GEF Coastal Resilience National Stakeholders Communication Session by pengxiuhui




WWF acknowledge the support and endorsement of the Department of Environment for the GEF
funded project titled “Developing a Generalizable Method for Adaptive Management and
Protection from Climate Change in Mangrove and Coral Reef Ecosystems”.

      Prepared by: Eleni Tokaduadua, Francis Areki and Monifa Fiu

     1. Session One
     2. Session Two
     3. Session Three
     4. Major outcomes of the Plenary


   I. List of Abbreviations
  II. List of national stakeholders
 III. Communication Meeting Agenda
IV. List of project partner presentations
  V. Fiji National Wetland related legislation


The purpose of this national stakeholder meeting was to provide national stakeholders with
information on the most recent developments in regard to the GEF funded project titled
“Developing a Generalizable Method for Adaptive Management and Protection from Climate
Change in Mangrove and Coral Reef Ecosystems”. The localized project activities that have been
undertaken since 2006 were presented during the meeting sessions, for it is part of a larger global
project, also being implemented in Tanzania and Cameroon. The Fiji project sites include the Wai
District in Nadroga-Navosa, the Kubulau District in Bua and the Verata District in Tailevu. The
main collaborative national project partners include the Institute of Applied Sciences- University of
the South Pacific, Wildlife Conservation Society, Wetlands International, the Department of
Environment and WWF- the Global Conservation Organization.

National Stakeholders Communication Session- Objectives

This is a global project similarly carried out in East and Central Africa in tandem with Fiji in the
South Pacific. By testing the adaptation methodology in geographically diverse locations within a
common habitat type, the process greatly enhances replication in other areas around the globe.
Fiji has the third largest mangrove area in the Pacific region. Climatic variation (windward-
leeward effect) across the larger islands in Fiji influences mangrove distribution and ecology,
and different locations are expected to experience distinct effects of climate change. There
will also be differences in the rate of sea level rise across Fiji, as certain areas are experiencing
tectonic uplift or subsidence, while others are tectonically stable. In addition the various
mangroves areas on the mainland islands are experiencing different levels of impact and
intensity from human development.
This one day national stakeholders‟ communication meeting is aimed at sharing knowledge and
information as a result of this three year global project, with national stakeholders from
government departments, resource managers, non government organizations that are already

working on climate change adaptation in Fiji. The session is to provide the latest information
generated from the project sites and also gauge the various stakeholders present in regard to
opportunities for collaboration mainstreaming outputs generated into national planning or devising
a national action plan for utilizing the results as a means for adaptation, with specific emphasis on
mangroves and biodiversity.

By testing the adaptation methodology in geographically diverse locations within a common
habitat type, the process greatly enhances replication in other areas in Fiji and around the globe.

Opening Remarks [by Ms Eleni Tokaduadua- Principal Environment Officer]:

Eleni please insert your Opening remarks!!

The communication session had three sessions of presentations and a final session on plenary
based on issues highlighted by Assistant Director of Lands Department regarding mangroves
management in the context of coastal development planning.

The communication report presents:
    Information on Fiji mangroves‟ biodiversity and a review of the vulnerability of Fiji
      mangroves and associated coral reefs to impacts of climate change;
    Highlighting the process of assessing community climate change vulnerability at the 3
      project sites and its community climate adaptation measures;
    Status of national management of Fiji mangroves;
    Key comments and statements during the plenary session.



Presenters include: Project Coordinator [Monifa Fiu], Global Mangrove Expert [Dr Joanna Ellison]

To develop a generalizable method for vulnerability assessment and adaptation for biodiversity to
impacts of climate change. Why is one needed?

Low-lying coastal areas, particularly those in tropical Africa and the South Pacific, are predicted to
experience among the most severe consequences of global climate change (IPCC WGII TAR
2001). Despite the harshness of climate change impacts to these areas‟ ecosystems, it is obvious
that there is no mechanism by which the direct atmospheric effects (altered temperature regimes,
precipitation patterns, extreme weather events, etc.) of climate change can be ameliorated in the
short term. Current scientific research indicates that these changes are already occurring and will
exacerbate damage and dampen recovery even after atmospheric CO2 emissions has been
decreased and stabilized through global mitigation efforts. As such conservation of ecosystems
and biological resources requires that we aggressively develop and implement effective adaptive
resource management strategies or concede that many natural systems will be lost to climate

Currently the UNFCC has produced various drafts of adaptation frameworks for several sectors,
yet there is still a glaring gap in the area of biodiversity–ecosystem management which this
project is attempting to address. In general there have been minimal attempts at developing
methodologies for vulnerability assessments and strategies that are specifically useful across
ecosystem types, or between localities with common habitat type. Rather, most vulnerability
assessments have in the majority focused on particular sectors or individual ecosystem types. In
order for methodologies to be employed by conservation and resource managers and similarly be
economically feasible, such a methodology needs to be holistic in its approach. The project by
examining similar systems in multiple locations will attempt to develop a generalizable method
with the expectation of generating replicable results between sites in mangrove, sea-grass, and
coral reef ecosystems. The parallel situation drawn from multiple sites allows for the development
of regional scale planning, as well as to potentially promote ideas such as protected area
networks and linkages between threatened systems (integrated ecosystem management). This
project focuses on assessing the health of mangroves for select sites to determine whether their
intact nature has the potential to increase coastal resilience to climate change and also similarly
with allied inshore and coral ecosystems.

The Importance of Mangroves and their Influencing Benefits for Coral Reefs- Why
Mangroves Exactly?

WWF with its project partners is developing and currently testing an adaptation approach through
resilience building in high biodiversity tropical mangrove areas and associated coral reef, sea-
grass and upland ecosystems, in the three select national sites. In addition, there is a strong need
to effectively collaborate with local natural resource managers, government departments and
other stakeholders to integrate climate change adaptation strategies into their management
philosophies and plans. Mangroves are unique ecosystems but often poorly appreciated for the
ecological value for they act as buffers between terrestrial and marine environments. As such they
act as an indicator of health for each environment providing connectivity and the perpetuation of
biodiversity for natural systems. Mangroves are also natural barriers and may prove to be an
effective adaptive measure against storm surges, coastal erosion and higher tides associated with
climate change. The interplay of ecological services between mangroves and coral reefs makes
the pairing of adaptation strategies for both ecosystems concurrently a wise approach. Coral reefs
are threatened by increasing sea surface temperature due to global climate change. Mangroves
are also believed to be a source of dissolved organic matter that acts to protect coral reefs from
ultraviolet radiation by absorbing it in the water column (Mazda et al. 1990). Mangroves may
provide protection to coral reefs from bleaching events, which often results from exposure to
increased water temperature and increased ultraviolet radiation penetration.

These highlighted characteristics make mangroves especially important for coastal human
communities and emphasizes the need for greater efforts for their effective management and
protection within the country.

Figure 1. Map of the Fiji Islands showing where the mangrove sites for the GEF Coastal Resilience Project is located.


Presenters include: Manager-Climate Services [Simon McGree], Mangrove Consultant [Isaac
Rounds], Verata site -IAS USP [Sukulu Rupeni], Kubulau site-WCS [Thomas Tui], Tikina Wai-
WWF Fiji [Francis Areki].

Presentation #2: Fiji Islands Climate Change Trends & Projections

The IPCC 4th Assessment Report –AR4 highlights that:
    warming of the global climate system is unmistakable;
    11 of the last 12 years (from 1995)are ranked among the 12 warmest years since 1850;
    the 100-year linear trend is 0.74 0C (1906-2005) is larger to previous trend of 0.6 0C (1901-
      2000) presented in the previous IPCC Assessment Report;
    Rainfall trends will increase in North and South America; decrease in the Mediterranean,
      southern Asia and southern Africa;
    Globally the area affected by drought has likely increased since the 1970s;
    Likely the frequency of heavy rainfall events has increased over most areas;
    Global (average) sea level has risen at an average rate of 1.8mm/yr since 1961,
      consistent with the warming world. 1993 the rate of increase has been 3.1mm/yr;
    Increase in intense Tropical Cyclone activity in the North Atlantic since 1970, limited
      evidence for increase in cyclone intensity elsewhere;
    No clear trend in the annual numbers of Tropical Cyclones since 1970.

Fiji Climate Projections highlight that:
      Temperature increases are widespread across Fiji ~ 0.6ºC over last 50 years (similar to
         neighboring countries);
      Similar increase in rate for both day and night time temperatures;
      Almost no trend (slightly negative) over the last ~50 years on a Fiji scale;
      El Niño (droughts) and La Niña (wet periods) effect on Fiji‟s climate significant e.g. almost
         -900mm in 1998 and almost +1000mm in 1999;

      Positive trend over the last 100+ years (~10%), increase in the wet season, not dry
      50% of models shows a more El Nino-like future and 50% of models a more La Nina-like
      No definite change in inter-annual variability.

Presentation #3: Mangrove status report of Fiji sites
Fiji mangroves are described as the following:
     • Rhizophora zone: Rhizophora samoensis, R. stylosa, R. x. Selala
     • Bruguiera zone: Bruguiera gymnorhiza
     • Mix species zone: Exoecaria agollocha, Herietaria littoralis, Xylocarpus mollucensis, X.
        Granatum, Lumnitzera litorea
Mangrove monitoring techniques are adapted from the generalized method developed by Ellison,
Monitoring Changes in Mangrove Condition.
        Level 1 monitoring – a Transect based survey recording mangrove locations, species
        zonation, mangrove condition and identifying pressures on the mangrove ecosystem.
        Level 2 monitoring – this consists of conducting vegetation plots in each zone to record
        community structure, height and diameter of trees and density of seedlings.
        Level 3 monitoring – Sedimentation monitoring and litter productivity.
Survey results suggest that the sites of mangroves are doing well as they are regenerating.
However, areas of mangroves close to human settlement is under stress and other threats include
mangrove harvesting for firewood, clearing for pig pens and coastal development.

Presentation #4: Fiji site level community vulnerability assessments

Community Adaptation methodologies applied include:
        Tikina Wai- SPREP/WWF CW Toolkit
        Tikina Verata- IAS Community PLA Process
        Tikina Kubulau- WWF CW Toolkit
As a result of the community participatory process, identified vulnerabilities to climate change
across the three community sites involve:
                - water security;
                - food security in terms of fisheries and agriculture;
                - coastal erosion and flooding which affects the Tikina Wai community.
Cumulative vulnerability caused by people are:
   1. Water Security- Quality and Quantity
                    • Ineffective Management and Protection of District water sources;
                    • Ineffective and non existent district system planning for water delivery and
                    • Lack of water storage systems.
   2. Food Security
                    • Decline in land productivity due to excessive loss of top soil through
                      unsustainable land use practices within districts;
                    • Increasing dependence on processed foods and weakening independent
                      coping ability for stress events eg. loss of traditional knowledge and general
                      protection of wild crops;
                    • Overexploitation of marine resources and degradation of fishing grounds.
   3. Coastal Flooding and Erosion

                    •   Poor watershed management enhances sediment loading of district
                        waterways causing more pronounced coastal flooding events;
                    •   Increase in overland flow during wet season, due to general lack of intact
                        cover vegetation within watersheds and buffer zones along waterways;
                    •   Clearance of coastal vegetation- littoral forests and mangroves.

 Community adaptation actions described involve:
    Water Security
                 • Assess district water systems and improve water source management,
                     piping and delivery infrastructure
                 • Enhance water storage capacity at the both household and village level
    Food Security
                 • Encourage sustainable land use practices and overall watershed
                     management (reduce loss of top soil).
                 • Restoration of watersheds and buffer zones
                 • Encourage sustainable fishing practices and development of protected
                     areas systems
                 • Encourage retention of crop diversity and wild crops within districts
    Coastal Flooding and Erosion
                 • Protection of existing mangroves and littoral forests
                 • Reforesting degraded/cleared coastal areas
                 • Infrastructural intervention- for extreme cases.

Site      District Information      Demographics                 Major Industries          Lead NGO

          Total Area: 89.6 sq    Total Population:            Sugar Cane Farming      WWF- Active within
          km                     (1996)- 2,026                Pine Plantation         the District since
          Total Qoliqoli Area:   Ethic Proportions:           Tourism                 1999
Wai       50 sq km               Fijians (56.8%) Indo-        Semi Commercial Farming
District- No of Villages: 6      Fijians (43%)                and Fishing
(Nadroga) Landscape: 85%         Total No of
          converted, 15%         Households: 372
          intact                 Population Density: 23
                                 pp/per km2
                                 District Annual Growth
                                 -0.3- 0%

          Total Area: 140 sq     Total Population:            Mahogany/Pine Plantation IAS- Active within
          km                     (1996)- 8,746                Cattle Farming           the District since
          Total Qoliqoli Area:   Ethic Proportions:           Semi Commercial Farming 1995
Verata    89 sq km               Fijians (85%) Indo-Fijians   and Fishing
District- No of Villages: 8      (15%)
(Tailevu) Landscape: 70%         Total No of
          converted, 30%         Households:
          intact                 Population Density: 37
                                 pp/per km2
                                 District Annual Growth


          Total Area: 98.5 sq    Total Population:          Pine Plantation         WCS-
Kubulau km                       (1996)- 956                Semi Commercial Farming Active within District
District  Total Qoliqoli Area:   Ethic Proportions:         and Fishing             since 2005
(Kubulau) 263 sq km              Fijians () Indo-Fijians ()
          No of Villages: 10     Total No of
          Landscape: 60%         Households:
          converted, 40%         Population Density: 10
          intact                 pp/per km2
                                 District Annual Growth


 Presenter: Principal Environment Officer-Department of Environment [Ms Eleni Tokaduadua]

 Presentation #5:
 Mangroves of the Fiji Islands
        - Extent is estimated to be within the vicinity of 40,000 ha. Department of Forestry quotes
    42,464 ha (2000) for the two main islands, Kadavu, Ovalau and Gau;
        - Fiji has the third largest extent of mangrove forests in the South Pacific, after Papua New
    Guinea (464,000 ha) and the Solomon Islands (52,500 ha);
        - Over 90% of mangroves are located on Vanua Levu and Viti Levu, with major
    concentrations in the deltas of the Ba, Rewa, Nadi and Labasa;
        - Most threatened regions comprise of the dry mangrove zones (Nadi from tourism
    development) / wet mangrove zones (Rewa from commercial harvests for firewood and
        - Arising threats include indiscriminate waste disposal, foreshore and industrial
    developments, invasive species, & squatter settlements.

 Statutory Provisions include:
  Mangroves located within inter-tidal and submerged land technically belong to the State .
    Indigenous communities have customary rights and access to these areas;
  The principal legislations having relevance to the management of mangroves are the:

 1) Forestry Act Department of Forests given authority in 1933 to manage mangroves as Reserved
 Forests, powers devolved to Department of Lands and Surveys in 1975 when mangroves were de-
 reserved. Department of Forestry still retains responsibility for issuing and regulating licenses for
 commercial harvests of mangroves. Once license is approved in conjunction with Provincial Administrator
 and DLS, Forestry then undertakes evaluation and assessment of land and demarcation of boundaries for

2) Crown [State] Lands Act Since 1975 the Department of Lands and Surveys has been given jurisdiction
of the management of mangroves in tandem with the administration of foreshore land under the provisions
of the Crown Lands Act.
3) Fisheries Act Cabinet Decision of 1974, instructed payment of compensation to traditional land owners
for the loss of mangroves and fishing rights over areas reclaimed for development purposes. Evaluation and
compensation to be administered by the Fisheries Department.

   A Mangrove Management Committee was established by government in 1983 to review foreshore
    development proposals and provide recommendations accordingly. The main purpose of the committee
    was to review all foreshore proposals coming as applicants to the Department of Lands and Surveys
    and to provide is recommendation accordingly. One of the committee‟s major highlight was the
    production of a National Mangrove Management Plan- NMMP (Phase I and II) in 1986. This remains
    the most comprehensive national work done on mangroves to date and was meant to assist an
    informed national decision making, planning and development. The NMMP unfortunately was never
    given legal status for effective implementation. The National Mangrove Committee has also been
    inactive for a significant period.

Other policies and legislations that have relevance to mangrove areas include:

   Housing Act - housing settlements means high population density areas. Development at Raiwaqa,
    Raiwai, Vatuwaqa have cleared significant mangrove areas for settlement.
   Land Conservation and Improvement Act - important to the sustainable management of inland and
    freshwater wetlands; developments aimed at land improvement which may do more harm than good.
   Land Development Act - focuses on major land developments around the country whether they be of
    agriculture, aquaculture, livestock purpose.
   National Trust for Fiji Act - covers properties and sites that are placed for safe keeping by
    government for their historical, biological, geographical significance. Act is important for wetland
   Ports Authority of Fiji Act - the boundary under the Ports Authority‟s jurisdiction is not confined to the
    physical port but to the whole harbour area most of which is fringed with mangroves.
   Fiji Tourist Commission and visitors Bureau Act - covers eco-tourism operation, much of which are
    located in rural areas and wetland areas.
   Fijian Affairs Act - one of the most important Acts for any conservation or sustainable management of
    natural resources.
   Town Planning Act - supports the EIA process under the EMAct.

Potential mechanisms for better management of Fiji’s mangroves
        National Climate Change Policy (2006)
Climate change policy serves to define the position of government and stakeholder on the issues of climate
change, and provides the framework for the various responsibilities of each stakeholder in the short and
long term. While the goal is to promote understanding and to formulate appropriate responses to climate
change, an important objective of the policy is on adaptation where we can identify actions or activities that
people, individually or in groups take, in order to accommodate, cope with or benefit from the effects of
climate change.
           National Forest Policy (2008)
Identifies mangroves as a unique ecosystem and advocates for their protection and sustainable
           Environment Management Act (2005)
The EMAct specifically refers to any development that may alter the natural processes of the sea, tidal
waves including reclamation of mangrove areas. It also requires an EIA to be undertaken for any proposal
that would introduce pollutants or properties to the air, water or soil that are potentially harmful to people
and wildlife. Establishes the NEC to discuss, make decisions, oversee and advise government on
environmental issues and conventions.

Other opportunities for adopting mangrove areas for Climate Change Adaptation are
provided here:
   RAMSAR Convention Framework Provides for a framework or criteria for selection of wetlands
   areas to be protected as a RAMSAR sites. Potential sites have been identified because of their
   mangrove status.
   Coastal Zone Management Plan NEC under EMAct may appoint a committee for coastal zone
   management to prepare a costal zone management plan and advises NEC on issues relating to coastal
   National legislation on Protected Areas Gap analysis and identification of effective management
   and legislative framework for protected areas under the GEF funded projects eg. POWPA and GEF


Presenters include: Assistant Director of Lands [Mrs Laisa Raratabu and Mr Tomasi Nasipi]

Highlights of issues raised:
                - there are 2000 current foreshore applications
                - the transfer of land titles to new investors by the Lands Department usually
                   brings to light past unregulated reclaimed land
                - there are few incidences of freehold land that is inclusive of mangrove swamp,
                   however, much of which is state owned
                - how foreshore leases (for development) are approved based on requirements
                   met by the developer including the issuance of a certificate by the Fiji Islands
                   Trade and Investment Board (FTIB); an EIA conducted and communicated
                   between the Department of Environment and Lands.
                - An EIA is required prior to approval of foreshore development lease, yet wasn‟t
                   compulsory until after 2007 when the EMA was in act.
                - under the requirements of the developer to acquire approval including
                   ownership of land up to mean high water level mark can also apply for
                   foreshore development;
                - community developments (usually small scale) are exempted from the EIA
                - How does foreshore development affect access to fishing by the outlying
                   communities? A critical, yet absent role of the NLC in the EIA process
                - The conflicting processes of the EIA and the approval of the foreshore
                   development leases; the life of a foreshore/development lease is within 5 years
                   whilst the EIA is subject to a 99 year lease
                - Any accounting of climate change risk profiling incorporated to the EIA process
                   in consideration of the implications sea level projections with more coastal
                   erosion along the foreshore areas, thus affecting the integrity of the
                   development and insurance implications on developers as well
                - The engagement of Fiji Meteorological Service to provide projections for the
                   advise of foreshore development
                - The inclusion of environmental aspects in the by-laws set up by communities
                   and the compliance factor as stipulated in the Tikina Court system outlined in
                   the 1997 Constitution
                - Sea level projections for coastal areas raises the issue of submerged area
                   becoming native land by definition of „what below the mean high water mark‟;
                   are there plans for redefinition?

              -   Sea level rise will potentially cause the mean high water mark to change and
                  cause for a survey plan to reclaim boundary
              -   The issue of reclamation and the compensation of lost ecosystem services to
                  the community/resource owners
              -   Coastal erosion or accretion allows for expansion of land area, however,
                  usually, 7 years after initial surveys, areas are resurveyed

Key Questions raised by the national stakeholders during the Communication Session:
       Will mangroves be able to keep up with projected sea level rise?
       Is there evidence of extension of mangrove range due to climate warming?
       Are there guidelines for coastal people and resorts when responding to impacts of
         climate change, is there an ability to forecast?
       How do the findings at the three project sites be useful to other communities?
       How to create links with project sites and the National Biodiversity Strategic Plan of


   1. A follow up workshop in a year to share information of the GEF Project final outcomes
   2. Establishing an informal network of communities (mainly from the project sites), provincial
      offices to share in the lessons learnt and experiences of mangroves management and
   3. Reactivate the National Mangroves Management Committee to strengthen (any) relevant
      policies for formulation of appropriate responses to climate change as well as strengthen
      national decision making, planning and development.
The Department of Environment is hiring a climate change officer soon to oversee the climate
change policy unit.


ANNEX I. List of Abbreviations

DOE                Department of Environment
EIA                Environment Impact Assessment
EMAct              Environment Management Act

FMS                Fiji Meteorological Service
GEF                Global Environment Facility
GEF SGP            Global Environment Facility Small Grants Programme
IAS                Institute of Applied Sciences
IPCC WGII TAR      Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group II Third
                   Assessment Report
NEC                National Environment Committee
PoWPA              Programme of Work for Protected Areas
UNFCC              United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
USP                University of the South Pacific

WWF                WWF, the global conservation organization
WCS                Wildlife Conservation Society
WI                 Wetland International

ANNEX II. List of national stakeholders

                                       GCRCC National Stakeholders Communication Meeting

         Participant              Designation                     Representing                               Contact Details
1.    Simon McGree          Manager Climate Services       Fiji Meteorological Services     Email:
      [CONFIRMED]                                                                           Phone: 6724888 Fax: 6720430

2.    Mr Joeli Cawaki       Director - DISMAC                      DISMAC Fiji              Email:
      [CONFIRMED]                                                                           Phone: 331 3023 Fax: 3319315
3.    Jonetani              (Acting) Senior Tourism      Ministry of Tourism- Sustainable   Email:
      Tagiveitaua           Officer                            Development Section          Phone: 331 2788 Ext – 217 Fax: 3302060

4.    Tevita Tuinalele      Acting Principal Tourism     Ministry of Tourism- Sustainable   Phone: 331 2788 Ext 216 Fax: 330 2060
                            Officer                            Development Section
5.    Viliame               Eco-Tourism Consultant       Sustainable Tourism Consultants    Email:
      Koyamaibole                                                                           Phone: 9497460 Fax:
6.    Michael Wong          Executive Officer             Fiji Islands Hotel and Tourism    Email:
      [need Info Brief]                                   Association Address: 42 Gorrie    Phone: 330 2980, 330 2975; Fax: 330 0331
                                                                    Street, Suva
7.    Aisake Batibasaga     Principal Research Officer     Fisheries Department- MAFF       Email: or
                                                                                            Phone: 336 1122    Fax: 336 3170
8.    Josateki Tagi            Fiji Islands Maritime     Address: Motibhai Building, Amra   Email:
      (FIMSA)                 Safety Administration               Street, Walu Bay          Phone: 3315266 Fax: 3303251
9.    Capt. Felix Maharaj   Chief Hydrographer             Fiji Islands Maritime Safety     Email:
                                                             Administration (FIMSA)         Phone: 3315283 Fax: 3303251
              Philip Hill   Deputy Port Master           Address: Motibhai Building, Amra
                                                                  Street, Walu Bay
10.   Pasirio Samisoni      Director                     Department of Lands and Surveys    Email:
                                                                                            Phone: 3211516 Fax: 3303841

11.   Nasra Khan          Senior Town Planner          Department of Town and Country     Email:
                          (Development Control)                     Planning              Phone: 330 5336 ext 102 Fax: 3309578
12.                       Chief Economic Planning      Ministry of Finance and National   Tel: 3313411 ; Fax: 3304809
                          Officer                                   Planning
13.   Tsutomu Yoshida     Director                                   OISCA                Email:
      [CONFIRMED]                                                                         Phone: 6520348 Fax: 6520348
14.   Sairusi Masi                                                  OISCA                 Phone: 6520348 Fax: 6520348
15.   Julie                                                         OISCA                 Phone: 6520348 Fax: 6520348
16.   Osea Tuinivanua     Conservator of Forests             Ministry of Forests          Phone: 3301611- ask for Eseta (PA)
      Pita [CONFIRMED]                                   Forestry Division, Koronivia     Fax: 3318692
17.   Akosita Lewai       Forest Officer-GIS                 Ministry of Forests          Email:
                                                                                          Phone: 3320667 Fax: 3318692
18.   Ratu Viliame        Chairman- Native Lands           Ministry of Fijian Affairs     Email:
      Tagivetaua          and Fisheries Commission                                        Phone: 3301001 Fax: 3309252
19.   Ajay Singh          Acting Manager- Admin           Provincial Development and      Email:
                                                         Natural Disaster Management      Phone: 3313400 Fax: 3303256
20.   Viliame Bureniwai   Roko Tui Nadroga- Navosa         Nadroga Provincial Office      Phone: 650 0137 Fax: 650 0203
      [CONFIRMED]                                       Address: P.O Box 267, Sigatoka
21.   Alipate Natoba      Assistant Roko- Tikina Wai       Nadroga Provincial Office      Email:
      Vitukawalu                                        Address: P.O Box 267, Sigatoka    Phone: 650 0137 Fax: 650 0203
22.   Ken Cokanasiga      Provincial Services              Ministry of Fijian Affairs     Email:
      [CONFIRMED]         Division
23.   Ratu Semi Ramatai   Assistant Roko- Kubulau           Bua Provincial Office         Email:
      [CONFIRMED]                                                                         Phone: 8836020    Fax: 8836101
24.   Joape Nalatu        Roko Tui Tailevu                Tailevu Provincial Office       Email:
      [CONFIRMED]                                       Address: P.O Box 71, Nausori      Phone: 347 8094   Fax: 347 8211
25.   Sitima Naqaravatu   Assistant Roko- Verata          Tailevu Provincial Office       Email:
      [CONFIRMED]                                       Address: P.O Box 71, Nausori      Phone: 347 8094   Fax: 347 8211
26.   Mosese Nakoroi      Assistant Roko- Macuata        Macuata Provincial Office        Email:
      [CONFIRMED]                                      Address: P.O Box 1326, Labasa      Phone: 881 2599   Fax: 881 4597
27.   Iliesa Natawa       Mata ni Tikina- Wai          Nahue Development Committee        Email:
      [CONFIRMED]                                                  (NDC)                  Phone:

28.   Nanise Natoma        Secretary- NDC, Tikina   Nahue Development Committee    Email:
      [CONFIRMED]          Wai                                  (NDC)              Phone: 9406267
29.   Koto                                                 Live and Learn          Email:
                                                                                   Phone: 3315868 or 3315467; Fax: 3305868
30.   Elizabeth Erasito     Director                    National Trust of Fiji     Email:
      [CONFIRMED]                                                                  Phone: 3301807 Fax: 3305092
31.   Sefanaia Nawadra      Director                 Conservation International    Email:
                                                                                   Phone: 9351696
32.   Etika Rupeni                                              FSPI               Email:
                                                                                   Phone: 3312 250 Fax: 331 2298
33.   Arthur Webb           Coastal Processes                  SOPAC               Email:
      [CONFIRMED]           Advisor                                                Phone: 338 1377 Fax: 337 0040
34.   Peter C Emberson      Climate Change           Pacific Council of Churches   Email:
      [CONFIRMED]           Adaptation
35.                                                    Fiji Red Cross Society      Email:
                                                                                   Phone: 3314133 Fax: 3303818

36.   Moortaza Jiwanji      Disaster Risk               UNDP Pacific Center        Email:
      [CONFIRMED]           Management Advisor                                     Phone: 330 0399 Fax: 330 1976
37.   Dr Bale Tamata        Representing                      PACE-SD              Email:
      [CONFIRMED]                                                                  Phone: 3232567 Fax: 3231514
38.   Leone Limalevu        Research Assistant-               PACE-SD              Email:
                            Climate Change                                         Phone: 3232892 Fax: 3232891
39.   Dick Watling                                           Nature Fiji           Email:
      [CONFIRMED]                                                                  Phone: 3383189 Fax: 3381818
40.   Randolph Thaman                                     USP- Geography           Email:
      [CONFIRMED]                                                                  Phone:

41.   Marika Tuiwawa        Curator                       USP- Herbarium           Email:
      [CONFIRMED]                                                                  Phone:
42.   Sandeep Singh         Environmental Affairs           US Embassy             Email:
                            Specialist                                             Phone:

43.   Joe Murphy            Regional Environment            US Embassy             Email:
      [CONFIRMED]           Coordinator
44.   Sholto Fanifau                                      UNDP- GEF- SGP           Email:
                                                                                   Phone: 3310541
45.   Kesaia Tabunakawai                                        WWF                Email:

46.   Louise Heaps                                         WWF                    Email:
47.   Sanivalati Navuku                                    WWF                    Email:

                                                 Core Meeting Team List

                         Participant    Designation         Representing                       Contact Details
             48.    Epeli Nasome       Director       Department of Environment     Email:
             49.    Eleni Tokaduadua                  Department of Environment     Email:
                    [CONFIRMED]                                                     Phone: 3311699
             50.    Stacy Jupiter                                WCS                Email:
                    [CONFIRMED]                                                     Phone:
             51.    Thomas Tui                                   WCS                Email:
             52.    James Comley                               USP-IAS              Email:
                    [CONFIRMED]                                                     Phone:
             53.    Aaron Jenkins                       Wetlands International      Email:
             54.    Issac Rounds                               CI/NTF               Email:
                    [CONFIRMED]                                                     Phone:
             55.    Monifa Fiu                                   WWF                Email:
                    [CONFIRMED]                                                     Phone:
             56.    Francis Areki                          WWF Consultant           Email:
                    [CONFIRMED]                                                     Phone:

  ANNEX III. Communication Meeting Agenda

               GEF Coastal Resilience to Climate Change (GCRCC) National Stakeholders
                                       Communication Meeting

                                          IUCN Conference Room
                                             19th March 2009

   Time                       Programme Activity                                    Lead

 8.30 - 9.00                      Registration                      Department of Environment (DoE)/WWF

 9.00 - 9.30                   Opening Remarks                        Mr Epeli Nasome- Director for the
                                                                         Department of Environment
                             Meeting Programme &
                  Goals and Objectives for Stakeholders Meeting   Ms Monifa Fiu- GCRCC Project Coordinator

                                  Session One
9.30 - 10.30
                        Global GCRCC Project Overview

                        Fiji Country Project Site Vulnerability    GCRCC Project Coordinator & Dr Joanna
                        Assessment Report: Vulnerability of Fiji‟s   Ellison- GCRCC Mangrove Expert
                        Mangroves and associated Coral Reefs
                        to Climate Change Impacts
10.30 - 11.00                                            MORNING TEA
                                  Session Two
11.00 - 13.00
                        Fiji Islands Climate Change Projections
                                                                          Fiji Meteorological Service
                        Fiji Project Site level vulnerability
                        Assessments & Identification of Gaps in
                        Vulnerability Assessments
                                  Verata (IAS-USP)
                                  Kubulau (WCS)                     GCRCC Project Coordinator & Partners
                                  Wai (WWF)
                                  Wai-Kubulau Waterhsed (WI)

                        Fiji Project Site Community Adaptation
                        Measures                                    GCRCC Project Consultant & Partners
13.00-13.45                                                 LUNCH
                                  Session Three
13.45-15.00             Fiji Islands Mangrove Status and as a
                        National Climate Change Adaptive
                        Measure                                          Department of Environment
                        Mangrove Management- National
                        Planning and Protection

                               Plenary Session
15.00- 16.00              Discussion and Action Points                   GCRCC Project Coordinator
                         Summation and Vote of Thanks                    Department of Environment

16.00- 17.30                                          REFRESHMENTS

ANNEX IV. List of project partner presentations

Session One Presentations:
1. Global GCRCC Project Overview                      Project Coordinator [WWF-Monifa Fiu]
2. Fiji Country Project Site Vulnerability            GCRCC Mangrove Expert
Assessment Report: Vulnerability of Fiji‟s            [Dr Joanna Ellison, University of Tasmania]
mangroves and associated coral reefs to climate
change impacts
Session Two Presentations:
3. Fiji Islands Climate Change Projections            Fiji Meteorological Services
                                                      [FMS-Simon McGree]
4. Status of mangroves health at project sites        Mangroves consultant-IAS USP/NTF/CI
                                                      [Isaac Rounds]
5. Fiji Project Site level vulnerability assessment
(VA) & identification of gaps in VA
                 Verata community site                IAS USP [Sukulu Rupeni]
                 Kubulau community site               WCS [Thomas Tui]
                 Tikina Wai community site            WWF [Francis Areki]
6. Fiji project sites‟ community adaptation           GCRCC Project consultant [Francis Areki]
measures profile
Session Three Presentations:
7. Fiji Islands mangrove status and as a national     Department of Environment
climate change adaptive measure                       [Eleni Tokaduadua]
Plenary session
Mangroves management in the context of coastal        Department of Lands
development planning                                  [Laisa Raratabu]

ANNEX V. Fiji National Wetland related legislation

                             Fiji National wetland-related legislation
                                  (presented in alphabetical order)

Law and responsible       Significance for wetlands
1. Agricultural Land      There are wetland sites of national and international importance located
and Tenants Act           on Agricultural Leased Land (the Floating Island of Nubu is an example).
Ministry of Agriculture   This Act is important to wetland management because it outlines the
                          legal guidelines between the owners and the tenants leasing these areas.
2. Animals                The importation or introduction of certain animals can have a major
Importation Act           impact on Fiji‟s wetland fauna. The introduced mongoose has been able
Ministry of Agriculture   to adapt itself to mangrove areas feeding on mud-lobsters and mangrove
                          crabs. Rats have threatened sea birds on the island of Vatu-i-cake and
                          feral cats have been a threat to many wetland fauna species. Any animal
                          imported into the country, must be properly assessed to determine its
                          impact on Fiji‟s biodiversity including wetland fauna and flora.
3. Birds and Game         From the 32 species of birds that are endemic to Fiji, there is only one
Protection Act            water fowl, the Fiji Petrel (Pseudobulweria macgillivrayl) and it is also the
Ministry of Primary       only Fiji bird listed under IUCN as “critically endangered”. The Long-
Industry                  legged warbler, (Trichocichia rufa) found last November after 109 years
                          is listed as data deficient under IUCN. It is only found in habitat
                          associated with rivers, creeks and waterfalls. We also have the Barred-
                          wing rail (Nesoclopeus poecillopterus) that is currently listed as
                          “presumed extinct” and only lives in swamp areas. There are still a few
                          claim of its sightings and some conservation NGOs have taken the
                          initiative to try and find it. It is a bird that lives in freshwater swamps. This
                          Act is significant for the protection of these wetland birds
4. Burial and             Fiji has a significant Indo-Fijian population accounting for almost 45% of
Cremation Act             the total population. The bulk of them are Hindus by religion whose
Ministry of Home          traditional funeral ends with cremations and the throwing of ashes and
Affairs                   other remains to rivers or the sea. There are specific areas allocated by
                          Government for these activities and they are all wetland areas in the form
                          of rivers and mangroves. There have been registered complains from
                          many users of these wetlands of the human bones and remains polluting
                          these areas.
                          This Act needs to be properly assessed and see if there are ways in
                          which it can be made to properly address this issue.
5. Continental Shelf      This ACT covers some areas that include coral reefs, mangroves and
Act                       other wetlands. It is an old Act that may need to be assessed to ensure
Ministry of Lands and     that impacts of any development planned or approved takes into account
Mineral Resources         any associated wetland issue.

6. Crown                 The state has the powers under this Act to acquire land for national
Acquisition of Lands     interest, such as roads, reservoirs, dams, rubbish dumps, etc. Although
Act                      land owners are usually compensated for the „assumed‟ impact of such
Ministry of Lands and    developments on their land or fishing ground (qoliqoli), there are usually
Mineral Resources        no proper assessments done to carefully consider the future
                         environmental impacts of such development until very recently. These
                         have resulted in all rubbish dumps of all of Fiji‟s major towns being
                         located in mangrove areas or river banks. Many roads constructed have
                         contributed to continuous river sedimentation, and in a few cases started
                         coastal erosion.
7. Crown Lands Act       The impact of this Act is the same as the one listed, the Crown
Ministry of lands and    Acquisition of Lands Act, except that there is usually no compensation for
Mineral Resources        loss of land because the land belongs to the State. Sometimes when it
                         involves foreshore development, there is usually an arbitration hearing to
                         determine the amount to be paid for loss of fishing rights. This
                         compensation can vary from $2.-50 per ha. up to $18,330 per ha
                         suggesting the wide gap in the interpretation of the laws and differences
                         in opinion from one arbitrator to another. All qoliqoli areas come under
                         this Act.
8. Drainage Act          Apart from the drainage of irrigation channels for agricultural purposes,
Ministry of Primary      some wetland areas have also been drained, turning them to dry land.
Industries               On many occasions, there is no proper assessment done to determine
                         the impact of such development, how it affects the whole eco-system and
                         loss of resources.

9. Electricity Act       More than half of Fiji‟s electricity is generated from the Monasavu Dam.
Ministry of Works and    There have been many problems faced by the dam in recent years
Energy                   ranging from a court case in regard to compensation claims by the
                         landowners ,to severe draught dropping the water level to the lowest in
                         the dam‟s 30 year history.
10. Fiji Tourist         This Act also covers eco-tourism operation, much of which is located in
Commission and           rural areas and islands with coral reefs. The FVB markets these
Visitors Bureau Act      destinations worldwide but there are no structures in place at the moment
Ministry of Tourism      to monitor the number of visitors to these destinations and the impact
                         they cause in regard to wetland environment and residential
                         infrastructure (waste storage and outlet / recycle).
11. Fijian Affairs Act   One of the most important Acts for any conservation or sustainable
Ministry of Fijian       management of natural resources. This outlines the administrative and
Affairs                  tenureship structure for most of Fiji‟s wetland areas. This Act provides
                         vital information and guidelines that can be very useful to know when
                         working with local communities around the country. The FAB used this
                         Act to reject the first Draft Sustainable Development Bill. The Bill, which
                         still not been passed by Cabinet, is now being redrafted to become the
                         Environment Bill.
12. Fisheries Act        The Fisheries Act provides legal protection for wetland ecosystems and
Ministry of Fisheries    resources from exploitation and degradation. It also provides guidelines
and Forests              on various wetland issues that focus on rural community developments.
                         It addresses the structure of native customary rights, various threats and
                         also procedures in the appointment of fish wardens.
13. Forest Act           The Forest Act covers all inland forest areas, including watersheds.
Ministry of Fisheries    Logging of mangrove areas is approved by the Department of Lands, but
and Forests              mangrove logging procedures are in accordance with the code of logging

                          practices which comes under this Act. Although logging can only be
                          carried out after proper consultation with NLTB and local landowners, the
                          implementation of proper logging practices is proposed, demarcated,
                          executed, monitored and approved by the same Department of Forestry.
                          There is no check-back system by an independent observer to monitor
                          and determine if the implementation of logging practices is in accordance
                          with what was proposed and approved.
14. Harbour Act           Most of Fiji harbors include fringing coral reefs and mangrove areas. It
Ministry of Maritime      can be linked to the Ports Authority of Fiji Act. Any development
Services                  implemented under this Act should take into consideration the impact it
                          may cause to these areas.
15. Hotels and            This Act relates to wetland management especially in the area of how
Guest Houses Act          waste management in carried out. Many of these industries are located
The office of the         in remote or isolated locations outside the boundaries of Cities and Town
Attorney General is       councils and therefore take care of their own waste disposal. The
responsible for this      industry‟s frequent use of mangroves and coral reefs in relation to the
Act.                      income they generate must be properly and carefully assessed to
                          determine if new clauses need to be inserted to strengthen the regulatory
                          powers in this area.
16. Housing Act           Housing settlements means high population density areas. When
Ministry of Local         developments such as these are built near mangroves and other
Government, Housing,      wetlands areas (like Vatuwaqa and Raiwaqa), they are usually turned
Squatter Settlement       into wastelands and rubbish dumps, even when rubbish collection trucks
and Environment           constantly visits the areas. The Act needs to be assessed to see if such
                          developments and their impacts to nearby wetland ecosystems can be
                          better addressed and appropriate strategies put in place .
17. Irrigation Act        This Act is important to wetland management because it addresses the
Ministry of Primary       procedures involved in the movement of a vital wetland component from
Industries                one location to another, water. Drainage for agricultural purposes is
                          important for national progress, but it must be planned and managed
                          carefully so such progress is not achieved at the expense of local
                          communities who over the years have depended on wetlands and their
18. Land                  This Act is important to the sustainable management of inland and
Conservation and          freshwater wetlands. There have been developments aimed at land
Improvement Act           improvement or water source improvement that have result in doing more
Ministry of Agriculture   harm than good because they neglected other issues and Acts that are
                          linked to this one. For example, there can be developments done to the
                          middle parts of a river system for economic and national interests.
                          Sometimes there are developments done in the upper reaches of the
                          same river system that have conflicting impacts to developments done on
                          the lower parts of the river, ultimately leading to the failure of the
                          downstream project.
19. Land                  This Act focuses on major land developments around the country
Development Act           whether they be for agriculture, aquaculture, livestock farming, etc. Many
Ministry of Primary       of these developments depend on rivers and streams, irrigation channels,
Industries                coastal areas and etc.

20. Local                 The Act covers the administrative obligations of cities and towns,
Government Act            including drainage systems, be they public or privately owned.
Ministry of Local
Government, Housing,
Squatter Settlement
and Environment
21. Marine Spaces         Although this Act seems to focus more on waters between Fiji‟s internal
Act                       waters and the EEZ boundaries, the impact of fishing vessel movements
The office of the Prime   should be properly addressed because of their potential threats to
Minister is responsible   internal waters and exploitation of its resources. Fiji have been tralling
for this Act.             the internationally acclaimed satellite-linked “Vessel Monitoring System”
                          (VMS) in co-operation with the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA). A
                          weakness here is that the system cannot detect any un-registered vessel
                          entering the EEZ or even fishing within internal waters. Fiji has only 4
                          capable naval vessels to monitor 1.3 million square kilometers of EEZ.
22. Markets Act           Most wetland resources are harvested because of their market or
Ministry of Local         commercial value. While fish and many exportable marine products are
Government, Housing,      monitored and recorded by the Department of Fisheries, harvest of
Squatter Settlement &     wetland delicacies for local consumption is almost statistically non-
Environment               existent. The unmonitored and expended commercialisation of these
                          products puts severe pressure on these wetland resources that require
                          more sustainable management practices. Market outlets can play an
                          important role in this and the Act needs to be assessed to see where
                          such strategies can be incorporated.
23. Mining Act            Mining is an important development that is essential for the economic
Ministry of Lands and     progress of Small Island Developing States like Fiji. But such progress
Mineral Resources         must not be gained at the expense of local communities whose natural
                          resources may be exposed to significant degradation from the impacts of
                          such industries.

                          Fiji‟s Mining Act needs to be re-assessed to take into consideration
                          modern mining technologies utilised by industries who take extra
                          precautions to ensure no such degradation impacts.
24. National Trust        This Act covers properties and sites that are placed for safe keeping by
for Fiji Act              Government for their historical, biological, cultural or geographical
The National Trust of     significance. The listing of all Sites of National Significance (SNS) is
Fiji                      maintained by the National Trust of Fiji who works closely with
                          Conservation NGOs. There are some wetland sites listed under SNS
                          including a few that are already being managed by them. This Act is
                          important for wetland conservation because it is an existing piece of
                          legislation that covers the protection of wetlands that are of national
                          significance, although not necessary of Ramsar status. The National
                          Trust of Fiji is also committed to wetland conservation and it is the
                          regional focal point for the Global Mangrove Information System
25. Native Lands Act      This Act covers all native lands which form some 87% of Fiji‟s total land
Ministry of Fijian        mass. Although the current legislation give the State ownership rights to
Affairs                   rivers and mangroves which are currently under the Lands Act.,
                          processes are already underway to return the ownership rights to native
                          land owners and this will be controlled by an amended version of this Act.
                          The process is expected to be completed by 2006 and should see a
                          major change in the approaches to wetland conservation and sustainable
26. Native Land           This Act covers the functions of the Trust on all native land and will
Trust Act                 therefore be subject to the changes mentioned above in the Native Lands
Ministry of Fijian        Act.
27. Patents Act           This Act is important for wetland management because it covers the
Ministry of Commerce      traditional knowledge and uses of fauna and flora on wetland areas. Fiji‟s
                          wetlands produce many materials that are of traditional and commercial
                          value. Since most traditional knowledge on wetland resources are held
                          by indigenous Fijians, there is a need to have a Fijian translated and
                          simplified version of this Act printed and distributed to local communities
                          who can use them.
28. Pesticides Act        Impacts of pesticides on wetland areas, especially on river systems can
Ministry of Agriculture   cause severe degradation of resources if not carefully monitored and
                          assessed. Although the impacts may not be visible on a short term basis,
                          it can have a significant effect on the long-term sustainability of wetland
                          resources and people.
29. Petroleum Act         The importation of petroleum has very little impact on wetlands, but how
Ministry of Commerce      these products are stored on land, and methods of distribution around the
                          country need to be carefully monitored and assessed. There have been
                          many cases of petroleum leakages degrading wetland areas highlighted
                          in the media. This Act may need to be reviewed to ensure adequate
                          provisions are provided under it, taking into account the increase in
                          petroleum demand due to population increase and the storage,
                          distribution infrastructure and methods used.
30. Petroleum             Although there have been very little development on fossil fuel
(Exploration and          exploration done in the country so far, like mining, its potential impacts on
Exploitation) Act         the environment can be severe if an extensive development is to occur
Ministry of Lands,        without proper planning and a strict control on impacts.
Energy and Mineral
31. Plant Quarantine      This Act is Fiji‟s frontline defense against the introduction of invasive
Act                       species of plants and harmful insects that may come with them. Fiji‟s
Ministry of Primary       wetlands are vulnerable to this threat and therefore strict controls and
Industries is             monitoring are needed.
responsible for the Act
32. Ports Authority       In most ports in Fiji the boundary under the Ports Authority‟s jurisdiction
of Fiji Act               is not confined to the physical port but to the whole harbor area that in
Ministry responsible      many cases includes mangroves and fringing coral reefs. The Fiji
for maritime services     Wetland Working Group includes representative from this Authority.
33. Public Health         This Act considers wetland management interest in many spheres. From
. Ministry of Health      water and food quality to their distribution and storage. Industrial waste
                          drainage and disposal and their potential health risks. The Ministry has
                          also showed interest in the impacts of the “Asian Bird flu” and its potential
                          spreading via migratory waterfowl.

34. Quarantine Act        This Act is not only important for wetland but for the whole environment
Ministry of Agriculture   and biodiversity. It also covers chemicals for agriculture and other uses
                          as well as the introduction of invasive species.
35. Quarries Act          There are many quarries being operated in Fiji both by Government and
Ministry of Lands         by private companies. Most government quarries are located
                          permanently and have been operating for decades with well structured
                          systems and wastewater drainage. There is some concern about
                          privately owned short-term quarries extracting rocks from river beds or
                          excavation of mountain sides to obtain gravel for road constructions.
                          Proper Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) are needed to ensure
                          there is no sedimentation of rivers and streams affecting wetland
                          resources and local communities who depend on them. The Act may
                          need to be reviewed to ensure that it addresses this issue.
36. Rivers and            This Act sets out guidance for sand and gravel extraction. There is an
Streams Act               urgent need to update and enforce this Act.
Ministry of Lands
37. Sewerage Act          The Public Works Department (PWD) oversees sewage plants around
Ministry of Works,        the country. There have been some anecdotal reports of private
Public Works              companies hired to transport sewage from individual residential septic
Department                tanks to sewage plants have down-loaded their loads at presumed
                          „wastelands‟ such as mangrove areas.
38. Town Planning         Due to the non-existence of an Environment Bill, this Act caters for all
Act                       Environment Impact Assessment done in urban areas. There have been
Ministry of Local         some complaints of the non-effective structure of this Act when it comes
Government, Housing,      to the practical work and implementation of EIA recommendations.
Squatter Settlement &
39. Water Supply          Sourcing water is not a problem on all of Fiji‟s main islands, however t is
Act                       the distribution that is the problem due to old pipelines meant to cater for
Ministry of               Fiji‟s population 20 – 30 years ago. This area of water management is a
Communications            high priority with increases in population, expanding villages, settlements
Transport and Works       and town boundaries, and other developments such as logging and
                          various land-use activities putting significant pressure on water sources
                          near urban centers.
40. Wreck and             This Act covers vessels that are wrecked on Fiji‟s reefs exposing the risk
Salvage Act               of oil spillage, and various pollution leaks. It is an important Act but needs
Ministry of Maritime      to be reviewed to ensure that it addresses these threats in the modern
Services                  day context and provides guidance to practical solutions.


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