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					                                  Panibagong Paraan 2006: Development with Equity

                     A Unique Bazaar of Innovative Projects, Policies, Ideas and Images:
                                  Rays of Hope for Equalizing Chances for All

        The Philippine Development Innovation Marketplace, dubbed Panibagong Paraan (New Ways), is about
fresh perspectives, new ways of doing things, and people working as one for positive change.

       In the Philippines, many are excluded from social and economic development because of their
disadvantage in terms of income, assets, access to services and infrastructure, and voice, power and influence.

       With the theme, Development with Equity, Panibagong Paraan 2006 explores ways of equalizing
opportunities - so that all Filipinos can have a chance for a better life and together, work for the nation’s
development. Development with equity means addressing issues on incomes, assets, services and voice.

      Panibagong Paraan 2006 invited organizations and individuals to address this theme through two
competitions: the Project Grant Competition and the Expression of Ideas Competition.

       The Expression of Ideas Competition invited entries for policy proposals, essays, photos, and slogans.
This publication is a compilation of the finalist entries for policy proposals, essays, and slogans. Selected
photographs are exhibited on May 26-27 at the SM MegaMall, Mandaluyong City.

        The policy proposal entries demonstrate policies that can be adopted by government or other sectors to
bring about Development with Equity. Based on three criteria: innovation, doability and potential impact, eight
finalist entries were selected and are featured in this publication.

       Around 150 essay entries were received. From this pool, nine finalist entries were selected based on
depth of understanding/treatment of the issue, and composition (flow, clarity, style).

        The slogan entries are catchy, succinct statements about what development with equity means and how
it can be promoted. There are five finalist entries in this competition.

        The photography entries depict images of how equity issues related to income and income opportunities,
social services, assets, and voice or participation, can be addressed in the Philippines. Almost 400 entries were
received. Twenty outstanding photos were selected for event exhibition.

        A compilation of the Project Grant Competition finalist entries is available as a separate publication. There
are 87 project grant finalists that were selected from nearly 1,000 entries received from across the country.




                                                             1
SLOGANS

          2
          Ganap ang kaunlaran kung lahat nakikinabang.
                 Giezl Armada, Marikina City


          Ang pag-unlad ay wagi kung lahat ay kasali.
         Maria Mercedes Arzadon, Tabaco City, Albay


          Sa patas na laban, kaunlaran ay makakamtan.
                    Tess Medialdia, Laguna


Patas na oportunidad. Mamamayang may abilidad. Bayang maunlad.
                   Edgar Ramores, Naga City


    Antas ng buhay ay aangat kung may pagkakataon ang lahat.
                    Froilan Sia, Makati City




                                  3
ESSAYS

         4
                           KARAMPATANG PAG-UNLAD – POSIBLE BA?
                                 Kathleen Lailani Ferriol, Laguna

        “Perlas ng Silangan”... tuwing maririnig ko ang paglalarawan na ito tungkol sa Pilipinas, lalo akong
naniniwala. Tunay ngang “perlas” ang ating bansa–dahil sa ganda ng kanyang kalikasan (sa lupa, sa dagat)
at ang kayamanan nito. At higit sa lahat, hindi maipagkakaila ang yaman ng Pilipinas sa kanyang tao. Ngunit,
sa kabila ng mga bentahe na ito, ano ang nangyari sa atin? Noong 1950s, isa tayo sa mga nangungunang
ekonomiya sa Asya. Bakit naging ganito tayo ngayon?

        Bilang ekonomista, marami akong maibibigay na dahilan. Ang ating masyadong pamumulitika, ang
nakawan at kasakiman ng ilang mga nasa pamahalaan, ang maling patakaran sa larangan ng kalakalan at
industriya...Napakarami. Datapwa’t, sa aking palagay, ang isa sa mga importanteng dahilan ng ating paugud-
ugod na pagsulong buhat ng World War II ay ang mga Pilipino mismo. Matindi ang kakulangan natin ng
determinasyon at pagmamahal sa tinubuang bayan upang tumulong sa kanyang pag-unlad. Ang mga nasa
gobyerno hanggang ngayon ay hindi magkaisa. Ang mga mangangalakal ay takot na mamuhunan sa isang
bansa na hindi matatag. Kahit na sa mga hindi naman mahihirap, ang pagpunta sa ibang bansa ang unang
opsiyon na pinipili sa halip na lumagi rito at tumulong sa pagtatatag ng ating lipunan...

       Magkakaroon ang Pilipinas ng karampatang pag-unlad–isang pagsulong na matatag, tuluy-tuloy, at
malakas kung magsisimula ang lahat ng pagbabago sa ating mga Pilipino, sa bawat isa. Walang mangyayari
kung palagi na lamang natin ituturo ang pamahalaan bilang suliranin ng bansa. Naalala ko ang sinabi ng isang
kahanga-hangang Pangulo ng bansang Amerika, Pres. John F. Kennedy: “Huwag mong tanungin kung ano ang
magagawa ng iyong bansa para sa iyo. Subalit, ang iyong tanungin ay kung ano ang magagawa mo para sa
iyong bansa.” Sa aking palagay, dito nakasalalay ang solusyon sa maraming problema ng Pilipinas... kailangang
magsimula muli sa paghubog ng pagkatao ng bawat isang Pilipino upang mapabuti niya ang pagsasabuhay ng
mga katangiang ito: kasipagan, katapatan, disiplinado, matulungin and iniibig ang tinubuang bayan

        Ang layunin–ang paghubog ng mga katangiang ito–ay kailangang pag-ukulan ng pansin ng mga
pamilyang Pilipino, ng paaralan, at ng simbahan nang sama-sama. Para sa mga paaralan, magandang layunin ng
pamahalaan na ibaba pa ang teacher-student ratio na ngayon ay nasa 1:50. Tama rin na ang “Good Manners and
Right Conduct” ay hiniwalay muli–lalong mabuti kung habaan pa ang 15 minuto na klase ngayon. Ang media
rin ay may malaking bahaging gagampanan.

        Unang-una, ang kasipagan. Maraming Pilipino ang kulang ng pagsisikap at waring kontento na sa
kanilang kinalalagyan. Mayroon din namang mga Pilipino na talagang nagtatrabaho ng puspusan. Isang beses,
mayroon akong nakasabay sa bus galing Lucena na maglalako ng buko pie. Sabi ng maglalako na nakapagpaaral
na siya ng mga tatlong anak sa La Salle, Lipa dahil sa kanyang pagtitinda ng buko pie sa mga bus araw-araw.
Mainam na sa mga pamilyang Pilipino ay maituro ang katangiang ito ng mga magulang–ang bawat isa sa mga
anak ay magandang may tungkulin sa bahay.

        Ang katapatan ay kailangang–kailangan ding itanim sa ating puso at diwa simula sa mga kabataan.
Nakatutulong sa pormasyon ng lahat kung ang media ay tuluyang magpahayag sa mga peryodiko ng mga
magagandang salaysay tungkol dito. Ang karanasan ng Singapore ay maganda ring tularan ng ating gobyerno.
Doon, ang mga naglilingkod sa pamahalaan ay may mataas na suweldo–maihahambing sa suweldo ng mga
nagtatrabaho sa pribadong sektor. Dahil dito, kaunti lang ang nakawan at pandaraya sa pamahalaan.

        Ang disiplina rin ay napakaimportante. Nagising ako sa kawalan nito nang, isang araw, ako’y nasa E.
Rodriguez at Araneta Ave., QC. Itinigil ko ang sasakyan sa stoplight. Natawa ako dahil nakita ko na, bukod
sa stoplight, ay may hawak pa ang MMDA na karatula na nagsasabing “STOP.” Kung ang mga Pilipino ay
marunong lamang gumalang ng mga batas at alituntunin ng bansa, matagal na tayong sumulong. Sa tingin ko,
dapat magsimula ito sa mga pamilya at ituro ng mga magulang habang maliliit pa ang mga anak.

       Ang pagiging matulungin ay isa ring katangian na kailangang pagyamanin. Natuwa ako nang nabasa
ko sa Inquirer ang salaysay tungkol kay Joseph Cachola-Prather, isang 11 taong gulang na Fil-Am sa Hawaii
na nangilak ng abuloy para sa mga biktima ng landslide sa St. Bernard, Leyte. Nakaipon siya ng US$610.23 o
Php 31,150! Magandang suportahan ng pamahalaan at paaralan ang “volunteer work.” Halimbawa, ang mga
mag-aaral ng exclusive school ay may “partner” public school na kanilang pagsisilbihan–bigyan ng pagkain ang
mga batang maliliit na hindi makaaral nang mabuti dahil sa kagutuman, turuan sa English, Math at Science.

       Ang aking ihuhuli ay ang pinakamahalaga sa lahat–ang pag-ibig sa tinubuang bayan. Alam nating mahina
                                                         5
ang pagpapahalaga ng karamihan sa kapakanan ng bansa. Paano ito maibabago? Kailangang magsimula sa mga
pamilya’t paaralan–ang batang Pilipino ay tuturuang muli kung paano mahalin ang Pilipinas. Ayon kay Dr. Paul
Dumol, ang pag-ibig sa tinubuang bayan ay “pagmamahal sa paysahe, sa kalikasan at mga tao... pagmamahal
para sa ating kultura...at kasaysayan” (Dr. Paul Dumol, Aug 15, 2005 University Day Lecture, Manila).
Importanteng bahagi rin ng pag-ibig na kilalaning siya nga ang ating tinubuang bayan. Dahil dito, ninanais natin
ang kanyang kabutihan. Ang halimbawa nila Dr. Jose Rizal, Ninoy Aquino at ng mga buhay pa kagaya nila Dr.
Josephine Biyo (ng Phil. Science High School, Iloilo) at Ryan Cayabyab ay dapat tularan. Pwede silang mamili
ng bansang kanilang paglalagian ngunit pinili nila ang Pilipinas. Ang kabutihan ng kanilang bansa ay bahagi ng
sarili nilang pangarap sa buhay.

       Karampatang pag-unlad–posible ba? Sa palagay ko ay posible ngunit hindi ito mangyayari nang
madalian. Kailangan tayong gumawa at magtiyaga; magsimula sa sarili, at tumulong sa paghubog ng mga
katangiang nabanggit ko, lalo na sa kabataan. Ito ang layunin na dapat nating isapuso. Ito–sa palagay ko–ang
makatutulong upang makamit ang pagsulong na matagal na nating inaasam.




                                                 6
                                 IKAW AT AKO SA IISANG BANSA
                                            Roman King, Pampanga

        Roman King ang pangalan ko, isang Katutubong Ayta at pinuno ng aming lipi. Isinulat ko ang lathalaing ito
sa tulong ng mga kaibigan upang ipahayag ang aming adhikain. Ang aking ama ay isa ring pinuno. Tinutulungan
niya akong maging karapatan sa mga hindi kumikilala nito. Hindi namin ninais na lumaban ngunit hindi kami
maaaring magsawalang-kibo na lamang lalo na sa mga walang pahintulot na pumasok at gumawa ng mga
proyektong lingid sa aming kaalaman. Kahit sabihin pa nilang bahagi ito ng pagbabago o pag-unlad, kung hindi
naman naaayon sa aming kultura o paraan ng pamumuhay, hindi namin maaaring pahintulutan ito.

        May mga nasaksihan akong pagbabago sa ibang mga lugar tulad ng Baguio at Tagaytay. Dahilan sa mga
kaunlaran at proyektong itinaguyod ng mga higanteng kapitalista, ang mga katutubo sa mga nasabing pook ay
naisantabi na lamang. Nawalan sila ng karapatan sa kanilang mga lupain. Tanging ang nakikinabang lamang ay
ang mga mayayamang investor na ang hangad ay magkamal ng maraming salapi. Ito ang aming kinatatakutan.
Ayaw naming mangyari ito sa amin o maitulad sa mga naganap doon. Ngunit ang pag-unlad ay hindi namin
tinututulan kung ito ay dadaanan sa legal na proseso tulad ng pagkakaroon ng MOA sa pagitan ng mga imbestor
at sa mga katutubo.

        Malungkot ngunit tila nakaligtaan ang aming kasaysayan. Hindi maikakaila na kami ang orihinal na
Pilipino ngunit ang nakakalulungkot ay lumalabas pang naging dayuhan kami sa sarili naming bayan. Sa nilawak-
lawak ng bansang Pilipinas, tanging bundok na lamang ang inaasahan naming maging bahagi sa kabuuan nito.
Ngunit bakit ipinagkakait pa ito sa amin? Isang halimbawa nito ang pagpasok ng mga imbestor sa kabundukan
na halos mga politikong tao lamang ang kinakausap at iginagalang nila.

       Hindi man lamang nila kami kinukunsulta at kinikilala samantalang nariyan lamang kami sa kabundukan.
Isang patunay ay ang ginagawang tourist spot sa Mt. Pinatubo na ginawan ng daan sa bayan namin sa Porac,
Pampanga patungo sa bulkan at sinakop ang aming ancestral domain. Walang namagitang usapan at pakikipag-
ugnay sa amin tungkol sa bagay na ito. Totoong takot ang umiiral sa amin lalung-lalo na ang walang humpay
na pagsira ng kabundukan. Alam nating lahat na ginagamitan ito ng malalaking makinarya tulad ng bulldozer at
iba pang kasangkapan na sumisira ng kalikasan..

        Kaya’t ito ang dahilan kung bakit ako naging lider ng Kalipunan ng mga Liping Ayta ng Lupaing
Ninuno (KALlPI), isang organisasyong binubuo rin ng mga katutubong pinuno upang bigyang pansin ang mga
suliraning ito. Nguni’t hindi ito maisasakatuparan kung hindi kami tutulungan ng mga taong nakauunawa ng
aming kalagayan sa kasalukuyan.

        Magpahanggang ngayon, hindi namin maunawaan ang patuloy na pagsira ng kabundukan. Dahilan ba sa
pagbibigay-daan ng kaunlaran o pagababago? Dahilan ba sa pag-aakalang wala kaming sapat na kaalaman sa batas
at lakas na ipagtanggol ang aming karapatan? Wala kaming ninanais kundi ang magkaroon ng katarungan.
        Nakalulungkot ang mga pangyayari dahilan sa hindi ito ang aming nakagisnan. Ang aming mga ninuno
ang nagturo sa amin ng katutubong pamamaraan ng pamumuhay at pag-alaga ng kapaligiran, Tahimik at
sagana ang aming pook. Sa katunayan, noong araw, hindi namin nauunawaan ang salitang mag-ingat. Akala
ng karamihan, bastat sakop ng lugar namin ay mapayapang nagdaraan ang mga katutubo. Nguni’t nabulabog
ito dahilan sa pagpasok ng mga dayuhan. Hindi namin ninanais na baguhin ang katutubong pamamaraan ng
aming pangangalaga ng mga hayop at halaman na siyang itinuro ng aming mga ninuno upang panatilihin ang
kasaganaan ng kalikasan. Bagkos ay layunin namin ang linangin ang aming sariling kultura dahil ito ang bukod-
tangi naming yaman. Sa gayon ay ito rin ang ituturo namin sa aming mga anak at sa mga susunod pang mga
saling-lahi.

        Kahit karamihan sa amin ay hindi marunong sumulat o bumasa, mahigpit naming tinututulan ang
resolusyon ng gobyernong palawakin ang turismo sa kabundukan. Ang isa sa mga dahilan ay mangangahulugan
ito ng pagbubukas nila ng daan para sa mga turista o dayuhan at pagsasara naman ng daan para sa aming mga
katutubo. Totoong maganda ang aming pook ngunit hindi namin ito maaaring ipagbili o hayaang mawala.

         Maaaring kami ay naging biktima ng bagsik ng kalikasan nang pumutok ang bulkang Pinatubo ngunit
hindi namin matatanggap na maging biktima ng karahasan at pagsasamantala ng aming karapatan. Gamitan man
nila ito ng kapangyarihan ng salapi at teknolohiya, ang katotohanan ang tangi naming sandata upang itaguyod
ang aming kapakanan. Ayaw naming makipaglaban subalit ang aming hangarin ay upang maiparating sa mga
kinuukulan ang aming tinig at katarungan para sa nakararami.
                                                           7
Sumisigaw ang aming damdamin dahil sa aming winawalang-bahalang karapatan.

Hindi ba’t kami rin ay nasasakop ng ating iisang bansa na may isang diwa at lahi?

Nasaan ang katarungan?

Mananatili na lamang ba kaming dayuhan sa sarili naming lupa?




                                         8
                                    ANG BALANSE SA LIPUNAN
                   Isang Tanaw sa Sama-samang Pag-unlad at Pagkakapantay-pantay
                                     Aaron Laylo, Kalookan City

       Tuwing ako’y napapadaan sa mga lugar na may matataas na gusali at magagandang tanggapan tulad ng
sa Makati o sa Ortigas, aking nasasabi sa sarili, “Umuunlad na nga ang Pilipinas, umaahon na ang bansa.” Pero
matapos dumaan ang bus dito, makikita ko mula sa bintana ang mga batang gusgusin na namamalimos at ang
batang nanay na nagpapasuso sa kanyang sanggol habang umiiyak ang isa pang anak sa tabi (at marahil walang
padre de pamilya). Sa pagtanaw sa mga larawang ito, masasabi pa nga bang umuunlad ang Pilipinas?

      Maliit na tanawin lang ito sa kahabaan ng EDSA o sa maraming bahagi ng Kamaynilaan? Paano pa kaya
ang mga nasa kanayunan?

        Ang distribusyon ng yaman sa bansa ay hindi pantay. Kung kaya, bagama’t patuloy ang lokal at dayuhang
pamumuhunan sa bansa ngunit hindi naman naibabahagi sa lahat ang mga yamang nakukuha mula sa mga ito sa
pamamagitan ng mga buwis, hindi sabay-sabay ang kaunlaran. Ayon sa World Development Report 2006, kung
sabay-sabay ang pag-unlad ng mga sektor ng lipunan, mas mabilis ang pag-usad ng ekonomiya at malaki ang
posibilidad na maabot ang mas malaking kaunlaran. Sa kaso kasi ng Pilipinas, sadyang napakalaki ng agwat ng
mga dukha sa nakaaangat sa lipunan. Ang isang pamilya, halimbawa, ay pinagkakasya ang isang instant noodles
para sa sampung supling habang ang isang pamilya’y tig-iisa sa bawat instant noodles. Malaking pagkakaiba.
Malaking agwat. At malaking hindi pagkakapantay. Hindi patas. Hindi balanse.

        Ang pagsugpo sa hindi pagkakabalanse sa lipunan ay nangangailangan ng pagsugpo muna sa kahirapan.
Nangangailangan ng komprehensibong reporma sa mga serbisyo kung saan mabibigyang tugon ang mga
pangunahing hinaing ng mga mahihirap. Poverty reduction and alleviation ang nakikitang sagot ng pamahalaan
dito. Sa mga programang ipinatutupad ng bawat administrasyon sa anyo ng Social Reform Agenda, Erap para sa
Mahirap, Kapit Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan, iisa ang layunin ng pamahalaan, ang mabawasan at tuluyang sugpuin
ang pinapasan ng mga maralita. Tinitingnan ng programa kung paano mabibigyan ng magandang kabuhayan
ang mga nasa kanayunan, maparami ang mga trabaho para sa karaniwang mamamayan, at mabigyan ng sapat na
suporta ang kababaihan at kabataan.

       Sa edukasyon, halimbawa, may mga mahihirap na estudyanteng may sapat na talino subalit hindi
nabibigyan ng pagkakataong makapag-aral nang maayos dahil sa kakulangan sa materyal sa pag-aaral, pamasahe,
at ang hindi pagkakatutok ng guro sa mga aralin para sa bawat estudyante dahil sa malaking populasyon sa
klasrum (karaniwan sa pampublikong paaralan ay may 1 guro para sa 75 estudyante). Kung may sapat na
serbisyong pangkalusugan, makapagtatrabaho nang mahusay ang magulang sa halip na mahirata sa banig ng
karamdaman o kaya’y alagaan ang may sakit na anak.

      Kung laging ganito ang hinaharap ng mahihirap araw-araw habang abala ang pamahalaan sa pagpapalago
ng ekonomiya sa makroekonomikong perspektibo, hindi nagtatagpo ang kalagayan ng magkabilang panig.
Naiiwan pa rin ang mahihirap sa buntot ng kaunlaran.

        Sa ganang ito, maaaring maibuod sa tatlong pangunahing lansangan ng kawalan ng balanse ang karanasan
ng Pilipinas sa usapin ng pag-unlad at pagkakapantay-pantay: aspetong politikal, ekonomiko at sosyo-kultural.

        Politikal ito dahil ang mga layunin, polisiya, plano, programa at mga proyektong pangkaunlaran ng
pamahalaan ay ang mga pangunahing nagsasagwan sa bangka ng bansa. Ang taumbayan ay handang sumagwan
pero may ilang hindi sumasabay sa kumpas ng namumuno dahil sinusunod ang makasariling pananaw. Dahil
dito, hindi nababalanse ang pagsasagwan kaya hindi umuusad o kung umuusad man ang bangka, ubod ng bagal.
Sa ganitong bagay, kailangan ng matibay na paninindigan sa politika–paninindigang ang pamunuan sa bansa ay
hindi isang pook ng pag-aangkin kundi pagbibigay at pagmamalasakit. Ang puwesto sa pamahalaan ay dapat
maging luklukan ng mga taong may pag-unawa sa kalagayan ng mahihirap at sinserong maglingkod.
        Sa aspetong ekonomiko, natitipon ang yaman ng bansa sa sentro gaya ng Kamaynilaan, at mga karatig-
pook nito habang ang mga nasa lalawigan ay hindi nabibigyan ng tamang suporta. Ang ilang lungsod gaya ng
Cebu at Davao ay panakanakang nakikitaan din ng asenso pero ang mga lalawigang karatig nito ay nanatiling
mahihirap.



                                                         9
       Sa mga nakatala sa Philippine Human Development Report mula 1994 hanggang 2004, kapansin-
pansing ang mga pinakamahihirap na lalawigan ay yaong nasa Silangang Kabisayaan, Bikol, at mga bahagi
sa Mindanao. Agrikultura at pangingisda ang karaniwang kabuhayan ng mga tao dito pero kung kapos pa ang
suporta, paano pa sila makakaahon?

       Malaki ang di pagkakapantay-pantay sa sosyo-kultural na usapin. Sa maraming bahagi ng bansa,
kalunsuran man o kanayunan, namamayani ang diskriminasyon sa katayuan sa buhay, pinagmulang pamilya,
‘di pagkakaroon ng kapantayan sa pagtingin sa kasarian, mga katutubong nakararanas ng diskriminasyon
sa edukasyon, larangan, hanap-buhay at iba pa. Kung hindi nahahasa o mas malala, hindi nabibigyan ng
pagkakataong umunlad ang lakas paggawa, paano aabante ang ekonomiya?

       Hindi lamang simpleng equality o pagkakapantay-pantay ng distribusyon ang kailangan para umasenso
ang bansa. Higit na mahalaga ang equity o ang pagtingin ng mamamayan sa kung ano ang patas. Pareho itong
mahalaga upang makamit ang inaasam na progreso.

       Sa isang rowing team, mahalaga ang lakas ng braso ng mga nagsasagwan pero higit na kailangan ng
sama-sama at sabay-sabay na pagkilos upang bumilis ang bangka.

        Pero may malaking suliranin: marami ang nagsasagwan pero hindi pantay ang lakas ng mga ito. Ang
ilan ay malakas habang ang iba ay naaagawan pa ng lakas. Paano pa uusad ang bangka? Dapat ay patas ang lakas
na natatanggap ng bawat kasapi ng team o lupon. Kailangan ng determinasyon ng nangunguna at balanse para
sa mga nagsasagwan.

      Sa pag-aaral naman ng bisikleta, hindi ka matututo kung hindi mo kayang timplahin ang bigat o gaan ng
katawan lalo na ng mga paa sa pagpepedal. Kailangang may balanse para umandar ito.

        Sama-samang paggawa, sabay-sabay na pagkilos, harmonya, pagtutulungan, kooperasyon, balanse at
higit sa lahat, direksyon, pokus at determinasyong magawa ang dapat gawin–ang mga ito ang siyang layunin
ngayon at dapat pag-ibayuhin pa ng pamahalaan lalo na ng namumuno.

       Isang araw, nakangiti na ang mga bata sa lansangan at hindi na gusgusin.
       May sapat nang pagkain sa mesa ang bawat pamilyang Pilipino.

       Uusad din ang bangka natin.

       Pagpalain nawa ng Diyos ang ating bayan.




Sources:
Balisacan, Arsenio. An Introduction to the Key Issues in The Philippine Economy: Development, Policies, and
Challenges. QC: ADMU Press, 2003
Bautista, Victoria. A Decade of Governance Innovations and Gaps in Poverty Alleviation presented at the Int’l
Conference on Public Administration Plus Governance. QC: UP-NCPAG, 2002.
Executive Summary 2005. http://www.news.ops.gov.ph
Philippine Human Development Report 1994 through 2004
Philippine Medium Term Philippine Development Plan 2001-04, 2004-10 www.neda.gov.ph
World Development Report 2006: “Equity and Development” http://www.finfacts.com


                                                10
                            PAGBABAGO PARA SA MGA PILIPINO
                                       Fraeline Lising, Kalookan City

       Pagbabago. Katagang madalas sambitin ng mga taong nagnanais ng kaunlaran upang makaagapay sa
hindi pantay na antas ng pamumuhay sa lipunang ating ginagalawan. Isang salitang tanging permanente sa
paglipas ng mga taon at patuloy na inaasam ng mga Pilipinong nabibilang sa isang kahig, isang tukang estado
ng pamumuhay.

        Makailang ulit na tayong sumailalim sa pananakop ng mga dayuhan na nagkaroon ng higit na impluwensya
sa antas ng kabuhayan ng mga Pilipino. Ilang administrasyon na nga ba ang namuno sa ating bansa na nangako
ng pagbabago at ilang milyong Pilipino na ba ang patuloy pa rin na nangangapa sa kawalan?

       Ang reporma ay isang prosesong nangangailangan ng sapat na panahon, pag-aaral at pang-unawa sa
kalagayan ng taong magsasagawa at maapektuhan nito.

      Marahil mas mabuting pag-ukulan ng panahon ang reporma sa sistema ng edukasyon, kung saan
nahuhubog ang ating kakayahan, kagalingan at kaisipan.

        Marami sa ating mga Pilipino ang nagtapos sa mga pampublikong paaralan mula sa elementarya, high
school, at masuwerte na lamang kung makatuntong sa kolehiyo.

        Tunay ngang mula sa elementarya ay natuto tayo. Ngunit mas higit na titibay ang pundasyon ng
katalinuhan ng mga mag-aaral kung ang mga kagamitan at pasilidad ay sasapat sa bawat isa at hindi na kailangan
pang makipag-unahan sa mga aklat na gagamitin sa buong taon ng pag-aaral.

       Mas makabubuti rin na maging balanse ang paggamit ng mga lengguwaheng mas nauunawaan ng mga
estudyante bilang midyum sa pagtuturo. Hindi ba’t mas matutuhan ng mga bata ang bawat leksyon kung ang
gagamiting wika ay yaong ginagamit sa kanilang kinaroonan. Nariyan ang Filipino bilang pambansang wika at
ang daan-daang dayalekto ng mga naninirahan sa rural o probinsya.

       Gayunpaman, dapat din nating isaalang-alang ang paggamit ng Ingles bilang ikalawang lengguwahe ng
pagtuturo upang di maging mangmang ang mga kabataang Pilipino sa naturang wika.

       Nariyan din ang reporma sa sistema ng pagtuturo ng mga guro. Mas mabuting hikayatin ang mga
estudyanteng maging aktibo sa akademiko at sa mga karagdagang gawaing pampaaralan at panlipunan. Dito
malilinang ang kanilang kakayahan sa komunikasyon, pakikisalamuha, pakikipag-ugnayan at pang-unawa sa
kani-kanilang papel sa lipunan.

        Ang pagkakaroon ng sapat na pang-unawa sa mga mag-aaral na may “kahinaan” sa pag-aaral ay nararapat
na ipagkaloob sa pamamagitan ng masinsing pagtuturo at pagpapalinawag. Makakatulong din ang pagkakaroon
ng tutorial sa mga may “kahinaan” upang kahit paano ay makahabol sila sa mga kamag-aral na iba ang lebel ng
pag-iisip.

        Sa kabilang banda, ang mga guro ay mainam na dumaan sa iba’t ibang oryentasyon na magpapaunlad sa
kanilang paraan ng pagtuturo upang mas maging epektibo silang “ikalawang magulang” sa kanilang mga batang
tinuturuan.

       Dagdag pa rito ang pagpapalawak sa kanilang kaalaman hinggil sa responsibilidad ng tamang paghubog
ng mga kabataan sa pamamagitan ng pagtuturo mula sa karanasan, pananaliksik at batay sa tunay na nangyayari
sa bansa.

       Ang pagsalalay lamang sa mga nakaimprentang libro at ang pagkakabisado nito sa mga estudyante na
wala namang aktuwal na pagsasagawa ay makakadagdag lamang sa kakulangan ng kaalaman ng mga mag-
aaral.

      Mas mainam din para sa bansa ang pagkakaroon ng mas malaking bilang ng state universities upang mas
matugunan ang kawalan ng salapi ng mga mahihirap sa matataas na matrikula sa kolehiyong pampribado.

       Kaugnay nito ang sapat na pondong tutugon sa pangangailangan ng mga pampublikong unibersidad

                                                          11
upang mapagtuunan ang serbisyo, mga libro at makabagong pasilidad para sa mga mag-aaral.

       Ang pamahalaan ay nararapat na magdagdag ng pondo at hindi ang pagbawas dito upang ibahagi ang
malaking parte ng pambansang badyet sa pagbabayad ng utang panlabas.

      Nariyan din ang mga karerang tutugon di lamang sa mga makabagong teknolohiya, matematika, siyensya,
pangangalakal, medisina at iba pa na dapat pag-ukulan ng pansin ng mga unibersidad.

        Bagkus higit na matututo ang mga mag-aaral sa kolehiyo kung hindi lamang matatali ang kanilang pag-
aaral sa apat na sulok ng silid-aralan. Ang edukasyon na matututuhan nila sa labas ng klasrum ay gagabay sa
kani-kanilang karera sa paglabas ng unibersidad.

        Mas mauunawaan nila ang kursong kinukuha kung nakabatay ito sa lipunan, sa pangangailangan ng
bansa at ng kanilang kapwa. Ang pagiging makatao at ang paggamit ng katalinuhan para sa kabutihan ng lahat
at hindi para sa pansariling kapakanan lamang ang ilan sa matitimo sa kanilang papahinog na katauhan.

       Mula sa mga natutuhan sa lipunan, higit nilang magagamit ito sa panibagong yugto ng kanilang buhay
–ang pagtatrabaho. Sa pamamagitan ng pakikipag-ugnayan sa mga tao, mas nalilinang ang kakayahan ng isang
taong makisalamuha sa kanyang kapwa.

       Dito nila higit na mauunawaan na ang pagiging makatao ang susi ng tagumpay sa anumang karerang
kanilang tinahak. Hindi ba’t mawawalan ng saysay ang titulo ng isang taong nagtapos kung hindi rin naman ito
magagamit ng maayos.

        Ang mga ahensya ng gobyernong sumasakop sa trabaho ay nararapat na itaguyod ang mga hanapbuhay na
kayang pasukin ng mga Pilipinong hindi napagkalooban ng tamang edukasyon upang sa ganoon ay mabawasan
ang bilang ng kawalan ng trabaho sa bansa.

       Higit na makatutulong din kung pagkakalooban ng tamang kompensasyon ang bawat manggagawa,
pampubliko o pampribado man, na makatutugon sa tumataas na presyo ng mga pangunahing bilihin at
serbisyo.

       Ang pagsasabatas ng mga panukalang magtataas ng sahod ay mas maghihikayat sa mamamayan na
manatili sa Pilipinas at hindi na magtrabaho pa sa dayuhang bansa.

        Ang edukasyon, trabaho at pagiging makatao ay pangunahing susi sa kaunlaran ng bansa at tiyak na
magbibigay ng isang maliwanag na landas para sa isang repormang matagal nang inaasam ng libu-libong
Pilipino. Ang pagbabago ay makakamit lamang kung ang adhikain ay para sa lahat at hindi lamang sa ikabubuti
ng isang indibidwal.




                                                12
                           AN A.C.E. APPROACH IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION
                                      Victor Arguelles, Batangas City

       During the time of Alexander the Great, whoever could untie the Gordian knot could conquer Asia
Minor. Not one to bother over details, Alexander drew his sharp sword and sliced through the problematic knot.
Poverty in the Philippines can be compared to a Gordian knot, which administrations have been trying to solve.
Despite the claims of some economists and self-styled “prophets of boom,” the gap between the rich and the
poor continues to widen.

        The rich are getting richer, and the poor are growing in number. Part of the problem seems to be the
tendency to view poverty as purely or primarily an economic phenomenon. Today, we know this isn’t so. Poverty
is a social, political, spiritual, as well as an economic phenomenon. There is a correlation between ethical
wealth and economic wealth. Conversely, countries that are morally poor are also likely to be materially poor.
The process of rising from poverty involves more than simply the accumulation of wealth. It has to do with
inculcating the right values and making the right decisions. The Philippine economy has been compared by
some analysts to an inverted pyramid with a small sector–the elite–controlling most of its resources. Economic
historians trace its roots to a colonial past where a central administration–Spanish and later, American–distributed
economic resources, primarily land, to a “favored few.” Among the beneficiaries were their local allies. After
the Philippines was granted political independence in 1946, the habit persisted, with the local administrators
distributing largesse to their own allies, in terms of positions and lucrative government contracts. Today, we
seem to have a “split-level” economy, with a feudal agricultural sector and financial centers, which are among
the most modern in Asia. We have an informal or “underground” economy as well as a formal or “visible”
economy. An estimated eight million overseas Filipino workers comprise a virtual “small country” outside the
homeland. The dichotomy between the rich and the poor is not only economic but also socio-political. The
masses, who live near or below the poverty line, are growing more aware of their political power emanating from
their superior numbers. On the other hand, a small elite continues to control the levers of economic and political
power. A dual economy is not only less productive. It is also less stable. A society where less than 10% of the
population controls more than 60% of the economy is in a state of constant dilemma. Is the goal of the economy
to produce more wealth or to re-distribute it? How is development with equity to be achieved?

         Poverty is arguably a more baffling problem than Alexander’s Gordian knot. It is a problem not to be
swiftly disposed of with a sword. Where do we begin? The task of alleviating poverty can start in an area where
the Filipino is strongest–the family. It is the basic unit of our society where we are taught the positive values of
hard work, fairness, concern for others, and love of country above self. It can also be a strategic starting point
for fighting poverty. Let us consider the following: It has been noted that one out of every three Filipino families
lives below the poverty line. Thus, for every poor family, there are two non-poor families. Let’s assume one
of these families to be altruistic enough to help the poor family. Help can come in many forms. Let’s say the
altruistic family decides to help in the education of one of the children of the poor family. This is already a big
help. Replicated on a national scale, this approach can lessen the plight of many Filipino families who cannot
afford to send their children to school. Equally important, this effort is a private sector-driven approach and does
not involve the participation of the government. The government itself is facing a budgetary deficit, which limits
its capability to respond to the basic needs of the poor. It is time to institutionalize altruism. Altruistic individuals
and families can be given tax credits for providing something that government should be doing anyway, i.e.,
educational assistance to poor students. The above proposal blends development efforts with the Filipinos’
family orientation and concern for the poor. Preferential option for the poor can be practiced in banking by
opening windows for financing the enterprises of the poor. The Grameen Bank is a financial institution owned
and managed by the poor people of Bangladesh. The Grameen Bank approach is based on certain principles:
credit is a basic human right, the poor are credit worthy, and their projects are bankable given the appropriate
financing technology and organization.

        In the Philippines, a modified version of the financing technology is being done by the Agricultural
Productivity Council, the People’s Credit and Finance Corporation, and Tulay sa Pag-unlad, among many others,
who call it by the more generic name of micro finance. The widespread replication of micro finance facilities
to assist family based enterprises can help alleviate poverty in the Philippines. Last but not least, the country’s


                                                               13
educational system has to be improved. The state of educational system mirrors the economy. When only the
children of the rich and the well-to-do have access to quality education, the educational system itself contributes
to a widening gap between the haves and the have-nots. This is ironic since education should be the instrument
for the upward leveling which liberates the poor from grinding poverty. To promote development with equity
and alleviate poverty as well, the children of poor families must have access to affordable quality education,
along the lines of the proposal discussed above.

        Without meaning to sound omniscient or know-it-all, this essay focuses on three factors to help alleviate
poverty: altruism, credit access for micro enterprises, and affordable quality education for the poor. While there
are other factors involved in poverty alleviation, these three appear to be more doable and deliverable in a
social context of the Filipinos’ culture of family orientation. Altruism, Credit, and Education can be the “ace” in
poverty alleviation.




                                                   14
                                      THE EDGE OF EDUCATION
                                          Early Sol Gadong, Iloilo City

         “Anak, edukasyon lang ang tanging kayamanan na maipamamana ko sayo.” (My child, education is
the only wealth I can bequeath upon you.”) As a self-confessed movie buff and couch potato, I’ve probably
heard this line from a dozen different Filipino actors in a dozen different movies and drama shows. It’s truly
obvious how much importance Filipino families place on obtaining an education. Unfortunately, though, there
is a dark cloud to this silver lining. As an educator, I have seen first hand the great discrepancies in the amount
and quality of education that the Filipino youth receive today. Indeed, our country is faced with a clear crisis of
inequity in education. This realization has left me pondering: Will the education that our youth inherit serve as
a valuable asset or a damaging liability? A multitude of factors lead to inequity in education. As I see it, these
factors can be narrowed down to three: poverty, politics, and the lack of patriotic fervor. The Philippines is in
a terrible economic slump–you don’t have to be a genius to realize that the gap between the rich and the poor
in this country is widening faster than the waistlines of our honorable government officials. In a country where
fathers sell their vital organs while mothers peddle their babies just to put food on the table, how can we expect
them to even entertain the idea of sending their children to school?

        A hungry stomach drowns out possibilities of learning. An empty pocket leads to an empty stomach and
thus, by simple logic, when one is disadvantaged financially, one is disadvantaged academically. Oftentimes,
a child ends up being deprived of his basic right to education because he needs to supplement the meager
income of his parents. Therefore, our government should work hand in hand with non-government organizations
(NGOs) to develop projects that are meant to be geared strategically towards minimizing financial constraints in
attaining education. In addition, parents should be provided with livelihood endeavors so that they are the ones
working to support their children and not the other way around.

        These proposed measures lead me to the second problem that needs to be addressed immediately in
order to provide equal opportunities for education–politics. A clear manifestation of the great barrier that politics
poses for the advancement of education in our country is the blatant misallocation of national resources. It is
clearly stipulated in our constitution that education should be our nation’s top priority but sadly, this is not what
is happening today. A great chunk of our budget goes to military expenditures for national defense. Bullets and
bombs will not quench our hunger nor will they educate our children!

        In addition, I believe that inappropriate politics is also responsible for the weak systems of primary
education in this country. Primary education or education in the elementary level is a very crucial stage in the
academic development of a child. Oftentimes, a neglected and misguided primary education produces a domino
effect that will cause a child to face a difficult time in pursuing higher levels of education. Fortunately, there
is no need to create new laws to battle this problem. Our constitution and by-laws already provide sufficient
policies that are enough to revive our educational system. The policies that I personally feel strongly about
would be those that would directly improve the quality and availability of elementary education throughout this
country. I believe that a child who is armed with a solid foundation in elementary education will be able to face
the formidable obstacles in higher levels of education, and even the challenges hurled by a harsh world.

        Education should be prioritized and policies that present a bigger burden to schoolchildren, such as
the imposition of exorbitant school fees, should be scrapped. These unreasonable barriers to education
mask themselves as PTA fees, miscellaneous fees, cultural fees, school contributions, etc. Of course, strict
implementation of “education-friendly” policies should be monitored so that we will not fall helplessly into the
appalling clutches of ningas cogon.

        Finally, no amount of strategic planning to combat poverty and politics would ever be effective if we,
as a people, do not get involved. We have to believe deep in our hearts that it is indeed possible to contend with
the inequities that plague our educational system. We have to give our full support to the policies presented by
our government in resuscitating our ailing education system. I personally would like to reach out to Filipino
educators like me–not to be martyrs but to be lovers of the art of educating, to be at the forefront of delivering
quality education to the Filipino youth.


                                                             15
         Yes, perhaps education is the only inheritance that Filipino parents can give their children. In fact, aside
from upright moral values, this is the only precious possession that my parents have blessed me with. There is
absolutely no doubt in my mind that equity in education is one of the major and key factors to improving the sad
state of our country. Blame it on the fact that I am young or that I have too much idealism in me to keep great
faith in our nation and in the Filipino people, but I honestly believe that we can overcome this obstacle.

         As a member of the youth, it was not so long ago when I was blessed with the premier quality education
that our country has to offer. And I believe that our country can offer those who will succeed us better education
still. So let me be armed with this youth–this idealism–to trust in the fact that achieving equity in education no
longer remains a remote possibility. And join me in my fervent belief that by battling poverty and dirty politics,
by giving full support to competent national policies, and by loving our country just a little bit more, achieving
equity in education will no longer remain a distant dream.




                                                    16
                                     A FORMULA FOR DISASTER
                                        Catherine Liamzon, Quezon City

         Perhaps “irregular” is the most fitting word to describe the world we inhabit. The curious distribution of
phenomena over time and over space–population, flora, fauna, topography, the Ring of Fire–is worth examining.
It is evident that the world was not created in a predictable manner.

        More puzzling is how societies have evolved the way they have. History has obviously unfolded
irregularly, and a glance at the world is well. A privileged few enjoy the fruits of the earth, too often at the
expense of the majority. It is commonplace that the gulf between the rich and the poor is widening. In this age of
cutting-edge technology and sufficient agricultural production, it is appalling that 800 million people still suffer
from hunger. The mere fact that the 8 Millennium Development Goals had to be written sadly hints at a world
with misplaced priorities.

        What better scenario to illustrate this grave issue of inequality in all its permutations, natural and
manmade, than natural disasters? The Philippines is ranked as one of the most disaster-prone countries, triggered
by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, typhoons and floods. The country has had some 366 events in the
past 100 years of its history.

        But what causes a natural disaster, really? An environmental hazard, such as a typhoon, does not a
natural disaster make. Nor does the country’s situation within a typhoon belt or the Ring of Fire spell a disaster.
A natural disaster is the realization of risk, calculated as the product of a natural phenomenon with a vulnerable
population. A landslide affecting nary a soul is not deemed a disaster, whereas the Leyte tragedy that claimed
the lives of hundreds was undoubtedly one.

        Rather than holding nature as a cause, the argument shifts–social and economic marginalization leads
to an increase in the vulnerability to disasters. The inextricable connection between vulnerability and equity is
precious–the condition of vulnerability is exacerbated by inequity. If equity is fairness in distribution, then the
fact that the poor who suffer the most from inequity by far bear the brunt of natural disasters shows how even
suffering chooses its victims unfairly.

        In the Philippines, a deadly combination of socio-economic, historical and political factors have resulted
in highly vulnerable populations scattered throughout its islands. Population pressures, coupled with no access
to land and common property resources and not enough available economic opportunities, have paved the way
for the increase in hazardous areas, as well as the increase in number of people occupying hazardous areas.
The former happens with constant extraction of environmental resources by the poor to augment their meager
incomes, white the latter takes place when poor farmers are pushed to settle in previously unsettled and hazard-
prone areas to have their own land to till.

        Social vulnerability is determined by initial well-being, livelihood resilience, self-protection, societal
protection, social capital: these factors have an important say whether groups can withstand a disaster. These
factors are largely negatively affected by unequal opportunities; conversely, equity enhances resilience to
natural disasters. Initial well-being, for instance, includes as its variables, nutrition and health. As the problem
of malnutrition, the dire state of education, and lack of access to adequate health care, for most of the country’s
poor raises alarms, it likewise indicates that they will be hard-hit when another severe typhoon arrives. When
flooding damages one season’s worth of crops, a poor farmer with no savings starves, while a rich farmer’s
livestock helps him cope better. The odds a poor farmer has of securing credit at a rate that will not break his
back is slim, in comparison with the rich farmer’s. This is the paramount argument for paying attention to
vulnerability to disasters–the onset of a natural hazard can wipe out development efforts in the blink of an eye.

       Another component of social vulnerability is self-protection, encompassing building quality and location
of homes and livelihoods. After the 2004 tragedy in Infanta, a snapshot of two houses summed up the grim reality:
a concrete two-story house, still standing tall and proud, and a much smaller old wooden house, in shambles,
roof and walls caved in. Again, those with more resources can more easily move out of poverty; those who


                                                             17
have almost none have fallen into the proverbial poverty trap. The logical solution would be societal protection,
through building regulations, insurance systems, and scientific knowledge. In the past, crop insurance has not
been able to satisfy the needs of farmers affected by El Niño, flooding, drought, and typhoons. So the poor suffer
again, in another way.

        Vulnerability must be remembered as a “state of permanent emergency,” with disasters as “the extreme
situation which is implicit in the everyday condition of the population. This becomes a case of an exceptional
hazard versus daily emergency. A hazard is extraordinary in magnitude, and rare in time, whereas vulnerability
is the condition of poverty, lack of voice, and powerlessness, that takes place with every passing second. A
farmer on the flanks of Mayon will prefer to risk the occasional eruption to a quotidian life characterized by
food insecurity. Coastal communities living in Indonesia cannot be convinced to abandon their livelihoods, for
a hazard that might not even return in one lifetime.

        The gains to be had from a more equitable society have been cited often; nonetheless not enough strides
are made in that direction. It is difficult to find more convincing arguments in favor of equity than economic
efficiency, the use of productive potential to the fullest, and peace, although if there is need for more, let it be
this: natural disasters, spurred by inequity, have taken its toll on many. Death may be the greatest equalizer, but
when the Grim Reaper comes knocking only at the doors of the vulnerable, something is severely wrong. Life
is a human right; that is raison d’etre enough for equity. Development must persevere, but can only do so when
the playing field has been leveled. So much depends on this.




                                                   18
                EQUITY IN DEVELOPMENT OF CITY AND COUNTRYSIDE
                                        Lilia Ramos-De Leon, Tagaytay City
         I was serenely feasting on the color and scents of my garden one bright morning—red splashes of poinsettias
and fragrance of scarlet roses and white camias—when a sudden menacing roar shattered the sun-gold air into a
million fragments and sent me scurrying around just like the silly hen who, hit by a falling nut, thought the sky was
falling. When I dared to look up, I saw the source of the sound—a thick dark swarm heading toward the eastern part
of the eaves of my roof that overhangs the camia grove and the climbing roses. The dark cloud was a colony of bees
migrating from somewhere to feed on the nectars of my garden. The bees must have left their former habitat because
they have depleted the sources of their survival there. No more flowers bloomed—no more honey to be sipped. Every
creature goes instinctively to its means of survival. And this instinct is behind the lopsided development not only of
the Philippines but of many nations as well. Like bees that flock to where food can be had, people crowd to where
they can find subsistence for themselves and their families. The consequences are cities exploding at the seams with
people, many of whom live in subhuman conditions: in warrens under bridges or over slimy esteros—ghettos that
breed vice and serve as the Casbah of criminals.

         Not all lured from the provinces by the hope of finding jobs in the city are so rewarded. A TV documentary
showed a man living under a pass-over in Makati catching mice in filthy floodwaters for his family’s meal. He was
young and able-bodied, but jobless. There are not enough jobs to go around the million or more families crowding
the urban area. Seduced by the will-o-the-wisp of finding employment in the siudad, many leave their villages to be
engaged in a daily hand-to-mouth struggle for survival in cities already teeming with the needy. “Buhay alamang,
pag lukso’y patay”—like the minuscule shrimps, they die when they dare to leap. And still they keep streaming into
Metro Manila, ever hopeful—from as far south as the heart of Muslim Mindanao and as far north as the mountains of
Igorotlandia. So that Imelda Marcos when she was Metro Manila Governor was shown on TV pouting and petulantly
ordering these pesky migrants to go back from where they came! Those who get resettled in government housing
projects in nearby provinces as Bulacan and Cavite sell their rights to their homes and lots and come back to the city
to live once more as squatters. “Walang trabaho kung saan kami itinapon.” No jobs available where they have been
dumped is their complaint.

         One can only understand the compulsion to leave idyllic greenery and clear running waters when one comes
face to face with what the migrants had to leave. This confronted me when I went on a house-to-house campaign with
a husband determined to be elected mayor of his hometown. Every time I stepped into the bamboo and thatch huts in
remote mountain or fishing villages, the plight of the poor hit me in the solar plexus: Sometimes more than a dozen
children to a tubercular couple with no means of steady subsistence. Fishermen can’t go out in the sea when a storm
is blowing. People in the inland barrios have enough rice to eat only during the harvest season. Even should a piece
of land be accessible to them for planting of food crops, the harvest wouldn’t be enough to put food on the table the
whole year, much less provide basic education for the children or answer health and medical exigencies. The plight of
the Pinoy poor is desperate, but it has been so for centuries; they are so used to it, they take it for granted. People in
the rural areas need sources of income throughout the year. Sadly, unlike the bees, they can’t just pack up the whole
colony and fly in minutes to build a new hive in a job-rich locale. A solution is that of linking cities into a labor market
by advanced transportation, e.g., the Metro Manila Railway Transit. However, multiplying this over the nation would
be a pipe dream considering the gargantuan expense and the time it takes for infrastructure projects to finish (if at all)
in the Philippines-unlike in Singapore or Kuala Lumpur where soaring flyovers, bridges, and tall buildings materialize
as if snapped into reality by the genie of Aladdin’s lamp. On the other hand, an industrial plant put up, for example, in
the jungles of Mindanao without infrastructure of housing and recreation facilities will soon be as the abandoned Inca
settlements in the wilderness of ancient Mexico.

        Hope is given by the First Cavite Industrial Estate (FCIE) that rose in 1991 in what was once cogonal in a
hinterland of Cavite. Local residents supply manpower for this now flourishing industrial complex of multinational
firms, most of them Japanese. Technical experts from the cities or abroad are provided with housing and/or shuttle
busses. Happily, other industrial enterprises followed on the heels of FCIE. To cater to the needs and wants of the
employees of these production complexes, eateries like MacDonald’s as well as recreational facilities have mushroomed
around. A few years ago, presumably with eyes aslant, the FCIE, Robinson’s and then SM inaugurated malls a short
ride away, following Walter Mart that had built several years earlier. To encourage the sprouting of such industrial
villages, extraordinary incentives should be offered to firms daring to pioneer in the boondocks: Tax exemptions
or lower tax rates. A lower minimum salary, which with financial recuperation will be raised. And to foreign firms,
owning the land on which their business is built. The target is the development of the countryside. This will ease
the population explosion in cities and rev up national economy. And ultimately, all reasons for dissidence in the
countryside will crumble.

                                                                 19
                                               OUT OF LUCK
                                       Francine Anne Sayoc, Quezon City

       On the morning of February 4, a stampede occurred outside the PhilSports Arena in Pasig, leaving 74
people dead and hundreds more injured.

        A throng of 30,000 people gathered outside the stadium gates as early as five o’clock in the morning of
that day, some even camping out nights before, to take their chances at a popular game show. Millions of pesos
worth of prizes, tricycles, jeepneys and a house and lot were at stake.

       An announcement from one of the gates that 300 people would instantly get a chance at winning P10,000
to P50,000 excited the crowd. They began pushing their way into the queue, hoping to be one of the lucky 300.
Realizing it was impossible to accommodate the entire crowd in the stadium that can only hold 20,000 people,
the show’s staff began closing the gates.

         A mad dash to the steep decline leading to the entrance led to a stampede that killed and injured people
who traveled far and wide seeking for fortune. Meanwhile, the mob outside the gates went on shouting for
tickets.

       In my country, the Philippines, people die trying their luck.

        It’s easy to think that luck is what we seem to be lacking in the last few years. Unemployment
is up, education standards are low, corruption is high, social services are at a dismal state, and poverty is
everywhere.

       They say poverty and desperation drove all those people to PhilSports Arena that day. Almost all of them
come from poor communities in and around Metro Manila, and those who were killed were mostly women and
children.
       A whopping 26.5 million Filipinos live below the poverty line, a number that has constantly gone up
over the last 10 years. Joblessness, meanwhile, is a nagging problem, with our unemployment rate among the
highest in the region.

        But one has little use of figures when, everyday you see people striving to make ends meet. More than
15 million Filipinos wake up every morning without food on the table–and this number continues to rise with
the escalating prices of food and basic commodities.

        Income inequality remains a major obstacle to development in the Philippines. The World Bank says
that nearly half of the country’s 84 million people subsist on less than $2 or P112 a day, while the richest 5
percent of households account for nearly a third of the national income. The richer half of all the families in the
country earns five times as much as the poorer half.

        On the face of it, the Philippines is a perpetually happy country; a lot of people simply resign themselves
to the idea–without much frustration or resolve–that some people just have all the luck while others don’t.
Minamalas lang talaga tayo minsan. Ganyan talaga ang buhay.1

        But to leave it all to luck, or the lack thereof, is an idea that is too convenient and simplistic. Blaming
it on luck leaves out responsibility for our actions and that of others, in favor of relying on fate or providence.
Filipinos, sadly, have developed a bad habit of pinning their hopes on a fortunate twist of chance: that the
economy will eventually pick up, that their government will someday shape up, that aid will soon fall from the
heavens, and that we’ll make it through somehow. “Bahala na”2 has been the Filipino mantra, but some of us
know better. It’s not really the lack of luck. It’s what we’ve been consciously and unconsciously doing for the
better part of this country’s life.

        We have been ravaged by history, by leaders and administrations that failed to deliver on their promises.
Now we find ourselves deep in political uncertainty, amid incessant calls for the President to resign. The
Philippines now ranks among the worst in a survey of countries with severe corruption, placing 117th out of 159
countries surveyed by Transparency International. Since 1999, it has been a slippery slope ending in our current
repute as one of the most corrupt nations in the world.

                                                   20
       Studies prove that countries with rampant corruption are also the poorest. Corruption is both a cause of
poverty and a hindrance to its eradication. It takes from people what little government resources are available,
and results in shoddy infrastructure, poor education and insufficient public services. It discourages investors,
and thus, is a cause of joblessness in the country.

        OFW remittances are the Philippines’ only saving grace. The remittances of Filipino migrant workers by
and large sustain the fragile economy. They send home about US$8.5 billion or P476.5 billion a year, an amount
which adds up to more than half of the national budget, and comprises the country’s largest source of foreign
exchange.

       Given its sheer value, OFW remittances can become a tool for growth and investment. Apart from
improving the lives of the OFWs’ families, remittances can fuel development activity and spur local economies.
Therefore, it is imperative that public policy on remittances create wider opportunities for our OFWs and their
families.

       Already, we are lagging behind our ASEAN neighbors in GDP growth and movement in poverty
reduction.

        Weak governance, volatile institutions and a disproportionate allotment of limited resources in the face
of a growing population have caused our country’s inertia. We are stuck in a vicious cycle of bad politics, while
our competitiveness is constantly sinking.

        There is no better place to start making changes than in government and public institutions. We must
clean up our political system and cut loose from such expensive and fraud-prone elections. We must put back
ideology into our politics instead of letting it be the popularity contest that it is now. Of course, all that is easier
said than done, and we can’t just leave it all to government to make changes.

        The private sector and civil society must become key players in fighting corruption and demanding for
better governance. The media, business groups, NGOs, and the academe must play a vital role in generating
discussion. A democracy provides in itself the best defense–a free and vigilant people advocating for conscientious
leaders and a society grounded in values.

       Good education has, time and again, been identified as a basic tenet to growth. It is a way out of poverty.
But before we expect reforms to take place in education, we must first improve the plight of our teachers. We
must motivate, re-train, and reward them for their life’s work.

         Reform should then proceed with filling the need for teachers, classrooms and textbooks. So much
statistics, research and proposals have been generated on this vastly favorite topic, yet we still have an education
scene that gets gloomier every year. Right now, the government spends a measly P352.00 per Filipino on
education. We must realize that education is an investment, not only for the parents struggling to send their
children to school, but so should it be for the national government.

        The same goes for public health care, which at present gets a miserable allowance of P35.00 for each
Filipino. We must demand on our government to give more to social spending, to ease the pangs of poverty, and
to bridge the great gap between the rich and the poor.

       Lastly, society should never resign itself to merely accepting this terrible combination of circumstances –
poor governance, slow economy, substandard education, inadequate social services, and a growingly indifferent
people. Whether with or without the help of luck, it is still up to its people to make good change for this dear
country.




1
    We can’t be lucky all the time. That’s just how life is.
2
    Roughly translated, “Leave it to destiny” or “Come what may”

                                                                   21
POLICY PROPOSALS

          22
                                     THE SPREADLIGHT POLICY:
                    Policy Proposal for Micro-Scale Renewable Energy Popularization

A. Broad Equity Issue to be Addressed by the Policy:
        Thousands of households in remote rural areas in the Philippines, especially in Muslim Mindanao, still
don’t have basic electricity and don’t have the prospect of having such in the near future. This is due to various
reasons ranging from lack of funds on the part of the government to lack of critical mass on the part of certain
barangays. Some reasons are due to outright prejudice on the (in)capacity of rural people in general and the
“unwillingness” of Muslim communities in particular to sustain payments for electricity services. This paper
proposes policy enhancements that will promote innovative approaches on renewable energy complemented
with tested models of micro-financing geared towards the provision of basic lighting to far-flung communities
in the country (the proposal can also be known as Project Spreadlight).

B. Proponent Details:
Name                    : ENRIQUE M. GALLARDO, JR.
Address                 : 59-C Evangelista St, Project 4, Quezon City
Tel Nos                 : (632) 437-0708, (0917) 825-1027
E-mail                  : engallardo@yahoo.com

1. What is the problem/issue on inequity/exclusion that the proposed policy will address?

        The commonly accepted reasons that thousands of rural households in remote areas in the Philippines
still don’t have basic electricity, i.e., basic lighting are the following:

       • The government, specifically the National Electrification Authority and the local rural electric coopera-
       tives, do not have enough funds to extend the main grid to remote barangays;

       • Many barangays are just so remote and inaccessible (mountainous and island barangays) that installing
       main grid lines is considered physically not feasible and financially nonviable;

       • Many barangays do not have the critical mass, or enough scale to sustain and recover the cost of ex-
       tending the main grid;

       • Many barangays in Mindanao are known to be conflict-affected and thereby high-risk and nonviable.

         While the above-stated reasons have their particular merits, this policy proposal advocates that they
are not insurmountable, and should not be made as excuses that exclude a good part of Filipino society from
a service as basic as lighting. While it may seem so trivial to many, basic electricity and light connotes many
significant things to those who don’t have it–civilization, technology, enlightenment, better education. It is just
that all Filipinos have access to this basic element of a better quality of life.

2. What are the objectives of the proposed policy?

       The proposed policy has the following objectives:

       To enhance a policy environment that encourages and makes possible the viable micro financing of mi-
cro-scale renewable energy initiatives;

       • To provide basic lighting to the rest of unenergized households in the Philippines within the next 5
       years;

       • To demonstrate viable basic light provision through renewable energy and micro-finance strategies in
       remote and high-risk barangays;

       • To institutionalize commercial modes of renewable energy delivery and utilization in remote rural
       barangays within the next two years.




                                                            23
3. Who will benefit from the proposed policy (target groups) and how will they benefit? How will the policy
address inequities or increase/improve opportunities for the target groups to contribute to and share in develop-
ment?

        Thousands of unenergized households in the rural areas of the country will potentially benefit from the
policy proposal. As of 2004, there are at least 2,000 unelectrified barangays in the country, majority of which
are in Mindanao. Aside from this, there are still thousands of households that do not have basic lighting even in
barangays considered energized (main grid extensions usually reach the barangay poblacions or centers only,
effectively excluding those in far-flung sitios).

        The proposed policy will facilitate the incremental improvement of the quality of life of people in the re-
mote rural villages of the Philippines by first introducing light. With basic lighting, it is seen that other aspects of
basic social services will start to improve–children can study better at night, a sense of security and well-being
is improved, farmers and fisherfolk can be mobile either in the day or later at night, women can engage in other
economic activities in the evening, health conditions within the household start to improve with the elimina-
tion or minimization of carbon dioxide emitting kerosene lamps and candles. The micro-financing aspect of the
proposed policy will potentially convey or strengthen the culture of savings mobilization, financial discipline,
and entrepreneurship in the said target communities. In the long run, with basic lighting as a rallying point and
micro-financing as a venue for community strengthening and resource mobilization, it is seen that such com-
munities will be able to build up its capacity and track record for project management, thereby attracting or ac-
cessing larger development initiatives such as potable water systems, basic health facilities, livelihood projects,
and many others.

4. How can this proposed policy be implemented? First, let us look at the basic elements that need to be present
for the policy to take effect:

a. Micro-scale renewable energy system – The basic lighting product should be affordable, portable, and gene-
rates sufficient lighting quality. There are already many photovoltaic or solar lamps in the market that only costs
around PhP1,500 to PhP3,500. This said level of product prices are within the scales of micro-loans. Such lamps
also produce better lighting than the wick lamps and candles that unenergized households commonly use. These
types of lamps are portable enough to be carried to different parts of the household or to the farm or sea. It is
small enough that it allows rapid replication and distribution. Being charged through photovoltaic cells, i.e.,
sunlight, it requires very minimal maintenance costs.

b. Micro-financing – In partnership with locally based micro-financing institutions such as credit unions, co-
operatives, and rural banks, micro-loans need to be made available for the purchase and trade of solar lamps.
Somewhat similar to the modes of financing of appliances and motorcycles (loaned products that have proven
to be successful in rural areas), the micro-financing of the solar lamps will be on a commercial scheme, meaning
it will be affordable yet viable enough to generate profits for suppliers and distributors as well. The propensity
of the solar lamps to spread rapidly will be driven by the incentives or profits that can be earned by promoting
the product (which the common community members can do themselves) and by the affordability of the product
in terms of monthly loan payments. Despite these commercial directions, tested micro-financing values such as
social collateral, group accountability, financial discipline, and such will be ensured.

c. Cooperating local NGO or LGU – A strong and credible NGO or LGU operating in the area is necessary to
ensure the cohesiveness of the communities. This local partner will not directly manage the project but will
serve as a mediator or facilitator in cases of group conflict or misunderstanding (in most communities, some
degree of conflict is inevitable when money is infused). This local institution will act as a ‘big brother,’ advising,
encouraging, and coaching the communities when needed.

        Now, policy enhancements need to be done in order for these elements to get in place and play their part
in carrying out the popularization of micro scale renewable energy. Such policy enhancements need to be put
into effect by these groups or institutions:

a. Department of Energy / National Electrification Administration – The DOE through the NEA and probably
through the power bureau need to rethink its definition of what an energized or electrified barangay is. Currently,
the widespread use of solar lamps does not qualify a barangay to be considered energized. It is proposed that the
use of solar lamps be considered as a means of barangay electrification. Aside from this, there is a need to shift
soon from barangay electrification to household electrification. This shift will highlight the needs of individual


                                                    24
households for basic lighting and will contribute to the inflow of capital to such as direction. With sufficient
policy pronouncements on the use micro-scale solar electrification, the DOE can encourage investments as well
as direct financing of projects specific to solar lap popularization. It is also important to adopt as a policy, the
elimination or at least deliberate phase-out of subsidies that distort the market of renewable energy technolo-
gies.

b. Official Development Assistance / Foreign Donors – Funding for renewable energy and micro-credit need to
be reviewed in the context of rethinking policies on renewable energy. Currently, there is a preference to me-
dium-scale photovoltaic systems (20wp to 55wp) when it comes to subsidy and financing support. Such systems
are still relatively expensive and may not yet be appropriate for micro-financing and rapid replication or spread-
light. In terms of technology preference and provision of funds for credit, it is proposed that ODAs and other
donors formulate and enforce a policy that encourages use of solar lamps through micro financing.

c. Micro Financing Institutions – MFIs such as the People’s Credit and Financing Corporation, the regulatory
body BSP, various rural banks, and cooperatives across the country can be encouraged to develop a policy on
putting a premium on loan applications that support micro-scale renewable energy popularization. If legally pos-
sible, it will also help if a certain portion of micro-finance funds can be earmarked for such purposes.

d. Suppliers of Renewable Energy Technologies – It is proposed that suppliers of renewable energy technologies
such as Solar Electric, Maschinen and Technik, and Sunpower need to scale up its marketing and production of
solar lamps and build-in into their business the micro-financing of such lamps. Although being mindful of risks
and returns, it is also proposed that the said suppliers formulate and enforce a policy that gears business plans
towards missionary rural electrification.

        The above-stated policy enhancements will facilitate in financial, technical, and institutional support for
the tandem of micro-scale renewable energy and micro financing. Once the policy environment is favorable and
the support systems are in place, ‘spreading the light’ will be a matter of unleashing simple yet tested sales strat-
egies. Rapid replication will be driven by the profit or ‘commission’ that any individual can derive from ‘shar-
ing’ or selling a solar lamp to a friend, relative, colleague etc. This process of commercialization will contribute
to the sustainability of the solar energy systems in terms of after-sales services and replication.

         All told, it is hoped that in actualizing the socially and commercially natural and rapid spread of re-
newable energy-based lighting systems, the proposed policy enhancements will also usher in other development
initiatives that are responsive to broader equity issues relating to peace, justice, ecological balance, economic
growth, and to the general improvement of the quality of life in poor rural communities of the country.




                                                             25
                                     MAY LAYA KANG LUMIPAD
A. Broad Equity Issue to be Addressed by the Policy:
·      Increasing incomes/income opportunities
·      Improving access to social services, infrastructure and utilities
·      Improving access to/ensuring fairness in political and justice systems

B. Proponent Details:
Name                    : EIRENE JHONE E. AGUILA
Address                 : 15-D Avelino St. Xavierville II, QC
Telephone Nos.          : (632) 8170016
Fax Nos.                : (632) 8105513
E-mail                  : eirenejhoneaguila@gmail.com

1. What is the problem/ issue on inequity/ exclusion that the proposed policy will address?

        “It is not really jail decongestion that you are talking about but a commitment to serve justice, and to
see to it that justice is immediately done.” – Chief Justice Hilario Davide at the launching of the Balik-Laya
Program of the IBP

        Twice. We have been featured in CNN at least twice in the span of a year as having terrible and very
unpleasant conditions for our juvenile delinquents in prison–and the second after the Philippine Senate boasted
of success in their efforts to alleviate the plight of your youth behind bars. With the ballooning jail popula-
tion nationwide and lack of capital outlay for the repair and construction of additional new jail facilities, the
problems of maintaining humane jail conditions and managing them properly become more urgent. As if the
situation were not appalling enough, it is not uncommon to see, within these crammed walls, children of all
ages and backgrounds. Mixed with hard-core adult criminals are children ranging from the age of three or four
to those in their teens. Philippine jails are so packed that one inmate occupies an average 1.6 square meters of
jail space. In one prison in Luzon, 35 children were reportedly detained in a basement and in another, children
had nowhere to sleep as the beds were taken by adult detainees and the floor was wet with urine. Some prisons
have inadequate sanitary facilities, such as toilets without water.

        Children who come into conflict with the law tend to come from the most disadvantaged and marginal-
ized sectors of society–mostly street children. They are particularly vulnerable in detention because they have
neither family nor community support. Without even delving into the horrors faced by children upon arrest, it
is of common knowledge that while in detention, children–both girls and boys–have been raped and sexually
assaulted. While sharing cells with adults, including those who have committed serious crimes, the intimate
and constant contact leaves children highly vulnerable to sexual assault or other abuse. Sadly, studies show
that many children in detention have little or no understanding of why they were arrested or the charges against
them. Children rarely have any access to lawyers and many have reported signing documents they did not un-
derstand. And the sad truth of the matter is that, only the children of the underprivileged, the street children,
who usually find themselves behind bars. The gun-wielding, drug-sniffing punk kids of the influential members
of society are somehow above the law–shipped abroad to a boarding school when they mess up or hidden away
in an expensive rehabilitation center outside of town.

       May Laya Kang Lumipad! Seeks to make sure this does not happen and that when it does, the children
in conflict with the law come out to become better individuals.

2. What are the objectives of the proposed policy?

        Essentially, May Laya Kang Lumipad! Seeks to give children and juvenile delinquents a second lease
on life and a second chance at quality free life. Its objective is three-fold: making sure that none of the children
who are supposed to be behind bars and detained are behind bars and detained; providing humane conditions
for those who are supposed to serve time; and rehabilitating and helping those that are to be released back into
society as productive members of it.

       This present proposal makes use of already available resources so as not to cause substantial strain on
government resources. In the process, those involved are educated and trained in the field of law and resources
used are optimized and not left to rot.

                                                   26
3. Who will benefit from the proposed policy (target groups) and how will they benefit? How will the policy
address inequities or increase/ improve opportunities for the target groups to contribute to and share in develop-
ment?

        Target sectors of the project are juvenile delinquents and children-in-conflict-with-the-law that are pres-
ently detained and behind bars–as very vividly exposed by the media. Initially they will be first-time offenders
of non-grave offenses as classified by law.

       A big part of the problem is the lack of persons with the legal know-how to educate detainees as well as
work for their release. With a limited budget, government cannot afford to have full-time lawyers or paralegals
working solely for the decongestion of prisons and endeavoring to free children behind bars. May Laya Kang
Lumipad! Seeks to fill this void and provide the manpower needed to work towards freeing minors currently
being detained. As it serves as a venue for the decongestion of prisons by freeing minors wrongfully detained, it
likewise acts as an immersion program for law students–opening their eyes to the realities of prison-life, giving
them a practical experience of their classroom lessons, and making them aware of the conditions that befall our
children–all ultimately giving their study of the law more meaning and reason.

        As a second component to the policy, run-down, condemned and abandoned building structures are
taken over by the government and repaired to house these juvenile delinquents. A multi-level structure with
one level devoted to their living quarters and a second level devoted to their skills training and values education
which is a mandatory requirement for them before they can be released to the public once more. It is here that
they are taught how to reintegrate into society, become productive members.

       Freedom, empowerment and knowledge are not supposed to be reserved only for a privileged few.
These can go a long way and can take people far.

4. Please summarize the proposed policy measure–what are its elements, who should adopt it as a policy, and
how it should be translated to policy (e.g. via legislation)?

         This proposal has several steps, viz.: passage of a circular by the Supreme Court that will include provid-
ing paralegal work in the curriculum of law schools (or recognizing such work as equivalent of the mandatory
clerkship and internship programs of the law schools); exercise of the government of its power of expropriation
to take-over an abandoned structure after payment of a fair price, and transforming it into a detention center for
juvenile delinquents; tie-ups with values formation groups, technical institutions and the like to provide for the
education and rehabilitation of these youth while behind bars; and a passage of a law that will prohibit discrimi-
nation on hiring or employment on the basis of past criminal record of rehabilitation youth released from the
facility.

        The Supreme Court determines those who can practice law, lays down the necessary requisites for its
practice as well as the guidelines for the curricula of law schools. It is proposed that the Supreme Court include
in their guidelines a program where law students and law schools can get involved in the decongestion project
of the government by providing the necessary legal manpower–free of charge–to check on the cases of the youth
behind bars and work for the release of those that should be released.

        The second aspect of this policy is a change in the way juvenile delinquents and other children-in-con-
flict-with-the-law are treated and viewed by the law. The Bureau of Jail Management and Penology will be
asked to reorganize itself with the coordination of the Department of Social Welfare and Services. The Legis-
lature will be asked to draft a law providing for the expropriation of abandoned buildings, and after payment of
fair market price, such will be taken over by the BJMP and DSWD for the creation of the new center for juvenile
delinquents and children-in-conflict-with-the-law who are serving a sentence.

        The center will be set-up similar to a rehabilitation center with ward-like rooms for the detainees and
areas where lectures and classes will be held for skills training and development. It is in this area that classes
will be held and training conducted. A possible tie-up to help teach these members of the youth would be to
teach them how to make brooms, for example, which the government could buy from the center–a fund under
each person’s name–and give to the sanitation workers of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority who
apparently have to buy their own equipment when they clean our streets.
       Finally, a component of this proposed policy is a dialogue with business leaders and an accompanying

                                                             27
legislation that prohibits discriminating against graduates of this program from being hired for future employ-
ment. It is found that despite rehabilitation, release from a penal institution and clearance from the National
Bureau of Investigation, people find it hard to be employed and given a chance to start anew. The foregoing
proposed policy seeks to give that much needed break to desperately most marginalized members of the youth
sector. Confidentiality of their records and exemption from disclosure of the specifics of their former incarcera-
tion shall be part of the accompanying statute for this proposal.




                                                 28
                                  TEACHERS FOR THE COUNTRY
A. Broad Equity Issue to be Addressed by the Policy:
       • Improving access to social services, infrastructure and utilities

B. Proponent Details:
Name                    : EIRENE JHONE E. AGUILA
Address                 : 15-D Avelino St. Xavierville II, QC
Telephone Nos.          : (632) 8170016; (63917)8114578
Fax Nos.                : (632) 8105513
Email address           : eirenejhoneaguila@gmail.com

1. What is the problem/issue on inequity/exclusion that the proposed policy will address?

         A United Nations study on the state of education in the region reveals that public expenditure on educa-
tion is a mere 3.5% of GDP. This is less than our neighbors who are more progressive than us. On a positive
note, however, according to the same study, the Philippines, together with Malaysia, Maldives, Thailand, and
Vietnam have a high chance of achieving or have achieved Universal Primary Education and the Millennium
Development Goals for education. Unfortunately, net enrollment rates between 1990 and 2000 show a decrease
in the Philippines. There is likewise a decrease in those that proceed to higher levels of education.

       A brief description on the USAID web page has this to say of Philippine education:
               “Once one of the best in all of Asia, the education system of the Philippines has
               deteriorated significantly in recent years, both in terms of quality and access. The
               fundamental causes of this decline are slow economic growth, inadequate gov-
               ernment revenues and rapid population growth. These factors contribute to poor
               quality teacher training, shortage of teachers, overcrowded and under-equipped
               classrooms, increasing drop-out rates and insufficient access to education for the
               poor.”

       This policy seeks to alleviate in some way one of the problems identified above, in the hope that one of
these days, Philippine education can reclaim its rightful place on the world map.

        Teacher shortage… Quality teacher shortage. Significant to the shortage of teachers in the country is
that due to the relatively low salary accorded to professors and teachers, our teachers usually opt for greener
pastures abroad by working as au pairs, nannies, domestic helpers and if they’re lucky, find employment as
actual teachers. As such, we have huge classes and poor quality teachers that are at the forefront of molding
the minds of our youth. It is noteworthy to state that this shortage affects mostly those enrolled in the public
education sector since the salary scale is definitely not sufficient to keep them there, thus causing the children
of the underprivileged sector to suffer the most.

2. What are the objectives of the proposed policy?

        This policy of TEACHERS FOR THE COUNTRY is aimed at reducing the ratio of the number of
students per teacher. In this manner, quality education is achieved and students are encouraged to remain in
school.

        Also, this policy works for the betterment of the youth in general as they are given a chance at getting
a college diploma without the need of cashing out a lot of investment. The payback mechanism in the form of
years of teaching service, after the degree has been earned, allows for them to pursue higher education and get
the diploma which will give them the opportunity to improve their lot in life.
        Finally, an objective of the policy is to enable the government to have substantial savings on the salary
of teachers so that in the same process, they can increase the salary of their tenured professors and provide for
other services to school children such as school meals or snacks, better books, better classrooms and the like.

3. Who will benefit from the proposed policy (target groups) and how will they benefit? How will the policy
address inequities or increase/improve opportunities for the target groups to contribute to and share in develop-
ment?

                                                            29
        Immediate beneficiaries of this policy are the students who avail of the study now, pay later scheme.
This will be available to qualifying students who will be taking up education as their course in college. Their
free/subsidized college education frees up some money for their families to spend on other things, such as put-
ting up businesses, putting through school the younger siblings, etc.

        Once they finish their tertiary education and pass a board exam for teachers, they will then be asked to
render service to their country and serve as teachers in public schools for a minimal allowance until such time
that they are able to repay their own education. This then gives us the needed teachers for our public schools.
And since these are college graduates of good schools and board exam passers, there will be an assurance at
least that they are competent to teach. Immediately, our children enrolled in public schools stand to benefit from
this–classroom sizes are reduced and more personalized education is instilled in the system.

         Finally, the problem of below-par conditions in our public schools will also be addressed. Since govern-
ment is able to save on salary of these neophyte teachers, government can augment other areas of spending for
public schools. More specifically, public school children may be given the necessary food allowance, better
facilities, etc. A study reveals that two of the primary reasons of dropout in schools may be attributed to child
labor and lack of nutrition in the children. By virtue of the savings in this proposal, government resources may
be channeled to these areas and benefit the school children some more.

4. Please summarize the proposed policy measure–what are its elements, who should adopt it as a policy, and
how it should be translated to policy (e.g. via legislation)?

        In essence, the policy is a delayed payment scheme for deserving high school Filipino students who wish
to pursue higher education and take up Education as a concentration in college. After a screening process, they
will be given the chance to take up Education in college without having to pay for it or at subsidized rates. Dur-
ing their practicum, they will be required to be teachers’ assistants in universities, high schools, pre-schools, etc.
around the country depending on their field of concentration. After which, upon graduation and their passing in
the state boards, they will be required to teach in the public schools in the country at minimal salary–a payback
for their free education. They will not be allowed to teach abroad until after they have paid for their free tertiary
education by rendering service in the country’s schools.

        In order to effect the above proposal, there needs to be a law passed for free/subsidized college education
for the above mentioned group. Adjustments in the national budget will also be needed to rechannel the savings
and put them into food coupon service for public school children or repair of their buildings and other similar
improvements.

       Dialogue with universities, schools and colleges to have a slot reserved in their education program for
the high school student chosen to avail of the program. Their cooperation will likewise be sought for them to
allow student interns or apprentices to assist their tenured professors during the summer so that they can learn
from them.

         The Bureau of Immigration and Deportation as well as the Department of Labor will likewise be in-
structed to devise a scheme to ensure that the graduates of the program remain in the country as professors and
for proper guidelines to be drawn up to govern this special set-up. This is akin to the required military service
most countries have–but this time it is required for those who will be scholars of the program and their service
is not in armed conflict resolution but in molding the minds of the future of the nation.




                                                    30
                POVERTY ALLEVIATION STANDARDIZATION PROGRAM
A. Broad Equity Issue to be Addressed by the Policy:
       ·      Increasing incomes/ income opportunities
       ·      Strengthening participation in decision-making (voice and influence)

B. Proponent Details:
Name                    : Grizelda Mayo-Anda
Address                 : No. 271-E Malvar St., Puerto Princesa City, Palawan
Telephone Nos.          : (048)4334076
Fax Nos.                : (048)4335183
E-mail                  : gerthie@mozcom.com

Poverty Alleviation Standardization Program (PASP)

        The PASP is essentially a principle for implementing relevant provisions of the Local Government Code
(RA 7160) as it applies to poverty alleviation, and other funding mechanisms available to local government
units that measure the impact of intervention in alleviating rural poverty. It introduces a set of best practice
standards for poverty-targeted programs in order to encourage strategic and meaningful public investment in
this area. It employs a set of participatory planning tools and a community-based monitoring mechanism that
LGUs and/or non-profit organizations can adopt as a guiding principle in systematizing its poverty alleviation
programs and projects in a given area. The goal of the project is to optimize available funding and resources in a
project area and significantly reduce poverty incidence in the same area. By the introduction of a rating system
for poverty alleviation programs, PASP hopes to promote genuine poverty alleviation programs as an attractive
social investment strategy and optimize benefits to the rural communities.

1. What is the problem/issue on inequality/exclusion that the proposed policy will address?
        The resources that are commonly available to local government units in pursuing poverty alleviation
strategies are often limited to portions of their internal revenue allocation, particularly the 20 percent development
fund provided for by RA 7160. Even that is in itself often inadequate, especially for rural areas. It is usually left
to the creativity and political will of local executives and development planners how such bare resources can be
maximized to serve their constituencies. Planning tends to give premium on short-term needs or priority needs,
thus neglecting the importance of strategic investments to generate future long-term impacts on the poverty
situation of a given area.

         The capacity of local governments to raise funds to supplement internal revenue allotment (IRA)
sources and other mechanisms including congressional funds needs to be addressed in a strategic manner if we
are to create a dent on the Philippine poverty situation. Unfortunately however, there have been little efforts
to institutionalize anti-poverty alleviation interventions in the grassroots level, even as this proposal remains
cognizant of the importance of national level programs addressed by relevant line agencies.

        Local government planners continue to be hindered by the tendency to contextualize planning using
the short-term goals of elected officials as the timeframe. As a result, many projects designed for the poor are
often crafted in such a way as to generate short-term impacts, as opposed to addressing systemic problems and
achieving strategic results in the campaign against poverty. This is not to fault local planning per se, but simply
to recognize that the pragmatism obtaining in most local government planning exists as a political reality. What
policy can do is to find ways to complement this reality with approaches that encourage long-term solutions and
strategic thinking, and giving due recognition to such initiatives.

        Donors interested in addressing the Philippine poverty problem have found it necessary to formulate
their respective strategies based on their own appreciation or definition of the problem situation. The problem
remains huge, however, that not a single funding institution has assumed the capacity to drastically impact on
the day-to-day lives of at least 60 million Filipinos considered as poor.

        This policy proposal is an attempt to start an initiative towards institutionalizing anti-poverty initiatives
in the framework of local governance. It encourages the development and scaling up of best practices from the
purok or sitio level of a given local government unit, to as far as the provincial level, by rewarding efforts of
local government units and civil society.

                                                              31
        Finally, it offers a venue for donors to collaborate and pool efforts towards a common direction that aims
to strengthen direct anti-poverty interventions in the rural areas.

       This proposed program has five key components for further development and implementation. These are
generally described as follows:

A.      PASP Certification System
        A certification system will be put in place to provide, on demand basis, a rating mark to sitios, barangay,
municipalities, or provinces undertaking a systematic program targeting the poverty situation in their respective
local government units. The certification system will be designed in such a way as to rate the project sites using
best practice standards in poverty alleviation programs. The criteria for certification will be developed as a
component of implementing this policy proposal.

       The best practice standards will be developed by the program utilizing successful experiences and
lessons learned globally. A working document to this effect will be crafted by competent experts and approved
for adoption by the PASP Council, as described below.

        Preliminary proposals in rating poverty alleviation projects:
        It is proposed that three categories or ratings will be awarded to a project that submits itself to voluntary
rating under the PASP certification system.

        PASP Category A: when an area is declared as a PASP area by the LGU concerned and commitments
are formalized (by way of a Memorandum of Agreement or MOA, ordinance, community resolution) as a PASP
site. Funding from 20% development fund or other monies are allocated to pursue project implementation. A
PASP management plan is developed and adopted by the LGU concerned.

       PASP Category B: when at least 2 pilot projects are considered successfully implemented and efforts
have been exerted by the LGU concerned to scale up their interventions that aim to maximize results.

      PASP Category C: when poverty incidence is reduced in the target area and significant targets in the
PASP management plan is achieved and verified by an independent verification body.

B.      Incentive Program
        An incentive program is proposed to be put in place, with the objective of encouraging LGUs to enlist
in the PASP program by committing certain local funds to addressing the local poverty situation in a strategic
manner.

       The incentive program may be developed along the lines of awarding supplemental or match funding
to the LGU concerned in order to maximize positive benefits to the communities. Other incentives may be
conceptualized and adopted by the PASP Council, described below.

       Individual and institutional awards may also be granted by the program to individuals and groups,
including non-government organizations and private citizens who are considered to have been instrumental in
achieving success for the program.

C.     Technical Support
       A nationally created body will be formed, either as a national government program or a private
collaboration project of multilateral/bilateral donors or a combination of them, which shall provide on demand
technical assistance to LGUs enlisting in the PASP program. Technical assistance may be extended to the LGUs
concerned in terms of advice and facilitation of PASP planning exercises, monitoring and evaluation systems
and participatory project identification and project implementation.

D.     Monitoring and Evaluation
       The nationally created body will develop a monitoring and evaluation system at the outset of the
program’s implementation that will be tasked mainly to track the implementation of the program and provide
adaptive management capability to the national body overseeing the program’s implementation.




                                                    32
E.      Institutional Mechanism/The PASP Council
        A PASP Council is proposed to be created by either the national government as a priority program, or
through a collaboration of bilateral/multilateral donors. It is proposed that the program be adopted by the World
Bank under its poverty alleviation program, as well as by USAID, ADB, JBIC and private donors who are
interested to align their poverty alleviation projects in this initiative. The Council may also include representation
from local government units through bodies such as the league of governors, mayors and municipalities. Networks
of non-government organizations may also be included in the Council.

The Way Forward
        It is suggested that the program be piloted in the initial stage to target the poorest of the poor communities
selected nationally to be determined based on official poverty profiles of provinces and municipalities that can
be obtained from relevant government agencies such as NEDA and the National Statistics Office. To this end, it
is proposed that an information and education campaign on the PASP program be conducted to encourage LGU
and civil society participation in the program. Other LGUs who may not be identified in the list of priority areas
may apply voluntarily and could be accepted into the program in recognition of the demand-driven needs.




                                                              33
                               AQUACULTURE FOR FISHERFOLK
A. Broad Equity Issue to be addressed by the Policy:
       Increasing incomes/income opportunities

B. Proponent Details:
Name                    : Jose A. Mabulay Jr. and Luisito Uy
Address                 : An TANDAYA Foundation, Pier 2, Brgy. 4, Catbalogan, Samar
Telephone Nos.          : (055) 251-2859, (055) 251-5446, 0928-754-5880
Fax Nos.                : 055-251-2859 or 055-251-5446
Email address           : donmabulay@gmail.com, ocotantante2005@gmail.com

1. What is the problem/issue on inequity/exclusion that the proposed policy will address?

a. The declining income of the fisherfolks
        The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) divides the fishing industry into three sectors: the
aquaculture, commercial fisheries, and municipal fisheries sectors. Those in the municipal fisheries sector, called
“fisherfolk” here, are the biggest in number (675,677 or 68% of the industry) and yet have the lowest share in
production output with only 29.4% (988,938 MT), according to its Fisheries Annual Report 2002. This Report’s
assessment of the poor chances of increasing the productivity of the fisherfolk is clear: “Yield from capture
fisheries is now widely accepted to have reached a point of declining productivity, with unabated problems on
over fishing, destructive fishing methods, pollution and loss of marine habitat.” Worse, the population of the
high value fish species have been targeted for so long that the fishers are left with lower value species as they
are now “fish(ing) down the food chain.” Their dwindling productivity is thus aggravated by the decline of the
value of their catch, hence the grim prospects of even just maintaining their current income levels.

b. A growing aquaculture sector – a worsening exclusion of the fisherfolk
        The BFAR report notes that the “aquaculture sector showed a remarkable growth of 9.6%”, and has
now the highest share (39.7% or 1,338,175 MT) of the fishing industry’s production. This growth will escalate
with its increasing links to the world market, as “Fish is the most heavily traded food commodity and the
and the fastest –growing agricultural trade commodity on international markets.” [State of World fisheries and
Aquaculture 2004 (SOFIA 2004), FAO]. Moreover, “Saving Fish and Fishers,” a World Bank report projects
that the “real fish prices are estimated to rise by 4 to 16 percent by 2020, while meat price will fall 3 percent”.
Aquaculture’s growth is irreversible, hence the need to probe its implications.

         The growth of the local aquaculture sector is aggravating the exclusion of the fisherfolk who cannot
engage in it due to high capital requirements. Worse, such growth aggravates the poverty of the fisherfolk.
Firstly, its growth through more fishponds involves clearing of mangroves functioning as spawning grounds and
nurseries of marine products. It thus reduces their catch due to the reduction of the productivity of their fishing
grounds. Secondly, its expansion to the sea through fish pens, fish cages, etc., automatically means less area for
the fisher folks to fish on. Thirdly, while arguably, the sea is vast for fishing–the areas suited for aquaculture are
much less so. The sea-farms of the rich are thus cumulatively decreasing the areas available for the fisherfolk if/
when they eventually have the means to engage in aquaculture. In short, the growth of aquaculture exacerbates
the sufferings of the fisherfolk.

c. A collateral damage–the source of protein for the poor
        The decreasing production of the fisherfolk, translates into less accessible and affordable fish to the
growing ranks of the poor. Furthermore, as aquaculture grows. So will the demand for fish meal, which is largely
derived from low value fish, also the staple source of protein of the poor. The proliferating aquaculture farms
will thus be competing with the expanding ranks of the poor for the shrinking catch of the fisherfolk.

2. What are the objectives of the proposed policy?
        The decreasing income and increasing marginalization of the fisherfolk, and the threatened source of
protein of the poor are clearly major “development with equity” issues. The response to these should go beyond
the mantra of “alternative livelihoods.” After all, this covers only the “shift from” not the “shift aspects of
the intervention,” which requires finding “alternative livelihoods” for hundreds of thousands of fisherfolk in a
country with millions of unemployed. If ever there are, what about the protein needs of the poor?


                                                   34
        Paradoxically, with the increasing demand and price for fish worldwide, and the fisherfolk’s familiarity
with live fishes and the sea, aquaculture especially suited for the fisherfolk is the only “alternative livelihood”
that can absorb them in large numbers, and where their experience in fishing makes them competitive. With
them engaging in aquaculture, they become participants and beneficiaries rather than victims, and continue
providing for the protein needs of the poor. Making the fisherfolk and aquaculture fit each other should be a
priority concern of the government’s Poverty Alleviation and Job Generation campaign.

b. The General Policy and its Objectives
       The government’s Poverty Alleviation and Job Campaign should adopt the policy of promoting
“Aquaculture for Fisherfolk,” with the objectives of a) developing technologies for more forms of low-capital
aquaculture, b) enabling fisherfolk to engage in aquaculture through technical and financial assistance, and c)
ensuring the availability of choice coastal waters for their aquaculture ventures.

        The above objectives can also be viewed as the components in policy implementation. While mutually
reinforcing, each can standalone. Their respective outputs have intrinsic value and could later be integrated with
those of the other components.

       · Developing technologies for more aquaculture products that can profitably raised with low capital. This
       should lower the capital requirements for profitable aquaculture or improve the profitability of those
       that are already affordable, like seaweed culture. This widens the range of enterprises the fisherfolk
       can choose from, and the reach of the resources for financial assistance to more fisherfolk. A promising
       research thrust is growing marine products by approximately their diet in the wild, e.g., growing herbivore
       fish species fed with the algae/plants they eat in the wilds, and for growing those feeds efficiently. This
       minimizes or eliminates the cost of feeds and pollution from feed waste, and sea farming the feeds could
       even be a spin off industry that can generate more jobs.

               The WB and FAO reports make no mention of a similar thrust in research, hence this may be a
       pioneering work. Our researchers will also have the advantage of having more materials to tinker with,
       as the Philippines is one of the richest in marine biodiversity: second in sea-grass species, third in reef
       fish and coral species, fourth in marine fish species, and seventh in mangrove species. (http://www.
       reefbase.org)

       · Technical and financial assistance to trigger a bandwagon effect for aquaculture among fisherfolk. Two
       factors make the ranks of the fisherfolk ready for a bandwagon effect: a) the widely observed declining
       productivity of the fishing grounds, hence their deteriorating economic conditions, and c) the strong
       gaya-gaya culture. In any given area, we thus need only a critical mass of fisherfolk really and visibly
       earning more from aquaculture than from capture fishing for the desired effect. Moreover, the ranks of
       the fisherfolk’s uneven financial capabilities, with some having more than the others. As the bandwagon
       gathers momentum, more fisherfolk would require less financial assistance to get on board.

       · Installing equitable tenurial arrangements for the municipal waters that are suited to aquaculture;
       Generally, this aims to ensure that the fisherfolk will always have the choice “piece of the sea”, whenever
       they want to venture into aquaculture. Two issues have to be addressed: a) threats of the fisherfolk’s
       permanent exclusion from large choice areas occupied by sea-farms of rich and influential investors;
       and b) giving security of tenure over areas to attract fisherfolk to go into aquaculture, but eventually
       discouraging others to follow suit when the areas left are not as attractive anymore. Also, without such
       arrangements, absentee “sealordism” could conceivably creep in.

         Arguably, we are now witnessing the transition from capture fishing to aquaculture as the dominant
mode of producing fish. This trend is neither recent nor local. Globally, “Developments during the past two
years confirm the trends already observed at the end of the 1990s: capture fisheries production is stagnating,
aquaculture output is expanding …” (SOFIA 2004) Historically, in a parallel transition in land–from hunting/
gathering to agriculture–the latter’s dominance became permanent due to its greater productivity. But it also
institutionalized private land ownership systems which spawned today’s agrarian inequities. Today’s historic
challenge is to properly manage this transition in the sea, to continuously increase productivity and permanently
ensure equity, mainly through the policy of “Aquaculture for fisherfolk.”
       Incidentally, the WB report has reservations about aquaculture as alternative livelihood for fisherfolk
based on experiences in previous projects, while recognizing its potentials for poverty alleviation and food

                                                            35
security. In the light of the challenge, the WB should decisively pursue the latter. Those projects should then be
treated as prototypes to develop better project designs–not as basis for not supporting similar projects.

d. Who should adopt the policy?
        The “Aquaculture for fisherfolk” and any of its components can be adopted by the government, and by
any government or private development agency. The President can issue an Executive Order (EO) instructing
government agencies and institutions involved in its Poverty Alleviation and Job Generation Programs to make
“Aquaculture for fisherfolk” their priority program or program component. Any of the following/institutions
can be covered by such Executive Order–or, without such issuance, can on its own adopt as policy, the inclusion
or prioritization of the appropriate components, which fall under its existing mandate.

       · BFAR should set up a database on the coastal areas suited for aquaculture and the matching specific
       forms of aquaculture it recommends; support LGU initiatives and monitor efforts for best practices that
       can be replicated elsewhere; expand its current financial and technical assistance to fisherfolk wanting
       to go aquaculture.

       · Research Institutions:
       Those dealing on fisheries and marine biology – can adopt the policy of including or prioritizing the
       types of researches described above (#2.c.)

       · Those dealing on social issues – can adopt the policy of including or prioritizing researches on the
       existing tenurial arrangements in areas where there is aquaculture, here and in other countries; and on
       the appropriate application of “common pool resource” (CPR) concepts in formulating equitable and
       sustainable tenurial arrangements.

       · Generally, NGOs can adopt a policy setting project/program a smaller version of “Aquaculture for
       fisherfolk,” or any of its components. Two types of NGOs would require only certain adjustments in
       their current projects/programs: a) those in Livelihood and Enterprise Development (LED), and those
       in Coastal Resource Management (CRM) or marine conservation. The adjustments will not create
       additional burdens, and could even improve their operations.

       · Those with LED projects - They only have to adopt a policy of including fisherfolk as target clients
       and making aquaculture as priority for assistance. For those dealing with as many enterprises as their
       clients, having many clients engaged in agriculture simplifies supervision and backstopping work. In
       aquaculture, unlike in land-based production enterprises, they do not have to worry about finding areas
       near the roads to facilitate the transport of product, nor contend with land rents.

       · Those in CRM and marine conservation - two of the most common problems in CRM are finding
       alternative livelihoods for fisherfolk to ease fishing pressure, and ensuring the continuity and consistency
       in guarding Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). With aquaculture as alternative livelihood for the PO
       members and on the condition that the sea-farms are located near or around the MPAs --- both problems
       are solved.

       · LGUs should legislate the policy of giving fisherfolk priority rights over their respective municipal
       waters. The manner in which such priority rights can be exercised will vary from one LGU/area to
       another, especially regarding the issue of security to tenure for fisherfolk without discouraging others to
       follow suit.

       · To start initiatives in any or combinations of the three components, donor agencies can adopt as policy
       the inclusion or prioritization of “Aquaculture for Fisherfolk” and accordingly reserve the needed funds
       and issue calls for proposals. Incidentally, the FAO and WB papers do not mention yet the equity/
       inclusion issues that can be generated by the transition from capture fishing to aquaculture as the dominant
       mode of production. So, far both consider the decline of the world’s fisheries as a global concern. WB
       recommends areas such as “microfinance systems”, formulation of integrated coastal zone development
       … plans” and the “Control and implementation of other environmental standards,” as “External funding
       entry points” for the international donor community.




                                                  36
3. Who will benefit from the proposed policy (target groups) and how will they benefit?

a. The fisherfolk, as a sector, are the target group. Those among them who engage in aquaculture will have
an alternative or additional source of income, hence his income will increase. As they enhance their skills,
discipline, and technical knowledge of the craft, many of them will “graduate” to the higher end of the business
and access the lucrative expanding global market for fish.

b. Those who are remaining in capture fishing will be benefit in the form of bigger catch from a more bountiful
sea. As a critical mass of fisherfolk go into aquaculture. Fishing pressure will correspondingly decrease thus
allowing the sea to regenerate. This impact will be more pronounced in or near CRRM areas, as the MPAs get
to be guarded more effectively, by the PO members with sea-farms around them.

c. The poor who depend on fish as a source of cheap protein will benefit from the production of fisherfolk engaged
in aquaculture as their low investment enables them to sell at lower price. Better environmental conditions will
enable those still in capture fishing to continue supplying them with cheap protein.

d. The NGOs as described above will benefit in terms of the improvement of their operations.

e. The Government’s Poverty Alleviation/Job Generation efforts, will also benefit in terms of the improvement
of their operations. Also, “Aquaculture for Fisherfolk” offers strategic over land-based production projects:

       · The local and, later, the global market for the products are stable, and the real prices ever rising.
       · In terms of support systems, the sea is an “open highway,” hence there is no need for additional “farm
       to market roads and bridges” every time a new area is opened up for production;
       · For the same amount of capitalization, more outputs can be derived in sea-based than in land-based
       production. For example, the sea can be a multi-layer production area with minimal cost for each
       additional layer.
       · Compared to the situation in land where agricultural lands are usually owned by other people than the
       poor farmers, there are still vast areas of the sea that are open for agriculture for the fisherfolk.

D. Summary of the proposed policy

1. The elements of the proposed policy:
       The government should adopt a policy of promoting “Aquaculture for Fisherfolk” as a priority concern
of the government’s Poverty Alleviation and Job Generation campaign, with the following objectives or
components:

a. Developing technologies for more aquaculture products that can be profitably raised with low capital – this
aims to widen the choices of the fisherfolk on the forms of aquaculture they can profitably engage in, and the
reach of the resources for financial assistance to more fisherfolk.

b. Installing equitable tenurial systems for the country’s coastal waters suited to aquaculture – this aims to
ensure that the fisherfolk will have the choice “piece of the sea”, whenever they venture into aquaculture.

c. Technical and Financial assistance that aims to trigger a bandwagon effect for agriculture among fisherfolk.

2. The Beneficiaries of the proposed policy:

a. The fisherfolk, as a sector, are the target group. Those among them who engage in agriculture will have an
alternative or additional source of income, hence their income will increase. Those who remain in capture
fishing will benefit through bigger catch from a more bountiful sea, as fishing pressure eases with many among
them shifting to aquaculture.

b. The poor who depend on fish, as a source of cheap protein, will benefit from the production of fisherfolk
engaged in aquaculture as their low investment enables them to sell at lower price. Better environmental
conditions will enable those still in capture fishing to continue supplying them with cheap protein.
c. The NGOs as described above will benefit in terms of the improvement of their operations.

d. The Government’s Poverty Alleviation and Job Generation efforts will also benefit in terms of the improvement
                                                           37
of their operations. It can also benefit from the strategic advantages “Aquaculture for Fisherfolk” offers over
land-based production projects:

3. Those who should adopt the policy

a. The government should declare the policy of promoting “Aquaculture for Fisherfolk” in its Poverty Alleviation
and Job Generation efforts through an Executive Order by the President. The EO should also mandate the
appropriate entities (BFAR, Research Institutions on Fisheries and Social or Marine Sciences, LGUs with large
fishing constituencies, NGOs in LED and CRM and marine conservation) to get on board.

b. In the absence of such EO, these entities can, on their own initiative, adopt a policy of including or prioritizing
the components falling under their respective mandates. They should then establish linkage among themselves
and conduct advocacy work for the adoption of the policy by the national government.

c. Donor agencies can adopt as policy the inclusion or prioritization of “Aquaculture for Fisherfolk” or any of
its components, accordingly reserve the needed funds, and issue calls for proposals.




                                                    38
    TO MAXIMIZING THE USE OF FORENSIC DNA TECHNOLOGY IN THE
PHILIPPINE CRIMINAL JUSTICE THROUGH THE MANDATORY COLLECTION,
 ANALYSIS AND PRESERVATION OF EVIDENCE COLLECTED FROM VICTIMS
                  AND SCENES OF SEXUAL ASSAULT
A. Broad Equity Issue to be addressed by the Policy:
         Move to maximizing the use of forensic DNA technology in the Philippine criminal justice through
the Mandatory collection, Analysis and preservation of evidence collected from victims and scenes of sexual
assault.

B. Proponent:
Name          : Dr. Maria Corazon A. de Ungria
Address       : DNA Analysis Laboratory, Natural Sciences Research Institute
                University of the Philippines, Diliman Campus
Telephone     : (632)9252865
Fax           : (632)9252965
Website       : www.dnaforensic.org
Email         : mcadu@uplink.com.ph

1. What is the problem/issue on inequity/exclusion that the proposed policy will address?

        A major problem in the Philippine criminal justice system is the overwhelming reliance on eyewitness
testimony in the investigation and prosecution of crimes, which may be influenced by many psychological and
social factors, despite the availability of modern forensic science techniques. This situation is further aggravated
by the lack of training of crime scene used in court. Hence, courts are not only deprived of objective physical
evidence that would assist in the fair and swift resolution of cases, but are constrained to give undue weight to
eyewitness testimonies that may be conflicting or even perjurious.
        In countries like the UK and USA, the routine use of forensic evidence including DNA has significantly
contributed to the acceleration of the investigation and resolution of cases. In the Philippines, the average period
of incarceration of an individual while his case is on trial, is from four to seven years (Free Legal Assistance
Group, 2005). Based on testimonial evidence, the court may still dismiss the case due to insufficient proof of
guild beyond reasonable doubt, and order the case to be dismissed. If the suspect was really responsible for the
crime, the decision would deprive the victim of her right to obtain justice as well as to move towards closure
and rehabilitation. If the suspect was in fact innocent of the crime, the period of incarceration largely determined
by the slow progression of case to trial, is irreplaceable in a person’s life. On a larger scale, the extended court
period for cases result in overcrowded jails and increased economic cost to the national government allocated
for prison maintenance.
        The incorporation of forensic DNA evidence in the Philippine criminal justice system is likely to expedite
the resolution of cases, particularly sexual assault cases. In one specific case, People vs. Paras (Branch 163
Pasig RTC), the availability generated by the UP-NSRI DNA Analysis Laboratory led to the acquittal of the
accused, four months after the submission of the DNA test results. Prior to the submission of DNA evidence, the
accused had already been incarcerated for six years, six months and twelve days. Most cases on Death Row were
convicted based on testimonial evidence. In the absence of any biological evidence collected during criminal
investigation, these cases have no recourse to appeal based on post-conviction DNA testing.

2. What are the objectives of the proposed policy?

        Generally, the proposed policy would require all relevant agencies, e.g. police, crime laboratories, and
hospitals to collect, handle and preserve evidence from victims and crime scenes. In particular, this policy
focuses on the mandatory collection, DNA analysis and storage of biological samples from sexual assault victims
and crime scenes. DNA evidence may be used to accelerate and focus criminal investigations by excluding
wrongly accused individuals and identifying probable suspects. This would decrease the possibility of wrongful
convictions and assist in the prosecution of the real perpetrator of the crime. The significant contribution of
objective DNA evidence is underscored in sexual abuse cases involving young children who are not capable of
identifying their assailant, or those who have been forbidden to do so because of existing familial relationship with
the perpetrator. Data provided by the Child Protection Network reveal that the majority of perpetrators in child
sexual abuse cases are related to the victim, e.g. fathers and stepfathers, brothers, uncles and grandfathers. The

                                                             39
identification of male-specific DNA may be analyzed to yield DNA profile that would assist in the prosecution of
the perpetrator by the victim’s family or by a child social worker, if the family refused to initiate any proceeding
in order to remove the perpetrator for the child’s immediate environment. The prompt identification of the
perpetrator is essential in the rehabilitation of the child.

       On the opposite end of the spectrum, the availability of objective DNA evidence would protect individuals
from false accusations of sexual abuse. In People vs. Paras (1999) already described earlier, inconsistencies
between the victim’s testimony and DNA evidence led to the acquittal of the accused. DNA evidence would
not only be useful during the progression of a case in the trial courts; but could even assist in the overturning a
conviction during appeal if post conviction FNA evidence is admitted. Notably, over 175 capital cases in the US
have had their convictions overturned on appeal based on post-conviction DNA evidence. Thus, there is also an
urgent need to address the issue of post-conviction DNA evidence in a country like the Philippines where the
implementation of the Death Penalty would render the results of an erroneous conviction irreversible.

3. Who will benefit from the proposed policy and how will they benefit? How will the policy address inequities
or improve the opportunity for the target group to contribute to and share in development?

        Thinks policy targets a wide spectrum of individuals namely judges, prosecution and defense lawyers,
criminal investigators, health care personnel, victims and their families, and those persons who have been
wrongly accused and their families. Members of the legal profession welcome the availability of objective
evidence such as DNA in order to provide more convincing evidence to support their respective claims (guilt
for the Prosecution and innocence for the Defense). When relevant, judges also order the conduct of DNA tests
to better evaluate the ‘truthfulness’ presented by the two adversarial groups, thereby increasing the standards by
which any given case is evaluated in court. Criminal investigators become more focused in their crime scene
investigations and are less subjected to false leads/claims which require time and money as well as slow down
the progression of case to trial.

        The immediate removal of the real perpetrator from the community, once properly identified, is a
proactive approach to facilitate the victim’s closure and subsequent rehabilitation, as well as for the protection
of other members of the community. This is important as many sex offenders are repeat offenders, continuing
their abuse of the same victim or other victims.

        The result benefits to the criminal justice system cannot be overemphasized. These benefits include
speedier disposition of cases, decongestion of jails and protection of the individual’s constitutional rights to
liberty and due process of law

4. Please summarize proposed policy measure–what are its elements, who should adopt it as a policy, and how
it should be translated to policy, e.g. via legislation?

        Because of the multi-sectoral nature of this policy that targets law enforcement (DOJ and DILG) and
government health units (DOH) as well as the need to appropriate funds, the elements of this proposal require
legislation. These elements include: a) mandatory collection of biological samples from victims of sexual assault
within 72 hours post-event by trained personnel; b) mandatory DNA analysis of biological evidence collected
under this condition; c) mandatory collection and DNA analysis of reference samples collected from suspected
offenders; d) training for all personnel involved from collection to analysis, and subsequent presentation of
evidence in court and e) establishment of a national repository center for storage of samples and DNA profiles
of suspected and convicted offenders.

        The recent developments of forensic DNA technology in the Philippines have laid the foundation needed
to ensure the success of this policy, once the appropriate legislation is passed. Firstly, the UP-NSRI DNA
Analysis Laboratory in collaboration with the Child Protection Network with funding from the World Bank has
been validating a rape investigation kit produced locally for collection and preservation of biological samples
from victims. In addition, the safe transport of evidence from regional centers to existing DNA laboratories
in Metro Manila has been addressed through the adoption of procedures by collaborating courier agencies.
Secondly, the mandatory training of legal professionals is already imposed by the Supreme Court though the
Mandatory Continuing Legal Education (MCLE) requirements prior to the renewal of lawyers’ licenses. Under
this program, the specific requirement of training in the use and limitation of forensic DNA evidence can be
prescribed for trial lawyers handling sexual assault cases. This requirement may be imposed by the Supreme
Court through their constitutional mandate of ‘legislating all maters of procedures in courts of law’.


                                                   40
        The Department of Health must also require selected medical and health care professionals who are in
charge of assisting victims to undergo training in the collection and handling of biological samples prior to the
renewals of hospital licenses. This is to ensure the availability of trained personnel in handling sexual assault
cases and rape investigation kits in all hospitals located in different parts of the archipelago. Police and crime
investigators should also include similar training as part of their continuing education program.

         Hence, the main thrust of this proposed policy is the appropriation of budget to purchase rape investigation
kits to be distributed to different crime labs, hospitals and health units and training of personnel in the use of such
kits; funds for the purchase of chemicals and reagents for the conduct of DNA analysis and the establishment of
a national repository center for the storage of evidence. Furthermore, a Board that reviews the implementation
of this policy as well as formulate the guidelines for operations must also be established.




                                                               41
                 MAKING LEGAL AID A CRITERION IN THE SELECTION
                      OF APPOINTMENTS TO THE JUDICIARY
A. Broad Equity Issue to be addressed by the Policy:
        Improving access to/ensuring fairness in the political and justice system by making the rendition of legal
aid service one of the criteria in the selection of nominees for appointment to the judiciary.

B. Proponent details:
Name                    : ATTY. JOSE M. JOSE
Address                 : Unit G7, Prince Plaza 1, 106 Legaspi Street, Legaspi Village, Makati City
Telephone               : 632 8125055
Facsimile               : 632 8125055
Email                   : jmjose64@yahoo.com

C. Guide Questions:
1. What is the problem/issue on inequity/exclusion that the proposed policy will address?

         At present, indigent parties are effectively prevented from resorting to the judicial process to resolve
their disputes due to the high cost litigation, a large portion of which involves the cost of hiring a lawyer. There
is, therefore, a public perception that litigation is only for the rich and powerful. Although there are government
offices like the Public Attorney’s Office and lawyer’s organizations such as the Integrated Bar of the Philippines
(IBP) that try to address this problem by providing free legal aid services, there are not enough lawyers who
render free legal aid services on a regular basis to cope with the growing demand. Legal aid is often seen as
nothing more than time and effort taken away from the lucrative side of law practice, rather than an essential
contribution to ensuring equal access to legal counsel for the rich and the poor.

2. What are the objectives of the proposed study?
        The proposed policy seeks to increase the number of competent and qualified lawyers who would render
free legal aid services by making legal aid criterion in the selection of the appointments to the judiciary. This
would provide indigent litigants with more opportunities to access the courts. At the same time, applicants to
the judiciary who are regularly exposed to legal aid work will gain a better understanding and appreciation of
the plight of indigents litigants, knowledge they can use when they become appointed as judges.

3. Who will benefit from the proposed policy (target groups) and how will they benefit? How will the policy address
inequities or increase/improve opportunities for the target group(s) to contribute to and share development?

         In the short term, the policy will directly benefit indigent litigants as there would be a larger pool of
lawyers who would handle legal aid cases. Indigents would then be able to get quality legal representation at
little or no cost, thereby restoring people’s faith in our judicial system. Further, indigent complainants need not
resort to extralegal means to resolve their disputes. In the long term, lawyers who regularly handle legal aid
cases would increase their social awareness and develop a social conscience as they realize that there is more to
law practice than merely handling cases for paying clients. The public perception that litigation is a rich man’s
game would be changed to that of a level playing field where one’s financial status would have little effect on
the outcome of a case. This would also make for better judges.

4. Please summarize the proposed policy measure–what are its elements, who should adopt it as a policy, and
how it should be translated to policy?

        The proposed policy would add the rendition of free legal aid service as one of the criteria to be used in
selecting applicants for nomination to the judiciary. This policy could be easily implemented without associated
costs by the Judicial and Bar Council by simply amending the Rules of the Judicial and Bar Council (JBC-
009) and inserting a question on the rendition of free legal aid services in the application / nomination form of
the applicant. All things being equal, lawyers who had done legal aid work would then be given preference or
priority over lawyers who have no such experience.




                                                   42
 PHOTOGRAPHY


43
             Raise the Roof
         Leo Borras, Naga City

  Sweet Corn Livelihood of Batangas
        Philippine Salt Industry
Raniel Jose M. Castañeda, Quezon City

         Thirst For Knowledge
        Joe Galvez, Makati City

 Saving the Sea Turtles of Caringo Island
   Joshua Guinto, Camarines Norte

             Pay It Forward
          So Young, So Heavy
     Victor D. Kintanar, Cebu City

         My Wooden Scooter
             Going Online
   David C. Leprozo Jr, Baguio City

          Money On Garbage
             Goldfingers
   Alnoe Tabanera Paler, Cebu City

              Visualize
  Clark Duterte Pelaez Jr, Cebu City

 Save the Rice Terraces and Its Farmers
  Alford Marion C. Ronduen, Cavite

WUTHLE: Rebuilding Lives after Leprosy
    Cleober Sinues, Pasig City

      Surfing the Web in Marawi
          Learning To Write
             Bayanihan
           Muslim Scholar
     Bobby Timonera, Iligan City

              Instill Life
           Building Dreams
           Winds of Change
            Pouring Grace
            Afternoon bath
 Vicente Jaime Villafranca, Pasig City

             Bayanihan
  Kerwin Kaiser C. Yu, Quezon City


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