Respiratory

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					Respiratory System
Respiratory System
• Primary Function
  – Gas Exchange
• Secondary Functions
  – Speech
  – pH regulation of internal
   environment
• Anatomical Divisions
  – Conducting pathways
  – Respiratory regions
    • sites of gas exchange
• Conducting
  Pathways
  – Upper
    respiratory tract
     • Nasal cavity
     • Pharynx
• Nasal Cavity
  – Functions
    • warms air
    • humidifies
     air
    • filters air
–Features of
 Nasal Cavity
  • Conchae
  • Ciliated
    epithelial
    mucosa
• Nasal cavity
  communicates
  with nasal
  sinuses
• Pharynx
  (refer to digestive system notes)
• Pharynx
  – Functions
    • food and air pathways
    • resonating chamber for voice
    • swallowing
– 3 divisions
 • Nasopharynx
 • Oropharynx
 • Laryngopharynx
• Structural features of pharynx
  – Lined with a stratified squamous
    epithelium
  – Skeletal muscle in wall
• Additional structural features
  – Eustachian tube opening
  – uvula
  – tonsils
• Lower Respiratory Tract
  – Larynx
  – Trachea
  – Bronchi
  – Bronchioles
• Larynx
• Larynx
• Structure of the Larynx
• Structure of the Larynx
  – Cartilages
_
Epiglottis



 _
Epiglottis


 _




 Arytenoid
Epiglottis


 Corniculate
 Arytenoid
 _
    Epiglottis


     Corniculate
     Arytenoid

    Cricoid
_
          Epiglottis


           Corniculate
           Arytenoid

Thyroid   Cricoid
          Epiglottis

            Cuneiform
           Corniculate
           Arytenoid

Thyroid   Cricoid
• Structure of the Larynx
  – Cartilages
• Structure of the Larynx
  – Cartilages &
• Structure of the Larynx
  – Cartilages & ligaments
• Structure of the Larynx
  – Cartilages & ligaments
  – Muscles
• Structure of the Larynx
  – Cartilages & ligaments
  – Muscles &
• Structure of the Larynx
  – Cartilages & ligaments
  – Muscles & bone
• Structure of the Larynx
  – Cartilages & ligaments
  – Muscles & bone
  – Lined with a mucous
   membrane
goblet cell cilia mucus
• Other Features of Larynx
• Other Features of Larynx
  –Ventricular folds („false
   vocal folds‟)
• Other Features of Larynx
  –Ventricular folds („false
   vocal folds‟)
  – Vocal folds
• Other Features of Larynx
  –Ventricular folds („false
   vocal folds‟)
  – Vocal folds
• Other Features of Larynx
  –Ventricular folds („false
   vocal folds‟)
  – Vocal folds
  – Glottis
• Primary Function of the
  Larynx
• Primary Function of the
  Larynx
  – Sound production




      -------------------------
• Primary Function of the
  Larynx
  – Sound production




      -------------------------
Cricothyroid Muscle
Cricothyroid Muscle
• Primary Function of the
  Larynx
  – Sound production
• Secondary Functions of the
  Larynx
  – Prevents food & drink from
   entering lower respiratory
   tract
    •ventricular folds and vocal
     folds
• Secondary Functions of the
  Larynx
  – Prevents food & drink from
   entering lower respiratory
   tract
    •ventricular folds and vocal
     folds
• Secondary Functions of the
  Larynx
  – Prevents food & drink from
   entering lower respiratory
   tract
    •ventricular folds and vocal
     folds
    •epiglottis
• Trachea
  („Windpipe‟)
   – General
    features
     • 1 inch
      diameter
     • 4-5 inches
      long
       – 1st inch
         in neck
– Composed
 of 15-20 “C”
 rings
– Rings linked
 by annular
 ligaments
• Bronchi
• Bronchi (singular: bronchus)
• Bronchi (singular: bronchus)
  – Primary
• Bronchi (singular: bronchus)
  – Primary
    • to lungs
• Bronchi (singular: bronchus)
  – Primary
    • to lungs
• Bronchi (singular: bronchus)
  – Primary
    • to lungs
  – Secondary
• Bronchi (singular: bronchus)
  – Primary
    • to lungs
  – Secondary
• Bronchi (singular: bronchus)
  – Primary
    • to lungs
  – Secondary (lobar)
• Bronchi (singular: bronchus)
  – Primary
    • to lungs
  – Secondary (lobar)
    • to lobes of lungs
• Bronchi (singular: bronchus)
  – Primary
    • to lungs
  – Secondary (lobar)
    • to lobes of lungs
• Bronchi (singular: bronchus)
  – Primary
    • to lungs
  – Secondary (lobar)
    • to lobes of lungs
  – Tertiary
• Bronchi (singular: bronchus)
  – Primary
    • to lungs
  – Secondary (lobar)
    • to lobes of lungs
  – Tertiary (segmental)
• Bronchi (singular: bronchus)
  – Primary
    • to lungs
  – Secondary (lobar)
    • to lobes of lungs
  – Tertiary (segmental)
    • to bronchopulmonary
     segments of lungs
• Bronchioles
• Bronchioles
  – Branch off of tertiary
   bronchi
• Bronchioles
  – Branch off of tertiary
   bronchi
  – Less than 1 mm in diameter
• Bronchioles
  – Branch off of tertiary
   bronchi
  – Less than 1 mm in diameter
  – Smooth muscle in walls
• Bronchioles
  – Branch off of tertiary
   bronchi
  – Less than 1 mm in diameter
  – Smooth muscle in walls
• Bronchioles
  – Branch off of tertiary
   bronchi
  – Less than 1 mm in diameter
  – Smooth muscle in walls
    • exhibit
     bronchoconstriction
• Bronchioles
  – Branch off of tertiary
   bronchi
  – Less than 1 mm in diameter
  – Smooth muscle in walls
    • exhibit
     bronchoconstriction &
     bronchodilation
• Terminal Bronchioles
• Terminal Bronchiole
  – Last bronchioles before
   alveoli
• Terminal Bronchioles
  – Last bronchioles before
   alveoli
  – Deliver air to lung lobules
Review:
• Anatomical Divisions of
  Respiratory System
  – Conducting pathways
  – Respiratory regions: sites of
   gas exchange
    •respiratory bronchioles
    •alveoli
• Respiratory Bronchioles
  – have alveoli
• Alveoli
• Alveoli (singular: alveolus)
• Alveoli (singular: alveolus)
  –Sites of gas exchange
• Alveoli (singular: alveolus)
  –Sites of gas exchange
• Alveoli (singular: alveolus)
  –Sites of gas exchange
  –Form the respiratory
   membrane with alveolar
   capillaries
• Alveoli (singular: alveolus)
  –Sites of gas exchange
  –Form the respiratory
   membrane with alveolar
   capillaries
• Alveoli (singular: alveolus)
  –Sites of gas exchange
  –Form the respiratory
   membrane with alveolar
   capillaries
  –Secrete surfactant
• Structure of Lungs
  –
• Structure of Lungs
  – Alveoli
  – Bronchi and Bronchioles
  – Reticular CT with lots of
    elastic fibers
  – Blood vessels and nerves
• Pleural Cavities
• Pleural membranes
  – Visceral pleura
  – Parietal pleura
• Pulmonary Ventilation
  – Movement of air into and
   out of the alveoli
•    Pulmonary ventilation
     can be explained by:
    1. Boyle‟s law: P ~ 1/V
    2. And the basic concept
       that a given volume of
       air will move from a
       region of high air
       pressure into a region of
       low air pressure
• Ventilation Steps
  – Inspiration (quiet or
   forced)
  – Expiration (quiet or
   forced)
–Muscles of quiet inspiration
 •Diaphragm
 •External intercostals
• Why does air enter the lungs
  when these muscles contract?
–Muscles of forced
 inspiration
    –Pect. Minor
    – Serratus anterior
    – Sternocleidomastoid
–Muscles of quiet expiration
 •None!
–Muscles of forced expiration
  –Internal intercostals
  –Abdominal muscles
• Asthma Video
• Gas Exchange Video
• Bronchoscopy
• Respiration Video

				
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