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The Art and Science of Beauty

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					The Art and Science
of Beauty Therapy
A Complete Guide for Beauty Specialists
Edited by Jane Foulston, Marguerite Wynne, Fae Major
Introduction




The Art and Science of Beauty Therapy has been written to meet the National
Occupational Standards in the UK at level 2 for beauty specialists and level 3
for facial electrical treatments. These standards are reflected in the syllabuses
of all the main international examination boards that award beauty qualifications
– ITEC, VTCT, City & Guilds, BTEC, CIDESCO, CIBTAC and many others
including those that offer their qualifications in Ireland, South Africa, Singapore,
Hong Kong, Japan, Canada, USA and many other countries. Independent
schools that award their own beauty qualifications will also find that this book
meets their requirements to help their students become professionally qualified.
Style and Format
This book has the student in mind. It continues Holistic Therapy Books’ established
methodology of producing straightforward, accessible books for students to learn both theory
and practice in a therapy. Language is straightforward and direct, content is what is needed for
students, the structure follows the natural contour of the learning process, illustrations show
what the student needs to see and support the tutor ‘s teaching and demonstrations. The
sections on Anatomy and Physiology are provided where they are needed and are illustrated
clearly with the correct amount of detail required. Tutors will find that their students can learn
and revise from this book with ease.
                                               Contents



    Introduction                               iv

1   Being professional                          5

2   The anatomy and physiology of the face,
    head and neck                              40

3   Skin and eye treatments                    94

4   Using make-up                             138

5   Manicure and pedicure                     166

6   Depilation                                206

7   Cosmetic science                          232

8   The science of electrical treatments      250

9   Index                                     295
THE ART AND SCIENCE OF BEAUTY THERAPY




Choosing the appropriate eyebrow shape
Before you start shaping the eyebrow, you will need to consider:
    the correct eyebrow width for the client              looking straight ahead. This should form the natural
    the shape of the client’s face and eyes               high point of the arch of the eyebrow.
    the age of the client
    the client’s own preference.                          2. Place an orangewood stick so that it makes a
                                                             diagonal line from the nose across to the outer
                                                             corner of the client’s eye. The eyebrow should
                                                             not extend beyond this point. Tweeze any stray
                                                             hairs out.

                                                          The way to measure is illustrated below.
                                                                                    (a)     (b)               (c)




1. Determining the correct eyebrow width
You can determine the correct width for the client’s
eyebrows by using an orange wood stick to measure
where the eyebrow should start and finish:
a. Place an orange wood stick in a straight line from
   the side of the nose to the inner corner of the eye.
   The eyebrow should not extend beyond this line.
   Tweeze any stray hairs out.

b. Place an orange wood stick to make a vertical line
through the centre of the pupil when the client is


2. Determining the correct eyebrow shape to suit the client’s eye shape and face shape
Eyebrows can be:




1. Round/naturally shaped     2. An arched shape          3. Straight                     4. Angular
   Face and eye shapes           Face and eye shapes         Face and eye shapes             Face and eye shapes

1. Determining the correct eyebrow shape                  2. Determining the client’s own preference
   to suit the client’s age                               It is vital that, as with any other service provided to a
For older clients, be aware that heavy, thick eyebrows    client, you carefully consult with them so that, together,
can be ageing, whilst thin eyebrows can give a very       you can decide on the final eyebrow shape in
severe appearance to the face.                            accordance with their preferences, but also taking into
                                                          account the natural shape of the brow.
                                                                     C H A P T E R 3 : S K I N A N D E Y E T R E AT M E N T S




  KEY POINT
  There are two different kinds of tweezers that are used for eyebrow shaping:




  1. Manual Tweezers                                                           2. Automatic tweezers
  These are used to remove the bulk of the hairs and for fine work             These are not often used in the
  when defining the eyebrow shape.                                             salon. They have a spring-loaded
                                                                               action and are used to remove
                                                                               the bulk of excess hair.


  Preparing the client for eyebrow shaping                6. Protect the client with towels or a cape, making
  The steps that should follow when preparing a client       sure that the client’s clothes are completely
  for an eyebrow shaping treatment are:                      covered.

  1.   Check for contraindications.                       7. Seat the client comfortably on a couch or chair.
  2. Consult with the client to determine what they       8. Check that the
     want to achieve.                                        client is at ease
                                                             and ready for the
  3. Agree with the client the final eyebrow
                                                             treatment
     shape and appearance.
                                                             to begin.
  4. Secure the client’s hair out of the way, using a
     headband or turban.

  5. Ask the client to remove earrings, hair combs and
     pins, spectacles, or contact lenses (if worn).


KEY POINT
The tweezers you intend to use must be sterilised before the treatment commences. Sterilisation may have
been carried out in the autoclave, bead steriliser or by soaking in a sterilising solution. If you do not use
sterilised tweezers you run the risk of cross infection.

Eyebrow shaping – carrying out the treatment               3. Check again with the client that you both
1. Use a suitable cleanser to remove all traces of face       understand and agree the shaping work that is to be
   and eye make-up. Wipe over with sanitiser.                 carried out.

2. Use an orange stick to determine the appropriate        4. Give the client a hand mirror so that they can check
   width of the eyebrows.                                     progress whenever they choose.
THE ART AND SCIENCE OF BEAUTY THERAPY




Eyeliner                                                 Contraindications
                                                         The usual contraindications to using skin care products
                                                         apply (see Topic 3 above), but add to these, contact
Eyeliner is used to define the shape of the              lenses and/or sore eyes. It is also advisable not to use
eye. Harder lines are used for fashionable               eyeliner below the eyes if the skin is crepey.
effects, while softer lines are preferable for
natural looks and more mature clients. You               Applying eyeliner
can choose eye liner colour to:                              Use sanitised or disposable brushes or sharpened
                                                             pencils.
   match the mascara, or                                     Ask your client to close her eyes when applying
                                                             eyeliner to upper lids, and to look away from the
    match the eye colour, or
                                                             applicator when applying it to the lower lids.
    match or accentuate the eye shadow.
                                                             Keep your hand steady – you can rest it gently on
Eyeliner comes in several forms.                             a tissue on your client’s face if necessary.
    Liquid – gum or oil based in water; applied with a       Do not press down on the eye.
    soft brush or tipped applicator
                                                             Do not lean on the client.
    Cakes or blocks of water colour powder – this
                                                             Lift the skin from below the brow, to place the line
    is now used less often, but may be wetted or
                                                             as close to the lashes as possible (unless you are
    applied with a damp brush, and the water content
                                                             drawing above the lash line to give an enlarging
    varied to create a harder or softer line.
                                                             effect).
    Crayon or pencil – wax or oil stick; can be
                                                             Apply eyeliner from the centre to the outer edges.
    blended like eye shadow or sharpened to produce
    a hard line                                              Soften the line with a sponge or cotton bud if
                                                             preferred.
    Kohl (kajal) – soft, black, wax pencil; applied to
    inner rims of the eye and/or the eyelid.                 Check that thickness and shaper are balanced on
                                                             both eyes.
                                                                               CHAPTER 4 : USING MAKE-UP




Mascara                                                 Contraindications
                                                        In addition to general contraindications and those that
                                                        specifically apply to products used in the eye area,
Mascara is used to thicken, colour and                  seeTopic 3 above, mascara is contraindicated for the
lengthen eyelashes to enhance the shape                 lower lashes if the skin below the eyes is flaky or
and colour of the eyes. It comes in various             crepey. In addition, do not use alcohol-based mascara
colours to match the darkest colours of the             or mascara with filaments on clients who use contact
eye shadow or eyeliner used, or to match                lenses.
false eyelashes or, for a natural look, to              Applying mascara
complement hair colour. Ideally, it                         Use disposable spiral brushes or a disinfected flat
should also be:                                             brush (for block mascara).
    long lasting                                            Ask your client to look down and relax the upper
                                                            eyelids when applying mascara to upper lashes,
    run proof                                               and to look up and away from the brush when
    hypoallergenic                                          applying mascara to lower lashes.
    easy to apply.                                          Lift the skin of the eyelids from below the brow, to
                                                            prevent mascara marking eye make-up.
There are several types of mascara.
                                                            Apply mascara first downwards over the upper
    Block/cake – this is pigmented and wax based. It
                                                            lashes, then upwards underneath the lashes to
    is applied with a flat, wet brush, but its use is
                                                            make sure every part is covered.
    becoming less common
                                                            Place a tissue under the lower lashes to protect
    Cream – easy to apply and remove, but not run
                                                            the skin.
    proof or waterproof, so rarely used in salons
                                                            Build up the mascara in fine layers, allowing
    Liquid – resin based with pigments in water (or
                                                            an interval for each to dry in between, to prevent
    alcohol and water) with oil to soften; use with a
                                                            clogging.
    disposable brush; can have special lash-building
    features; generally easy to remove                      If required, separate lashes afterwards with a lash
                                                            or brow comb
THE ART AND SCIENCE OF BEAUTY THERAPY




Nail buffing                                                 Nail enamelling
Nail buffing can be used instead of                          If a nail strengthener is used, apply this
enamelling, to give a natural, polished look, or             before applying the base coat.
as part of the preparation for enamelling. It
                                                             The base coat:
also concludes a manicure for a male client.
                                                                 protects the nail from staining by dark enamels
Nail buffing:
                                                                 should be appropriate for the condition of the nail,
    improves the appearance of nails                             eg strong, fragile or ridged
    smoothes out superficial ridges                              gives a smooth surface for enamelling.
    stimulates circulation                                   1. Apply the base coat to each nail using three even
    removes stains from the nail plate.                         strokes, brushing from the cuticle to the nail tip.

                                                             2. Using an orange wood stick or cotton wool bud
                                                                dipped in nail enamel remover, immediately remove
Nail buffing technique
                                                                any base coat that gets on to the cuticle or skin.
1. Remove paste from its container using an orange
   wood stick, then replace top on container.                Nail enamels
                                                             There are two types of nail enamel:
2. Apply a pin-head amount of buffing paste
   to the centre of each nail.                               Cream – always apply a top coat
3. Using the buffer, buff the nail in one direction only –   Frosted/pearl – top coat not necessary.
   from the matrix to the free edge – the direction in
   which the nail cells grow, to encourage smoothness        Your client will have chosen the type and colour of nail
   of the nail plate.                                        enamel before the start of the manicure.

4. Use regular, rhythmical movements;                        The manicure treatment should take a maximum
   do not allow the paste to touch the skin tissue.          of 30 minutes.
            CHAPTER 5 : MANICURE AND PEDICURE




Applying nail enamel
1. Apply the coloured enamel in three strokes per nail.

2. Apply two coats for cream enamels and seal with
   one coat of top coat. Three coats must be applied
   for frosted enamels and no top coat should
   be applied.

3. Apply thinly, to allow each coat to dry more quickly
   and prevent flaking or chipping.

4. Leave a hairline gap around the nail wall.

5. Ensure no enamel touches the cuticle or skin tissue.
   If it does, remove it immediately with an orange
   wood stick or cotton bud dipped in nail
   enamel remover.

Top coat and drying spray
If a top coat is required, apply in three strokes per nail.
The benefits of using a top coat are that it:

    seals the enamel
    gives extra shine
    prevents chipping
    increases longevity of the enamel.
A quick drying spray can be used to set the surface of
the nail. Always spray away from the client and from
furniture. Remember that the underlying layers of
enamel will still be soft and that quick dry tends to dry
the surface enamel too quickly resulting in
premature chipping.
THE ART AND SCIENCE OF BEAUTY THERAPY




Preparing for galvan- The electrodes
ic treatments         The active or working electrode, attached to
                      the galvanic machine, is the one you use to
1.   Discuss the treatment beforehand with your client:        perform the treatment. There are several
     – check for contraindications                             types of active electrodes:

     – explain the sequence of the treatment                       metal rollers
                                                                   metal ball electrodes – usually used for
     – describe to the client the sensations that they
                                                                   desincrustation
       may experience, such as a metallic taste if they
       have metallic fillings (see Specific                        tweezers or forceps
       contraindications above), or a slight tingling in           rod with disc applicator heads
       the skin. Ask your client to tell you if they
       experience these sensations. You can use this           The passive or indifferent electrode, also attached to
       information together with careful visual                the galvanic machine, completes the circuit and is held
       observation to judge duration and intensity of          by your client or placed on their body, generally behind
       treatment and the point at which to turn the            their shoulder or strapped to their arm. This electrode
       current down. In the case of galvanism,                 is covered in a pre-dampened viscose sponge and
       providing the client can feel the ‘prickle’ of the      should remain in contact with your client’s body until
       current you can be assured that the machine is          the current is switched off.
       working and the current is flowing – therefore
       there is no reason to increase the intensity any
       further. This usually happens at a maximum of
       1–2 amperes.

     – explain that if they feel uncomfortable, they
       should tell you and you will then reduce the
       amperage (intensity) or stop the treatment. The
       treatment should cause only gentle skin
       stimulation.

2.   Test your client for skin sensitivity using the tactile
     sensitivity test (see page 000 above).

3.   Ask your client to remove all jewellery and any
     other metal accessories worn, eg hair clips, and
     remove any of your own.

4.   Check all the electrical equipment.

5.   Make sure your client is lying down comfortably
     and the area of the skin to be treated is thoroughly
     cleansed and free of oil

6.   Apply the necessary gel or cream (see below).
                                                      C H A P T E R 8 : T H E S C I E N C E O F E L E C T R I C A L T R E AT M E N T S




Using the electrodes
How you use the electrodes will depend upon the therapy you are giving
Desincrustation
     Move the active electrode over the face in small,         Iontophoresis
     smooth, circular movements.                                     Move the active rollers over the face in long even
                                                                     stokes ensuring they do not touch each other
     Apply with a firm, even pressure.
                                                                     Apply with a firm, even pressure.
     Turn the current up slowly according to the amount
     of resistance in different parts of the face; for               Turn the current up slowly according to the amount
     instance, lower the intensity of the current when               of resistance in different parts of the face; for
     working on the bony areas.                                      instance, lower the intensity of the current when
                                                                     working on the bony areas.
     Turn the current down slowly at the end of the
     treatment.                                                      Turn the current down slowly at the end of the
                                                                     treatment.
     Ensure that the electrode is kept moving and
     remains in contact with the client’s skin until the             Ensure that the electrode is kept moving and
     current has been zeroed.                                        remains in contact with the client’s skin until the
                                                                     current has been zeroed.


The desincrustation treatment
Desincrustination is normally applied as a deep-cleansing treatment,
such as after a facial steam.
                                                                     amperage, up to 0.6 milliamps (mA). As the
                                                                     galvanic current works by a process of attraction
                                                                     to its opposite pole, working from positive to
                                                                     negative, there is no need to use high intensity.

                                                               4.    Timing should be about 3 to 10 minutes
                                                                     depending upon the condition of the skin.

                                                               5.    Ensure that the skin remains moist to allow the
                                                                     galvanic current to work and avoid skin irritation.

                                                               6.    Conclude the treatment by slowly reducing the
                                                                     intensity to zero, removing the electrodes and
                                                                     switching the machine off.
1.   Moisten the skin well and lightly apply a negatively      7.    After treatment, wipe off any remaining
     charged (always follow manufactures instruction)                desincrustation gel with cotton wool or sponges,
     desincrustation gel onto the skin                               until the skin looks clean and gently stimulated
2.   Apply the electrode to the skin of the cheek and                and all traces of product are removed.
     switch the machine on, increasing the intensity           8.    Follow with any further treatments, such as manual
     slowly. Allow about 30 seconds for the resistance               extraction or removal of comedones by vacuum
     of oily, congested skin to be overcome.                         suction
3.   Use the electrodes as described above. This               9.    Clean the electrodes with sanitising fluid
     treatment should work well even on very low                     immediately after use.
For further information on this new title or to place an advance order
please contact Louise Pearson on +44 (0)870 242 7867,
by email at sales@holistic-books.co.uk
or online at www.holistic-books.co.uk.




A successful, competent and responsible beauty
therapist must work to stringent professional,
aesthetic and scientific standards.
This book will help you to understand the key role of
professionalism in your practice, to master the art of beauty therapy
and to understand the scientific principles on which your therapies
are based.

All these skills are not just about you, the beauty therapist, and your
knowledge of your profession – they are concerned to place your
clients, their welfare and safety, appearance and well-being at the
centre of your practice.




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