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The Small Intestine

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					   The Small Intestine
   • The small intestine is the major site for _________________________________
      ____________________________________.
   • Small intestine is made up of 3 parts
         – ____________________________
         – ____________________________
         – ____________________________

From Stomach to Duodenum
   • Acidic Chyme is pushed from the lower part of the stomach through the pyloric
      sphincter into the Duodenum (________________________________________).
   • The stomach empties over a 1 to 2 hour period.
Small Intestines (Doudenum)
  • Chyme is pushed out of the stomach into the small intestines. The acid chyme
       ______________________________________________________.
  • The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes and _________________________
       _______________________ 2 pH  8 pH)
          – Enzymes - __________________________________, Trypsin
  • The liver produces bile, which is stored in the gall bladder before entering the bile
       duct into the duodenum.
          – Bile ________________________________breaks fats into little pieces)
Carbohydrate Digestion step by step
   • The chyme is pushed into your small intestines (duodenum) which triggers the
      release of Pancreatic juice from the pancreas
   • Amylase is one of the enzymes in the pancreatic juice which breaks down
      ____________________________________________________
   • Finally the intestinal glands release intestinal juice which includes the enzyme
      maltase. (jejunum)
          – ______________ breaks down the disaccharides into monosaccharide
              which are absorbed by the blood stream.
   • ______________________________________________________________ and
      carried to the cells for use. (ileum)
Protein Digestion Step by Step
   • ___________________________ digested by Pepsin __________________while
       being liquefied by the acid HCL.
   • The chyme is pushed into your small intestines (duodenum) which triggers the
       release of Pancreatic juice from the pancreas
   • Trypsin is one of the enzymes in pancreatic juice which continues the breakdown
       of proteins into Peptide bonds
   • Finally the intestinal glands release intestinal juice which includes peptidase
       which __________________________________________________. (jejunum)
   • Those amino acids are ______________________ into the blood steam and
       carried to the cells for use. (ileum)

Digestion of Lipids
   • The chyme is pushed into your small intestines (duodenum) which triggers the
       release of Pancreatic juice from the pancreas and bile from your gall bladder.
   • Bile emulsifies ____________________________________________________
   • Lipase that is found in ______________________ hydrolyses (breaks down)
       lipids into a glycerol and 3 fatty acids
   • The products are absorbed by the _________________________ into the blood
       and carried to the cells for use. (jejunum and ileum)
Enzymes and were they are Used

   •   _______________________________ (starch  sugar) MOUTH
   •   Pepsin (proteins  Polypeptides) ________________________
   •   Bile (emulisification of lipids) DUODENUM
   •   Pancreatic Juice DOUDENUM
           – _________________ (polysacchardies  disacchardies)
           – Trypsin (peptones and proteoses  peptides)
           – ______________ (lipids  gylcerol and fatty acids)
   •   Intestinal Juice JUJUMIN and ILEUM
           – _____________ (peptides  amino acids)
           – ______________ (Disaccharide  Monosacchardies)

Villi and MircoVilli
    • The ____________________________________ is lined with vill and microvilli
    • The purpose of villi and microvilli are to ____________________________ in
        the small intestines. Increase the speed at which ___________________________
            – The small intestines a 6 meter long tube has a surface area of 300 square
                meters or the surface area of a 500-600m long tube.
    • Each villus has a _________________________________ supplied by a small
        arteriole. Absorbed nutrients pass through the ________________________
        _______________________ (blood stream), usually by passive transport.
The Large Intestine
   • The large intestine is made up by the cecum, appendix, colon, and rectum.
   • Digested food is pushed from the small intestines into the large intestine.
   • No ____________________________________________________________
   • Material in the large intestine is mostly __________________________________
   • ________________, and ___________ are absorbed, the remaining contents form
      feces (mostly cellulose, bacteria, bilirubin).
   • __________________ in the large intestine, such as E. coli, ________________
      __________________ (including vitamin K) that are absorbed.

There are 3 parts to the Colon
   1. Ascending Colon
   2. Transverse Colon
   3. Descending Colon
The Liver and Gall Bladder
   • The Liver makes _____________ and stores it in the ______________________.
   • The Gall bladder _______________________________________________ when
      the acidic chyme from the stomach. Bile contains bile salts, which ____________
      fats, making them susceptible to enzymatic breakdown.
   • The liver also stores excess __________________ in the form of
      ______________________.




The Pancreas
   • When the acidic chyme is pushed out of the stomach into the small intestines. IT
      simulates the pancreas to send ________________________, which neutralizes
      the ________________, begins digestions of Carbohydrates, Lipids and continues
      digestion of protein.
   • Pancreatic juice also contains ____________ which digests _________________
      _____________________.
Stomach HCl
   • Hydrochloric acid does not directly function in digestion:
         – it ___________________________ that cause food poisoning.
         – lowers the stomach pH to between ________________________
         – activates pepsinogen (to pepsin) _________________ is an enzyme that
            starts protein digestion.
   • HCl inhibits further carbohydrate breakdown started by salivary amylase.
   • HCl aids in the liquefaction of masticated food
   • Epithelial cells secrete mucus that forms a __________________________
      between the cells lining the inside of the stomach and the stomach acids.

Ulcers
   • Peptic ulcers result when the protective mucus fails and the HCl eats away at the
       ________________________________________.
   • Bleeding ulcers result when tissue damage is so severe that __________________
       into the stomach.
   • Perforated ulcers are life-threatening situations where a _______________ has
       formed in the stomach wall.
   • At least 90% of all peptic ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori (bacteria).
       Other factors, __________________________, can also produce ulcers.

				
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posted:8/15/2011
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