Biometrics for Law Enforcement by liuqingyan


Government and Public
Safety Opportunities

               Presented by:
             FRANCES ZELAZNY

  The New Climate for Biometrics
  Prerequisites for Accelerated Adoption
    Key Legislation
    Standards
    Technology Advances
  Integrated Solutions
    The role of biometrics
The New World

 Networked, Global,…, Challenged!

    Terrorism
    Border Control              The
    Immigration
    Crime                    Decade of
    The Internet              Security
    Mobile Access
    Identity Fraud/Theft

        A New Framework for Security Is Needed
Security Based on Trust



                          Security Must Go
        Biometrics         Beyond Fences,
                          Doors & Firewalls
                           to Establishing
                            Trust & Gating
                           Human Actions
Evolution Towards Mainstream

                                  Point of Sale
                                             Fortune 2000

 Law enforcement                                  m-commerce
 Federal Agencies
 Dept. of Defense              Healthcare             e-commerce
National ID Programs
                       Transportation                 Access

      Regulated Industries
           Commercial (Mass Adoption)
Prerequisites for Accelerated Adoption
   Clear Value Proposition
   Mission & Mandate & Political Will
         Legislation driven
         Clearing Adoption Barriers:
           End user resistance: Awareness & Education
           Privacy concerns: Responsible use & IBIA principles
     Validation Initiatives
         Building practical technical architecture
         RFI/RFP Pilots
   Standards
   Technology Advances & Maturation
   Funding
Pre 9/11 Legislation

  E-Sign Act
    Recognized biometrics as a form of digital signatures
  Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act
    Regulations support use of biometrics as a means to
     protect privacy of patient records
  Financial Services Modernization Act
    Privacy regulations covering information sharing
     among financial institutions and their affiliates
9/11 Effect

  By November 2001, 16 Congressional Legislative
   Initiatives Cited Biometric Implementation
     Made Increased Deployment in Civil and Government Programs
     Mandated Use in Critical Infrastructure
     Accelerated Private Sector Adoption
  Key Legislation:
     Aviation and Transportation Security Act (2001)
     USA PATRIOT Act (2001)
     Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act (2002)
     Maritime Transportation Security Act (2002)
     Defense Appropriation 2002, 2003
Clear Political Will

  “…every foreign visitor desiring entrance into
   the United States to carry a travel document
   containing biometric identification -- that would
   be fingerprints or facial recognition “ President George W.
   Bush, May 14, 2002

  “Fingerprints do not lie”    Attorney General, John Aschroft, June 4, 2002

  Formation of National Biometric Security Project

  New Initiatives/Pilots for Testing Solution
   Architecture & Operational Scenarios:
     DOD: Common Access Card (CAC)
     DHS/TSA: Transportation Worker Identification Card
       DHS: US VISIT (Entry / Exit)
       GSA: Smart Access / Common ID
       Continued discussions on Trusted Traveler, Drivers’
        License Standard
       Extensive NIST & DARPA testing programs
  Expect/Hope for Government to GFE biometrics
   in their upcoming RFPs
Standards Activities – M1

                         Current Structure

   Ad-Hoc Group on Biometric         Ad-Hoc Group on Biometric
       Application Profiles           Data Interchange Formats

        Ad-Hoc Group on                   Ad-Hoc Group on
    Biometric Interoperability      Biometric Performance Testing,
     in Support of the Gov.             Quality, and Definitions
     Smart Card Framework
M1 Standard

              Standards Under Development

                                     Finger Pattern-Based
        Application Profile
                                      Interchange Format
   Verification & Identification
    of Transportation Workers      Finger Minutiae Format for
                                       Data Interchange
      Application Profile          Face Recognition Format
   Personal Identification for       for Data Interchange
       Border Crossing
                                          Finger Image
                                      Interchange Format
       Application Profile
      Biometric Verification         Iris Image Format for
    in Point-of-Sale Systems            Data Interchange
M1 Standards Incubators


Technology Advances: FRVT 2002

  Demonstrated that facial
   recognition is ready for prime-
   time in large-scale 1 to many
  Accuracy comparable to finger
   under controlled environment
  Top tier technologies
   demonstrate maturation of
   industry                               Scalability, Redundancy,
     Need to focus our efforts on           Flexibility are Key
      supporting large implementations,
      quite different than a technology
Technology Advances: Live Scan

                  A central component of registration and
                   background checking process
                     Capturing the gold standard tenprint

                  New technologies like
                     Moisture Discriminating Optics,
                     Clear Trace Imaging,
                     Dual Beam Illumination
                   make it possible to capture clearer prints
                   for maximum hits, higher throughput with
                   less maintenance issues & lower cost
Technology Advances: Mobile ID

  Mobile units allow for
   spot checks along the
   border using dual
   biometrics (finger and   Ontario PD AFIS
   face)                    Agency       Total       Hits   V.A.P.S.
  Huge impact on           Ontario       1404       219      54
                            RPD           213         13      1
   domestic agencies        Totals        1617       232      55
   that are already using   Minnesota State AFIS
   these types of           Agency       Total       Hits   V.A.P.S
   systems                  HCSO
                                          383        66       20

  100% of all hits         PDs
Technology Advances: Face & Finger Fusion

   Face & Finger biometrics readily
      address legacy data issues
     Int’l Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
      9303 recommends face methods in
      travel documents
     November 2002 - GAO Report (GAO-
      02-952) on the use of Biometrics and
      Border Security very positive towards
      face & finger
     January 2003 - NIST Report (303a)
      supports the use of face & finger
      biometrics on border
     Proven performance improvements
      through fusion logic
Integrated Solutions: The Role of Biometrics

  While biometrics are
   critical for new security
  Must keep in mind they:
     Are merely an enabling
     Must be viewed as
      subservient to overall
      security requirements    Looking at security from
     Impose significant           biometric end is
      constraints on system     tantamount to the “tail
                                  wagging the dog.”
Biometrics’ Constraints, Why?

  Imperfect technologies
  Unfamiliar to end-users
                                           complexity creates
  Workflow change
                                            opportunity for a
  Difficult to scale
                                          new component that
  Data security issues                        simplifies
  Integration challenges                    integration &
  Complex Architecture                    adoption: “Identity
     remote distributed systems
     impact both client & server-sides
  Raise legal & social issues (e.g. privacy)
Identity Framework

  Middleware play:
                                  Security Systems
     That provides identity
      information & user
      management to any
      security application
     Expected to become
      largest IT infrastructure
      play over next 5 yrs        Identity Framework
  Dramatically enhances
   biometric value
  Next: Examine traditional
   vs. Identity Framework-
   based approaches to               Biometrics
   holistic security
Identity Processes

            Enrollment               Credential Issuance
     Data Capture                  Badging, ID Cards,
    (biometric, ID)       ID                                PKI

           Qualification                       Access
      Background        Trusted                Transacti
                                   Physical                 Logical
       Checking         Identity                 onal

           Intelligence                       Detection
     Data-Mining                                             On
      Engines          Negative       Surveillance         Demand
                      Databases                              ID
Traditional Security Systems: Stove-Piped

                                                 System 1

                                                              System 2

                                                                           System 3
   System 1

              System 2

                         System 3



    Not leveraged: significant
    Many loop holes
    Long term: higher total cost of
     ownership (more costly to
     maintain, upgrade, or add new
Continuity of Authentication™

 Common underlying
  technical architecture

 Handle multiple

 Handle non-biometric

 Audit all biometric
  and non-biometric
Using Identity Framework

                                          Shared identity-related
  System 1

               System 2

                          System 3
                                           services with well defined

                                          Ties components from
                                           different vendors to
                                           create a holistic system
                                          Same Identity data
                                           served across many
                                           different security
 Identity Framework                        applications
                                             Continuity of
                                             Universal Access
Building Holistic Systems

  Multiple components invariably required
   to deliver overall security or identity
     Example:
         AFIS
         Live scan,
         Access control,
         Information security,
         Badging, etc.
  End user may consider procuring total
   system from single vendor
  Risks:
     Single vendor is unlikely to always have
      “best of breed” offerings for all component
     Technology vendors not necessarily best
      system integrators
     Proprietary total solution may trap end
      user by eliminating choices down the line
Lowering The Risk

  Adopt
     Identity Framework
     Best of breed identity
      technologies/biometrics from various
     System integrator to pull overall system
  Advantages:
     More competitive solution
     Better solution:
         Flexible,                               Not locked into
         Scalable,                              vendor proprietary
         Interoperable,                             offering
         Interchangeable
     Staged development & deployment
The Last Word

  Biometric performance should be looked at in context
   of total systems
  Biometric systems can meet real world requirements
  Identity Management begins with adopting a
   framework -- a critical middleware that can enhance
   biometric value & allow staged adoption of biometrics
   without violating system design principles
  Continue to be very upbeat about biometrics & their
   role in enhancing total security!
For More Information

 Name             Frances Zelazny
 Title            Director of Corporate

 Phone:          201-332-9213
 Fax:            201-332-9313

 Web Site:

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