VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 8 POSTED ON: 8/15/2011
The Small Intestine • The small intestine is the major site for _________________________________ ____________________________________. • Small intestine is made up of 3 parts – ____________________________ – ____________________________ – ____________________________ From Stomach to Duodenum • Acidic Chyme is pushed from the lower part of the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the Duodenum (________________________________________). • The stomach empties over a 1 to 2 hour period. Small Intestines (Doudenum) • Chyme is pushed out of the stomach into the small intestines. The acid chyme ______________________________________________________. • The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes and _________________________ _______________________ 2 pH 8 pH) – Enzymes - __________________________________, Trypsin • The liver produces bile, which is stored in the gall bladder before entering the bile duct into the duodenum. – Bile ________________________________breaks fats into little pieces) Carbohydrate Digestion step by step • The chyme is pushed into your small intestines (duodenum) which triggers the release of Pancreatic juice from the pancreas • Amylase is one of the enzymes in the pancreatic juice which breaks down ____________________________________________________ • Finally the intestinal glands release intestinal juice which includes the enzyme maltase. (jejunum) – ______________ breaks down the disaccharides into monosaccharide which are absorbed by the blood stream. • ______________________________________________________________ and carried to the cells for use. (ileum) Protein Digestion Step by Step • ___________________________ digested by Pepsin __________________while being liquefied by the acid HCL. • The chyme is pushed into your small intestines (duodenum) which triggers the release of Pancreatic juice from the pancreas • Trypsin is one of the enzymes in pancreatic juice which continues the breakdown of proteins into Peptide bonds • Finally the intestinal glands release intestinal juice which includes peptidase which __________________________________________________. (jejunum) • Those amino acids are ______________________ into the blood steam and carried to the cells for use. (ileum) Digestion of Lipids • The chyme is pushed into your small intestines (duodenum) which triggers the release of Pancreatic juice from the pancreas and bile from your gall bladder. • Bile emulsifies ____________________________________________________ • Lipase that is found in ______________________ hydrolyses (breaks down) lipids into a glycerol and 3 fatty acids • The products are absorbed by the _________________________ into the blood and carried to the cells for use. (jejunum and ileum) Enzymes and were they are Used • _______________________________ (starch sugar) MOUTH • Pepsin (proteins Polypeptides) ________________________ • Bile (emulisification of lipids) DUODENUM • Pancreatic Juice DOUDENUM – _________________ (polysacchardies disacchardies) – Trypsin (peptones and proteoses peptides) – ______________ (lipids gylcerol and fatty acids) • Intestinal Juice JUJUMIN and ILEUM – _____________ (peptides amino acids) – ______________ (Disaccharide Monosacchardies) Villi and MircoVilli • The ____________________________________ is lined with vill and microvilli • The purpose of villi and microvilli are to ____________________________ in the small intestines. Increase the speed at which ___________________________ – The small intestines a 6 meter long tube has a surface area of 300 square meters or the surface area of a 500-600m long tube. • Each villus has a _________________________________ supplied by a small arteriole. Absorbed nutrients pass through the ________________________ _______________________ (blood stream), usually by passive transport. The Large Intestine • The large intestine is made up by the cecum, appendix, colon, and rectum. • Digested food is pushed from the small intestines into the large intestine. • No ____________________________________________________________ • Material in the large intestine is mostly __________________________________ • ________________, and ___________ are absorbed, the remaining contents form feces (mostly cellulose, bacteria, bilirubin). • __________________ in the large intestine, such as E. coli, ________________ __________________ (including vitamin K) that are absorbed. There are 3 parts to the Colon 1. Ascending Colon 2. Transverse Colon 3. Descending Colon The Liver and Gall Bladder • The Liver makes _____________ and stores it in the ______________________. • The Gall bladder _______________________________________________ when the acidic chyme from the stomach. Bile contains bile salts, which ____________ fats, making them susceptible to enzymatic breakdown. • The liver also stores excess __________________ in the form of ______________________. The Pancreas • When the acidic chyme is pushed out of the stomach into the small intestines. IT simulates the pancreas to send ________________________, which neutralizes the ________________, begins digestions of Carbohydrates, Lipids and continues digestion of protein. • Pancreatic juice also contains ____________ which digests _________________ _____________________. Stomach HCl • Hydrochloric acid does not directly function in digestion: – it ___________________________ that cause food poisoning. – lowers the stomach pH to between ________________________ – activates pepsinogen (to pepsin) _________________ is an enzyme that starts protein digestion. • HCl inhibits further carbohydrate breakdown started by salivary amylase. • HCl aids in the liquefaction of masticated food • Epithelial cells secrete mucus that forms a __________________________ between the cells lining the inside of the stomach and the stomach acids. Ulcers • Peptic ulcers result when the protective mucus fails and the HCl eats away at the ________________________________________. • Bleeding ulcers result when tissue damage is so severe that __________________ into the stomach. • Perforated ulcers are life-threatening situations where a _______________ has formed in the stomach wall. • At least 90% of all peptic ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori (bacteria). Other factors, __________________________, can also produce ulcers.
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