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					                                               1. The Roaring Twenties
The decade following World War I would one day be caricatured as "the Roaring Twenties," and it was a time of
unprecedented prosperity — the nation's total wealth nearly doubled between 1920 and 1929, manufactures rose by
60 percent, for the first time most people lived in urban areas — and in homes lit by electricity. They made more
money than they ever had before and, spurred on by the giant new advertising industry, spent it faster, too — on
washing machines and refrigerators and vacuum cleaners, 12 million radios, 30 million automobiles, and untold
millions of tickets to the movies, that ushered them into a new fast-living world of luxury and glamour their
grandparents never could have imagined. Meanwhile, at the polls and in the workplace as well as on the dance floor,
women had begun to assert a new independence.
                                                 The Great Depression
During the economic boom of the Roaring Twenties, the traditional values of rural America were challenged by the
Jazz Age, symbolized by women smoking, drinking, and wearing short skirts. The average American was busy
buying automobiles and household appliances, and speculating in the stock market, where big money could be
made. Those appliances were bought on credit, however. Although businesses had made huge gains — 65 percent
— from the mechanization of manufacturing, the average worker’s wages had only increased 8 percent.

The imbalance between the rich and the poor, with 0.1 percent of society earning the same total income as 42
percent, combined with production of more and more goods and rising personal debt, could not be sustained. On
Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929, the stock market crashed, triggering the Great Depression, the worst economic
collapse in the history of the modern industrial world. It spread from the United States to the rest of the world,
lasting from the end of 1929 until the early 1940s. With banks failing and businesses closing, more than 15 million
Americans (one-quarter of the workforce) became unemployed.

President Herbert Hoover, underestimating the seriousness of the crisis, called it “a passing incident in our national
lives,” and assured Americans that it would be over in 60 days. A strong believer in rugged individualism, Hoover
did not think the federal government should offer relief to the poverty-stricken population. Focusing on a trickle-
down economic program to help finance businesses and banks, Hoover met with resistance from business executives
who preferred to lay off workers. Blamed by many for the Great Depression, Hoover was widely ridiculed: an empty
pocket turned inside out was called a “Hoover flag;” the decrepit shantytowns springing up around the country were
called “Hoovervilles.” Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the rich governor from New York, offered Americans a New
Deal, and was elected in a landslide victory in 1932. He took quick action to attack the Depression, declaring a four-
day bank holiday, during which Congress passed the Emergency Banking Relief Act to stabilize the banking system.
During the first 100 days of his administration, Roosevelt laid the groundwork for his New Deal remedies that
would rescue the country from the depths of despair.

The New Deal programs created a liberal political alliance of labor unions, blacks and other minorities, some
farmers and others receiving government relief, and intellectuals. The hardship brought on by the Depression
affected Americans deeply. Since the prevailing attitude of the 1920s was that success was earned, it followed that
failure was deserved. The unemployment brought on by the Depression caused self-blame and self-doubt. Men were
harder hit psychologically than women were. Since men were expected to provide for their families, it was
humiliating to have to ask for assistance. Although some argued that women should not be given jobs when many
men were unemployed, the percentage of women working increased slightly during the Depression. Traditionally
female fields of teaching and social services grew under New Deal programs. Children took on more
responsibilities, sometimes finding work when their parents could not. As a result of living through the Depression,
some people developed habits of careful saving and frugality, others determined to create a comfortable life for
themselves.

African Americans suffered more than whites, since their jobs were often taken away from them and given to
whites. In 1930, 50 percent of blacks were unemployed. However, Eleanor Roosevelt championed black rights, and
New Deal programs prohibited discrimination. Discrimination continued in the South, however, as a result a large
number of black voters switched from the Republican to the Democrat party during the Depression.

The Great Depression and the New Deal changed forever the relationship between Americans and their government.
Government involvement and responsibility in caring for the needy and regulating the economy came to be
expected.
                                                                                        http://www.pbs.org
                                               2. The Jazz Age

By the mid-1920s, jazz was being played in dance halls and roadhouses and speakeasies all over the
country. The blues, which had once been the product of itinerant black musicians, the poorest of the
southern poor, had become an industry, and dancing consumed a country that seemed convinced
prosperity would never end. There were "all-girl" orchestras on the road now — including Babe Egan's
Hollywood Red Heads, a band billed as the Twelve Vampires, and the Parisian Red Heads, all of whom
actually came from Indiana. More than 100 dance bands regularly criss-crossed the wide-open spaces
between St. Louis and Denver, Texas and Nebraska, playing one-nighters. They were called "territory
bands" — the Coon-Sanders Nighthawks; the Alphonso Trent and Doc Ross and Troy Floyd and Benny
Moten Orchestras; the Deluxe Melody Boys and Happy Black Aces; Jesse Stone's Blue Serenaders;
George E. Lee and his Singing Novelty Orchestra; Walter Page and his Blue Devils; and Andy Kirk's
Clouds of Joy. "People didn't think anything about going 150 to 200 miles to dance back in those times,"
one territory band veteran remembered. They'd say, "We came 200 miles to see y'all."

Meanwhile, radio and phonograph records — Americans bought more than 100 million of them in 1927
— were bringing jazz to locations so remote that no band could reach them. And the music itself was
beginning to change — an exuberant, collective music was coming to place more and more emphasis on
the innovations of supremely gifted individuals. Improvising soloists, struggling to find their own voices
and to tell their own stories, were about to take center stage.

ut for many of the millions of people for whom the 1920s never roared at all, fearful of such rapid change
and nostalgic for the small-town America of the turn of the century, jazz music came to seem not merely
an annoyance but a threat, one more cause of loosening morals and frightening dislocation. Ragtime had
been bad enough, with its insinuating rhythms and daring couple-dancing, but the jumpy, rancorous
version of New Orleans polyphony projected by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band and many of its
imitators seemed much worse. "As I understand it," said Professor Henry Van Dyck of Princeton
University, "it is not music at all. It is merely an irritation of the nerves of hearing, a sensual teasing of the
strings of physical passion. Its fault lies not in syncopation, for that is a legitimate device when sparingly
used. But "jazz" is an unmitigated cacophony, a combination of disagreeable sounds in complicated
discords, a willful ugliness and a deliberate vulgarity." The editor of Musical Courier reported on a poll of
academically trained musicians: most found "the 'ad libbing' or 'jazzing' of a piece ... thoroughly
objectionable," he said, "and several of them advanced the opinion that this Bolshevistic smashing of the
rules and tenets of decorous music" spelled disaster for American music.

For some, jazz simply became synonymous with noise. Thomas Edison, whose invention of the
phonograph had made its sudden rapid spread possible, claimed that he played jazz records backward
because "they sound better that way." When the New York Times reported that the citizens of one
Siberian village had driven hungry polar bears from its streets by banging pots and pans, the headline read
"Jazz Frightens Bears," and when a celebrated British conductor collapsed while visiting Coney Island,
the same paper blamed the jazz bands — now loudly competing with one another along boardwalk — for
his demise.

Jazz — and the dancing it inspired — was also said to be having a catastrophic impact on the national
character. "Moral disaster is coming to hundreds of young American girls," reported the New York
American, "through the pathological, nerve-irritating, sex-exciting music of jazz orchestras." In just two
years in Chicago alone, the Illinois Vigilance Association reported in 1923, the downfall of one thousand
girls could be traced directly to the pernicious influence of jazz music. In Cincinnati, the Salvation Army
obtained a court injunction to stop construction of a theater next to a home for expectant mothers on the
grounds that "the enforced proximity of a theater and jazz palace" would implant dangerous "jazz
emotions" in helpless infants. A social worker reported on the "unwholesome excitement" she now
encountered even at small-town dances in the Midwest. "Boy-and-girl couples leave the hall in a state of
dangerous disturbance. Any worker who has gone into the night to gather the facts of activities outside the
dance hall is appalled ... by the blatant disregard of even the elementary rules of civilization ... We must
expect a few casualties in social discourse, but the modern dance is producing little short of holocaust."

Beyond its disturbing sounds, its fast pace, and its supposed impact on morals, jazz was also condemned
because of its origins. Many white older Americans were appalled to see their children dancing to music
that was believed to have emerged from what the music critic of the New York Herald Tribune called "the
Negro brothels of the South." "Jazz," said the editor of Etude, "is often associated with vile surroundings,
filthy words, unmentionable dances." It was originally "the accompaniment of the voodoo dancer,"
declared Mrs. Max Obendorfer, national music chairman of the General Federation of Women's Clubs,
"stimulating the half-crazed barbarian to the vilest deeds ... [It] has also been employed by other barbaric
people to stimulate barbarity and sensuality." Blacks were not the sole sources of the jazz contagion. The
critic Carl Engel also worried about the effects on Anglo-Saxon youth of what he called "Semitic
purveyors of Broadway melodies," while Henry Ford's Dearborn Independent blamed what it called "the
abandoned sensuousness of sliding notes" on sinister Jews.

There was nothing new in these attitudes. Twenty years earlier, many whites had deplored ragtime in part
because it was based on black songs and dances, just as their descendants would one day denounce rock
'n' roll because of its links to the African-American blues tradition. But something altogether new really
was happening here and there across the country. A few white youths — living in small towns and
comfortable suburbs as well as big-city slums — started to see more than mere novelty and excitement in
this new primarily black music, began actually to hear their own feelings mirrored in the playing of
African-Americans, and to look for ways they might participate in it themselves. In a country in which by
law and custom blacks and whites were forbidden to compete on anything like an equal basis in any arena
— even boxing (the heavyweight title was then off-limits to black challengers) — these young men were
willing to brave a brand new world created by black Americans and in which black musicians remained
the most admired figures.

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                               3. Al Capone and Gangsters of the Times

Al Capone got an icy reception when he arrived in Miami Beach in 1928. Whether he was winter-weary
like other Northern tourists was immaterial; Miami saw him as a blight on its reputation.

By 1928 the "New Yorker" had already dubbed Capone "the greatest gang leader in history." His brutality
was legendary even during his lifetime. It was widely known -- though almost impossible to prove -- that
he engineered dozens of murders. He escalated gangland warfare to establish Chicago's supremacy over
his native Brooklyn, and he operated profitable prostitution rings and speakeasies.

But always there was the outward appearance of respectability. A disciple of "gentleman gangster"
Johnny Torrio, Capone considered himself a benefactor of the Italian immigrant community, his
bootlegging operations a source of jobs for the poor. The son of Italian immigrants himself, Capone lived
in a modest house in a middle-class Chicago neighborhood with his wife and son, his mother and siblings.
He told neighbors he was a secondhand furniture dealer.

Miami Beach, however, knew that Capone was no secondhand furniture dealer, and the city shuddered
upon his arrival. Northern backlash against Florida had slowed the land boom, and a hurricane in 1926
devastated the local economy. Residents feared that Capone's presence would convince the country that
"Miami Beach was no longer the good clean fun it had been in 1920."

Capone was accused of bringing gambling to the city, but "with or without him, South Florida was a
hotbed of illegal gambling, prostitution, corruption and rum-running." City officials had looked the other
way before. The "Miami News" led the campaign to drive Capone out, but he wouldn't budge. In fact, he
decided to make Miami Beach his home, choosing Clarence Busch's Palm Island estate as his permanent
residence. As always, Capone brokered the deal through a middleman; direct payment would attract the
Internal Revenue Service's attention.

Florida mobilized to rid itself of Capone. The American Legion hatched a plan which would end in
martial law stripping Capone of his constitutional rights. The city sued him, calling his Palm Island home
"a menace to the safety and well-being of residents." The governor of Florida, fearful of further damage
to Miami's reputation, "ordered all sheriffs to arrest him on sight."

Capone was arrested several times in Miami, and jailed once. Constant surveillance neither drove him out
not prevented him from orchestrating what would become his most notorious deed: the Valentine's Day
Massacre in Chicago, in 1929. The execution-style murder, in which several rival gangsters were killed
by Capone's henchmen, could never be pinned on Capone officially: He was in Miami at the time, being
questioned in another, unrelated murder investigation. The massacre elevated Capone's celebrity, and he
went so far as to hire a press agent.

In May 1929, following his arrest in Philadelphia on a concealed weapons charge, Capone was sentenced
to a year in prison. With Capone behind bars, and the blessing of newly elected President Herbert Hoover,
the IRS Special Intelligence Unit sought evidence of tax evasion, Capone's Miami home irrefutable proof
of his healthy, and till then untaxed, income. The now-legendary Eliot Ness and his "Untouchables" were
simultaneously gathering evidence of Capone's massive bootlegging violations.

Released from prison two months early for good behavior, Capone returned to Miami in 1930 to find
himself named Public Enemy Number One by the head of the Chicago Crime Commission. While he did
not cease bootlegging, Capone tried to improve his image by hosting a series of "good-will dinners" in
Miami. He failed to impress his detractors. In 1931 Capone and 68 of his associates were charged with
5,000 separate violations of Prohibition, and Capone alone was charged with 22 counts of tax evasion. On
October 17, 1931, Al Capone was convicted of tax evasion, sentenced to 11 years in prison, and fined tens
of thousands of dollars.

In 1934 Capone was moved from the U.S. Penitentiary in Atlanta, where he enjoyed privileges denied
other prisoners, to Alcatraz. Capone was a good prisoner, but his health was in sharp decline. He had
contracted syphilis prior to his marriage (and in fact transmitted the disease to his then-unborn son), and
by 1938 he was exhibiting the dementia characteristic of late-stage syphilis.

His sentence was shortened to six and a half years, again for good behavior, and Capone returned to
Miami in 1939. Public Enemy Number One, ravaged by syphilis, died of cardiac arrest on January 25,
1947, just a week after his 48th birthday.

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                          People & Events: Gangsters During the Depression


Although the term "gangster" is used for any criminal from the 1920s or 30s that operated in a group, it
refers to two different breeds.

Mobsters belonged to organized crime rings. They generally lived in large cities, and most were
immigrants, or children of immigrants. Many of these criminal gangs were protected by urban politicians
and police. While the Italian mafia was the largest and most powerful, other ethnic groups also had
organized crime rings, most notably Jews and the Irish. While the different groups certainly competed
with each other, by the early 1930s they are starting to collaborate more closely because public opposition
to gang violence makes them so conspicuous.

Outlaws typically came from rural areas in the Midwest, Southwest, or the West. According to FBI
Special Agent Melvin Purvis, "Most of the top-flight hoodlums of the Middle West were 100-per-cent
American boys with no foreign background whatsoever." The term "outlaw" applied to robbers,
kidnappers, or occasionally, murderers. They followed in the tradition of Western outlaws such as Jesse
James, except that after a hold-up, they used cars instead of horses for their getaway. Hence they were
also called "auto bandits" or desperadoes.

Mobsters earned their money by providing illegal goods and services. They were most famous for
bootlegging, but also managed gambling, prostitution, and abortion. While outlaws operated
independently of mobsters, they did rely on organized gangs for the tools of the trade -- firearms,
bulletproof vests, and armored cars. They could use the organized rings to pay for hide-outs and police
protection. They could also arrange for legal assistance or medical care. Whether outlaws were wounded
in a gunfight or simply became ill, they risked capture by going to an ordinary doctor. For an exorbitant
fee, an underworld doctor would treat them and not notify the authorities. The outlaws sometimes took on
special jobs for the criminal rings, like murdering an enemy, that a particular organization wanted done
but didn't want to take the blame for.
The outlaws were relatively democratic. Each gang member received a share of the loot in proportion to
the level of participation. Mobsters, on the other hand, belonged to a hierarchical structure organized like
a corporation -- hence the name "syndicate." The Chicago Syndicate was the country's largest and most
powerful organized crime operation. Its chief, Al Capone, controlled all underworld operations in the
Chicago area. Capone lived so lavishly and openly that Chicago newspapers wrote about him in their
gossip columns. He cultivated good public relations by donating money to charity, and opening soup
kitchens during the Depression.
Throughout the 1920s mobsters engaged in street battles over issues of control. Gang warfare reached its
climax in the St. Valentine's Day Massacre. On February 14, 1929, seven men were killed in a Chicago
garage by five unknown men wearing police uniforms. Witnesses were unable to establish their identity,
and the coroner's jury did not find sufficient evidence to prosecute anyone. Al Capone was blamed for the
Massacre, even though he was in Florida at the time. To this day, the perpetrators' identity remains a
mystery.

The St. Valentine's Day Massacre shocked the American public more than any previous street violence,
because it resembled an execution. People blamed Prohibition for this violence, and began to favor its
repeal.

Meanwhile, outlaws were successfully robbing banks throughout the Midwest. Besides the automobile,
they were assisted by new hard-surfaced highways, and the Rand-McNally Road Atlas, which first came
out in 1924. Robberies were easier in the Midwest than other parts of the country because small
Midwestern towns usually lacked adequate police forces. The long distances between towns also made
getaways feasible.

Due to the expansion of newspaper wire services and the radio, bank robberies could become national
news instantaneously. Criminals became national celebrities, who symbolized the public's lack of faith in
society's crumbling institutions. While the public found their notoriety exciting, the government did not.
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover targeted them for pursuit. By 1935, all the famous outlaws had been killed
or captured by FBI special agents.

Fearing the end of Prohibition, mafia leaders held their first national conference from May 13-15, 1929,
in Atlantic City, New Jersey. They solidified the networks formed through bootlegging to become
national in scope. Mobsters expanded their markets to racketeering and legitimate enterprises. Violence
became more discreet, as street battles became a thing of the past. Ironically, while the syndicates became
less visible in American society, their power increased dramatically.

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                                              4. Prohibition

"If anyone wants to go to hell in a hurry," a distressed minister told the "New York Times" in 1925, "there
are greased banks aplenty in Miami." During Prohibition, Miami Beach joined many American cities in
openly flouting the 18th Amendment.

Prohibition movements had cropped up across America throughout the 1800s, spearheaded by religious
groups who considered alcohol, or at least drunkenness, " a national curse." Since the end of the Civil
War, saloons had become increasingly violent, regarded by many as a menace to the American family. In
1873 the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), born in Ohio, advocated abolishing the
trafficking of alcohol. By 1900 the Anti-Saloon League (ASL), also formed in Ohio, joined the WCTU in
its crusade to solve "the liquor problem," endorsing political candidates and lobbying for anti-saloon
legislation.

By 1916 almost half the states -- 23 out of 48 -- had adopted anti-saloon legislation. Many of these states
went so far as to prohibit the manufacture of alcoholic beverages as well. Support for these measures was
tremendous, and after the congressional elections of that year, "dry" members -- those in favor of
Prohibition -- outnumbered "wet" ones.

In January 1919, the states ratified the 18th Amendment, Prohibition, which placed a nationwide ban on
the manufacture and transportation of intoxicating liquor.

Although Congress passed Prohibition overwhelmingly, the members did not provide additional funds for
anything beyond token enforcement. The 18th Amendment was difficult to enforce, "always… more of an
ideal than a reality." The Volstead Act of 1919, named for its author, Minnesota senator Andrew
Volstead, made provisions for Prohibition's enforcement, but it contained loopholes that invited abuses.
Volstead gave federal agents great freedom in investigating and prosecuting violations. It also defined
intoxicating liquor as having .5 percent alcoholic content; but liquor used for medicinal, sacramental or
industrial purposes, no matter the alcoholic content, was legal. Likewise for fruit or grape beverages
prepared at home.

As the '20s wore on, Prohibition was blamed for distorting the role of alcohol in American life and for
escalating disregard for the law. More concretely, Prohibition was held responsible for the rise in
organized crime in American cities. As law enforcement cracked down on Prohibition violations --
sometimes in justified raids, sometimes not -- alcohol production and transport was forced deeper
underground.

Miami Beach had a healthy bootlegging industry. South Florida's proximity to the Caribbean didn't hurt.
One account of Prohibition-era Miami Beach had "[l]imousines lined up at the wharfs to welcome the
boats laden with bootleg liquor that came in from Havana, Bimini, Nassau, and people drove off with
their 'fish' neatly wrapped in brown paper." At other times, that 'fish' was shipped north in refrigerated
railroad cars, under cover of grapefruit, tomatoes or avocados.

Although Dade County had voted itself dry in 1913, the law was not enforced, and residents and visitors
never wanted for a drink. Even as Prohibition was legislated nationally, the liquor continued to flow. On
his post-inauguration visit to Miami Beach in 1921, President Warren G. Harding shared several drinks
with Carl Fisher and his cronies. Fisher himself became interested in alcohol once Prohibition was
established.

Gambling casinos and prostitution flourished during Prohibition in Miami and elsewhere. In Chicago Al
Capone amassed a fortune in his bootlegging and speakeasy operations and redefined the American
gangster for generations. Prohibition, critics said, ushered in a period of "moral decay and social disorder"
when it was designed to do the opposite.

By the late '20s, a movement for repeal was afoot. Many feared Prohibition's infringement upon the
American tradition of individual freedom more than they feared alcohol. The early years of the Great
Depression raised still more concerns. With unemployment paralyzing the nation, it was forcefully argued
that Prohibition denied workers jobs and governments revenue.

In 1933, largely through the work of the nonpartisan Americans Against Prohibition Association (AAPA),
as well as public disillusionment over the "noble experiment," the 21st Amendment repealing Prohibition
was ratified in Congress, with 93 percent voting in favor of repeal.

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                                         Temperance Movement

The push for Prohibition began in earnest in the nineteenth century. After the American Revolution,
drinking was on the rise. To combat this, a number of societies were organized as part of a new
Temperance movement which attempted to dissuade people from becoming intoxicated. At first, these
organizations pushed moderation, but after several decades, the movement's focus changed to complete
prohibition of alcohol consumption.

The Temperance movement blamed alcohol for many of society's ills, especially crime and murder.
Saloons, a social haven for men who lived in the still untamed West, were viewed by many, especially
women, as a place of debauchery and evil. Prohibition, members of the Temperance movement urged,
would stop husbands from spending all the family income on alcohol and prevent accidents in the
workplace caused by workers who drank during lunch.

The 18th Amendment Passes

In the beginning of the 20th century, there were Temperance organizations in nearly every state. By 1916,
over half of the U.S. states already had statutes that prohibited alcohol. In 1919, the 18th Amendment to
the U.S. Constitution, which prohibited the sale and manufacture of alcohol, was ratified. It went into
effect on January 16, 1920.
The Volstead Act

While it was the 18th Amendment that established Prohibition, it was the Volstead Act (passed on
October 28, 1919) that clarified the law. The Volstead Act stated that "beer, wine, or other intoxicating
malt or vinous liquors" meant any beverage that was more than 0.5% alcohol by volume. The Act also
stated that owning any item designed to manufacture alcohol was illegal and it set specific fines and jail
sentences for violating Prohibition.
Loopholes

There were, however, several loopholes for people to legally drink during Prohibition. For instance, the
18th Amendment did not mention the actual drinking of liquor. Since Prohibition went into effect a full
year after the 18th Amendment's ratification, many people bought cases of then-legal alcohol and stored
them for personal use. The Volstead Act allowed alcohol consumption if it was prescribed by a doctor.
Needless to say, large numbers of new prescriptions were written for alcohol.
Gangsters and Speakeasies
For people who didn't buy cases of alcohol in advance or know a "good" doctor, there were illegal ways
to drink during Prohibition. A new breed of gangster arose during this period. These people took notice of
the amazingly high level of demand for alcohol within society and the extremely limited avenues of
supply to the average citizen. Within this imbalance of supply and demand, gangsters saw profit. Al
Capone in Chicago is one of the most famous gangsters of this time period.
These gangsters would hire men to smuggle in rum from the Caribbean (rumrunners) or hijack whiskey
from Canada and bring it into the U.S. Others would buy large quantities of liquor made in homemade
stills. The gangsters would then open up secret bars (speakeasies) for people to come in, drink, and
socialize.

During this period, newly hired Prohibition agents were responsible for raiding speakeasies, finding stills,
and arresting gangsters, but many of these agents were under-qualified and underpaid leading to a high
rate of bribery.

Attempts to Repeal the 18th Amendment

Almost immediately after the ratification of the 18th Amendment, organizations formed to repeal it. As
the perfect world promised by the Temperance movement failed to materialize, more people joined the
fight to bring back liquor. The anti-Prohibition movement gained strength as the 1920s progressed, often
stating that the question of alcohol consumption was a local issue and not something that should be in the
Constitution.

Additionally, the Stock Market Crash in 1929 and the beginning of the Great Depression started changing
people's opinion. People needed jobs. The government needed money. Making alcohol legal again would
open up many new jobs for citizens and additional sales taxes for the government.

The 21st Amendment Is Ratified

On December 5, 1933, the 21st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. The 21st Amendment
repealed the 18th Amendment, making alcohol once again legal. This was the first and only time in U.S.
history that an Amendment has been repealed.

http://history1900s.about.com/
                                    5. Battle for Suffrage, 1848-1920

On March 3, 1913, Woodrow Wilson arrived in Washington for his inauguration as president of the
United States. But upon arrival, he was dismayed to find there was no crowd to greet him. People gave up
meeting the president in order to observe a bigger spectacle down on Pennsylvania Avenue, a woman
suffrage parade. Five thousand women, sporting purple, violet, and gold banners, had united under the
leadership of suffragist Alice Paul to march through Washington in demand of their right to vote. Shouted
and jeered at as they processed, these women braved the hostile crowd while gaining significant publicity
for their cause.

The movement of women into the public and political spheres had been gaining in momentum and
popularity since the mid-nineteenth century. Women demanded suffrage as early as 1848. The Seneca
Falls convention brought together two hundred women and forty men, including feminists Elizabeth Cady
Stanton and Lucretia Mott, to make the claim for full citizenship. The delegates believed women to be
citizens not limited in any way to their roles as wives or mothers. In the language of the founding fathers,
they wrote, "We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men and women are created equal." They
rejected Victorian domesticity and its separation of women and men into private and public spheres,
respectively. It was at Seneca Falls that the suffrage movement first began.

Women entered into public life more and more in the years after the convention. In part this was linked
with the expansion of educational opportunities at the time. Women's colleges sprouted up all over the
country, enrolling young, mainly white middle-class women. By 1870 there were eleven thousand female
students at these institutions of higher education. A decade later, there were forty thousand. These women
received a progressive education and, in their college experiences, found an inspiration to put their
knowledge to good use. Half of all college-educated women in the late nineteenth century never married.
Instead, they joined married women to form associations concerned with extending the "maternal" role
into the public sphere: to educating young children, instituting benefits for the poor, and improving health
conditions for women and children. The voluntary associations formed included the Women's Christian
Temperance Union, the General Federation of Women's Clubs, numerous settlement houses, and a
revitalized suffrage movement.

Yet society severely challenged women's efforts to enter public life. Through the 1890s, "scientific"
reports were being released which showed that too much education could seriously hurt the female
reproductive system. In 1905 former president Grover Cleveland wrote in the Ladies' Home Journal that
female voting would upset "a natural equilibrium so nicely adjusted to the attributes and limitations of
both [men and women] that it cannot be disturbed without social confusion and peril." In retaliation,
women set out to show that rather than disrupt the social order, woman suffrage would instead maintain
it. Bringing their "natural" roles as mothers and nurturers into the public arena, women would be able to
impose a kind of "civic housekeeping" upon the competitive and corrupt (male) state. The feminization of
government would act as a means of reform and encourage a more nurturing role of the state toward its
people. The general rise of social and political reform at the time furthered their cause. Female suffragist
Reverend Anna Garlin Spencer said in response to the new role of government, "the instant the State took
upon itself any form of educative, charitable, or personally helpful work, it entered the area of distinctive
feminine training and power, and therefore became in need of the service of woman." Women like
Spencer, representing the mainstream, moderate suffrage movement, were not arguing for a complete
transformation of their role in society, but rather a conservative extension of it.

By 1890 with a significant pool of college-educated women and women's organizations behind it, the
movement became much more respectable. This had much to do with the formation of the National
American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Carrie Chapman Catt. The National
Woman Suffrage Association had been formed in 1869 under Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady
Stanton. In 1890 the organization combined with the rival American Woman Suffrage Association, led by
Lucy Stone, and gathered renewed force. Its platform took the moderate argument by declaring that
women, being inherently different from men, would restore moral order and harmony if allowed the vote.
Yet NAWSA also upheld the racist ideologues of the day. Excluding black women from membership, it
garnered significant support from southern women by asserting that the white woman's vote would
maintain white supremacy in the South. In response, black women, such as Mary Church Terrell, formed
their own organization to further suffrage in 1896, the National Association of Colored Women (NACW).

By the 1910s woman suffrage had become a mass movement. A parallel and much more radical
movement was being carried out in Britain. Led by Emmaline Pankhurst, British suffragettes resorted to
violence, riots, and arson to effect their aims. Their burning of buildings, blowing up of mailboxes, and
hunger strikes gained critical publicity for the suffragists' cause. American women such as Alice Paul and
Lucy Burns trained under and participated in British suffrage demonstrations and returned to the U.S. to
form the Congressional Union in 1914. The C.U. followed in the British tradition in its tactics. It
frequently picketed the White House and denounced Wilson and the Democratic party for its failure to
enfranchise women. NAWSA, on the other hand, wooed the administration by remaining respectable at
all times and showing a feverish patriotism during the war. While being often at odds, the two
organizations actually complemented one another. The C.U., with its outlandish demonstrations, gained
significant publicity for the movement while it cast NAWSA in a more respectable light.

The efforts of both organizations finally produced results in 1919 when an amendment for suffrage passed
both houses of Congress. But it was later stalemated for ratification in the Southern states. Many
southerners believed that white supremacy would be threatened if women, with their emotional
susceptibility to the unfortunate, were to gain the vote. NAWSA and the National Women's Party (the
successor of the Congressional Union) tenaciously continued to campaign and in 1920, Tennessee was the
last state to ratify. The Nineteenth Amendment had the immediate result of granting twenty-six million
women, half the nation's population, the right to vote.

The 1920s saw the demobilization of the country after World War I and the rise of a consumer and
leisure-oriented society. These two factors contributed to foster a less hospitable decade for political
reform. The number of women in the workplace continued to rise, but very slowly. Much more, the nature
of this work was white collar, such as typing, sales, and stenography, and reserved largely for white
women only. Although women continued to be politically active, it was not with the single-minded fervor
which the campaign for the vote had given them.

While suffrage did not produce the immediate results hoped for by its supporters nor did it include
minority women in the successes it did effect, it did lay the groundwork for future women to seek out a
life of independence and public activity. Women would gradually come to realize the power of their
citizenship and their vote. The Nineteenth Amendment, in the legacy of the Fourteenth Amendment and
its granting of citizenship to blacks, and as a predecessor of the Civil Rights Law of the 1960s, was
another stepping stone in the fight for America's promise of equal rights for all. Women such as Eleanor
Roosevelt were awakened to a new level of political consciousness by their right to vote. Suffrage greatly
facilitated their efforts to lead public lives and to inspire others following in their footsteps.

http://www.pbs.org
                                         6. Planes and Cars
                                 Chasing the Sun: Charles Lindbergh

Some of the world's most famous aviators were taking to the skies in 1927, hoping to become the first to
fly nonstop between New York and Paris. A $25,000 prize had been offered by hotel businessman
Raymond Orteig for the first to complete the feat. Four men had already died trying, three others had been
seriously injured, and two were still missing, but that didn't stop one ambitious young man from Little
Falls, Minnesota.

Charles Lindbergh was working as an air mail pilot in the Midwest when he convinced a group of St.
Louis businessmen to fund his attempt to make the trans-Atlantic flight. Lindbergh worked with a San
Diego-based plane company to custom-build the plane according to the strict specifications needed to
make the journey. Lindbergh christened his plane the Spirit of St. Louis, in honor of his generous backers.

When Lindbergh arrived in New York, most didn't give the fresh-faced 25-year-old a chance at
succeeding. Not only was Lindbergh attempting the flight in a single-engine plane (in stark contrast to
others' failed multi-engine efforts), but Lindbergh was going to try it alone - without a co-pilot.
Convinced the young man's endeavor would surely end in his death, newspapers called him "the flying
fool."

The Spirit of St. Louis was filled with so much fuel to make the flight, one of Lindbergh's biggest
challenges would be upon take off. Would his plane actually get airborne? At 7:54 am on May 20, 1927,
Lindbergh's plane raced down the runway on Roosevelt Field steadily gaining speed. Slowly the plane
began to ascend. The plane's greatest obstacle lay at the end of the runway - telephone lines strung from
pole to pole. With 20 feet to spare, the Spirit of St. Louis cleared the wires. Lindbergh was on his way
across the Atlantic Ocean.

A sleep-deprived Lindbergh battled drowsiness along the way, but managed to safely touch down at Le
Bourget Field near Paris. Hundreds of thousands cheered Lindbergh's unprecedented achievement.
Lindbergh's flight made headlines around the world. A trip which would have taken a week by boat, was
suddenly made in only 33 and a half hours.

When Lindbergh returned home, America greeted their new hero with unbridled enthusiasm. Four million
people lined the streets of New York City for a ticker tape parade in his honor. Politicians and
businessmen eager to promote air travel commissioned Lindbergh to fly the Spirit of St. Louis throughout
the United States. Over the course of three months, Lindbergh visited 92 cities in 49 states, extolling the
virtues of flight to a captivated American audience. When Lindbergh completed his national tour, he
continued to publicize the benefits of aviation with trips to Central and South America. Lindbergh hoped
that aviation might further connect different countries and foster greater understanding between cultures.

In the years following his famous trans-Atlantic flight, Lindbergh would remain a prominent figure in the
world of aviation. TWA hired Lindbergh as an advisor to the airline, naming its new transcontinental
route the "Lindbergh Line." He flew unchartered territories with his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh,
plotting new air routes for Pan Am in the late 1920s and early 1930s. After the kidnapping and murder of
their first child in 1932, the Lindberghs sought more privacy by leaving the U. S. to live in England and
then France, where they stayed until the outbreak of war.

Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, Lindbergh opposed American involvement in World War II. He drew
strong criticism for some of his statements which were perceived as anti-Semitic. His reports on German
air power, however, did help American military leaders prepare adequately for the possibility of war.
Like his wife, Lindbergh was an accomplished writer, winning the Pulitzer Prize for his 1953 account of
his trans-Atlantic crossing, The Spirit of St. Louis. His longtime friendship with the head of Pan Am, Juan
Trippe, continued with Lindbergh serving as special advisor to the airline into the 1960s. Later in life, he
also became an outspoken advocate for environmental issues. He surprised some by publicly criticizing
U. S. development of the Supersonic Transport, which he felt would adversely impact the environment.
Lindbergh died August 26, 1974 at his home in Hawaii.

http://www.pbs.org

                      Automobiles: But how did the Model T get its nickname?

In the early 1900s, car dealers would try to create publicity for their new automobiles by hosting car
races. In 1922, a championship race was held in Pikes Peak, Colorado. Entered as one of the contestants
was Noel Bullock and his Model T, named "Old Liz." Since Old Liz looked the worse for wear (it was
unpainted and lacked a hood), many spectators compared Old Liz to a tin can. By the start of the race, the
car had the new nickame of "Tin Lizzie." To everyone's surprise, Tin Lizzie won the race.

Having beaten even the most expensive other cars available at the time, Tin Lizzie proved both the
durability and speed of the Model T. The surprise win of Tin Lizzie was reported in newspapers across
the country, leading to the use of the nickname "Tin Lizzie" for all Model T cars.

Henry Ford became an icon of a self-made man. He began life as a farmer's son and quickly became rich
and famous. Although an industrialist, Ford remembered the common man. He designed the Model T for
the masses, installed a mechanized assembly line to make production cheaper and faster, and instituted
the $5 per day pay rate for his workers.

http://history1900s.about.com
                                                 7. Moving Pictures

When moving pictures first emerged at the turn of the century, they presented viewers with a flickering new form of
entertainment. Even without sound, the mass appeal of these early movies and their portrayal of sex and violence
managed to draw fire from America's moral guardians. In the 1930s, film industry executives embraced a strict set
of guidelines, or Production Code, that governed movie content for two decades.

Despite early admonitions, the motion picture industry flourished, and by the 1920s, forty million Americans from
all walks of life went to the packed moviehouses each week. Moviemakers, wanting to attract young people, made
films that were a reflection of their times -- it was the age of flappers doing the Charleston, honky-tonks playing the
new sounds of jazz, and gangsters running numbers and selling liquor during Prohibition. Hollywood's new movie
moguls were getting rich without any concern for freedom of expression or censorship.

It was a rash of Hollywood scandals in the late teens and the early twenties that helped intensify the ire of local
censors and forced the film industry leaders to address the industry's image problems. In 1921, comedian Fatty
Arbuckle was accused of the rape and murder of a young actress; director William Desmond Taylor was found
murdered; actor Wallace Reid died of a drug overdose; and America's sweetheart, actress Mary Pickford, obtained a
quickie divorce to marry dashing matinee idol, Douglas Fairbanks. Studio heads hired a public relations man, Will
Hays, to bolster the industry's tainted reputation by convincing the nation that Hollywood was not all scandalous and
that the movie industry would censor itself.

But Hays was merely a spokesperson. Since he had very little power to change the content of films, the criticism
escalated, exploding into a national crisis when sound technology gave the movies a voice. In the late 1920s, state
censorship boards were working overtime to keep up with the "talkies." These talking pictures incensed religious
leaders concerned about America's youth. "Silent smut had been bad, vocal smut cried to the censors for
vengeance," wrote Father Daniel Lord, an influential Jesuit teacher in the twenties. Catholic religious leaders
especially turned up the heat on Hollywood, calling for strict moral standards and a Code of conduct for movie
content based on the premise that "no picture shall be produced which will lower the moral standards of those who
see it."

The Production Code spelled out specific restrictions on language and behavior, particularly sex and crime -- two
sure-fire box office draws. It prohibited nudity, suggestive dances, and the ridicule of religion. It forbade the
depiction of illegal drug use, venereal disease, childbirth, and miscegenation. The language section banned dozens
of "offensive" words and phrases. Criminal activity could not be presented in a way that led viewers to sympathize
with criminals. Murder scenes had to avoid inspiring imitation, and brutal killings could not be shown in detail. The
sanctity of the marriage and the home had to be upheld. Adultery and illicit sex, although recognized as sometimes
necessary to the plot, could not be explicit or justified and were not supposed to be presented as an attractive option.

Hays convinced the studios that accepting the Code was the safest and cheapest answer to their troubles. If the
movie industry policed itself, it could ward off the high probability of government intervention. After losing money
in the stock market crash of 1929 and paying big bills for introducing sound to the movies, the studios were also
deep in debt and desperate to cut costs. Hays sold the Code as the money-saving measure they were searching for.
Instead of paying to revise the film after the censorship boards made their edits, the studios could simply follow the
Code before making their movies and everyone would be happy. The Code was adopted in 1930.

As the Depression wore on, moviemakers slacked off on their adherence to the Code. Dozens of films produced in
1932 and 1933 presented women using their sexuality to get ahead. The "bad girl" movies, including Red Headed
Woman starring Jean Harlow, were huge box office hits. "She slept her way to the top, she was into S&M; there's a
very naughty scene where he starts beating her, and she just loves it," comments Eve Golden, Jean Harlow
biographer.

Continued pressure from the Catholic Church with support from Jewish and Protestant leaders, economic hardships,
and the growing threat of federal censorship forced Hays and the studios to change their ways. In 1934, Joe Breen, a
strict Catholic moralist from Philadelphia, was hired to run Hollywood's Production Code Administration, set up to
enforce the Code. The PCA had the authority to review all movies and demand script changes. Any theater that ran a
film without the PCA seal of approval would be fined $25,000. The Code had power at last. "The vulgar, the cheap,
and the tawdry is out. There is no room on the screen at any time for pictures which offend against common
decency. And these the industry will not allow," pledged Breen.

Moviemakers and scriptwriters acquiesced. They accepted the Code as the rule by which they had to work and
created films that met Breen's standards. Some actors survived; others were not so fortunate. Under the watchful eye
of Breen and the PCA, Jean Harlow learned to play the all-American, girl-next-door and her career flourished.
Others, like Mae West, were ruined in part because sexual innuendo and the double-entendre -- her trademarks --
were forbidden by the Code. Hollywood Censored shows reel-to-reel evidence of Breen's influence. The films
released after July 1934 were radically different from those that had come before. "It's the difference between Mae
West and Shirley Temple," explains film historian Thomas Doherty in the film.

The Production Code's days were numbered in 1952 when movies were finally granted free speech protection under
the First Amendment. The motion picture industry officially abandoned the Code in 1968 and soon replaced it with
the system of age-based ratings that still exist today.

Hollywood Censored closes with the words of contemporary movie industry players who work with an age-based
ratings system, but without a Code. Film producer Janet Yang explains, "My guidelines have to do with what feels
true, as opposed to what feels false, what feels authentic as opposed to what feels manipulative." "To say that the
film industry shouldn't have any restrictions on it...it's either living in a fantasy land...or it denies, in my opinion, the
fact that films can cause real life problems," says Robert Peters, president of the watchdog organization Morality in
Media. "I have a right to compose a song or write a book or make a movie about anything I choose, but a theater
owner has a right to say 'no, I don't want to play it.' Or a retail video store says 'no, I don't want to stock it.' That's
called freedom. That's called democracy," declares Jack Valenti, president of the Motion Picture Association of
America.

http://www.pbs.org

                                                   Laurel and Hardy

Laurel and Hardy were an American-based comedy duo who became famous during the early half of the
twentieth century for their work in motion pictures. The the duo consisted of the thin British-born-and-
reared Stan Laurel and his heavier American partner from the state of Georgia, Oliver Hardy. They are
considered among the most famous and finest double acts in cinema history. Each brought talents from
his solo career to the team.

The two comedians worked together briefly in 1919, on The Lucky Dog released in 1921. After a period
appearing separately in several short films for the Hal Roach studio during the 1920s, they began
appearing together in 1926, and officially became a team in 1927. They became Hal Roach's most famous
and lucrative stars. Among their most popular and successful films were the features Sons of the Desert
(1933), Way Out West (1937), and Block-Heads (1938); and the shorts Big Business (1929), Helpmates
(1932), and their Academy Award-winning effort, The Music Box (1932).
The pair left the Roach studio in 1940, then appeared in eight low-budget comedies for 20th Century Fox
and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. From 1945 to 1950, they did not appear on film and concentrated on their
stage show. They made their last film, Atoll K, in France in 1950-1951, before retiring from the screen. In
total they appeared together in 106 films. They starred in 40 short sound films, 32 short silent films, and
23 feature films; in the remaining 11 films they made a guest appearance or had a cameo role.

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Laurel_and_Hardy
                                   8. The Jazz Age: Dressing the Part

Skyscrapers, fast-moving cars, and carefree amusements defined the post-war era. Tired of war and all
that it demanded, a cult of gaiety and youth reigned in American society. Gone was the sobriety of
wartime. American women looked to Zelda Fitzgerald as the definitive "flapper," Clara Bow and Louise
Brooks of the silver screen as "modern," sexually free women. The amusements which had been slightly
disreputable before the war — jazz, Freudian theories, makeup, and movies — were now mainstream.
Women could vote, pursue careers, and openly assert their sexuality for the first time. They were entering
the "Jazz Age" in which "la femme moderne" rejected the prevailing social restrictions over women, their
activities, and their fashion. The now old-fashioned Godey’s Lady’s Book indignantly responded that this
was evidence that the country needed the corset "physically, fashionably, and morally."

Gabrielle Chanel was the first fashion designer to assert that women could be comfortable and still look
stylish in the workplace. She created a revolution by introducing "working-class clothes" into elite
society. The "working girl" was glamorized as a woman financially, socially, and sexually independent.
Catering specifically to women’s call for simplicity in dress, Chanel cut easy-care fabrics (serge, jersey,
and tweed) with straight lines to create a look of understated elegance. American designers copied
Chanel’s easily-reproduced styles and sold them in department stores everywhere. High fashion had
become fully democratized. Both wealthy and working class women appropriated Chanel’s "look" of
informality sporting raglan coats and costume jewelry.

http://www.pbs.org

                                              The "Flapper"

The term "flapper" first appeared in Great Britain after World War I. It was there used to describe young
girls, still somewhat awkward in movement who had not yet entered womanhood. In the June 1922
edition of the Atlantic Monthly, G. Stanley Hall described looking in a dictionary to discover what the
evasive term "flapper" meant:

[T]he dictionary set me right by defining the word as a fledgling, yet in the nest, and vainly attempting to
fly while its wings have only pinfeathers; and I recognized that the genius of 'slanguage' had made the
squab the symbol of budding girlhood.

Authors such F. Scott Fitzgerald and artists such as John Held Jr. first used the term to the U.S., half
reflecting and half creating the image and style of the flapper. Fitzgerald described the ideal flapper as
"lovely, expensive, and about nineteen."4 Held accentuated the flapper image by drawing young girls
wearing unbuckled galoshes that would make a "flapping" noise when walking.5

Many have tried to define flappers. In William and Mary Morris' Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins,
they state, "In America, a flapper has always been a giddy, attractive and slightly unconventional young
thing who, in [H. L.] Mencken's words, 'was a somewhat foolish girl, full of wild surmises and inclined to
revolt against the precepts and admonitions of her elders.'" Flappers had both an image and an attitude.

Flapper Image

The Flappers' image consisted of drastic - to some, shocking - changes in women's clothing and hair.
Nearly every article of clothing was trimmed down and lightened in order to make movement easier.
It is said that girls "parked" their corsets when they were to go dancing. The new, energetic dances of the
Jazz Age, required women to be able to move freely, something the "ironsides" didn't allow. Replacing
the pantaloons and corsets were underwear called "step-ins."

The outer clothing of flappers is even still extremely identifiable. This look, called "garconne" ("little
boy"), was instigated by Coco Chanel. To look more like a boy, women tightly wound their chest with
strips of cloth in order to flatten it. The waists of flapper clothes were dropped to the hipline. She wore
stockings - made of rayon ("artificial silk") starting in 1923 - which the flapper often wore rolled over a
garter belt.

Flapper Attitude

The flapper attitude was characterized by stark truthfulness, fast living, and sexual behavior. Flappers
seemed to cling to youth as if it were to leave them at any moment. They took risks and were reckless.

They wanted to be different, to announce their departure from the Gibson Girl's morals. So they smoked.
Something only men had done previously. Their parents were shocked.

Smoking wasn't the most outrageous of the flapper's rebellious actions. Flappers drank alcohol. At a time
when the United States had outlawed alcohol (Prohibition), young women were starting the habit early.
Some even carried hip-flasks full so as to have it on hand. More than a few adults didn't like to see tipsy
young women. Flappers had a scandalous image as the "giddy flapper, rouged and clipped, careening in a
drunken stupor to the lewd strains of a jazz quartet."

The 1920s was the Jazz Age and one of the most popular past-times for flappers was dancing. Dances
such as the Charleston, Black Bottom, and the Shimmy were considered "wild" by older generations. As
described in the May 1920 edition of the Atlantic Monthly, flappers "trot like foxes, limp like lame ducks,
one-step like cripples, and all to the barbaric yawp of strange instruments which transform the whole
scene into a moving-picture of a fancy ball in bedlam." For the Younger Generation, the dances fit their
fast-paced life-style.

For the first time since the train and the bicycle, a new form of faster transportation was becoming
popular. Henry Ford's innovations were making the automobile an accessible commodity to the people.
Cars were fast and risky - perfect for the flapper attitude. Flappers not only insisted on riding in them;
they drove them.

http://history1900s.about.com/od/1920s/a/flappers.htm
                                             9. World War I

The First World War, originally called the Great War, raged from 1914 to 1918. Mostly fought in western
Europe in muddy, bloody trenches, WWI saw the introduction of the machine gun and poison gas into
battle.

World War I was an extremely bloody war, with huge losses of life and little ground lost or won. Fought
mostly by soldiers in trenches, World War I saw an estimated 10 million military deaths. While many
hoped that World War I would be "the war to end all wars," in actuality, the concluding peace treaty set
the stage for World War II.

When World War I started, it seemed like the soldiers would be home, triumphant, by Christmas 1914.
Yet what began with such high hopes, ended more than four, bloody years later.

The spark that started World War I was the assassination of Austria's Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his
wife Sophie. The assassination occurred on June 28, 1914 while Ferdinand was visiting the city of
Sarajevo in the Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Although Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the nephew of Austria's emperor and heir-apparent to the throne,
was not very well liked by most, his assassination by a Serb nationalist was viewed as a great excuse to
attack Austria-Hungary's troublesome neighbor, Serbia.

However, instead of reacting quickly to the incident, Austria-Hungary made sure they had the backing of
Germany, with whom they had a treaty, before they proceeded. This gave Serbia time to get the backing
of Russia, with whom they had a treaty.

The calls for back-up didn't end there. Russia also had a treaty with France and Britain.

This meant that by the time Austria-Hungary officially declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, an entire
month after the assassination, much of Europe had already become entangled in the dispute.

At the start of the war, these were the major players (more countries joined the war later):

Allied Forces (a.k.a. the Allies): France, the United Kingdom, Russia
Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary
Schlieffen Plan vs. Plan XVII

Germany didn't want to fight both Russia in the east and France in the west, so they enacted their long-
standing Schlieffen Plan. The Schlieffen Plan was created by Alfred Graf von Schlieffen, who was the
chief of the German general staff from 1891 to 1905.

Schlieffen believed that it would take about six weeks for Russia to mobilize their troops and supplies.
So, if Germany placed a nominal number of soldiers in the east, the majority of Germany's soldiers and
supplies could be used for a quick attack in the west.

Since Germany was facing this exact scenario of a two-front war at the beginning of World War I,
Germany decided to enact the Schlieffen Plan. While Russia continued to mobilize, Germany decided to
attack France by going through neutral Belgium. Since Britain had a treaty with Belgium, the attack on
Belgium officially brought Britain into the war.
While Germany was enacting its Schlieffen Plan, the French enacted their own prepared plan, called Plan
XVII. This plan was created in 1913 and called for quick mobilization in response to a German attack
through Belgium.

As German troops moved south into France and the French and British troops moved north to meet them,
the massive armies met each other in a stalemate. By September 1914, neither side could force the other
to move, so each side began to dig trenches. For the next four years, the troops would fight from these
trenches.

A War of Attrition

From 1914 to 1917, soldiers on each side of the line fought from their trenches. They fired artillery onto
the enemy's position and lobbed grenades. However, each time military leaders ordered a full-fledged
attack, the soldiers were forced to leave the "safety" of their trenches.

The only way to overtake the other side's trench was for the soldiers to cross "No Man's Land," the area
between the trenches, on foot. Out in the open, thousands of soldiers raced across this barren land in the
hopes of reaching the other side. Often, most were hewn down by machine-gun fire and artillery before
they even got close.

Because of the nature of trench warfare, millions of young men were slaughtered in the battles of World
War I. The war quickly became one of attrition, which meant that with so many soldiers being killed
daily, eventually the side with the most men would win the war.

By 1917, the Allies were starting to run low on young men.

U.S. Enters the War and Russia Gets Out

The Allies needed help and they were hoping that the United States, with its vast resources of men and
materials, would join on their side. However, for years, the U.S. had clung to their idea of isolationism.
Plus, the U.S. just didn't want to be involved in a war that seemed so far away and that didn't seem to
affect them in any great way.

However, there were two major events that changed American public opinion about the war. The first
occurred in 1915, when a German U-boat (submarine) sunk the British ocean liner RMS Lusitania.
Considered by Americans to be a neutral ship that carried mostly passengers, Americans were furious
when the Germans sank it, especially since 159 of the passengers were Americans.

The second was the Zimmermann Telegram. In early 1917, Germany sent Mexico a coded message
promising portions of U.S. land in return for Mexico joining World War I against the United States. The
message was intercepted by Britain, translated, and shown to the United States. This brought the war to
U.S. soil, giving the U.S. a real reason to enter the war on the side of the Allies.

On April 6, 1917, the United States officially declared war on Germany.

As the United States was entering World War I, Russia was getting ready to get out.

In 1917, Russia became swept up in an internal revolution that removed the czar from power. The new
communist government, wanting to focus on internal troubles, sought a way to remove Russia from
World War I. Negotiating separately from the rest of the Allies, Russia signed the Brest-Litovsk peace
treaty with Germany on March 3, 1918.
With the war in the east ended, Germany was able to divert those troops to the west in order to face the
new American soldiers.

Armistice and the Versailles Treaty

The fighting in the west continued for another year. Millions more soldiers died, while little land was
gained. However, the freshness of the American troops made a huge difference. While the European
troops were tired from years of war, the Americans remained enthusiastic. Soon the Germans were
retreating and the Allies were advancing. The end of the war was near.

At the end of 1918, an armistice was finally agreed upon. The fighting was to end on the 11th hour of
11th day of 11th month (i.e. 11 am on Nov. 11, 1918).

For the next several months, diplomats argued and compromised together in order to come up with the
Versailles Treaty. The Versailles Treaty was the peace treaty that ended World War I; however, a number
of its terms were so controversial that it also set the stage for World War II.

The carnage left behind by the end of World War I was staggering. By the end of the war, an estimated 10
million soldiers were killed. That averages to about 6,500 deaths a day, every day. Plus, millions of
civilians were also killed. World War I is especially remembered for its slaughter for it was one of the
bloodiest wars in history.

http://history1900s.about.com
                        10. 1919 World Series and Babe Ruth
Even a casual baseball fan can tell you a little something about the Black Sox scandal of 1919. The very
fiber that held the game together was challenged when the news broke a year after the series that a fix was
on from the first inning of game. Eight members of the participating White Sox including pitchers Eddie
Cicotte and Claude (Lefty) Williams, outfielders Joe Jackson and Happy Felsch, first baseman Chick
Gandil, shortstop Swede Risberg, third baseman Buck Weaver and reserve infielder Fred McMullin were
all charged with conspiring to fix the outcome of the Fall Classic against the Cincinnati Reds. Cynics
were tipped off before the Series even started when the pre-game betting odds swapped shortly before the
first game. Chicago's White Sox were originally slated as heavy favorites, but were later changed to
underdogs in favor of the Cincinnati Reds. Despite the rumors, most fans and members of the press
accepted the games to be true, but all that would change in 1920 as suspicions turned into confessions.

The first Game of the 1919 scandal featured an outstanding and "authentic" performance by the Reds'
pitcher Dutch Ruether. In addition to going the distance in a six hitter, he went three for three with two
triples and three runs batted in. Greasy Neale, who would go on to lead his team in hitting with a .351,
also performed well at the plate in tandem with teammate Jake Daubert. The White Sox put on quite a
show themselves, losing 9-1 in questionable fashion. Nothing changed the following day as Cincinnati's
Slim Sallee faired the same, tossing a 4-2 Game 2 victory that was sealed by a Larry Kopf two run triple
in the fourth. Dickey Kerr, an up and coming rookie for the White Sox, drew the start for Game 3.
Apparently untouched by the scandal, the tough lefthander refused to roll over and threw a three hit 3-0
winner to put Chicago back in the race (whether they wanted to be or not).

The inspired Reds, unaware that a fix was on, pitched back-to-back shutouts in Games 4 and 5 on the
arms of Jimmy Ring (2-0) and Hod Eller (5-0) who sat down six consecutive batters. But wait! It wasn't
over yet... In any other year, the Series would have ended there, but 1919 was different. Due to the intense
postwar interest, the commissioner of baseball had decided to extend this Fall Classic to a best-of-nine
affair.

To curb further suspicion, the Black Sox decided to make a reasonable effort and rebounded in the
following two games with 5-4 and 4-1 victories. Cincinnati "dominated" the final outing "with a little
help" from their crooked rivals in a 10-5 stomp that started with four runs in the first inning. The Reds
had won their first World Championship in their first Fall Classic appearance. Unfortunately, the victory
would be bittersweet after the scandal had been confirmed a year later. The Black Sox had been able to
camouflague their deception by being selective in their misdeeds. Joe Jackson had batted a Series-leading
.375 but acknowledged that he had let up in key situations. Buck Weaver had also performed well at the
plate by hitting .324. Chick Gandil had game-deciding hits in two outings and Eddie Cicotte had tossed a
one-run game to avoid elimination.

After a lengthy investigation in 1920, the members of Chicago's tainted team were amazingly acquitted
the following year despite their own confessions (which were recanted later). All of the players involved
were banned from baseball because of their undeniable link to gamblers. The league offices were
constantly denying accusations from the press that professional baseball itself was in on the take and
made every effort to assure the fans that the 1919 scandal was an isolated incident. "Regardless of the
verdict of juries," the commissioner said in a statement, "no player that throws a ball game, no player that
entertains proposals or promises to throw a game, no player that sits in a conference with a bunch of
crooked players and gamblers where the ways and means of throwing games are discussed, and does not
promptly tell his club about it, will ever again play professional baseball." To this day participants in the
Black Sox conspiracy have been denied entry into the Baseball Hall of Fame.
http://www.baseball-almanac.com/ws/yr1919ws.shtml

                                              Babe Ruth
Babe Ruth is often referred to as the greatest baseball player who ever lived. In 22 seasons, Babe Ruth hit
a record 714 home runs. Many of Babe Ruth's numerous records for both pitching and hitting lasted for
decades.

Dates: February 6. 1895 -- August 16, 1948

Also Known As: George Herman Ruth Jr., Sultan of Swat, the Home Run King, Bambino, the Babe

Overview of Babe Ruth:

Young Babe Ruth Gets Into Trouble

Babe Ruth, born as George Herman Ruth Jr., and his sister Mamie were the only two of George and Kate
Ruth's eight children to survive childhood. George's parents worked long hours running a bar and so little
George ran the streets of Baltimore, Maryland getting into trouble.

When Babe was seven years old, his parents sent their "incorrigible" son to St. Mary's Industrial School
for Boys. With only a few exceptions, George lived at this reformatory school until he was 19 years old.

Babe Ruth Learns to Play Baseball

It was at St. Mary's that George Ruth developed into a good baseball player. Although George was a
natural as soon as he stepped onto the baseball field, it was Brother Matthias, the prefect of discipline at
St. Mary's, who helped George fine tune his skills.

Jack Dunn's New Babe

By the time George Ruth was 19, he had drawn the eyes of minor league recruiter Jack Dunn. Jack liked
the way George pitched and so signed him to the Baltimore Orioles for $600. George was ecstatic to get
paid to play the game he loved.

There are several stories about how George Ruth got his nickname "Babe." The most popular is that Dunn
was often finding new recruits and so when George Ruth showed up at practice, another player called out,
"he's one of Dunnie's babes," which eventually was just shortened to "Babe."

Jack Dunn was great at finding talented baseball players, but he was losing money. After only five
months with the Orioles, Dunn sold Babe Ruth to the Boston Red Sox on July 10, 1914.

Babe Ruth and the Red Sox

Although now in the major leagues, Babe Ruth didn't get to play much in the beginning. Babe was even
sent to play for the Grays, a minor league team, for a few months.

It was during this first season in Boston that Babe Ruth met and fell in love with the young waitress
Helen Woodford who worked at a local coffee shop. The two married in October 1914.
By 1915, Babe Ruth was back with the Red Sox and pitching. Over the next few seasons, Babe Ruth's
pitching went from great to extraordinary. In 1918, Babe Ruth pitched his 29th scoreless inning in a
World Series. That record stood for 43 years!

Things changed in 1919 because Babe Ruth demanded to spend more time hitting and thus less time
pitching. That season, Babe Ruth hit 29 home runs -- a new record.

The Yankees and the House That Ruth Built

Many were surprised when it was announced in 1920 that Babe Ruth had been traded to the New York
Yankees. Babe Ruth had been traded for a whopping $125,000 (more than twice the amount ever paid for
a player).

Babe Ruth was an extremely popular baseball player. He just seemed to succeed at everything on the
baseball field. In 1920, he broke his own home run record and hit an amazing 54 home runs in one
season.

Again in 1921, he broke his own home run record with 59 home runs.

Fans flocked to see the amazing Babe Ruth in action. Babe drew in so many fans that when the new
Yankee Stadium was built in 1923, many called it "The House That Ruth Built."

In 1927, Babe Ruth was part of the team that many consider the best baseball team in history. It was
during that year that he hit 60 home runs in a season! (Babe's single season record for home runs stood for
34 years.)

Living the Wild Life

There are nearly as many stories of Babe Ruth off the field as there is on it. Some people described Babe
Ruth as a boy that never really grew up; while others just considered him vulgar.

Babe Ruth loved practical jokes. He frequently stayed out late, completely ignoring team curfews. He
loved to drink, ate copious amounts of food, and had sex with large numbers of women. He often used
profanities and absolutely loved to drive his car very, very fast. More than a couple of times, Babe Ruth
crashed his car.

His wild life put him at odds with many of his teammates and definitely with the team's manager. It also
greatly affected his relationship with his wife, Helen.

Since they were Catholic, neither Babe nor Helen believed in divorce. However, by 1925 Babe and Helen
were permanently separated, with their adopted daughter living with Helen. When Helen died in a house
fire in 1929, Babe married model Claire Merritt Hodgson, who tried to help Babe curb some of his worst
habits.

Two Popular Stories About Babe Ruth

One of the most famous stories about Babe Ruth involves a home run and a boy in the hospital. In 1926,
Babe Ruth heard about an 11-year-old boy named Johnny Sylvester who was in the hospital after having
an accident. The doctors weren't sure if Johnny was going to live. Babe Ruth promised to hit a home run
for Johnny. In the next game, Babe not only hit one home run, he hit three. Johnny, upon hearing the
news of Babe's home runs, started to feel better. Babe later went to the hospital and visited Johnny in
person.

Another famous story about Babe Ruth is one of the most famous stories of baseball history. During the
third game of the 1932 World Series, the Yankees were in a heated competition with the Chicago Cubs.
When Babe Ruth stepped up to the plate, Cub players heckled him and some fans even threw fruit at him.
After two balls and two strikes, the incensed Babe Ruth pointed out to center field. With the next pitch,
Babe struck the ball exactly where he had predicted in what has been termed the "called shot." The story
became immensely popular; however, it's not exactly clear whether Babe meant to call his shot or was
just pointing at the pitcher.

The 1930s showed an aging Babe Ruth. He was already 35 years old and although still playing well,
younger players were playing better.

What Babe wanted to do was manage. Unfortunately for him, his wild life had caused even the most
adventurous team owner to consider Babe Ruth unsuitable to manage an entire team. In 1935, Babe Ruth
decided to switch teams and play for the Boston Braves with the hope of having a chance to be assistant
manager. When that didn't work out, Babe Ruth decided to retire.

On May 25, 1935, Babe Ruth hit his 714th career home run. Five days later, he played his last game of
major league baseball. (Babe's home run record stood until broken by Hank Aaron in 1974.)

Retirement

Babe Ruth didn't stay idle in retirement. He traveled, played a lot of golf, went bowling, hunted, visited
sick children in hospitals, and played in numerous exhibition games.

In 1936, Babe Ruth was chosen to be one of the first five inductees to the newly created Baseball Hall of
Fame.

In November 1946, Babe Ruth entered a hospital after suffering a monstrous pain above his left eye for a
few months. The doctors told him he had cancer. He underwent a surgery but not all of it was removed.
The cancer soon grew back. Babe Ruth died on August 16, 1948 at age 53.

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