o Honolulu Community College. Honolulu CC offers a variety of for-credit foreign language
courses, a credit-based ESL program for matriculated students, a non-credit intensive ESL program,
and a tutoring program.
o Leeward Community College. LCC offers a variety of for-credit foreign language courses, non-
credit foreign language courses, a credit-based ESL program for matriculated students, a non-credit
intensive ESL program, non-credit short-term programs, and a tutoring center.
o Windward Community College. Windward CC offers a few for-credit foreign language courses
and for-credit developmental English courses.
o Maui Community College. Maui CC offers a variety of for-credit foreign language courses, non-
credit foreign language courses, a non-credit intensive ESL program, non-credit short-term programs,
and a tutoring center.
o Kauai Community College. Kauai CC offers some for-credit foreign language courses, a small
credit-based ESL program for matriculated students, and a tutoring center.
o Hawai‘i Community College. Hawai‘i Community College offers a variety of for-credit foreign
language courses, non-credit foreign language courses, a credit-based ESL program for matriculated
students, a non-credit intensive ESL program, and a tutoring center for ESL students.
See Appendix 5 for a select list of exemplary graduates of the BA IS/SLS, MA, and PhD in SLS, with their degrees
V. Resource Requirements
No new courses are proposed for the B.A. degree.
The B.A. degree primarily represents a restructuring of existing undergraduate courses leading (previously) to a
degree in Interdisciplinary Studies. All courses required for the B.A. degree are currently being taught by UH
Mānoa faculty. No new faculty or other personnel will be required to meet the needs of this degree program.
No additional library resources are needed for the B.A. degree. The Second Language Studies programs overall
make use of the excellent library resources built up in collaboration with UH Mānoa Library staff over the past 40
No new facilities or equipment will be required over what is currently available for the
No additional administrative support is required for the proposed program.
Estimate of additional position counts and budget implementation for first five years of the program
Total cost of new resources
No additional funds will be needed for this degree program unless there is a dramatic increase in student enrollment.
VI. How efficient will the program be?
Five-Year Business Plan (also see Cost and Revenues Template)
Current enrollment in the Interdisciplinary Studies SLS degree is about 35 students. We therefore project the same
initial numbers when the SLS undergraduate major begins, and project modest growth of about 4% per annum, an
additional two majors per year, once the program is established and becomes known. (At present, Interdisciplinary
Studies itself does not have high visibility within UHM’s undergraduate programs. As a subprogram within IS, the
SLS option is thus particularly hard to find. Given the low floor from which we would start, we believe it would not
be difficult to improve recruitment efforts, once a clearly-defined, free-standing undergraduate major is established,
with an active, internationally-high status department behind it.)
Estimated tuition revenue
Tuition revenues generated by Second Language Studies courses are actually higher than the data called for by the
cost template, because some students are from out of state. We expect that additional tuition revenue may be
generated from new students entering Second Language Studies at the bachelor’s level and increased
retention/transfer on into graduate level programs in Second Language Studies and related fields, because of the new
Costs associated with the resources noted above
No new resources are needed, so there are no new costs. Non-instructional personnel costs are secretarial and will be
allocated from existing departmental resources.
No new funds are required for this proposed degree, and a flat budget situation should not interfere with the
department’s ability to offer this new degree program.
Tuition rate per credit starting from AY 2012-2013 assumes a 10% increase per year (per the OVCAA).
In conjunction with regular and sustained efforts at program evaluation and student learning outcomes assessment in
all SLS degree programs, the Department of SLS assessment committee will direct assessment and evaluation in the
BA in SLS program. The DSLS assessment committee consists of three faculty members and is appointed by the
Departmental Personnel and Policy Committee. The assessment committee meets regularly each semester, collects
and reports on assessment and evaluation data for a variety of purposes, and liaises with college and university
administrators in response to their needs (e.g., for accreditation purposes).
Student learning outcomes (SLO) assessment occurs at the course and degree levels in the BA in SLS program.
Within each course, SLOs are designated on the syllabus, and students produce course-embedded performances that
primarily take the form of written academic papers and oral presentations, both of which are based on sustained
project work undertaken over the course of the semester. In addition, many courses feature exams that test
receptive/productive knowledge accrued during the semester. Course-embedded assessments are used initially as a
mechanism for providing feedback to students on their development within the SLS program and in the specific area
of study within each course. In addition, these assessments (a) may be included by students in the required
graduating senior portfolio, and (b) are regularly reviewed by the undergraduate program committee. In the latter
case, the undergraduate program committee designates one meeting annually for the purpose of reviewing student
learning outcomes in each course taught during the preceding year. Subcommittees, as stipulated by the Director of
undergraduate programs, review assessment evidence in terms of outcomes expectations for each course, and they
present any patterns of note to the full committee, who in turn adjudicate any needed response by way of curricular,
instructional, materials, or other adjustments. Note that several of the SLS undergraduate courses are explicitly
articulated to the TESOL/NCATE Standards for ESL Teacher Development Programs, and for these courses,
learning outcomes are closely tied to the knowledge and abilities expectations within the standards.
At the degree program level, SLO assessment takes the primary form of a portfolio assessment review. Beginning
with the first courses taken in the BA in SLS, students are instructed to maintain a portfolio of their learning and
accomplishments, including academic writing and speaking assessments, exams, and other formalized assessments,
as well as experiential kinds of evidence. In the senior year, in conjunction with a capstone course, students compile
a best works portfolio based on the evidence they have collected, and they include reflective commentaries and other
professional types of evidence (such as CVs). The evidence to be included in the portfolio must meet certain content
and type criteria, as designated by the SLS assessment committee in the portfolio design statement (which is
provided to students throughout their careers in SLS courses). The criteria seek to ensure adequate evidentiary
coverage of the full set of learning outcomes for the degree program. Students present their portfolios in a special
lecture series for a public audience. In addition, copies of all portfolios are collected by the DSLS assessment
committee; on a biennial basis (every two years), such that sufficient evidence is collected to indicate apparent
patterns, the SLS assessment committee meets with the undergraduate program committee for a one-day portfolio
review session. During this session, the evidence accumulated within portfolios is rated according to rubrics that
spell out performance criteria for each outcome. Patterns of performance are then considered by both committees,
and adjudications regarding needed changes in the degree program are taken.
Beyond the important focus on student performance data, student feedback is also sought regarding the learning
experience and outcomes accomplishments associated with the BA in SLS. On a semester basis, all graduating
seniors are administered an online anonymous survey by the Dean of the College of LLL, within which questions
are posed regarding general characteristics of the program, courses, teaching, and so on. In addition, student
opinions specific to the SLO statements for the BA in SLS are solicited, as well as feedback regarding needed
improvements and students’ future plans. Findings from this survey are delivered in aggregate to the SLS
assessment committee, who analyze response data and report back to the undergraduate program committee for
further action. Similarly, at one- and five-year post-graduation intervals, surveys of alumni are conducted to track
student success in career and graduate school placement, and to investigate students’ perspectives on the value of
their degree program experiences (along with any feedback for program improvement).
In addition to a focus on student learning experiences and outcomes, program delivery is also monitored for the
purpose of quality assurance and improvement. Regular meetings of the undergraduate program committee
provide an opportunity for sustained attention to the nature and effectiveness of the BA in SLS curriculum and
pedagogy, and particular focus is given in these meetings to instructors’ perspectives on teaching to the targeted
learning outcomes (challenges, successes, etc.) and for the actual populations of learners who enroll in SLS courses.
New instructors teaching their first undergraduate SLS courses are inducted through meetings with the Director and
the undergraduate program committee, and the careful collection of course syllabi and materials in a common online
environment enables them to benefit from the collective wisdom of previous instructors. The Director of
undergraduate programs regularly schedules observations of all courses taught each semester, for the purpose of
gauging the classroom environment and providing feedback to instructors. In addition, student end-of-semester
course evaluations are collected and reviewed by the Director, and any patterns in need of attention are addressed
either with individual instructors or with the undergraduate program committee. Finally, ad hoc focus groups of
students and instructors are facilitated by the SLS assessment committee as a means of maintaining a forum for the
identification of program strengths and challenges.
Appendix 1. Career paths of Interdisciplinary Studies/SLS B.A.
The following vignettes accurately depict the recent career paths of several graduates of the pre-existing BA in
Interdisciplinary Studies (Second Language Studies concentration). We expect that graduates of the BA in Second
Language Studies proposed here would take a range of trajectories, which would be consistent with those of their
peers and recent predecessors presented here.
Note: Names have been changed to protect anonymity of the students.
Vignette 1: Jacob Parker
Jacob Parker grew up in a small town on the Big Island, and received his Bachelor’s degree in
Interdisciplinary Studies with a focus on “Second Language Studies and Southeast Asian Studies.” After
graduation, he elected to pursue a Master’s degree in Asian Studies, and studied human trafficking and
environmental issues in the Mekong sub-region of Thailand (following interests he had developed during travels to
At the same time, he had not given up his interest in Second Language Studies. After completing his
Master’s degree in Asian Studies, he joined the Japan Exchange and Teaching (JET) program, and spent three years
in a small city in Japan, teaching high-school English and assisting with student exchange programs. The success
and pleasure he received from this work convinced him that he wanted to make a career in the areas of teaching and
international student exchange, and he decide to pursue a second Master’s degree, in Second Language Studies. He
applied to the SLS Department at UHM, and was accepted to start in Fall 2009. In the meantime, he had not
forgotten his interests in the issues faced in the Mekong sub-region of Thailand. He found an NGO in Thailand
whose goal was to use education as a means of fighting human trafficking, and was able to teach English there for
several months between the time he completed his term in Japan and the start of his MA/SLS. Along with the MA,
he is also pursuing the Post-Baccalaureate Certificate in Second Education via UHM’s College of Education, hoping
to be able to teach ESL and perhaps be involved in international exchange programs here in the state.
While Parker is clearly a proactive person who creates his own opportunities, he has told us that, “It was
the training I received with this degree that really opened up these many options, and provided the springboard to
allow me to pursue all of these various directions.”
Vignette 2: Yuri Sato
Yuri Sato was originally from Japan. After attending a junior college in Japan for two years, she decided to
study in the United States. Hoping to go somewhere that there were fewer Japanese, she selected a small university
in Kansas. After spending a few terms there, studying a variety of general topics, she realized that the degree she
really wanted to pursue was in teaching English as a second language. After some careful research of the top
programs in ESL (SLS), she transferred to UHM and earned a degree in Interdisciplinary Studies with a focus on
“Teaching English as a Second Language”.
After graduating with her BA, Sato returned to Japan and landed a job as an English teacher with a
language school/corporation that specializes in providing communicative English instruction for universities in and
around Tokyo. After teaching for a few years, Sato was promoted to the position of Curriculum Director, and was
an important part of the growth of the corporation. Based on recent correspondence with Sato, this corporation now
provides approximately 340 teachers to 55 university campuses in the Tokyo area, providing instruction in both
accredited and extra-curricular programs. Sato credits her degree in SLS for providing her with a solid background
in the field, which enabled her to have confidence in her teaching and later to expand her role to direct and
coordinate the corporation’s curriculum. Since becoming Curriculum Director, she has regularly contacted UHM’s
Department of SLS to recruit well-trained teachers for her program.
Vignette 3: Marcus Lincoln
Marcus Lincoln grew up in Tennessee through high school, and then came to Hawai‘i to begin his
university studies. He earned an AA degree from Kapi`olani Community College (KCC), then transferred to UHM,
where he earned his Bachelor’s degree in Interdisciplinary Studies with a focus on “English as a Second
Language”. Several of his instructors in the BA program encouraged him to continue in the Master’s program in
SLS here at UHM, which he elected to do. Because of his solid reputation in the BA program, he was awarded a
graduate-assistantship (GAship) in the English Language Institute (ELI) from the start of his first semester (which is
quite rare in our graduate program). Lincoln’s GAship included four semesters as a teacher and one semester as a
lead teacher. In addition, part of Lincoln’s graduate coursework included research on language policy, and the
resulting paper prompted the ELI to develop its own statement of language policy.
After completing his MA, Lincoln was immediately hired at KCC to teach in their ESL Program. While at
KCC, he has been involved in some short-term teacher-training programs for in-service teachers from Japan and
Vietnam, and has recently proposed and co-developed an Associate’s degree program at KCC for training
educational paraprofessionals in Teaching English as a Second Language. Students completing this program could
either serve as educational paraprofessionals in the Hawai‘i Department of Education, or continue on in their studies
at UHM by pursuing a Bachelor’s degree in SLS.
Along with his successful professional career at KCC, Lincoln is concurrently back as a student at UHM,
pursuing the Advanced Graduate Certificate in SLS.
Vignette 4: Mary Remengesau
Prior to attending UHM, Mary Remengesau taught ESL in an elementary school in Palau. She claims that
she got the job of teaching ESL largely by accident, because she did not have any training in teaching the language.
She came to Hawai‘i to get the training that was not available in Palau, starting at Honolulu Community College and
then transferring to UHM to earn a Bachelor’s degree in Interdisciplinary Studies with a focus on “English as a
Second Language”. After completing her BA degree, she went on for a Master’s degree in Educational
Since graduating with her MED, she has taught ESL to elementary school learners in the State of Hawai‘i
DOE for several years. She has been an active advocate for English Language Learners (ELL students), particularly
those from the Pacific Islands, has served on conference panels, and has been the coordinator of a UH-grant project
focusing on providing DOE teachers and administrators with training and professional development opportunities
related to bilingual education and the ELL student population. She continues to teach ESL full-time in the DOE.
Appendix 2. Support letters
(1) HI State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) [M. Kwock, Exec. Dir.,
Office of International Affairs]
(2) Hawai‘i Pacific Export Council (HPEC) [S. K. Craven, Chair]
(3) Kapi’olani Community College [Chancellor Richards]
(4) UH Mānoa Dept. of Interdisciplinary Studies [Senior Professor: Dr. Emanuel Drechsel]
Appendix 3. Curriculum map
BA in SLS curriculum map
SLO1 SLO2 SLO3 SLO4 SLO5 SLO6 SLO7 SLO8 SLO9
SLS 302 I I I I I I
SLS 303 I I I I I I I I I
SLS 312 R R R R R I R
SLS 313 R R R R R I R
SLS 380 R R R R R R R R I
SLS 418 R R R R R
SLS 430 R R R R R R
SLS 441 R R R
SLS 460 R R R
SLS 490 R R R R R R R
SLS 480 (varies) R R R R R R R R R
SLS 480P-capstone M&A M&A M&A M&A M&A M&A M&A M&A M&A
Student Learning Outcomes
Upon graduating from the BA in SLS, students will:
1 manifest the skills, understandings, and dispositions necessary to be exceptional language professionals
2 demonstrate critical thinking and awareness of issues within the context of their professional work and social practice
3 demonstrate an understanding of the value bases of their professional work
4 understand and interpret the history of second and foreign language study and its contemporary issues
5 critically evaluate and make use of research into the learning, use, structure, and pedagogy of second languages
6 develop and apply sound frameworks to the assessment and evaluation of institutions and agents involved in second language instruction, planning, and policy
7 show an understanding of local language issues of Hawai‘i and the Pacific in their professional work
8 be able to prepare minority language students to acquire the academic literacies that would allow them to succeed in educational institutions
9 improve the quality of teaching and learning of second, foreign, and heritage languages, in the state of Hawai‘i, domestically, and abroad
10 gain acceptance into graduate programs in second language studies, applied linguistics, or related fields
I Introduced (abbreviations courtesy of the Mānoa Assessment Office)
R Reinforced, Practiced
Appendix 4: Four-year academic plan & program sheet
University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa College of Arts & Sciences Program Sheet 2011-2012
Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Second Language Studies
Admissions: Open Process: Declaration
Min. Total Credits: 124 (82 in core & major + 42 in electives)
UHM General Education Core Requirements Degree Requirements
Foundations Can also fulfill FS
MATH 100, 100A, 1121, 140, 203, 215, 241, 251A;
PHIL 110, 110A, 111; BUS 250; ICS 141; or NREM 203
FG (A / B / C) College Requirements
FG (A / B / C)
A&S Options -- Complete at least one option
Diversification (Cannot double count with Gen. Ed. Core)
DA / DH / DL Bachelor of Arts Breadth (3 credit each)
DA / DH / DL AH
DS Bachelor of Arts Depth [see list of A&S depts.]
* See degree, college and major requirements for courses Certificate
that can also fulfill these.
UHM Graduation Requirements 2nd A&S Major
Focus Credit Minimums
H 104 from A & S disciplines [see list]
E (300+) 60 non-introductory
W 8 KRS activity
W 9 Directed Reading / Research
W 12 Practicum / Internship
Hawaiian / Second Language
124 total applicable
30 in residence at UHM
Grade Point Average
2.0 cumulative or higher
Good academic standing
A & S Major Requirements
See back for major requirements. Meet regularly with your major advisor.
Major Requirements for BA in Second Language Studies
Min. major credits: 33 (36 with prerequisites)
Min. C grade (not C-) in all major courses
Related Requirements (3 credits)
LING 102 (DS)
SLS Core Courses (24 credits)
SLS 380 (DS)
SLS 430 (DS)
SLS 480a (Topics in Second Language Studies)
SLS 480P (Topics in Second Language Studies: Pedagogy: Professionalism in SLS – capstone course)
SLS Elective Courses (12 credits)
or 300-499 courses from other departments as approved
100-level courses do not count toward the major
College of Arts and Sciences Student Academic Services: QLCSS 113; (808) 956-8755
SLS Department: Moore 570; (808) 956-8610; dsls@Hawai‘i.edu; www.Hawai‘i.edu/sls
SLS Undergraduate Advisor: Kenton Harsch; Moore 587; (808) 956-6946; kenton@Hawai‘i.edu
Appendix 5: Examples of positions or accomplishments by
alumni of SLS
Position/Accomplishment Examples of alumni
University professors (teaching • Barbara Hannum (MA, Hawai‘i Pacific University)
SLS, applied linguistics, or related • Hungtzu Huang (PhD, National Tsing Hua University)
courses) • Yasuko Ito (PhD, Kanda University of International Studies)
• Jean Kirschenmann (MA, Hawai‘i Pacific University)
• Douglas Margolis (PhD, University of Minnesota)
• John Norris (PhD, UH Mānoa)
• Loudres Ortega (PhD, UH Mānoa)
• Peter Robinson (PhD, Aoyama Gakuin University)
• Priti Sandhu (PhD, University of Washington)
• Steven Talmy (PhD, University of British Columbia)
• Annie Tremblay (PhD, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign)
Other college/university faculty • Aya Akiyoshi (MA, Ritsumeikan Asia-Pacific University)
(teaching English as an second or • Shawn Ford (BA, MA, Kapi`olani Community College)
international language) • Aki Iimuro (MA, Ritsumeikan Asia-Pacific University)
• Gary James (MA, Honolulu Community College)
• Dennis Koyama (MA, Kanda University of International Studies)
• Robert Lipske (MA, NICE, UH Mānoa)
• Kelly McClanahan Kennedy (MA, Leeward Community College)
• Jeanie Muncy Bouthillier (BA, Hawai‘i Tokai International College)
• Greg Nakai (MA, NICE, UH Mānoa)
• Leslie Ono (MA, Kwansei Gakuin University)
• Troy Rubesch (MA, Kanda University of International Studies)
• Eric Setoguchi (MA, Kanda University of International Studies)
• Tony Silva (MA, Kapi`olani Community College)
• Susannah Welch (MA, UH-Hilo)
• Atsumi Yamaguchi (MA, Kanda University of International Studies)
Program administrators • Judy Ensing (MA, Director/International Programs, Outreach College,
• Priscilla Faucette (MA, Coordinator of Curriculum and Teacher
Development/ELI, UH Mānoa)
• Varsha Graves (MA, past Academic Coordinator/ELS Language Center,
Hawai‘i Pacific University)
• Keiko Inoue (BA, Curriculum Director, Westgate Corporation, Tokyo,
• Stephen Jacques (MA, past Director/HELP, UH Mānoa)
• Yoneko Kanaoka (MA, Assistant Director/HELP, UH Mānoa; past
Coordinator for ESL Programs, TransPacific Hawai‘i College)
• Joel Weaver (MA, Director/HELP at UH Mānoa; past
Director/Intercultural Communications College)
K-12 Teachers, HIDOE • Kathryn Heath, (MA, Windward District Office)
• Lori Higashi (MA, Waipahu High School)
• Summer Sung (BA, MA, ELL Head teacher, Kapolei Middle School)
• Ruth Truce (BA, MEd, ELL Teacher, Windward District)
• Celia Urada (MA, Kapolei Middle School)
K-12 Teachers, Private Schools • Belinda Chung (MA, College advisor, St. Andrew’s Priory)
• Dana Pettys (MA, Hawai‘i Preparatory Academy)
Teachers, Private Language • Sandra Iwamura (BA, Intercultural Communications College)
Schools • Kei Nakane (MA, Japanese instructor, GEOS Honolulu)
• Hisako Saito (MA, Intercultural Communications College)
Other • Stephen Jacques (MA, International Exchange Coordinator, Leeward
• Stephanie Miller (BA, MA, Academic Advisor/Athletics, UH Mānoa)
• Adam Pang (MA, Tutor Program Coordinator, Learning Assistance
Center, UH Mānoa)