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```					COMP 10020

Lecturer: Dr. Saralees Nadarajah

Office: Room 2.223, Alan Turing Building

Email: mbbsssn2@machester.ac.uk
COMP 10020 Lectures

1.   Mondays 10am, Humanities Bridgeford
Cordingley

2.   Thursdays 9am, Kilburn 1.1
COMP 10020 Example Classes

1.   Mondays 4pm, LF15
2.   Tuesdays 11am, LF15
3.   Tuesdays 2pm, LF15
4.   Fridays 12am, LF15
COMP 10020 Website

http://www.maths.man.ac.uk/service/COMP10020/materials.php
COMP 10020 Requirements

Co-requisites:    None

Pre-requisites:   None

Textbook: Not required
COMP 10020 Topics

1.   Axioms of probability

2.   Conditional probability and independence

3.   Random variables

4.   Some discrete distributions.
COMP 10020 Assessment

1.   Two take-home assignments

2.   Two questions in the final exam
Sets

Sample Space
Sets

Ec
E
Sets

E         F

E∩F is the overlap area (∩ =AND)
Sets

E        F

EUF is the area Red or Yellow (U=OR)
Sets

E         F

E∩FC is the area in Red
Sets

E         F

EC∩F is the area in Yellow
Sets

E               F

E and F are mutually exclusive
Probability

No of outcomes for E
Pr (E) =
Total no of outcomes
Example 1

A hat contains four slips numbered 1 to 4.
Two drawn without replacement:

Sample Space = ?
Example 2

Toss a coin:

Sample Space = ?

Pr(Tail) = ?
Example 3

Toss a 6-sided dice:

Sample Space = ?

Pr(“1” turned up) = ?

Pr(“2” turned up) = ?
Example 4

A card picked from ordinary bridge deck:

Pr(Card is ♠) = ?

Pr(Card is King) = ?
Example 5
Toss three coins:

Sample Space = ?

Pr(No heads) = ?

Pr(At least one head) = ?
Axioms of Probability

   0≤Pr(E)≤ 1

   Pr(Sample Space) = 1

   Pr(EUF) = Pr(E) + Pr (F) if E and F are
mutually exclusive

Pr(EUF) = Pr(E) + Pr (F) – Pr(E∩F)
Complementary Law 1

Pr(EC) = 1 - Pr(E)
Complementary Law 2

Pr(EC∩F) = Pr(F) – Pr(E∩F)
Complementary Law 3

Pr(E∩FC) = Pr(E) – Pr(E∩F)
Example 6

Given: Pr(E)=0.4, Pr(F)=0.3, Pr(E∩F)=0.2.

Pr(EUF) = ?

Pr(EC) = ?

Pr(Fc) = ?
Assignment 3

   Due 2 December 2009 (Wednesday)

   Hand in to the Support Office
Example 7

A bowl contains slips numbered 1,2,…, 20.
A slip drawn at random and its number noted:

Sample Space = ?

Pr(Number is Prime OR Divisible by 3) = ?
Example 8

The probability that a student passes
mathematics is 2/3, and the probability that
he passes biology is 4/9.If the probability of
passing at least one course is 4/5, what is the
probability that he will pass both courses?
Example 9

A bag contains 5 balls, 3 are red and 2 are
yellow. Three balls are drawn without
replacement. Describe the sample space.
Example 10

Let C be the event “exactly one of the events A
and B occurs.” Express Pr (C) in terms of Pr
(A), Pr (B) and Pr (A ∩ B).
Example 11

A six-sided die is loaded in a way that each
even face is twice as likely as each odd face.
All even faces are equally likely, as are all
odd faces. For a single roll of this die find the
probability that the outcome is less than 4.
Example 12

Is the following statement true: if A and B are
mutually exclusive events then Pr (A ∩ B) =
Pr (A) Pr (B). Justify your answer with a
simple example.
Example 13

Anne and Bob each have a deck of playing
cards. Each flips over a randomly selected
card. Assume that all pairs of cards are
equally likely to be drawn. Determine the
following probabilities:
(a) the probability that at least one card is an
ace,
(b) the probability that the two cards are of the
same suit,
(c) the probability that neither card is an ace.
Example 14

A die is rolled and a coin is tossed, find the
probability that the die shows an odd number
and the coin shows a head.
Example 15

A six--sided die is loaded in a way that each
even face is twice as likely as each odd face.
All even faces are equally likely, as are all
odd faces. For a single roll of this die find the
probability that the outcome is less than 4.
Example 16

Out of the students in a class, 60% are
geniuses, 70% love chocolate, and 40% fall
into both categories. Determine the
probability that a randomly selected student
is neither a genius nor a chocolate lover.
Example 17

Is the following statement true: if A and B are
mutually exclusive events then Pr (A ∩ B) =
Pr (A) Pr (B). Justify your answer with a
simple example.
Example 18

If Pr (A) = 0.5 and Pr (B) = 0.4,but we have no
further information about the events A and B,
how big might Pr (A U B) be? How small
might it be? How big might Pr (A ∩ B) be?
How small might it be?
Example 19

Prove that for any two events A and B, we have
Pr (A ∩ B)  Pr (A) + Pr (B) - 1.
Example 20

Let C be the event “exactly one of the events A
and B occurs.” Express Pr (C) in terms of Pr
(A), Pr (B) and Pr (A ∩ B).

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