A young man was in a serious accident and taken to the hospital for an emergency brain operation. The brain surgeon looked at the boy and said, “I can’t operate on him. He is my son.” But the surgeon was not the boy’s father. Explain how this could be The idea that women can see the top jobs but can never get over the invisible barrier to get those jobs. Have you heard of this? Known anyone who has experienced it? Do you think you will experience it in your future career? Sex Biological Determinism Gender Identity You Inherit your sex but you learn your gender. Sex – classification of people as male or female based on biological characteristics. Assumptions: › Males- naturally more aggressive, protective and built for providing. › Females – naturally passive and in greater need of protection Biological Determinism – principle that behavioral differences are the result of inherited physical characteristics. This theory lacks scientific proof and men and women have not been casually linked to biological characteristics. Society navigates how boys and girls act and are viewed. You typically do not hear how baby girls have broad shoulders and muscled legs or that baby boys have long, curling eyelashes. Girls and boys tend to behave how their parent’s expect and their parent’s expect behavior including modes of dress, ways of walking, manner of talking, play activities, and life aspirations based on what society tells them is appropriate for their sons and daughters. Gender Identity – a sense of being male or female based on learned cultural values. Sex – biological identity of the person and is meant to signify either male or female Gender – socially learned behaviors and expectations that are associated with the 2 sexes “maleness” and “femaleness” – biological facts Becoming a woman or man – a cultural process Break into groups of 2: Determine whether the questions are True or False › Women talk more than men › Women are more likely than men to touch other people › Women use less personal space than men › Research indicates that in spite of what most people believe, just the opposite is true. In one study, men talked on the average of 10 minutes more than women about engraving. Students might point out that the study might yield different results depending upon what topic is brought up for discussion. › Research has determined that women are no more likely than men to touch other people › Research does bear this finding out. Men tend to take up more space than women Biological differences in men and women – muscle- to-bone distinction, how fat is stored, who can impregnate, and who can physically carry a baby. Brains of women and men are slightly different – men show slightly more activity in the area of the brain that has more adaptive evolutionary responses such as fighting. Women show more activity in the area of the brain related to emotional expression. Women tend to use both sides of their brain when performing a task and use both ears when listening, whereas men tend to use the left side when performing a task and the right ear to listen. In their future partners: › Men tend to value physical appearance more than women › Women tend to place more power in social class and income › Men prefer slightly younger mates, whereas women prefer older ones. In the US women tend to have a life expectancy of 5 years longer than men. Men tend to more aggressive, therefore have higher rates of suicide, accidents, and violence. Men are taught to be more competitive and more secretive with their inner feelings. Men are more encouraged to engage in activities detrimental to their health such as excessive drinking and smoking Study by Sociologist Margaret Mead about 3 tribes in New Guinea › She found that both males and females were conditioned to be cooperative, unaggressive and empathetic (Arapesh Tribe). Peoples in this tribe tended to follow what is traditionally the female role › In Mundugumor, she found both men and women to be aggressive, ruthless, and unresponsive to the needs of others – typically more men type roles. › The Tchambuli tribe were completely different than the Western world because women were the dominant, impersonal, and aggressive persons and men were dependent on them. There are no studies to prove that behaviors are a biological factor. While biological characteristics exists, they can be modified through social influences. Men and women can both LEARN to be anything and do anything. Human behavior is a result of multiple causes. What would you say if you saw a couple with a newborn baby and asked them what it was a boy or a girl and they said they didn’t know? Read pages 342-343 Write a response to the story Key Terms › Gender Socialization The division of responsibilities between males and females survived because it benefited human living. In earlier times people believed this division based on sex made living efficient (because of size and strength – men hunted and protected and women did more domestic tasks) Today’s functionalism supporters feel as if this division has created more dysfunction for modern society. A conflict theorist believes it is to the men’s advantage to prevent women from gaining access to political, economic and social resources. If men can prevent women from reaching their potential they will remain the dominant group. A conflict theorist sees gender roles as outdated and sees how women having careers and trying to be successful causes this tension between the genders. Because women are working outside of the home, marrying later in life, having fewer children, are remaining single, are younger when their last child leaves home, and choosing to be single mothers in some cases – conflict theorist see this as a good thing. A conflict theorist also think that women who go into jobs that are reserved more for men have a right to make that choice even if it is not “functional” for society. A symbolic interactionist looks at the ways girls and boys learn how they are “supposed to act” – this process is called gender socialization – the social process of learning how to act like a boy or girl. Parents play a crucial role in gender socialization because they are the first to socialize their children until the age of about 2. The expectations of parents dictate how a child will act – whatever their parents deem “appropriate behavior” will be how a child will strive to be. Family chores also dictate gender roles – parents will expect their daughters to cook and clean the house, whereas they will expect their sons to mow the yard and take out the trash. Schools also reinforce gender role expectations through the behavior they (teachers and other students) deem appropriate for male and female students. This is a crucial socialization point in the lives of children and what is taught at this stage of their life is very influential. › Boys were 8 times more likely to call out answers in class, whereas girls would sit patiently with their hands raised. › Teachers were more likely to accept answers called out by boys, whereas girls who did this were told it is more polite to raise your hand when answering. › The message this is sending to students is – boys should be assertive and call out answers where as girls should act like ladies and sit quietly. › This study concluded that early on in the educational process girls outperformed boys academically, but the way we treat girls in schools are doing them a disservice because as they reach high school age they become a lot more passive in the classroom and dislike subject such as math and science because of how they have been stereotyped in their early school experience. Peers (later in life – school age children) – have a great affect on socialization of children. Teenagers feel pressure to conform and fit the gender role as masculine or feminine deem appropriate by their peers. Teens just want to fit in and the best way to do this is to go with the status quo – right? Functionalism – gender-based division of labor – women are expected to perform household tasks for the benefit of society Conflict Theory – patriarchy (male domination) – Women are denied high status occupations for the benefit of men Symbolic Interactionism – favoring males over females in the classroom – few females believe they can become scientists, etc. Think about the differences between a psychologist’s and sociologists’ view on gender studies. Write a few paragraphs on this topic and think of some topics that would reflect this difference. Example – on the topic of education, a sociologist might look at whether all-girl schools show a signficantly higher percentage of graduates who enter into male dominated field such as engineering. A psychologist might look at why a teacher responds in a particular way to a female student. Look at the chart on page 318 and answer the questions that go along with it. Key Terms: › Sexism › Occupational Segregation The areas in which women have made the most gains are in education, health care, and human service jobs. Why do you think the pursuit of gender equality has been more successful in these areas and why do you think women have not been as successful in achieving job equality in the areas of economics, law, and politics? Sexism – a set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, and values used to justify sexual inequality. (This is comparable to the effects racism has to ethnic minorities) Sexist ideology – the idea that men are naturally superior to women is used to justify this type of attitude, but this attitude has no scientific or statistical significance. Yes and no – women are making huge strides in the workforce (which has given them more respect from many of the male gender), but the glass ceiling still exists so that women are in a sense still “put in their place” The most important labor development over the years has been the dramatic increase of women in the workforce and the promotions they are being given. In 2004, 59% of women worked outside the home compared to 73% of men. Women represented 46% of the labor force in the US. The biggest change came from married women under the age of 6 went from 19% in 1960 to 37% in 1975 and 59.3% in2004. Look at page 323 – the charts at the top of the page Although women are working the in labor force at greater numbers, many of them are stuck in low-status occupations – occupational sex segregation – the concentration of women in lower-status positions. Only 12% of civil engineers are women 29% of attorney’s are women Women occupy nearly all “pink-collar” jobs – secretaries, clerks, etc. In a study done in 2004 – women who worked full- time jobs only earned 80 cents to the dollar to men who work full-time jobs Basically women who work 7 days a week earn as much as men who work 5 days a week. This number is getting closer however, in 1980 women earned 64 cents to the dollar to men. This is true for all jobs also – even female-dominated jobs – men make more on average than women – look at the chart on page 325 White women make 82% of what men make African American women make 71% of what men make Asian American women make 86% of what men make Latino women make 59% of what men make -Why do you think this is? What is your response to this statement: › Well it’s no wonder that women don’t earn as much money. How could they when they are continually taking time off to have children?” Women who fight for rights have argued against the US Supreme Court decision that refused to grant women health insurance benefits for pregnancy-related medical costs, but men were granted medical coverage for conditions unique to men (such as vasectomies) Some states have refused to allow women to keep their surnames after marriage Some states have (in the past)only allowed women to work so many hours The passage of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 abolished many of these laws Family and Medical Leave Act (1993) requires workplaces to given women 12 weeks without pay for childbirth, adoption, personal illness, etc. – this negatively affects women’s chances of getting jobs over men because employers do not want to deal with these absences and women are more likely to take time off for childbirth, etc. Crime are sometimes gender sensitive as well – laws against prostitution are typically enforced against women, but their men customers are usually let go Women have made huge strides politically in the past years in the local, state, and national level In 1984, Geraldine Ferraro became the 1st Vice-Presidential candidate and Sarah Palin became the second in 2008 Madeleine Albright was the 1st female Secretary of State in 1996, Condoleezza Rice in 2005 and Hilary Clinton is currently the Secretary of State Elizabeth Dole campaigned for her party’s nomination for President in 2000 and Hilary Clinton did the same in 2008 Recently Nancy Pelosi - minority leader of the House of Representatives Over half of the population in the US are women and a relatively small amount are involved in the political system though – page 327 – chart The number of women holding public office in the US is among the lowest in the Western World Women – › 15.4% of the House of Representatives › 14% of the Senate › 14 women hold leadership positions in the House of Senate Get into groups of 2 and discuss and write answers to the following…. › Although women are showing up more frequently in the power elite, many women in these “exalted” positions are very hesitant to speak out. One reporter described the problems she had interviewing women for an article about women and the Fortune 500. While they were very candid off the record, very few were willing to be identified. › Why do you think women who are talented enough to reach the highest executive positions should be reluctant to speak out. Key Terms: › Age Stratification › Ageism Imagine your lives if you have been crumpled up, dropped, stepped on, and rubbed into the ground. Although you have not lost your inherent worth of value, society seems to have declared that you are not worth the same as they were when you were younger. This is how American society devalues the elderly. Age Stratification – the unequal distribution of scarce resources (power, wealth, and prestige) based on age. The rationale for age-base inequality comes from the form of ageism – a set of beliefs, attitudes, norms and values used to justify age-based prejudice and discrimination Functionalists see elderly people are treated in a society according to the role the aged play in that society In many societies the elderly are treated with respect and great honor – playing such roles as elder or priest In colonial America – this idea of respect for the elderly was given , however as we have shifted to a work centered society – the elderly have been greatly devalued because of the inability to work and in turn “contribute to society” in an important way In America –aging tends to lead to lower status Because our society is rapidly changing, younger workers are more likely to possess current skills needed for jobs This loss of status with older age could help to explain the increase in suicide rate for men beginning at retirement age (men tend to feel valued by their jobs and when that is over – they feel less valued by society) Competition for scarce resources is the main component of ageism in the conflict perspective. In the conflict theory prejudice and discrimination are used by the majority to control the minority and if older people are stereotyped as intellectually dull, unproductive, inflexible, or closed-minded then younger people can take over. Ageism (like racism and sexism) involve negative stereotypes against the elderly. Children at a young age start to learn negative stereotypes of the elderly and this continues throughout generations so the elderly are extremely discriminated against. Stereotypes of the elderly – they are senile or forgetful Most people are able to learn new things and adapt to change – although most people think this Why are social attitudes about the elderly so negative? Create some positive ways that American society could make greater use of the elderly. Key Terms: › Interest group Most research on the elderly are done in institutions and studies focus on people with diminished mental and physical capabilities so this adds to the negative stereotypes of the elderly Since the elderly are discriminated against just like ethnic groups and women they are now being considered as a minority group in our society. Although this situation has improved since the 60’s, the elderly in America are far away from being well off The way poverty in America among the elderly distorts the real image. Despite the fact that the elderly (by proportion) spend more on health care and housing than younger people, the government does not feel that they need the same money to live. If the elderly were held to the same standard as young people, the percent of the elderly in poverty would be 15% not 9.8% These numbers do not include the “hidden poor” (people living with relatives) or near poor people The fact that some elderly people are worth a lot based on money and wealth, most of the elderly live on Social Security alone, therefore the mean is not representative of the whole Older people of minority groups are generally in worse condition than older white people. Older African Americans are 3 times more likely to live in poverty than older white people and older Latinos are more than 2.5 times more likely to live in poverty than older whites. This discrimination of ethnic groups tend to increase with old age. Elderly women tend to constitute one of the poorest groups in American society. Women over 65 are 2 times as likely to live in poverty as men. These women tend to be divorced, widowed or never married and because during their time they were discouraged to enter the workforce, their poverty is work related as well and they are unable to support themselves in their later lives. Because of the limited economic resources of older people, their power is gained through the political process – by voting and political interest groups. Since the 80’s the elderly have had the highest percentage of voting population in the US. In 2004, 71% of the elderly voted in the Presidential election compared to under 47% of 18-24 year olds and under 60% of 25-44 year olds Unlike other minority groups, the elderly do not tend to vote as one and this seems to be because they also span different ethnic, racial and gender groups. They do not tend to vote the same – even on questions that deal with them directly. This lack of being unified, tends to weaken their political power to the candidates. Interest groups – a group organized to influence political decision making – these groups have been effective in protecting programs that benefit the elderly such as: Medicare and Social Security. Think about why voter turnout increases with age. Write down some reasons you can come up with. Whatever problems racial and ethnic minorities face because of discrimination become magnified in old age. Write a few paragraphs to support this statement. List reasons why this is true.