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What is IBOC Radio

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					IBOC Handbook

Table of Contents
Section I - Background
Chapter 1
What is IBOC Radio?

  Services Overview

    Program Services

    Multicasting

      Tomorrow Radio

      The HD Digital Radio Alliance

    Program Service Data (PSD)

    Station Information Service (SIS)

    Advanced Data Services (ADS)

    HD Radio Data Enhancements

The Digital Radio Environment

  FCC First Report and Order

  Dissent

  The Rise of IBOC

  The NRSC and IBOC Development

  NRSC Test and Evaluation Process

Digital Radio Transmission Technologies

  Eureka-147 DAB

  Cam-D

  DVB-T

  DVB-H
  Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting for Terrestrial Sound Broadcasting (ISDB-

  TSB)

  Satellite Digital Audio Radio Services (SDARS)

  XM and Sirius Satellite Radio

  SDARS Terrestrial Repeaters

  Worldspace Satellite

  Extended Digital Services

    Digital Radio Express (DRE)

    Stratos Audio Inc. and StratosInteractive

A Context For IBOC
Chapter 2
IBOC Precursors

IBOC’s Beginnings

New Technical Muscle

NRSC Cranks It Up

Testing Proponents’ Technologies: TGWG

Regulatory Progress

Evaluation Process: EWG

Standardization Testing: TPWG and EWG

Response to the Testing

Finally, Standards-Setting: ISDWG

FM Subcarrier Compatibility: DAB Subcommittee and Others

The Path to the HDC Codec: TPWG and EWG

AM Nighttime Performance and Compatibility: Outside-NRSC Review

Multicasting and the SIDTG

Surround Sound: The SSATG

  Composite Surround Transport

  Component Surround Transport

  Surround Sound Case Studies

    KUVO-FM, Colorado Public Radio

    WZLX 100.7, CBS Boston

    WGUC-FM 90.9, Cincinnati Public Radio

A Complete Standard in Two Steps: Data Put on Temporary Hold
After the Standard: DRB Subcommittee

Moving On
Section II – The Protocol Stack
Chapter 3
NRSC-5 Versions

Reference Documents

Informative References

The NRSC-5 Standard

Protocol Stack

  Open Systems Model

  NRSC-5 As Open System

One Standard, Several Modalities

“Services” Versus “Transports”

Structure of Section 2
Chapter 4
Audio Codec

Coded Audio Payload

Side Processes: The Configuration Administrator

Audio Transport

  Program Service Data (“PSD”)

  MPS and SPS PDU’s

  Opportunistic Data

Program Service Data

  PSD Protocol and Transport

  PSD ID3 Tags

  PSD Etiquette

    PSD Harmonization with RDS

  PSD Transport

PSD Metadata

Audio Transport to Channel Multiplex
Chapter 5
Logical Channels

  Logical Channels and the Frequency Domain

  Logical Channels in the Time Domain

  Logical Channel Types and Rates

Layer 2 PDU Structure

  Folding in Data

  L2 PDU Types

Layer 1—Processes Common to AM and FM

  Scrambling

  The Spectral Challenge of OFDM

  How Scrambling Works

  Convolutional Coding

    Vectors and Matrices

    FM IBOC Rate 2/5 Encoder Example

    Puncturing

    How Convolutional Encoding Helps

    A Diagram Is Worth a Thousand Words

    Puncturing

  Interleaving

Layer 1 Continues
Chapter 6
Layer 1 Structure

  System Control

IBOC in the Time Domain

  Audio Sampling Rate Implications

  Frame and Block Duration

  Diversity Delay

    AM Time Diversity

    FM Time Diversity

  The Symbol

Sync-ing Up

  System Control Processing

  Differential Encoding

  Universal Time

Service Modes

  AM Service Modes

  FM Service Modes

  Backward Compatibility

From Logical to Physical
Chapter 7
FM IBOC OFDM Spectrum

 FM IBOC OFDM Frequency Plan

 FM IBOC OFDM Modulation: Symbols

   Constellation

 FM IBOC OFDM Modulation: Computational Basis

   Convolution

   OFDM Sinusoidal Subcarriers

   OFDM Symbol Pulses

   Guard Interval

   Cyclic Prefix

   Pulse Shaping Function

   Discrete Fourier Transform

   Windowing

   Functions in Frequency and Time Domains

   DFT Computation

     Insert Pulse Shaping Function

   A Stream of Symbols

   Convolution Revisited
Chapter 8
AM IBOC OFDM System

 AM Parameters

 Modulation

 Amplitude Scaling

 The Negated Complex Conjugate

   Analog Channel

   Complex Conjugate

   Interference Protection

 AM Pulse Shaping
Chapter 9
AM and FM Transmission System Specifications

  Timing Issues

  Signal Quality Issues

    Error Vector Magnitude

    Phase Noise

    Flatness

    AM Amplitude and Phase Symmetry

    Where to Measure AM and FM IBOC Specs

    Spectral Emissions

Spectral Emissions Limits

  Existing Analog Masks

  IBOC Masks

  Spectral Density

    PSD and Spectrum Analyzer Settings

    Spectrum Analyzer Detectors and Averaging

  FM Mask

    Digital-to-Digital Intermodulation

    Analog/Digital Intermodulation

    NRSC-5-A Mask (Hybrid FM IBOC)

    Digital Sideband Self-Intermodulation

    Hybrid Mask Fine Tuning

    NRSC-5-A Mask (All-Digital FM IBOC)
   OFDM Subcarrier Scaling

 AM Mask

   Analog-to Digital and Digital-to-Digital Intermodulation

   NRSC-5-A Mask (Hybrid AM IBOC)

   Analog Host Performance with Hybrid

   NRSC-5-A Mask (All-Digital AM IBOC)

   Discrete Components Exception

   OFDM Subcarrier Scaling

IBOC or IBAC?

 IBAC Characteristics Differ From IBOC

 The Radio "Channel"
Chapter 10
Station Information Service Protocol

  Station Name (Short Format) a.k.a. Call Sign Standard

    Call Sign Universal

  Station Name (Long) a.k.a. Station Slogan Standard

    Station Slogan Universal

  Station ID Number

  Station Location

  Station Message

  Time – ALFN and Time Parameters

    ALFN

    Leap Seconds

    SIS Parameter Messages

    Leap Second Offsets

    Local Time Data

Station Information Service Transport

  Dedicated GPS Time Data

  SIS PDU Housekeeping

  SIS Scheduling Strategy

SIS Recap
Chapter 11
Advanced Applications Services Transport (AAT)

    Data Transport Packet

    AAT PDU

    AAT PDU Stream

    Reed-Solomon FEC

    Interleaving

    Block Boundaries

  Bearer Channels

  Data Transport Packet Format

    Port Number

    Sequence Number

  HDLC-Like Framing

  Reed-Solomon Coding and Interleaving

  Insertion into Bearer Channel

    Opportunistic BearerError! Bookmark not defined.Error! Bookmark not

    defined.

    Fixed Bearer

Above AAT— What Happens Outside NRSC-5?

  Learning from History

  A Better Reason to Use AAT Subchannels

  The Radio Broadcasting Model for Advanced Data Services

  Revenue Comparisons
  Network Design Modeling

  The Flow of IBOC Transmissions

  The Concept of Multiple Services Sharing the Pipe

  Use Cases and Service & Receiver Classifications

      Applications Examples

      Features Examples

    Service Classes

    Use Mapping

    Receiver Classes

    Classes Are the Key to Interoperability

  Use Cases Lead to Protocols

Advanced Data Service Protocols (Not in NRSC-5)

Service Discovery

Telematics

  Traffic Message Channel

End of the IBOC Stack
Section III - Implementation
Chapter 12

AM IBOC

  Our AM Legacy

  Backward Compatibility

  What is Bandwidth, and What Does It Mean to Us?

  Propelled from the Jet Age to the Space Age

    Invisible IBOC

    Antenna System Effects on the AM IBOC Signal

      Outermost, or Primary, Sidebands

      Outer or Secondary Sidebands

      Inner or Tertiary Sidebands

    Self-Canceling Sidebands

  Transmitter Loading and System Bandwidth

    Hermitian Symmetry

    Measurement

    Analog’s Regulatory Vicious Cycle

    Intermodulation Products

    Pattern Bandwidth

High-Performance, Precision Antenna Systems

  Nighttime AM Testing and Analysis

Conclusion
Chapter 13
Antennas and Combining

Analog FM Signals

Multi-station Combining

Combining Digital Signals in the FM Band

  Common Amplification

    Co-Synthesis

    Low-Level Combining

  High-Level Combining

    The High-Level Combiner

    Why a 10-dB Combiner?

    Efficiency and Heat Load

    Mismatch and Isolation

      Turn-around Loss

      Minimizing Unwanted Interaction

      Directivity

      Isolation

  Split-level Combining

    Efficiency

    Considering the Options

    Isolation

Combining with Antennas

  The IBOC-to-Antenna Path
  Dual-Feed Antenna

  Separate-Antenna Operation

    Separate-Antenna Research

    Separate-Antenna Regulation

  Multi-Station Antenna Systems

    Common-Line IBOC to Multi-Station Combiners

    Separate-Line IBOC and Multi-Station Combining

Crest Factor and Peak Power in Hybrid IBOC Transmission

  OFDM Peak to Average

  Relate OFDM to Analog

  OFDM Peak to Analog Peak

  OFDM RMS to Analog RMS

  Hybrid Crest Factor

  Difference Between Hybrid and Analog Crest Factors
Chapter 14
Transmission

  The Exciter

  The Exgine

  Connecting the Services to the Transmitter

  Main Program Audio

  Economizing for Multicasting

  The Exporter

  Breaking into the Protocol Stack

    A New Transport Where None Had Been Necessary Before

    Network Analysis

    Quality of Service

    Network Security

    Another Approach

  The Importer

  Secure the Critical Network

Reception

  Core Receiver Components

  IBOC Coverage

  FM Evaluation

  Further FM Testing

  Adjacent Channel Interference

  AM Evaluation
  Core & Enhanced

  Nighttime

  Effect of Adjacencies on AM IBOC Coverage

Conclusion of the IBOC Handbook




Appendix A:
IBOC Digital Radio Receiver Fundamentals
      By DAVE WILSON, Consumer Electronics Association

				
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