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					ITEDU 690 10.1 Historical Movement Synthesis: Author Analysis Data from Spring 2009. You may have to cursor over a cell to
   1:42 PM       April 7, 2009                     ESIA to ESTE

                      LINK ==>
ESIA to ESTE     Bender

Multimedia       Brooks          1. ESIA to ESTE's audience is exclusively for students in
Instruction                      K-8. Multimedia Instruction is for all ages and grade
                                 2. ESIA to ESTE movement is much more influenced by
                                 3. ESIA to ESTE is focused primarily on implimentation
                                 in the US.
                                 4. ESIA to ESTE is primarily concerned with content.
                                 Multimedia Instruction is concerned with method and not
                                 5. ESIA to ESTE is largely not used by instructors.
Career        Elmer   1. Early levels concerned with discovery and invention,
Education             CE students were directed and influenced.
                      2. Not all schools were teaching the ideas behind the
                      various movements, CE was to reform education so all
                      schools were teaching same concepts.
                      3. This movement was broad and developing as the
                      nation was at the time, CE was a specific point in time
                      with regards to time and place and purpose.
                      4. Focus was on skills and hand-work, Ce focused on
                      career directions and professions.
                      5. Higher education having problems alligning to lower
                      curriculum needs (implementation), CE's main directives
                      was to align all levels to have everyone on same path.

Society,      Etter   1. SSIA and ESTE do not talk about Society like STS
Technology,           does
and Society            2.ESTE and ESIA do not address a higher level of
                      thinking .and that students must be able to do that liike in
                      3. ESTE & ESIA use manuals and deal with the cut and
                      dry where STS deals with concepts of a bigger, global
                      out look.
                      4. STS mostly deals with instruction in science, this
                      deals mostly with TE
                      5. ESTE&ESIA are for young students, and STS
                      focuses on secondary and post secondary students.
Online/Distanc Giglio     1. Manual training was introduced into ESTE at its
e Learning                beginnings however, it is still struggling to find its way
                          into DE TE programs.

                          2. ESTE sees technology as part of its core beliefs of
                          what needs to be taught to students, while DE sees
                          technology simply as a way to facilitate communication
                          between the teacher and the student.

                          3. In the beginnings of ESTE it was believed that the
                          same teacher who taught core areas should also be
                          teaching TE or hand-work. With DE the material is often
                          learned through independent study or taught by a third
                          party instructor from a distance.

                          4. DE is a form or method of providing instruction to
                          students, while ESTE is a subject that deals with the
                          study of technology.

                          5. ESTE curriculum and lessons are generally designed
                          to be taught in a face to face environment, while DE
                          lesson are designed to be taught through the current
                          technological media at hand.

Technology for Hoersten   1. TfAA focuses on technological literacy for grades k-
All Americans             12, whereas ESIA & ESTE is focused on the elementary
                          grade levels only.
                          2. ESIA & ESTE did not provide a direct set of standards
                          to be taught, TfAAP provided 20 standards and
                          benchmarks to accompany.
                          3. ESIA & ESTE were initiated on a local and regional
                          area, TfAAP began at a national level in hopes to
                          become implemented at all of the local levels.
                          4. Sloyd instruction focuses on hand-work. The TfAAP
                          focuses on technological literacy.
                          5. The data shows a decline in the use of ESTE, while
                          data for TfAAP is growing.
Vocational        Hyziak          1 Early technology in elementary school education
Education                         leaders believed technology should be taught by the
                                  same teacher as other subjects, vocational education
                                  aimed for separate specialized teachers and facilities.
                                  2 ESTE integrates technology into less-related subjects
                                  and classrooms while VE concentrates on technology
                                  education as a specific field of study.
                                  3 ESTE and the movements surrounding it focused
                                  more on philosophy of technology and its place in
                                  education; VE focused more on the practical applications
                                  and preparing students for the workforce.
                                  4 Manual training aimed to give students a more well-
                                  rounded education while VE introduced students to
                                  vocational training as a lifelong career choice.
                                  5 ESTE integrated technology training into traditional
                                  learning while VE established an alternative path of

Industrial Arts   Jenkins-Oiler   1. The primary focus of ESIA/ESTE was at the elementry
                                  level while IA was a focus of all public grade levels with
                                  special attention to middle through high school.
                                  2. The total number of istatutes of higher learning who
                                  had courses designed for the elementry level of
                                  technology education were/are lower then those at
                                  higher levels/grades.
                                  3. IA was geared primarily for preparing students to
                                  leave school and enter industry not develop the skill and
                                  understanding of courses taught at elementry level.
                                  4. There was no defined curriculum listed for elementry
                                  education while IA had a variety of specific topics.

Manual            Keefauver       1) ESIA/ESTE focused on elementary education; MT
Training                          focused primarily on secondary education.
                                  2) Even with some of the same early influences
                                  (Pestalozzi, Froebel, etc.) the two movements emerged
                                  with different focuses and in vastly different time periods.
                                  3) ESIA/ESTE appears to have some foothold in
                                  collegiate instructional settings, whereas MT shows little
                                  evidence of being taught as a "curriculum" in post-
                                  secondary settings, but rather was modeled after other
                                  TE movements, specifically the Russian method and the
                                  Sloyd method.
Bauhaus        Kievning   ESIA TO ESTE
                          1.STATEMENT:One aspect of Technology Education is
                          Elementary School Industrial Arts (ESIA) or Elementary
                          School Technology Education (ESTE).
                          DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus education is for the
                          professional, skills may be hidden and need to be
                          unlocked. The primacy was not on the younger grades
                          as establish in ESTE. The Bauhaus was not interested in
                          elementary alignment.

                          2. STATEMENT: The Common School Movement set
                          the stage for an educational system in the United States-
                          essentially education for all DISAGREEMENT: Bauhaus
                          was not a common or public school of the people a
                          major consideration to ESTE. The Bauhaus sought to
                          educate the professional as a unified person ready to
                          contribute to society but not for all. Selected individuals
                          via an application much more like a college.

                          3.STATEMENT: Handwork instruction should be taught
                          by the same teacher who taught other subjects as well
                          DISAGREEMENT: Education was specific at the
                          Bauhaus. Driven by a Master like the guild system to
                          some extent.

                          4 STATEMENT: Kindergarten has a unique place in
                          elementary education, unique because it was not
                          originally part of elementary education but rather
                          developed a place in an education system by itself.
                          DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus and its leaders
                          recognized the importance of the founding years and the
Project Lead   Kotter     contributions ESTE's is intended for it was so unique that
                          1. ESIA and of Froebel but not that the elementary level
The Way                   K-8. PLTW is for ages 6-12
                          2. PLTW's primary focus in the United States
                          3. ESIA and ESTE's numbers are shrinking while
                          PLTW's numbers are growing.
Society/Ethics/ Mitchell   1. ESIA was more concerned with methods and
Technology                 crafsmanship than philosophy.

                           2. The field of ESTE is very limited - ESTE programs are
                           not as prominent as middle and high school programs.
                           SET has survived as more of a sub-strand within TE
                           programs - ESTE is the actual program on a different
                           grade level demographic.

                           3. ESIA and by extension, ESTE have their origins in
                           manual skills and workforce preparation, while SET is
                           more disconnected from career based application or
                           hands-on activities.

                           4. The ESIA and ESTE movements are
                           underrepresented as a part of college level TE
                           coursework; SET is often integrated into courses or as a
                           stand alone course (TCNJ had such a SET course as an
                           open elective, though I did not take it)

                           5. While SET is something that is often philosophical in
                           nature, ESTE programs are more often hands-on and
                           project based.
Women in      Richards   1. (Par 1) Failure to define education as per Merriam-
Engineering              Webster online dictionary education is defined as 'the
Education                field of study that deals mainly with methods of teaching
                         and learning in schools'.                             2.
                         (Par 8, definition of technology " as a method to extend
                         human capabilities, in the case of this age group, no
                         identification of how this process would be used has
                         been identified.             3. (Par 3) the account of the
                         purpose of elementary education bring designed to ALL
                         People, especially reviewing two early laws (1642 &
                         1647), does not give although mentions the amount of
                         people based on race and ethnicity who were not able or
                         allowed to attend school.                                4.
                         The push for ESTE, can be look at as a very subjective
                         matter, it is yet to come to term with the importance of
                         such field. In this test driven world, where elementary
                         education is more focus on the need to have specialized
                         technology education program at this level is irrelevant.
                         5. (par 17) ESTE and Teacher, at this level teachers are
                         responsible to teach 90 percent of the subject content
                         whether it be math, science, English, etc. as well as
                         having students meet the requirements for junior high
                         school level, without a solid foundation students tend to
                         wonder at the next level, therefore it is important for
                         teachers to focus on the main cause of content as
                         apposed to funneling with technology education.
ring 2009. You may have to cursor over a cell to see the entire contents.
                            Multimedia Instruction

             1. Using multi media to help instruction-help people learn-
             relates to the progressive movement when new studies
             reviled how students lean at different stages in their life.
             2. Mulitmedia meets the needs of different learning
             styles such as spacial, or body kinesthetic- relates to
             Forbel's method of Gifts and Occupations.
             3. Both ESTE and Multimedia can be thought of as a
             method of instruction.
             4. ESTE and Multimedia both combine learning and
             5. Both work best when combined with other techniques.
1. Hard to define MI, CE had a direct defined purpose
and statement.
2. Not all careers will encompass MI, CE goal was to
educate students on what they needed to know
specifically for their futures.
3. MI may be a distraction to the students learning, CE
focused methods and content on teaching career
development in every aspect.
4. Showing students many different forms of MI may give
false impressions about varieties to all things in life, CE
was goal specific and taught students exactly what to
5. MI gives different avenues for learning styles, CE had
direct pathways for instruction and curriculum.

1. Multimedia cites textbooks as a central source where
STS sees a text book dominated curriculum as a not
always good thing
2. Multimedia used inventions from Edison like the
kinetograph and Kinetoscope to advance societies use
of media, STS would question these inventions on what
impact they had on society.
3. The author states that Multimedia like CD rom from
textbooks benefit students, STS proponents would
question the effects on society? Do these multimedia
help or hurt a students learning experience in regard to
4. the author quotes Felder and Brent talking about
attitudes and meeting students needs. STS would
wonder if the attitudes of the students actually reflect the
1. Multimedia instruction does not have to be over a
distance, it can be used in a face to face environment as
well as over a long distance. While DE only occurs
when the teacher and student are in different physical

2. Multimedia instruction was developed to enhance
learning materials for students. DE was developed to
fully deliver instructional content using multimedia.

3. Research in multimedia has shown that different
forms of presenting information can increase attention
span and learning. DE research has shown that its not
so much the media that makes the difference, but the
students access to that media.

4. DE can sometimes be limited in the medium used to
supply it. One of the core principals behind multimedia
instruction is that multiple mediums can be used to
support all learning styles.

5. Multimedia instruction cannot occur with out at least
two mediums being used to deliver content. Early DE
was all print (or one medium to supply content).
Depending on the definition of medium, DE could be
accused of only using one medium in m any cases.
1. Multimedia instruction deals mainly with how the
content is delivered, TfAAP structures what content
standards should be delivered.
2. TfAAP breaks technology in to 20 standards. MI is
only one part of one of these areas, information &
3. MI utilizes, images, print, video, and audio to help
students learn. TfAAP, suggests having students also
learn by "doing".
4. TfAAP developed benchmark to allow students to
follow a sequence of learning. MI can overwelm students
if too many mediums are presented at one time.
5. MI combines at least two forms of media. TfAAP does
not require more than one form of media for the delivery
of educational material.
1 Multimedia instruction uses technology to facilitate
learning of other subjects, VE uses technology training
as its main subject.
2 The multimedia movement focuses on learning styles
while VE is curriculum-specific movement that
concentrates on subject matter.
3 Multimedia instruction integrates technological
elements of communication into the traditional education
system; VE establishes an alternative education course.
4 Multimedia instruction focuses on only one type of
technology: communication/multimedia, VE includes this
study as one of many different types of technology fields
to pursue in education.
5 Multimedia instruction emphasizes technology as an
enhancement to modern life while VE considers
technology as a practical and necessary focus of study.

1. Multimedia is primarily an electronic based instruction
where as IA is focused at a hands-on level of physical
2. The demand for Multimedia was at a low level during
the era of IA.
3. Multimedia had much greater expanded modes of
instruction and evaluation compared to the cut dry
system of IA.
4. More resources were available with multimedia then
IA as was the decreased amount of time required to
obtain such resources.
5. Students are more likely to recieve irrelavent
information or poorer understanding of the subject
matter using multimedia because it also provided a
greater number of distractions.
1) The main focus of MI incorporates technologies that
did not exist at the time of MT.
2) MI focuses on various forms of print, communication,
and imaging processes whereas MT focused primarily
on the development of tool-related skills.
3)MI has the potential to accommodate various learning
styles whereas there is little evidence that MT attempted
or was successful in this endeavor.
4) MI has the potential to be used in the instruction of
nearly any educational concept, whereas MT had a
rather singular focus in basic tool-skills training.

1.STATEMENT: Multimedia: "attitudes are largely
responsible for shaping behaviors that determine actions
that effect student success in the classroom".
DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus sought for a community
to change people’s attitudes toward learning not the
nature of the presentation.

2. STATEMENT: Instructors increase their potential to
effectively communicate the content to the learner.
DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus placed the education
on the student.

3.STATEMENT: Multimedia “only becomes “interactive
when it is orchestrated using a computer.”
DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus would have opened the
up the opportunities for multimedia to an infinite number
of possibilities. The word only would have limited the
potential of the individual.

4.STATEMENT: three core elements of multimedia:
audio, images, and text. DISAGREEMENT: The
Bauhaus would have taught that these are important but
would have made it a point to choose the best medium
for the intended situation. This is not multimedia for
multimedia sake doctrine. Multimedia does not
necessarily make instruction better. It is what the student
does to unlock thought and ideas and to invoke the
creative spirit.

5. STATEMENT: Research has shown that students
learn best when they process information according to
1. MI focuses on how the curriculum is delievered and
PLTW is focused on the curriculum that is being
delieverd.       2. PLTW is alligned to the STL, while MI
is only a part of the Standards of Technology Literacy.
1. Multimedia Instuction is in part based on designing
and producing an end product; SET has no such

2. Multimedia Instruction has a content focus; SET is
much looser in terms of content.

3. Multimedia Instruction's content and methods are
often changed by new technologies, such as
photography or digital video - SET is also changed by
new technologies, but not in terms of content, but rather,
of perspective and the timeliness of topical subject

4. Multimedia can have a SET component, in that the
ethical and sociological impacts of multimedia can be
discussed - however, I did not get the impression that
this was an area of significant emphasis.

5. Multimedia Instruction, as a combination of mediums,
lends itself well to differentiated instruction - SET, being
disconnected from any mediums, can vary in terms of
instruction from program to program - one program can
be based entirely as written reports, another through a
different medium - the keystone of differentiated
instruction is not always present by nature as is the case
with multimedia instruction.
1. There are other learning styles to be taken into
consideration.                       2.Students can
develop bad habits and may no longer practice reading
skills.             3. Those who are receiving the
information given may not understand and questions
may be left unanswered.                             4.
MI can promote non-activity among students and
teachers.                            5. All career
pathways does not lead to multimedia and students may
find it had to adjust to other methods.
ntire contents.
                                Career Education

             1. ESTE has roots in manual training such as IA and
             career education
             2. ESTE - Career both have occupations as possible
             outputs of the program
             3. Career Education could be used as a method to teach
             core subjects like ESTE
             4. Career Ed. & ESTE both use the philosophical idea
             that the concepts can be taught from K-12 grades
             5. Both develop an understanding that there is a need to
             plan for the future.

             1. Movement is primarily about medthod of instruction
             (par. 1).
             2. Concept is gnerally the same in spite of having "many
             different names" (par. 3).
             3. Suspected to increase motivation (par. 10).
             4. Success is greatly influenced by university acceptance
             (par. 11).
             5. Significantly affected by current events.
1. Career eduction the author says quoting Foster
(1997) said that many programs were funded by the
govt. If govt money is being used that is a important part
of society, STS would argue that these programs coming
from society's money should address and represent
society in a beneficial way.
2. The author states that the CEM of the 1970's quoting
Hershbach, says it hoped to align education from low to
high levels to improve connections between education
and work??? STS would argue that the need for
education to recognize that students need to mindful that
what they learn should be taken into the workplace in a
way that affects society in a positve way.
3. the author talks about articulation, meinng that
different levels of edcuation would sequence with
1. Career education is designed to prepare the student
for employment. DE can be used to teach any type of
material, its just over a distance.

2. Career education was a movement focused on
reforming education. DE was a movement focused on
overcoming obstacles related to location and time
between the student and educator.

3. At its beginning career education was focused on
provided more guidance to the youth of America who
had access to education. DE got its start by providing
education to those with limited access to it. Such as
women, disabled citizens, or people employed during
school hours.

4. Career education was a curriculum with its own
content. DE is simply a method to provide content to

5. Career education seems to be focused on having
students select a career at an early age. DE on the
other hand allows promotes continuation of education, or
learning a new field whenever the time is right for the

1. The CE movement tried to become its own
curriculum, TfAAP tries to integrate technology into
2. CE did not have a reliable source of funding for its full
development, TfAAP was funded by NSF & NASA.
3. CE tried to align education with work, TfAAP goal it is
align education with technological literacy.
4. A goal of the CE movement was to restore order to
the American society, a goal of TfAAP is to advance
technological literacy for all Americans.
5. TfAAP tries to education students technologically for
the work for and or further education, CE's main focus
was to educate students for the work force.
1 The career education movement is viewed as having
“faded away”, while VE is currently being utilized
2 CE integrated career-specific training into existing
education systems, VE had private funding, classes,
schools and teachers.
3 The CE movement had a narrower focus and shorter
life-span than the VE movement which was rooted in the
earliest American educational laws.
4 CE sought to change the rationalization behind
education while VE exists in its own sake without trying
to add relevance to education in a philosophical sense.
5 CE pushed for reform of the current educational
system to incorporate technology/career education while
VE generally established a separate system.

1. CE incompases a greater spectrum of career options
than IA, which focused on jobs related to industry.
2. Moved toward providing preperation for higher
education rarely discussed in IA.
3. Though discussion of incorporation of technology into
other general education was begun in IA it was more
fully implamented in CE.
4. Lack of overall support made CE a short lived
movement in comparision to the more greatly accepted

1) CE attempted to "improve connections between
education and work" whereas MT tried to distance itself
from any specific industry, teaching general tool related
2) CE appears to be focused on vocational education
whereas MT was billed an alternative form of general
3) CE apparently never really was implemented as a
viable educational alternative, whereas MT schools
cropped up in many states and existed for several years.
4) CE appears to have been structured to track students
throughout their educational experience, whereas MT
generally was a shorter (3 years typically) course of
5) CE appears to have been a federal government-led
endeavor whereas MT was started and led by educators
in the field.

1. STATEMENT: By having students select career paths
at an early age educators would have been classifying
them into professions and careers that they may lose
interest in over time. DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus
wanted to create a universal student prepared for all
tasks rather then a specific one.

2. STATEMENT: The Career Education Movement of
the 1970’s was a work-focused educational movement
that attempted to align education from lower to higher
levels to improve connections between education and
work. DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus was a self-
contained school movement that idealistically did not
seek alignment. It was the end all be all school.

3.STATEMENT: There will be a need for ready-to-work
individuals that are already inclined to what these jobs
and professions entail for the success of this country.
DISAGREEMENT There will be a need for creative
individuals who are ready to work-This is how the
Bauhaus would have seen success for the country.

4.STATEMENT: Form a unified education system that
would guide students towards professions and train them
for those professions as well. DISAGREEMENT: The
Bauhaus did not seek to provide a unified educational
system. They sough a more basic ideology to unify
technology an the arts under the vehicle of architecture
that could unite all disciplines

5.STATEMENT: Articulation students to the different
1. CE focuses on preparing meant that joing the
workforcce. PLTW's focus is on steering students into
college programs for engineering and technology.
1. The CE movement was based around preparing
students for a career, not nessesarily knowledge they
could use in non-technical jobs

2. CE programs received specific government funding.

3. CE programs often had a multiple course or grade
level design, so students would take a "track" of courses.

4. CE in some cases had a tendency to "label" students
and have them identify with a profession.

5. CE often had very tangible goals and skillsets to be
learned - in many cases physical; the opposite of SET
1. Goals -Stated the individual who created the program
should not be the one to evaluate the program and this is
also a current issue. Who's better to be the judge than
the creator. Also, Curriculums are design an used all
over the world, whereas the individual who is using world
set the desire outcome.                                 2.
Students interested in CTE is on the rise, and
curriculums are actually taking on a more realistic
approach.                        3. Articulation - of
sequencing screen from k-college with the boost of CTE,
one much still obtain the basic educational foundation of
reading, writing and mathematics. Therefore, instill what
our students should focus on from early intervention can
most likely put a strain on them.                     4.
The small attack on technology education - tech ed
allows each and every child the opportunity to developed
essential skill, without the stress of what they should
become in the future. In today's technology savvy
society, one must allow our students to continue with the
current trend in which tech ed produces.
5. Alignment of career selection (par ) Everyone is not
designed to align themselves with a career. The human
race which is extremely marvelous and we are deem to
take different cross roads in life.
          Society, Technology, and Society
1. ESTE as STS can be used as a method of instruction
2. ESTE as STS (the goal of) will produce literate
students in technology and science.
3. ESTE and STS integrate other subjects as well as the
subject of technology and science.
4. ESTE and STS both rely on the relationships that
exists between the lab and real life application.
5. ESTE and STS are methods to help students solve

1. Movement has been given "multiple names" (par. 3).
2. Students should be "active participants" (par. 6).
3. Different methods of instruction are valued (par. 7).
4. Movement utilizes "constructivists learning
experiences" (p. 11).
5. Methods are in contrast to "text dominated approach"
(p. 13).
1. Both STS and CE have societal benefits in mind with
regards to underlying rationales of each movement.
2. Gives students purpose for learning, not just
3. STS Students in Iowa project set out to solve real
world problems/issues, this parallels to career building
and professional development practices.
4. STS puts current technologies/topics in the curriculum
for student advancement, CE would have done the same
for cutting edge careers and new fields of employment
5. Has a link to college/university practices, same as CE
would have been aligned to have student progression
flow from one level to the next.
1. STS is content in curriculum. DE is a way to distribute
curriculum over distances.

2. STS focuses on specifically integrating science,
technology and society together to help promote more
responsible citizens. DE does not necessarily have a
curricular focus.

3. STS is very prominent in middle schools and high
schools in America. DE is more prominent at the college
level of education.

4. The movement of STS is a way to relate two curricular
areas. DE is a method used to teach curriculum and its
practice can be used to convey any type of information.

5. STS was partially developed to create an impression
on students about the effects that science and
technology have on each other. DE is an effect created
by society's need and technology was the means to
accomplish it.

1. The STS movement focuses on the entire society,
TfAAP is focused on the American Society.
2. STS has a main focus on science education, TfAAP
has its main focus on technology.
3. "STS is influencing technology education in a number
of ways in an effort to make conscious decision makers."
Shouldn't all educational programs be enabling students
to be conscious decision makers?
4. TfAAP has developed a clear set of standards and
benchmarks for technological literacy, STS does not
appear to have such benchmarks and standards.
5. TfAAP has began it implimentation on a national
scale, STS has only begun to get its roots started in
1 STS is more philosophical in nature than VE.
2 STS focuses on the bigger picture of technology’s
influences on our lives, while VE focuses on existing
technologies and their applications in career and
3 STS is aimed at students of all disciplines, VE is
specifically teaching to students choosing that
educational path.
4 STS incorporates technology in all aspects of society,
work, education, etc.; while VE uses technology in a
targeted, vocation-specific educational system.
5 VE can be seen as creating a division between trade
and non-trade careers while STS promotes technology
and analysis of its impacts to all.

1. IA focused very little on the impacts technology had on
society except for industry until late in its history. IA was
not concerned with ramification but rather more uses of
2. IA looked primarily at the immediate aspects of
technology while S/E/T took a look over a greater period
of time.
3. S/E/T draws background from outside genra of
technology unlike IA which is a direct decendent of the
previous movement.

1) STS has a strong focus on science whereas MT,
other than the traditional science classes that were part
of the overall curriculum, focused on skill development in
relation to tool usage.
2) STS began its journey at the college level whereas
MT was primarily a secondary education movement.
3) STS appears to encompass education regarding
large, global needs and ideas, whereas MT keeps more
of a practical, individualistic approach to skills

1.STATEMENT: This cooperation between science,
technology and the community around it is essential if we
are to have a world to live on in the coming 100 years.
DISAGREEMENT: For the Bauhaus science was an
important principle but it was secondary to art and

2.STATEMENT: Once students understand concepts of
science it is important for them to know and understand
what and how those concepts affect the society in which
they will ultimately live and run someday.
DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus sought to apply
everything. The focus was on developing the individual
skills of the student.

3. STATEMENT: STS aimed at helping students to
develop realistic conceptions about, and take
appropriate actions regarding relationships amongst
science, technology, society and environment.
DISAGREEMENT: More then just actions the Bauhaus
looked to form and object and to create things. The
Bauhaus dealt with application not just conceptions.

4.STATEMENT: The STS approach can benefit
technology education in ways that will insure that the
world is a better place to live for everyone and everything
that is on it. DISAGREEMENT: I am not sure that the
Bauhaus would aim towards that Lofty ideal. It would aim
to help the country but the world was not at the center of
its view.
1. PLTW is in 49 states, the District of Columbia, and
has a pilot program in Great Britain. STS is only in Iowa.
1. There is an emphasis on Science rather than Ethics.

2. Envionmental impacts are of great importance to STS,
whereas there are non-physical issues emphasised in

3. The emphasis on science leads to investigation on
how a technology works - not nessesarily any
physcological impacts.

4. There is a danger with this movement in being
misrepresented as "technology as applied science."

5. I feel that the STS movement is based more around
physical consequences and dangers than philosophical
1.The role of science and technology in our society
deem strictly on who are using it and their purpose.
2. Technology and science can both be used in a
negative way, therefore this does not ensure a better
place to live in.                  3. Teachers
influencing young minds seems scary (hoping it would
be a positive influence). The core foundation of any thing
taught one hope this would be enough to produce
aspiring citizens, however this is not always the case.
4. A contradiction of the early history in the USA, still
does not the importance of STS, especially in our society
and why this transformation has taken placed if any.
5. The review of literature, the author stress that
technology teachers are now doing what science teacher
used to do, one thing that must be noted is that science
is the application of knowledge.
               Online/Distance Learning
1. ESTE & Distance Ed. Both can be viewed as a
integration of technology into instruction
2. ESTE & Distance Ed. Ideas about the approach to
ESTE or ESIA or manual training or the Sloyd method
have been transplanted to countries as educators
traveled to better educate themselves as what has been
done in the field of Tech Ed. (a form of distance ed.)
3. ESTE & Distance Ed. with the drop of course work in
ESTE at the university level, teachers rely on web sites
to learn about ESTE projects and new methods of
4. ESTE & Distance Ed. both have goals of life long
5. ESTE & Distance Ed. both are of method of

1. Use of technology is "human innovation in action" (p.
2. Methods have been "defined on the basis of the
technology used to deliver" content (par. 5).
3. Use of methods used to "meet the needs of multiple
learners with different styles" (par. 8 & 17).
4. Studies prove "the effects of instruction" are valid
compared to traditional methods of instruction (par. 10).
5. All aspects of TE do not require a physical product be
1. Both had preceding models that they were based
upon; O/DL: mail system, CE: Manual Arts/Industrial
2. CE and O/DL make education clearer and more
accessible to students.
3. Both were originated to overcome obstacles and
challenges of the current/traditional education methods
at the time.
4. Created to advance career development and
professional advancement. Career goal oriented.
5. Classes offered between each school are similar and
meet the standards of a overall governing body
(O/DL=ITEA, CE=Dept. of Ed).

1. Distance eduction has a weekness of communication
breakdown. STS would agree that communication is key
between faculty, students, and society in that if you
cannot communicate things clearly to your students, or
society, than learning can and will be compromised.
2. STS would agree that using distance eduction and
the mail service could be a good thing for those who
could not attend regular classes.
3.Radio instruction the author states was another type of
distance education but that it could hurt students that
needed different styles. STS would
4. Distance education allows for anyone in society to be
educated no matter what the background.
5. Distance education helps the environment and makes
society realize that.
1. DE can be implemented across a wide variety of
educational platforms, TfAAP developed its own platform
2. DE is focused on the technology of computer, e-mail,
internet, etc. Where as TfAAP is focused on a much
wider area of technology, energy, transportation,
construction, etc.
3. DE focuses on how the message is delivered. TfAAP
focusus on what message is being delivered.
4. TfAAP provides for what the educational facility (and
lab) environmemt should be like. DE does not provide us
with a description of the educational environment.
5. The main concentatration of DE is in higher education,
primary education is the main concentration for TfAAP.
1 Distance education uses technology to facilitate
learning, while VE uses technology training as its main
2 VE uses traditional existing methods to teach students,
while DE proposes a new way to teach using technology.
3 Universities offering DE also offer traditional programs,
while VE is mostly taught through separate facilities
specifically created for it.
4 DE focuses on student-teacher communication as the
most important aspect of education; VE doesn’t
challenge existing methods of education only their
subject matter.
5 DE is used mostly in college-level education and VE is
taught at earlier grades (and often is intended to be a
substitute for bachelor’s degrees).

1. Distance learning made use of technology not
available during the era of IA.
2. This mode of instruction was/is primarily implimented
in TE at the higher education level and not at the public
school level as IA was.
3. Provides less/limited/no hands-on instruction so scope
is limited to basic instruction of key elements that
generally were taught during lecture.
4. Online/Distance allows for a greater amount of
resources and availablity of resources in a significant
decreased amount of time.
5. Provides no direct interaction between teacher and
students and perhaps student to student.

1) DL (or DE) employs technologies that did not yet exist
in the day of MT making distance learning a virtual
impossibility in that era.
2) DL is an alternative method of instruction for perhaps
all areas of education whereas MT was a specific focus
on incorportating tool usage skills as a part of a student's
general schooling.
3) In DL with relation to TE, the focus of instruction is on
the "need to develop knowledge of problem solving and
technological systems" whereas MT was a very hands-
on, skills based approach.
4) DL appears to focus on post-secondary education
while MT focused on secondary education.
5) The focus of MT, the physical, hands-on training in
the use of tools, even if it were still prevalent today would
not lend itself to DL type of instruction.

1.STATEMENT: Weak communication can happen in a
face-to-face environment, so it seems obvious that a
distance education environment could increase the
chances of a breakdown in communication.
DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus was a community of
individuals almost like a family or a commune. Issues
were dealt on that level.

2 STATEMENT: Many learners can be put at a
disadvantage when it comes to learning and exploring
new materials. DISAGREEMENT: The workshops
system at the Bauhaus relied on peer interaction, direct
contact with materials and faculty.

3. STATEMENT: Obstacles include finding an
educational institution to study at, scheduling time for
course work, financially supporting their educational
endeavors, and traveling sometimes even relocating to
the destination where courses are taught. These are not
problems at every school.
DISAGREEMENT: Small private institutions that are well
managed like the Bauhaus that are self-contained
provide for their students very well.

4.STATEMENT: The web site also makes light that
recent studies in distance education have shown that
format of how content is delivered has very small effects
on the students achievement level. DISAGREEMENT:
The Bauhaus depended on students having all of the
resources of a college and university.
1. Online/Distance learning is focus is on how the
curriculum is delieverd, whereas PLTW's focus is on the
curriculum that is being delievered.
1. The Online/Distance learning program is explained as
a medium of education rather than a focus of content for
an education program, so direct comparison is difficult
and to some degree inappropriate.

2. Issues remain in how online programs are viewed in
the public eye.

3. Online learning is based more in the college
(undergraduate and graduate) level than the high school

4. Online education is highly medium based (ie internet,
television, radio, mail) whereas SET is not "based" in any

5. Online/Distance Education is a small medium that is
gaining acceptance and growing in popularity, whereas
SET is legitimized through ITEA's STLs.
1. No indication of a time frame for the actual conception
of online distance education.         2. A survey which
analysis the effectiveness of online distance education
would have been a relevant source.
3.Distance and traditional learning being on the same
level is a misconception. Often students having that
initial contact with teachers can make the world of a
difference.                                      4. There
are auditory and visual learners what role does online
distance learning play in here.
5. Is the special needs population not a part of our
society, they were not mentioned.
            Technology for All Americans
1. Both ESTE and TfAA function on the idea of
producing students that are technological literate.
2. ESTE & TfAA both recognize the need for
professional and program development.
3. ESTE and TfAA both understand the importance of
reaching the student at a young age.
4. By reaching the student at a young age both programs
hope to eliminate any apprehension about technical
education in future education.
5. Both TfAA and ESTE provide lessons that incorporate
other disciplines such as science, math and social

1. Seeks to reach all students.
2. Need to "review and revise" philosophy and
instructional strategy.
3. Recognize "individual differences" of learner."
4. Recognizes TE's potential for both positive and
negative impacts.
5. Recognize the need for professional development.
1. Focused on making students more technologically
capable and prepared as a work force.
2. Societal goals in mind with implementation of goals
and objectives.
3. Phase II standards (14-20) are closely related towards
initial goals of CE movement by educating students
about technologies they might incur on the job.
4. Broad based reconfiguring of educational practices
from lower to higher levels of education. Elementary,
High School, and preparing the TE educators going back
into the system to teach TE.
5. Both started from standards already present and tried
to improve upon them and make them relevant to
current trends in society and technology.

1. TFAAP phase I worked closely with science and
technology to implement curriculum.
2. STL is broken into categories but the document is not
a curriculum and alllows some flexibility which would be
a good thing.!
3.Standard 4, follows very closely the basic beliefs of
STS, that being the inclusion of social, cultural, etc.
impacts of technology.
4. PLTW, focuses on math and science and technology
very much like that of STS
5. TFAAP sets standards for students to attain for
technological literacy, much like STS wants society to
understand it!
1. Both DE and TfAAP promote technical literacy.
TfAAP does it through curriculum and standards. With
DE the user has to be able to master the technical
medium that the content is being provided through.

2. Both movements took on the challenge of being
applied to a diverse population. TfAAP addressed this
through standards, while DE allowed people from all
reaches to have access to education.

3. Both movements have a clear focus on using and
assessing technology. TfAAP to promote literacy and
DE to promote education in all forms using technology.

4. Both DE and TfAAP have components that focus to
mee the needs of the individual. DE plans can be
molded to meet time schedules of the individual, while
TfAAP believes each individual consumer and producer
needs to be technically literate.

5. The core goal of both DE and TfAAP is to provide
educational content to all participating members of
1 The Technology for All Americans program promotes
technological learning and literacy for all students, not
just those entering a specific trade (as does VE).
2 TfAAP targets all areas of education (the “whole
student”), VE has a narrower career-based focus.
3 While both stem from fulfilling societal needs, VE is not
as philosophically-focused as TfAAP.
4 TfAAP and related programs seek to integrate
technology based learning into all areas of education
while VE uses specific technology based learning to
prepare students for careers.
5 TfAAP also explores impacts of technology; VE doesn’t
seek to challenge methods of technology currently
utilized especially in the workforce.

1. Inclusion of societal and enviromental needs as a
focus point.
2.TFAA looked at individual needs of areas rather ten a
single curriculum and goal for everyone as with IA.
3. Unlike IA, it had a defined structure at the beginning
as well as national recognition ans support.
4. National concensus of what the objects were but not
on mode of instruction.
5. In TFAA, the focus was shifted from primarily industry
to incompase a greater variety of topics and subject
areas in importance.

1) MT is a complete course of study--general education;
TfAAP is an overall umbrella for guiding technological
studies, particularly engineering.
2) TfAAP has an overriding goal of producing a set of
standards for technological literacy--MT was a hands-on
approach to teaching basic tool-related skills.
3) TfAAP has the intent bettering the technological
literacy levels of ALL students--MT even though was
considered a "general education" type program, in reality
had more of a focus on students that would enter the
trades-type sector.
4) MT typically had a 3(ish) year window for students
whereas TfAAP is designed to reach students of many
ages at many points in their educational journey.
5) TfAAP is not so much a specific curriculum but rather
an overriding umbrella of guidelines and ideas, whereas
MT is a curriculum plan for directly educating students.

1.STATEMENT: Citizens must be technologically literate
in order to make decisions that are appropriate for
society as a whole. DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus in
the political spectrum would have applied that statement
to being technologically literate. Post WWII the emphasis
was on rebuilding.

2.STATEMENT: Technologically literate persons
understand and appreciate the importance of
fundamental technological developments.
DISAGREEMENT: Those who are trained holistically can
appreciate technological developments.

3.STATEMENT: The goal of the TfAAP is to enable all to
achieve technological literacy. The ITEA describes it is
the country’s schools duty to enable students to achieve
technological literacy. DISAGREEMENT: This seems
very vague at this point. For the Bauhaus the
fundamental goal regarding technological literacy was to
educate the thinker that using technology their were an
infinite number of solutions to problems.

4.STATEMENT: The Designed World for the TfAAP
takes a much broad view of technology.
DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus kept a narrow
pedagogical view from the standpoint of the architect. At
the time it did not take into account medical

5.STATEMENT: Coherence in STEM education means
coordination of what, when, and to whom STEM subjects
1. TFAAP is for all students, where PLTW is not geared
toward every student. PLTW has prerequisites.
2. TFAAP started at the national/international level
where PLTW started at the local level then moved to
state level (New York).
1. TfAAP was an organized project, whereas SET was
not an organized research project.

2. The scope of TfAAP is essentially redefining TE on a
national scale, whereas SET is more of a strand that
runs through TE programs.

3. While TfAAP deals with large content areas, SET is a
much narrower view - taking technological issues from a
sociological and philosophical perspective, instead of the
entire "big picture" of technology education.

4. TfAAP has led to other large curriculum projects,
such as PLTW and the STEM coalition project.

5. TfAAP is a well defined movement, with canon
documents. SET has no such true documentation, being
a combination of existed fields.
1. There is no clear understanding about the TFAAP
purpose.                   2. Modifying a curriculum to
meet the need of a specific area can be subjective.
Families are constantly moving, does this mean that if a
student move from the country to the city they would not
be able to function?           3. The comparison
between STEM and PLTW both field are striving for the
outcome of strong students in MST.                 4.
Student transition from high school to either tertiary or
the work force still need guidance.            5.
Standards for PLTW and STEM do still focus on STL
                 Vocational Education
1. ESTE & Vocational Ed. Both would produce a
understand of how industry affects life.
2. Vocational Ed. & ESTE prepare students to
live/function in society.
3. Vocational Ed. & ESTE develop a better
understanding of how education and society are
4. Vocational Ed. & ESTE produce a students that is
better equipped to be able to function "in an increasingly
technologically based society"
5. Vocational Ed. & ESTE Activity based projects that
show relationship between concepts and application

1. TE is intended to be available to all students.
2. Variety of choices for students is desired.
3. Continued research is needed to understand the
4. Teachers must be "well versed" (par. 4).
5. Need to embrace new technologies and media (par.
1. Educates students with skills for the purpose of
entering work force better prepared.
2. National government was involved in their
3. Both received national funding through government
agencies and government acts.
4. Tried to separate themselves from previous
educational models and by emphasizing different
standards and practices.
5. Both tried to bring about social order during national
times of turmoil. VE was emphasized post Great
Depression, and CE was brought about to resolve
Vietnam War problems and unruly youth.

1. vocational ed according to the author, recgnizes the
need that society is influenced by it.
2. Apprenticeships made sure that all students could be
positive contributors to "society"
3. Vocational Ed makes students not wanting or being
able to attend college able to still have a chance at
getting good jobs.
4. Vocatoinal ed in the 30's helped solved a major social
problem such as unemployment.
1. Many vocational programs got their start to help out
disadvantaged people. This was similar to DE, in that
DE was implemented to assist people that were
disadvantaged at obtaining and education.

2. Both methods have been used to educate people not
looking to obtain higher education, but on the job

3. Both methods of instruction have achieved their goal
by opening separate schools from traditional educational
facilities. Vocational schools and open universities
would be examples of these.

4. Both methods have been used for military purposes.
DE for training of soldiers, and vocational for workforce
training during the war.

5. Institutions such as ITT Tech offer vocational
education (career driven education) through DE methods
and well as traditional methods.

1. Just as during the VE movement when industry saw
and desired the need for this training, during the TfAAP,
business and industry also saw the need.
2. Both movements received support from outside
organizations, VE from the AFL & NAM, while TfAAP
recieved support from NSF & NASA.
3. TfAAP & VE are intended to be avaliable to all high
school students across the country.
4. Teachers of VE & someone teaching under TfAAP
standards needs to be well versed in their career.
5. Training through a VE program or following TfAAP
standards will both reduce the cost of training for an
idividual or businees at a later time.
1. Had a single definition for the curriculum list while IA
seemed to change and modify multiple times.
2. Was provided with early federal funding and support
which did not come till later for IA.
3. Sought to separate students into two groups (intellect
vs. skilled) to determine who would recieve course, while
IA sought for equal education (though segragated by

1) VE prepared students for a particular job whereas MT
focused on general skill development.
2) VE was separate from general education whereas MT
was an attempt at a variation of general education, only
with a focus on skills training.
3) Students in VE typically learned a specific skill set
particular to a vocation, whereas students of MT all
learned a general set of skills that could be applied in
many different job settings.
4) VE includes post-secondary education while MT
primarily remained in the secondary realm.
5) There appeared to include measures to assist
disadvantaged and disabled students whereas MT made
no mention of addressing this specidic portion of the

1.STATEMENT: The US vocational education movement
is rooted in colonial apprenticeship training, especially
institutional programs created for disadvantaged children
and unemployed African Americans. DISAGREEMENT:
The Bauhaus was founded similarly, but the mason
lodge system was not a forced apprenticeship system.
(Negative vs. Positive approach)

2. STATEMENT: Vocational training would throughout
the years be seen as a less desirable way to earn one’s
living than a professional career vs. and esteemed
position of an Architect. DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus
elevated the training of the individual.

3.STATEMENT: Emphasizing that the general education
foundation of literacy, knowledge, and higher-level
thinking were necessary to create a well-rounded citizen.
Vocational schools would deny students the opportunity
to develop all aspects of their learning and instead
concentrate their lifelong efforts into one trade.
DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus differed from this
attitude and would educate students in a holistic

4.STATEMENT: Workers who had successfully
completed vocational training were entering their chosen
occupation with a standard set of skills that enabled
them to perform competently and become successful
members of the workforce Vocational schools would
deny students the opportunity to develop all aspects of
their learning and instead concentrate their lifelong
1. Vocational Educations purpose is to prepare students
to join the workforce. PLTWs purpose is to prepare
students to enter college on an engineering or
technology track.          2.
1. Vocational education is vased on physical skills,
whereas SET is not.

2. There is a major overlap between vocational
education and career education. SET has no such
career-based content.

3. There is criticism that vocational education causes
class identification and social stratification.

4. Vocational Education has received specific federal
funding, and thus, a government mandate.x

5. There is a strong influence of business and
economies in determining vocational programs, more so
than with SET, which is not specifically tied to industry.
1. Students will review skilled training for those who are
low performing.                              2. Vocational
programs are expensive and are only offered in certain
areas,                        3. Vocational education
which offers skill training are look upon as the best and
easy way out for under achieving students.
4. Race often plays in role for students enrolling in
vocational programs,
                      Industrial Arts
1. ESTE & Industrial Arts- Concepts that extend human
2. ESTE & Industrial Arts- Share some to the same
philosophies that lead to the change from ESIA to ESTE
or IA to TE
3. ESTE & Industrial Arts- Both use projects as a means
to teach subject matter.
4. ESIA and IA- share the same definition of which ESTE
and TE grew out of.
5. ESTE and IA- was used or taught to meet the needs
of society.

1. In search to connect with the "individuality of the child"
(par. 6).
2. "Culture" is an "important part of general education"
(par. 8).
3.Shaped by modern innovations in technology (pa. 10).
4. Cotent ctaught can "change student behavior (par.
5. Emphasis on authentic learning (par. 24).
1. Both were created to solve inadequacies of current
educational models in place at the time.
2. Dealt with unmotivated students, movement created
to give education directive and goals
3. Begin stages of movement were concerned with
industry and skill learning
4. Different views on movement direction left it stagnant
for many years, many people not buying in to its ideals.
5. Both have lasting impact on current education models
present today.

1.Industrial arts attempts to create students that solve
real world problems with with world society isuues.
2. Manual training was developed to help individuals
work with wood and metal.
3.Industrial arts is a study of changes made by man in
the forms of materials to increase thier values, STS sees
this as benefitting society so that is good.
4. IA, and WWII saw the lack of goods and the recycling
of old parts
5. 4 areas come out of post WWII, communication,
construction, transportation, and manufacturing. 4 areas
that affect society in positive ways.
1. Industrial arts was developed to educate students
about real world skills and needs. DE was a form of
education developed to deal with real world needs and
wants of people wanting to be educated.

2. The main focus of industrial arts was to teach skills
necessary for industry. DE has been used by many
industries to offer continuing education and training
programs to their employees.

3. During WWII industrial arts took on aviation and
created model airplanes used for military training. Flight
training can now be accomplished through DE methods
using simulators.

4. Industrial arts had a curricular focus on five major
areas including communication. Communication
technologies are the basis on which DE is able to work.

5. Industrial arts and DE both focus on meeting the
needs of the individual participating in the program.

1. In the 1920's it became evident that curriculum and
goals of IA were no longer adequate, the same
happened in 1994 when TfAAP began.
2. Between 1946 & 1976 IA was divided into 5 major
curriculum areas these divisions still exist in the TfAAP.
3. IA and TfAAP both need to take the lead from industry
rather than what the teacher felt was needed.
4. Olson further divided IA into 8 categories, TfAAP
contain these 8 categories.
5. IA & TfAAP called for a fitting educational enviroment
1 The Industrial Arts movement and the VE movement
both focused on technology in practical applications:
construction, transportation, etc.
2 The need for hands-on skills and the practicality of
trade-based education is emphasized.
3 Both movements were influenced by current events.
4 Both movements based their curriculum on the needs
of industry rather than what educational standards
mandated what was necessary.
5 IA and VE share origins in the vocational programs
created for orphaned or impoverished children in the
early American education system.

1) IA took its focus from the needs of industry whereas
MT was more of a general-tools-knowledge approach.
2) IA attempted to embed itself into the general
education domain whereas MT was in-and-of-itself an
attempt at general education.
3) IA thoughout it evolution, indicated specific areas of
industry (transportation, construction, etc.) whereas MT
simply taught general skills as a part of general
4) IA had several often widely different theories and
approaches throughout its existence, whereas MT
basically had a common approach throughout its
5) IA appears to have been strongly affected by the
various events and political climates throughout the 20th
century, whereas MT doesn't appear to be as linked to
political circumstances.

1.STATEMENT: Placing the emphasis upon the product
as the objective, rather than upon the growth of the child
(p. 479)." were used to describe the genre of Manual
Training. DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus sought to
educate the individual to make better products. The
education was always on the individual

2.STATEMENT: Olson listed what he believed to be the
eight major categories of technology: manufacturing,
construction, power, transportation, electronics,
research, services, and management. His plan also
called for a laboratory beginning at the seventh grade
level and continuing through to twelfth grade, for each of
those eight areas of study. DISAGREEMENT: The
Bauhaus would have adopted a unified approach to
educate the individual from the standpoint of an
architect. It would have not broken down into those
categories. They may have been discussed but
everything would have been place under the architect.

3.STATEMENT: Between 1965 and 1968, Professors
Face and Flug, at the University of Wisconsin-Stout,
moved to have the analysis of the curriculum focus not
on all industry but of those that were considered
American Industries. It was known as the American
Industries Project. DISAGREEMENT The Bauhaus
would have looked broader to examine local industries
and global industries as they looked at artistic styles as
methods to be used.

4.STATEMENT: In 1966,is onPaul DeVore took a for
1. Industrial Arts focuse Dr. preparing students
jobs in industry, while PLTW prepares students for
1. IA is based to a large degree on teaching physidcal
skills - SET is not.

2. IA has its roots in a need for industrial workers.

3. In terms of scope of movement, IA is a much broader
movement than SET.

4. Content areas are often subdivided into areas such as
"communication" "manufacturing" and "transportation"

5. There is an emphasis on making products, and
demonstrating learned skills through fabrications.
1. Target age group, race, and sex did play a major role
in industrial education, but was not mentioned.
2. Listed were 5 major areas, what does category does
engineering falls under?           3. Beyond industrial
arts, what was the significant importance for the name
change, no relevant information provided. 4. As we
moved into another century, the development of new
curriculum which meet the current trends should begin to
be in placed.
                    Manual Training
1. Manual Training and very early ESIA share some of
the same influences as both the use an project or object
in their instruction.
2. Manual Training share some of the historical leaders
such as Pestalozzi, and "Forbel who influenced
education with handwork such as ESIA
3. Manual Training and ESIA have been viewed to both
education the child for work only.
4. Both recognize the importance of reaching the child at
a young age.
5. Both ESIA and ESTE have very similar philosophies
as the Sloyd method of instruction.

1. Beginnings in prerecorded history" (par. 3 & 4).
2. Learning occurs through communication from teacher
to student (par. 7).
3. Increase of literacy during industrial revolutions
propelled technological literacy (par. 10).
4. Individuality of the child must be understood (par. 11)
5. Children learn best with more material than "just with
books alone." A need to move "away from traditional
formal schooling where most of the information was
learned from print" (par. 11, 12, & 18).
1. Belief based that students learn from tactile learning
not just from books
2. Early models (manual labor movement) was broad,
covering all levels of education
3. Integrated book work with shop work and vice versa.
4. Focus on preparing students for life after school
5. Skill training not just be reserved for "engineering"
students but for general education also.
6. Curriculum was alligned to have "work" as a focus in
all areas of the stduent education.

1. manual training gets its origins from early societies
and inventors.
2. manual training and society are very interwoven by its
reliance on individuals to recognize the past like those of
the industiral revolution
3.manual Labor movmement wants to bring the
physcical, and intellectual of human existence into
heathy society by excercise.
4. The sloyd system allowed individuals to work on
something useful for society during long dark
scandinavian hours. Woodworking was seen as a way
to learn and make a little money.
5. The Sloyd Systtem being implemented in a school
like it had been in a home helped save a decline in
"social" conditions
1. Both manual training and DE have a focus on tools.
Manual training focuses on teaching a skill with students
mastering a tool. DE students must master the tool of
communication media to be able to participate fully.

2. Both manual training and DE were developed to fix a
deficiency in education. Manual training fixed that lack
of real world knowledge contained in education. While
DE focused on the lack of access to education.

3. Manual training set up specific manual training
schools, where it was the main focus. Open universities
were set up where DE was the main focus.

4. Both offer the benefit of offering extended learning
opportunities for students.

5. Both MT and DE gave students who didn't excel in the
normal school environment another option.

1.MT had a scope and sequence to follow while the
TfAAP provided a similar concept, standards and
2. MT and TfAAP share the apprentice model, the
"apprentice" for the TfAAP is now called the teacher.
3. MT provided 14 direct benefits. The same 14 benefits
are still relevant in the TfAAP.
4. TfAAP and MT both allow the students to visualize the
5. MT was intended to provide students with skills and
tools for life, much like, TfAAP is intended to provide
students with techological literacy for life.
1 Manual training reflects the practical, need-based
technological education of VE.
2 Critics of both movements felt they fell short of the
educational standards of traditional subjects that
enriched a student’s entire education.
3 MT schools were an early form of separate VE trade
4 Both movements remain relevant in current career-
minded educational training.
5 MT and VE promote alternatives to students not
inclined to follow a white-collar, non-trade based
university education.

1. Share key historic influences such as Sloyd, and Art
and Crafts.
2. Basic function to train use of tools to allow movement
into industry.
3. Spurred growth resulted from industrial age and
employment skills needed by industry.
4. Shared benefits as described by Woodward.
5. Restricted in scope, much like earlier years of IA, in
respect to focus outside needs of industry.

1.STATEMENT: medieval guilds were associations of
employers “who banded together to foster their self-
interests. Guilds were created by people from a common
industry such as masonry to help regulate that industry
and provide quality workmanship and opportunity for skill
advancement. Tthe English guild system, “the master
craftsman was an independent producer, needing little or
no capital, and employing journeymen and apprentices
who hope in time to become master craftsmen
themselves” (Burton & Marique, 1910). This hierarchy
provided for direct, hands-on instruction (master to
apprentice), as well as a method of sharing techniques
beyond the individual shops since those known as
“journeymen” not only earned a wage, but were able to
travel abroad to continue to learn their trade with other
masters and thus sharing techniques from various
shops. DISAGREEMENT: ”The Bauhaus represented a
move away from the Guild system and toward
independent thought

2.STATEMENT: The overall purpose of the manual labor
movement was to encourage growth and development of
the whole person, moving away from traditional formal
schooling where most of the information was learned
from print. The belief that students would retain
information better if they were allowed to experience the
learning in a practical, hands-on situation prevailed.
DISAGREEMENT: The Bauhaus would agree with the
majority of this but is in disagreement to the extent. The
Bauhaus would have taken the leaning further as well as
the education further. The living would have been taken
1. Manual Training focused on training students to use
tools while PLTW focuses on preparing students to
become engineers.
2.. Manual Training focused on the need of industry
while PLTW is focused on creating more domestic born
1. This movement is based on physical skills, whereas
SET is decidingly metaphysical.

2. SET has no physical product creation that manual
training has as a central instructional activity.

3. The manual training movement is formed from the
needs of industry. SET is based on the needs of people
with respect to ethics and sociology.

4. The manual training movement has the connotation
of apprenceships and learning a trade, whereas SET is
not based on trades and is more individual in nature.

5. This movement is based in part on preparing students
to work, to get jobs, and focuses on "real life" skills. SET
is less focused on the "here and now" of earning a living.
1. Although technology can be taken from billions o
years ago, is there a part of history which actual gives us
an insight of how skills were past on before ancient
Egypt.                             2. Focusing on skill
training in elementary school can be to intensive and can
also be deem opening doors for child labor.
3. CTE and Technology Education were designed for
junior and high schools.               4. Although manual
training would help keep our students in school and help
them choose a career, but are we producing productive
citizens.               5. Students are the future as
oppose to keeping the abreast with the current trends,
instructors should always be a step ahead.
                 Bauhaus Movement
1. Some of the philosophy of ESIA is grounded in
Forbels gifts and occupations which teach children how
they can manipulate their world. The combination of
crafts, technology design and art (the Bauhaus
movement) also relates to the manipulation of one's
2. Bauhaus movement and ESIA both found an
importance in the understanding of how industry effects
life (positively or negatively)
3. Both ESTE and Bauhaus both share the importance
of design.
4. Both share the influence and philosophy of Pestalozzi
5. ESTE and Bauhaus blend thought together such as
the academics and practical arts.

1. Accepting of new materials (par. 10).
2. Favorably looks at technology and its "potential in
industry" (par. 10).
3. Educational need to "interact with changes in ideas
and technology" (par. 14).
4. Computer is a significant tool (par. 30).
5. Engage and challenge students through new teaching
methods (par. 32)
1. Short lived movements
2. Purpose was to combine all areas of education
curriculum to educate students for a single purpose
3. Both started during a national time of political and
social upheaval. Regime change, poverty, war.
4. Acedemic integration was a key component of
5. Improving work force was driving factor, supplying
communities with skilled labor to advance society.

1. This is a cool website!!!The Bauhaus movement,
(BM) means in a nutshell modernism. Making society
2. Above all BM focused on practicality and funcitnallity
for the society to enjoy.
3. the goal was to be able to educate stduents who will
be able to create goods tahtr are psersonal to the user.
The industrial designer is born!
4. The BM is very connected to the social movements of
the late 1800's
5. Three pillars of the BM made it very important to
know a specific craft, drawing and painting, and the
science and theory.
1. Bauhaus opened up as a separate institute from
traditional educational facilities, much like DE with open

2. Bauhaus was intended to mesh technology with
humankind, that is relate the product to the user. DE
was intended to relate education to the student. Give the
student a product that would fit their lifestyle.

3. The founders of Bauhaus state that it was not an
original idea but more of a reform. In much the same
way DE was a reform of traditional education to help it
reach more students.

4. One of Bauhaus' main goals was synthesis of
aesthetics around a broad sector of the population.
Similarly DE tried make education more available to a
broader section of the population.

5. Bauhaus and DE both focus on providing curriculum
to the student in the manner that will suit their future
outcome the best.

1. One of the main focuses of the BM was design.
TfAAP also has a standard for design.
2. The BM and TfAAP both focus on the needs of the
3. The BM began the seperation of fine arts and
craftsman, TfAAP continues this seperation.
4. The BM and TFAAP both seek to envoke individual
response and original work.
5. The BM was based on a series of assignments.
TfAAP provides standards and benchmarks in the same
1 The Bauhaus movement utilized its own Arts and
Crafts schools as the VE movement had trade schools.
2 Preparing students for industry was the stated goal of
both movements.
3 The BM was broadened in America to include other
traditional industrial disciplines, as the VE’s targeted
trades increased with the establishment of new careers
and forms of technology.
4 Instructors in both fields were generally experienced in
the technology or skill they were teaching.
5 Both movements were strongly influenced by the
political climate and events of their time.

1. Sought to educate on the base of practical and
functional skills.
2. Focus on meeting the immediate needs and wants of
3. Much like IA Universal Systems Model was orgainized
into a specific set of steps.
4. Primary mode of instruction "work shop".
5. promoted place in society through development of
useful skill.

1) Bauhaus "wanted to be more than a technical school"
much in the same way that MT was an attempt at being
general education, only with a strong focus on learning
hands-on skills.
2) Bauhaus was influenced by the likes of Froebel and
Pestalozzi as was MT.
3) The workshop, where skills were learned and artifacts
made, was an important component of both movements.
4) Bauhaus sought to elevate what some would call
"industrial arts" to an equal level of other subjects as
does MT.
5) In addition to craft work, drawing was an important
piece as it was a central concept in design and drafting.
1. The primay focus of the Bauhaus Movement was the
shop, while primary focus of PLTW is computer based
2. Bauhaus Movement focused on preparing students
for the workforce, while PLTW focuses on preparing
students for college.
1. The Bauhaus movement can be tied to a specific time
and place (school in Germany)

2. There is a strong emphasis on design that SET does
not have.

3. There is an emphasis on making physical products.
SET has no such product.

4. Bauhaus wasbased on merging art and technical
design to make products. SET is also a merging of
disciplines, but in a synthesis that focuses on critical
thinking and philosophy rather than design and artistic

5. The Bauhaus movement was centered around design,
and integrating art into product design: creating the role
of Industrial Designer. SET does not have a specfic
profession born from its creation.
1. Report focus a great deal on art and does not cover a
wide rang of MST in particular to that of the engineering
field.                  2. Mentioned Bauhaus in
America, us does not give a clear understanding of how
it is present.                             3. One of the
main misconception of technology education,, can the art
teacher claim that he/she is a tech ed teacher. Note that
they are two separate license areas.                   4.
Standards for tech ed. and art are different.
5. Failure to overcome that the Bauhaus ultimate aim is
that of technology education.
                Project Lead The Way
1. PLW and ESTE both recognize the need to develop a
program for elementary age students
2. Both PLW and ESTE distance themselves away from
traditional IA approach to education.
3. Both ESTE and PLW lend themselves to include other
subjects such as math science and physics.
4. Both ESTE and PLW lend themselves to make
curriculum alignment (in technology) K-college more
5. ESTE and PLW- understand that technology affect
standard of life.

1. Seeks to engage the natural curiosity of students.
2. Curriculum best presents content through a variety of
materials and methods.
3. Important need ("mission") to "excite students."
4. Need for professional development in order for
instructors to appropriately use.
5. Explores ways it can "fit into current school
curriculums" (par. 4).
1. Has alignment and influence with higher levels of
education (colleges, universities).
2. Addresses current or future problem of lack of trained
people in society
3. Roots of movement trying to separate itself from the
old stigma of "shop" and have societal and government
understanding of proposed curriculum and practices.
4. Provides training for educators to teach curriculum to
5. Teachers work together (VA), keeps students aligned
to meet national standards set forth by movement,
similar to CE level alignment.

1. PLTW focuses on the training of Pre-Enginneerrs in
HS so that society gets a better prepared individual.
2.PLTW can provide the why and what TE teaches
which can be very important to society.
3. Indiana state standard one does a fantastic job of
identyfying the idea of the envoronment.
4. Starting in 1997 brought the private sector into the
idea preparing pre-engineering students for the most
important societal problems.
5. GTT is broke down into 5 different "curriculums that
could effect society and the environment.
1. PLTW is a pre-made curriculum delivered by a 3rd
party who has received some training. This is much like
second generation DE.

2. Both programs were initiated to help promote access
to certain types of education.

3. Both movements are spread out among varying levels
of education. Including both k-12 and college programs.
PLTW college programs offer training for teachers and
credit for HS students.

4. Both PLTW and DE rely heavily on use of technology
for the programs to be successful.

5. PLTW utilizes DE when training teachers through the
virtual academy.

1. PLTW and TfAAP both promote engineering. PLTW's
main focus is engineering and TfAAP has a standard for
engineering design.
2. TfAAP and PLTW are designed for the primary and
secondary aged student.
3. PLTW and TfAAP each put an emphasis on
professional development.
4. PLTW has seven organizing principals, while TfAAP
has 20 sandards.
5. Both movement try to meet the future needs of
1 Project Lead the Way and VE prepare students for
careers in technology-based fields.
2 Practical and applicable aspects of technology are
3 Both movements bring the relevancy of technological,
skill-based education to the forefront of public education
4 Teachers in both movements are required to be highly
familiar and competent in their career-based subject
5 Both movements share similar goals.

1. Focus on processes related to wants and needs.
2. Intergration of science and math, much like the later
years of IA.
3. Defined set of courses.
4. Primary grade level of focus is middle and high
5. Seek to provide courses relevent to era.

1) PLTW has a strong focus on engineering, while MT
also had a leaning in this direction with an emphasis on
engineering skills (detailed drawings, etc.) that would
have been appropriate in the late 1800's.
2) Just as PLTW attempts to "provide technology
education with some legitimacy," MT also brought skills-
based training up to the same plane as other curricular
3) Both movements recognize the need for education
beyond the mere "book learning."
4) PLTW is a prescribed set of courses similar to the
layout of courses in the MT schools of the day.
5) Both movements focus on being not just an "add-on"
to the existing curriculum, but rather an integral part of
the educational process for students.

1. STATEMENT: Engineering through design improves
life and Technology creates issues that change the way
people live and interact. AGREEMENT: The Bauhaus as
a institution sought above all to improve the quality of life
through its training of students. The Bauhaus sought to
educate students both on social and economic

2. STATEMENT: Pre-engineering can provide
technology education with some legitimacy by providing
the why and what technology education teaches. Almost
everyone understands the word "engineering" and
recognizes what it is that engineers do. It would be much
easier to sell technology education to the general public
and to the school administration if everyone had an
understanding of what technology education was.
AGREEMENT: The Bauhaus used the vehicle of
architecture to introduce students to a broader based
curriculum of problem solving. This is a similar approach
to that of PLTW. The Bauhaus sought to legitimize their
efforts by using a term that people could understand to
further the goals of the school

3.STATEMENT: PTLW teaches the role of
troubleshooting, research and development, invention
and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving.
AGREEMENT: The Bauhaus like PTLW sought to instill
students with a skill in problem solving. We are not just
makers of things but we are problem solvers. Gropius
felt that technology provides us with an innumerable
amount to solutions to problems if we embrace
1. PLTW is vocational in the sense that it is based on
preparing students for engineering careers.

2. As are most other programs, PLTW is instructionally
based on physical projects.

3. PLTW has a strong STEM component of integrating
science and math into TE and engineering education.
These strands are not as strongly emphasized as tools
that work together to make products in SET.

4. PLTW is an organized, commercial venture. SET is a
decentralized movement that is not organized as a

5. PLTW has a very strict regulation of implementation.
SET does not have such regulations and thus programs
can be highly varied in terms of scope and content.
1. There is no substantial recruitment process to
encourage minority to the field of engineering,
2. Curriculum although pre-engineering only specialized
in mechanical and civil engineering.
3. Programs as it focus highly on student who are
stronger in math and science can often leave struggling
students to regret selecting major.           4. All
students are not given the same opportunity to be
involved in the PLTW organization.
Curriculum does not allow integration of other academic
subjects beside MST.                                  5.
PLTW programs can be extremely invested and schools
within a lower income bracket often cannot afford such
Before beginning to compare like philosophies (ESTE
and SET) the goals of ESTE should be listed; the
following is taken from the VA Dept. of Ed. web site
e.html which list the goals of ESTE

The elementary school child with technology experiences
1. Explore how people create, use, and control
2. Apply knowledge in mathematics, language arts,
social studies, science, health, and fine arts in solving
problems associated with technology.
3. Use tools and materials to explore personal interests
with technology.
4. Exhibit self-confidence through the use of technology.
Each of the above needs to be taught with ethics in mind
especially at the elementary level. Been also points out
that technology defines winners or losers. and if one of
the goals of ESTE is to explore how people create use
and control technology (#1) Combing # 1 and Ethics the
would lead to an ethical way to apply knowledge in
mathematics, language arts, social studies, science,
health, and fine arts in solving problems associated with
1. Greatly influenced by "World events" (par. 17).
2. Student individualism encouraged.
3. Taking appropriate action is required.
4. Technology has potential for great effects.
5. Harmful consequences should be considered.
1. Allows student choice
2. Looked at social impacts and how to enlighten
students to be aware of choices and futures
3. Both S/E/T and CE have integration implications
towards working the material into the curriculum
4. While ethics was one of the key focuses of S/E/T,
many questioned the ethical nature of the CE movement
as a whole.
5. Both have social issues at the heart of inspiration for
each other movements.

1. In the scope section the author talks about
"appropriate technologies" which are very important.
STS students know and need to know what is
appropriate and what is not
2. Hans Jonas realizes that there is a tremendous
relationship between ethics and technology!
3.Postman believes that it is very important for
individuals to recognize he importance of sociological
and philosophical impacts of new technologies.
4. The values clarification movement in ethics education
is strong influence to this movement and is something
that STS individuals would really be interested in.
5. Author makes awesome point that ITEA standard 4
and 6 really focus on society, culture, etc.....
1. Both of these movements are centered around the
effects technology has on society and how technology
can better be used to improve society.

2. The field of DE brings about many questions that
could be the focus of the field technology, ethics, and

3. One of the core beliefs of technology, ethics, and
society is that the technology must be constantly
evaluated to look to see what effects they are causing.
This is a prominent notion in DE. Technological methods
of instruction must always be evaluated to see how
effective they are for the student to learn from.

4. DE was a field that was brought about in an attempt to
use technology to make an improvement to society.
According to some theory behind ethics and technology
there is always a winner and a loser when technology is
implemented. Could the loser be traditional academic
institutions in the case of DE?

5. Research in both DE and Society, Ethics, and
Technology has put a focus on the limitations of
technology in improving human life.

1. SET and TfAAP each empasize the ethics of what our
technology does to our society.
2. TfAAp has a standard on "assessing the impact of
products and systems." While SET talks of the social
impacts of technology.
3. Both movements look at how technology must meet
the future needs of society.
4. Each movement look at how technology impacts the
5. Some of the standards developed by the TfAAP were
derived from SET.
1 Both the Society/Ethics/Technology movement and VE
believe in practical applications of technology.
2 The SET and VE movements were both influenced by
world events.
3 Both seek to preserve technology education as a
necessary part of education.
4 SET and VE operate under the belief that technology
education needs to be preserved and taught to students
in order to preserve the use of technology in real-world
5 Both movements acknowledge and anticipate the
importance of staying abreast of technological change.

1. Focus on appropriate solutions for realistic and
relavent problems.
2. Ethics and impacts included in instruction at
conclusion of IA era.
3. Both impacted by wants and needs of society.

1) In a general sense, both movements address a need
for greater responsibility and preparedness on the part of
students as they enter the world in which they will be the
future decision-makers.
2) As those students enter the "real" world, the broader
the scope of knowledge, the better equipped they will be
to not only manage the available technology in relation to
their chosen vocation, but will better be able to make
responsible choices regarding the use of that

1. STATEMENT: element of technology education that
addresses the impacts and consequences of
technological change to societies, the environment, and
the individual, and addresses how technology, while an
unstoppable force of change, is a force that can and
must be controlled and consciously directed to benefit
human civilization. AGREEMENT: When the Bauhaus
sought to unify art and technology it by the very nature of
this challenge embraces society. By adding the intention
to train students as architects the Bauhaus came into
alignment with the beliefs that what we do is to benefit
human civilization. Architects look at all factors that
benefit human civilization. They are a metaphorical
gatekeeper between technology and the environment.

2. STATEMENT: One movement that has remained as a
nearly constant component, in varying degrees, has
been the Society/Ethics/Technology movement, which
has often been included as an undercurrent running
through the content of other courses. AGREEMENT: In
the same way the courses at the Bauhaus maintain this
constant undercurrent and placement within society.

3.STATEMENT: A Society/Ethics/Technology
components frames technology as a part of the human
world – with human impacts and ramifications that go
beyond the capabilities gained through the creation of
the technology itself. AGREEMENT: A producers at the
Bauhaus sought to put their objects within a context.

4. STATEMENT: The “values clarification” movement in
1. The "Appropriate Technology" movement of the
1970's reminds me a lot of the PLTW movement. Both
movements took root in a time of need. The PLTW
movemnet comes at a time when there is a lack of
domestic engineers.             2. SET and PLTW both
try to implement the use of current technologies.
3. Both SET and PLTW have been influenced by what
was happening in the world.
1. In regards to society/ethnic/technology no reference
of the impact minority groups contributed to this area.
2. An appropriate time frame from which data would
have been gathered might would have been helpful.
3. The combination definition of the three areas are
unclear, finding each individual definition and singling
that common term could have transform the message.
4. Minority groups did set components frames in
technology but many were left undocumented.
5.Ouside influences were mentioned but no particular
regions were identified.
          Women in Engineering Education
1. ESTE is for all children and works well as one teacher
presents to an entire class (boys and girls alike with out
the stigma of elective course work with pre determined
stereo types)
2. To be a good administrator of ESTE one does not
need to be a professional in the field of TE, therefore any
teacher with the correct prep work could present a
quality ESTE lesson to children. Because their are more
women teaching elementary school their exists the
opportunity for women to teach young women about
technology which might lead to more women in the field
of technology or engineering.
3.Working with technology promotes a certain comfort
level within a program. ESTE provides a foundation of
comfort (when working with technology) which might
lead to more young women entering classes at the
middle or high school level.
4.The number of engineers needed in the United Sates
will surpass the number produced by one specific
gender. Both genders must contribute to enable to insure
the United States will be current in engineering
advancements. ESTE promotes educational
opportunities for both sexes.
1. Seeks to educate all students.
2. Background experiences can significantly effect an
instructor's success (par. 20).
3. Instructor's role is key for student success.
4. "Requires strong leadership, changes in culture values
and practices, and systemic reform" (par. 9).
5. Encourages exploration through "non-traditional"
activities (par. 13).
1. Movements were started because of a lack of trained
professionals going into the work force.
2. Work with colleges, universities, and government
agencies to meet goals of movement.
3. System reformation a underpinning to making
changes to meet the needs of movement.

1. WEPAN strive to give women full rights in our non-
discrimnatory society.
2. WEPAN understands that women have not
traditionally been encouraged to take up engineering and
strive to change that by encouraging women to attain
career's in engineering.
3. WEPAN knows that the earlier women get educated
and encouraged about engineering field careers the
better off society will be.
4. the author beleives that the earlier education women
get with encouragement to engineer, the better off they
will be and more likely to go into engineering.
5. The author believes that women who become
engineers take the "over-achiever" personality type. The
author believes that once they make up their mind they
1. At its start DE was focused on providing education to
groups who were disadvantaged, such as women.

2. Groups such as WEPAN have embraced DE
methods in promoting there goals and professional

3. Both movements had a focus based on providing
education and promoting education in a sense that was
not considered traditional. Moving women to
engineering/science classes does not go along with
traditional society. Either does taking a full class over
the Internet

4. Both movements put a focus on the student to teacher
relationship in providing a positive educational
experience.. Such as demonstrated in Moore's (DE)
and McCarthy's (WE) work.

5. Both movements have had focus and progression at
an international level.

1. WEE & TfAAP both looked at how America was falling
behind other countries.
2. TfAAP and WEE are inclusive of males and females
in their movements.
3. The need for skilled workers had promoted both
4. Both movements look at how technology must meet
the future needs of society.
5. WEE has a focus on engineering education, while
TfAAP has a standard for engineering.
1 Women in engineering education movement also
supports the importance of trade-based technology
education (engineering)
2 WIEE and VE both seek to discredit those who
criticizes technical education as inferior to traditional
avenues of study.
3 Both movements emphasize utilizing teachers
experienced in their field of instruction (preferably by
employment in their trade/career).
4 Both seek to establish a new standard of education
rather than integrate engineering or technology into
current curriculum.
5 Both identify common goals.

I was unable to find any aspect to agree or disagree
related to my own topic. The only things I might add is
that Iaera was a basic jumping point for women in
technology. It provided some of the first non gender
regulated education opportunities while still maintaining a
"boy" vs "girl" train of thought.

1) Both WiEE and MT received some early influence
due to a perceived deficit--lack of basic tool related skills
in MT and lack of number of Americans that have
engineering and technical skills in WiEE.
2) The quote (from WiEE) that "The study of
engineering is not vocational; it is a way of thinking," is
similar in thought to Woodward's approach in MT that
ALL students should receive exposure to many general
skills--not just be prepared for a single specific vocation.

1. STATEMENT: Also included are “Recommendations,
which emphasize that an increase in women and girls'
participation in all levels of science, engineering, and
technology requires strong leadership, changes in
cultural values and practices, and systemic reform.”
AGREEMENT: As an educational model this goes
without saying. Your teachers should reflect the values
and practices of reform. The Bauhaus leaders were
forward thinking and leaders in their fields.

2. STATEMENT: historically women are an untapped
source of potential engineers despite impressive work
and collaboration, the number of women in engineering
education, even at tertiary-level institutions, is still too low
AGREEMENT: The Bauhaus always had a rather small
student body. It began with about 40 students in 1919,
and towards the end in 1930 there were about 190
students (Wingler 486). In the beginning about one
fourth of the students were women. By 1929 there were
170 students in the Bauhaus, 51 (30%) of them were
women, and 19 of the women were in the weaving
workshop (Anscombe 133,135). The Bauhaus for its day
maintained a co-educational policy.
. It is important to note that in its short span this are
pretty good numbers in support of the role of the women
in an engineering field but still not equally represented.

3.STATEMENT From what we know about engaging
women and minorities in learning, the broader goals are
1. PLTW and WEPAN both are concerned with the
number of domestic born engineers in the United States.
2. WEPAN and PLTW both encourage female students
to take advantage of engineering programs.
3. WEPAN and PLTW are both facing the challenge of
attracting girls to engineering.
4. WEPAN and PLTW both look to increase the number
of domestic born engineers by introducing engineering in
pre-college education.
5. Both PLTW and WEPAN started in the 1990's. What
happened in the 90's that triggered this alarm that we
need more engineers?
1. Having more women in engineering adds different
perspectives to the profession, just as SET is about
breaking conventional perspectives and thinking

2. Both women in engineer and SET have the implicit
effectg of breaking down the stereotype of the profession
as veing male oriented and product based.

3. As SET, it is a movement that has had to overcome

4. The program is often underrepresented in schools,
even if it does have sanction.

5. There is the potential to a massive cultural paradigm
shift through this educational program.
                  Modular Education
1. Modular education seems to share the idea that
learning/ discovery can be self directed through projects.
2. Some activities in modular education can provide
immediate feed back which is like some projects that
ESTE would use.
3. Modules provide students different levels of learning.
ESTE can provide various levels depending on
instruction or grade level.
4. ESTE and Module education allows lessons to flow
across the curriculum easily.
5. ESTE and modular almost insure student involvement
as students must engage in lesson to be able to answer

1. Often "computer based learning environments" (par.
2. Uses diverse range of media.
3. Instructional strategies that seek to engage students.
4. High demand for teachers to possess knowledge.
5. Continued research needed to evaluate the
effectiveness (par. 23).
1. CE may have used modules to give students varying
experiences towards deciding career paths.
2. Different from "traditional" styles of education
3. CareerPorts and CAREERPlus modules aim towards
directing students educational learning towards career
paths and future professions.
4. High cost involved to implement curriculum
5. Training required to keep modules up and running, CE
would have had to train all teachers to align to new

1. Modular technology education movement is based on
making education better using something called a
"teaching machine"
2. Modulle TE classrooms allow for students to use
different modules to understand different concepts.
3. Teachers may develop modules if one for whatever is
not purchasable.
4. Modules promote critical thinking, problem solving,
trouble shooting, and computer literacy.
5. Using tutorials is a could be a big part of modular
education which now a days in society it seems that we
have tutorials for just about everything and anything
somone may need to do!
1. Both DE and modular education have extensively
used computer based education.

2. Modular education and DE both promote students to
become more independent learners. Although there is
still guidance from an instructor, there is a move away
from the traditional lecture environment.

3. Both DE and modular education involve timing that
allows students to work through course materials at their
own pace. Obviously there are still deadlines to be met,
but its not as strict as a traditional course.

4. Similar to second generation DE modular education
curriculum can be created by an outside source and
taught by a third party instructor.

5. Both methods put more focus on the students
motivation to complete their own work.

1. ME and TfAAP try to provide students with an
unconventional learning experience.
2. ME and TfAAP are both set up for secondary school
age students, while TfAAP is also set up for primary age
3. Many of the ME labs are based on the same
standards that are provided by the TfAAP.
4. Teacher must have a knowledge of the content being
covered in ME and TfAAP.
5. As with the development of their own curriculum for
TfAAP, teacher can also develop their own ME labs.
1 Both identify common goals.
2 Modular education emphasizes career training similar
to VE, at the end of modular activities skills learned are
often applied to real-life vocational applications.
3 ME and VE both emphasize teachers
competent/experienced in related fields of study.
4 Both promote similar goals in student development
(problem solving, critical thinking, technological literacy,
5 ME and VE serve more of one style of student learning
and do not vary to accommodate different styles of

1. Focused on a combination of classroom and hands-on
2. Self paced activities are simular to those of project
based in IA.
3. Set of defined topics and subject matter.
4. Promote Problem solving and critical thinking skills.
5. One size fits all philosophy.

1) Both ME and MT take a hands-on approach to
2) Both ME and MT take issue with traditional "book"
learning and try to provide a more interactive approach
to learning.
3) Both contain educational philosophies that include a
recognition of the individuality of each student
(Pestalozzian perhaps?)
4) Both claim to "keep students on task" better than
traditional educational methods.

1. STATEMENT: Skinner began studying ways to
improve teaching methods by using a device that would
change the classroom experience (Wleklinski, n.d.).
Skinner called this device the “teaching machine”.
AGREEMENT: The Bauhaus approach would have
agreed with this. This is a step in a series of refinement.
The Bauhaus approach if it would have been around
longer could have progressed in this direction. Their
fundamental piece in the Basic Course could have move
in this direction.

2. STATEMENT: Modular technology education aims to
provide students a learning opportunity that is different
from the normal classroom routine. AGREEMENT: The
Bauhaus philosophically attempted to do the same and
provided classes in problem solving

3.STATEMENT: Lab-Volt offers a great amount of
modules that include: Applied Technology/Automation &
Robotics Bio-related/ CNC/...Technology/ Manufacturing
Technology. AGREEMENT: This could be described as
a multidisciplinary approach much like the Bauhaus.
Educating students in a broad rand of topics.

4. STATEMENT: Modular technology allows for the
development of students: Critical-thinking skills/ Problem-
solving skills/ Troubleshooting and To become self-
directed learners AGREEMENT: The Bauhaus sough
all of these ideals using technology as a means to solve
problems. The end product was that students would be
selfStudents of PLTW and ME use problem solving and
1. directed an able to work independently.
critical thinking to find solutions.
2. ME and PLTW are designed for middle and high
schools. 3. Many Modular Units are based on STL,
while PLTW curriculum is alligned to STL.
1. Many different modules or subject matters can be

2. Students can be self-guided.

3. Module based TE can be scaled to fit grade levels and

4. Module based TE can be used to introduce general
technology education content across a wide range of
otherwise disparate fields.

5. Module based TE can be done by solitary students or
those in groups, with different pros and cons for each.
1. Taking a large portion of a lesson ad breaking it down
into smaller concepts for easier study.
2. Provide an excellent source for students involvement
and the ability for them to learn at their own paces.
3. Students who are a bit more advance can assist
peers in need.                                        4.
There are currently a wide range of application in
numerous curriculum both in CTE and Tech Ed.
5. Assessment can actual based on accountability,
which may lead students to a life long lesson in

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