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MIGRATION

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					                    Iraq 2003
 Title: Starter.
 What do all of
 these images
     have in
   common?
Sudan 1992         Mexico 2006
MIGRATION
                             Definition
• Migration – the temporary or permanent
  movement of people from one place to
  another
•   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqI2s4oUlBI 3.21 mins
• Money sent by migrants back to their countries of origin is an increasingly
  important source of outside funding for many developing countries.
  Remittance flows are the second-largest source, behind foreign investment
  by private companies, of external funding for developing countries.
• In 2001, remittance receipts of developing countries stood at $72.3bn.
        Migration animations
• http://www.geographyteachingtoday.org.uk
  /images/activities/populationmigration.html
• http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/g
  eog/population/migration_map.shtml
          Types of Migration
• Forced:
• Push factor migration either international
  (external) or internal (within the country).
• Some factors causing this type of migration
  include war and other conflicts, natural disasters,
  overpopulation, enslavement and religious and
  political persecution.
• Eg Kosovo and Rwanda.
• http://www.forcedmigration.org/whatisfm.htm
• http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/apr/21/somalia
        Types of Migration.
• Labour:
• A voluntary form of migration. Eg skilled
  international migration to global cities like
  London or Dubai.
           Types of Migration.
• Rural –Urban:
• Both forced and voluntary migration
  predominantly in developing nations. But
  also in developed nations with drought in
  Australia.
• http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/02/080221-nomad-
  video-vin.html   Nomads forced to the cities
        Types of Migration
• Voluntary:
• Historically occurred as territorial
  expansion (colonisers). Now occurs for
  economic (employment)/social (to join
  family or communities)/better climate.
           Types of Migration
• Involuntary:
• All forms of push factors resulting in refugees.
  Asylum Seeker:
  A person who has a right to work and live in a country for
  a short time.
  Refugee:
  A person who has left their home in a country where they
  feel unsafe because of persecution or war, and has
  applied to stay in another country where they feel safe. If
  they are allowed to stay they become a refugee.
        Types of Migration
• Internal:
• Simply refers to rural urban migration/
  push and pull factors at work within a
  nation.
        Types of Migration
• External:
• Refers to international migration such as
  refugees and labour migration.
TASK 3: These three
people have migrated to
the UK to live and work.
What type of migrants are
they?
There are two key migration terms
     that you need to learn:
• Emigration is when someone leaves a
  country.
• Immigration is when someone enters a
  country.
• http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/35271
  23.stm Excellent BBC Migration Glossary
? Reasons For Migration?
     Reasons For Migration
• People migrate for many different reasons.
  These reasons can be classified as either
  economic, social, political or
  environmental:
• http://www.ancestry.com/learn/library/articl
  e.aspx?article=1436 13 reasons our
  ancestors migrated
• Economic migration may involve moving to
  find work or follow a particular career path.
• Social migration may involve moving
  somewhere for a better quality of life or to
  be closer to family or friends.
• If someone is a political migrant they may
  be moving to escape political persecution
  or war.
• Environmental causes of migration include
  natural disasters such as flooding.
Why do people move?
TASK 5: Write a sub-heading ‘Why do People Move?’ Make a list of all of the
reasons that might make people migrate.




TASK 6: Now label your reasons PUSH FACTORS (things that push people away from
a place) and PULL FACTORS (things that pull people towards a place).


                                                                    Environmental Strain in Chad
                         TYPES OF
 Reasons                                    Consequences
                         MIGRATION


              Internal           International



Rural-Urban                                      Voluntary



 Seasonal                                        Involuntary



 Planned
Internal Migration – Rural-Urban Migration
 • Movement of people away from the rural region
   (countryside, farms) to an urban (town, city) area.
 • A UN forecast released last week reports that half of all
   humans will live in urban areas by the end of the year—
   and 70 percent by 2050—even though cities occupy only
   about 3 percent of Earth's land surface.

 • Which age group is most prone to move?
 • Which group of country experiences large
   volumes of rural-urban migrants?
 • Why?
Internal Migration – Rural-Urban Migration

• Which age group is most prone to move?
MALE   Able-bodied



            Age 20s – 30s
Internal Migration – Rural-Urban Migration

• Which age group is most prone to move?
   – Male
   – Age group – 20s and 30s
   – Able bodied – economically-active
• Which group of country experiences large
  volumes of rural-urban migrants?
   – Developing countries, eg. India, Brazil
Internal Migration – Rural-Urban Migration

 • Main and most important reason for this
   movement – rural area cannot support the
   large and rapid population increase
 • Symptoms of rural overpopulation –
   reduced food supply, decreased job
   opportunities, shortage of land
 • Worsened by farm mechanisation. Why?
   – Machines replaced labour, jobs are lost, rising
     joblessness
  Internal Migration – Rural-Urban Migration

                                         IMPACT                                        •Depopulation
                                                                                       •Women take on
                                                                                       greater share of
                                              RURAL AREA?                              farm work
•Widespread                                                                            •Declining farm
unemployment                                                                           productivity
•Rise of squatter                                                                      •Social problems,
settlements                            URBAN AREA?                                     single-parent family
•Overcrowding,
unhygienic living
conditions
•Strain on urban
facilities
•Rising crime rates
          A UN forecast released in 2008 reports that half of all humans will live in urban areas by
                                    the end of the year—and 70 percent
             by 2050—even though cities occupy only about 3 percent of Earth's land surface.
Internal Migration – Rural-Urban Migration




                                                  Squatter
                                                 Settlements
                                                   In India

 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6343421.stm Rural urban migration in India
                            Show wmv on Rural urban migration (500 miles Proclaimers)

         Brazil: Rural-urban migration
North East Brazil is the poorest
region lacking good farm land.
                                      • Rural-urban migration to the
                                        cities on the coast has been
                                        important to the growth of
                                        Brazil (Sao Paulo and Rio
                                        de Janeiro).
                                      • The south east coastal area
                                        is far more prosperous and
                                        life in a favela (informal
                                        settlement) can seem more
                                        attractive than life in a rural
Amazonia is the most sparsely           area.
populated area of Brazil.
   The Australian Experience
• http://smallbusiness.smh.com.au/managin
  g/management/the-new-drought-workers-
  911006819.html?s_cid=rss_smallbiz
               Mongolia
• http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/
  2008/02/080221-nomad-video-vin.html
• Video 3.27 mins
Internal Migration – Seasonal Migration

• Seasonal migration.
• It refers to the movement of people away
  from their homes to find a livelihood,
  usually on a temporary basis
• Farmers moving their herds from the
  snow-covered uplands to lowland pastures
• Apartheid System (African slavery system)
 Internal Migration – Planned Migration
• Planned migration refers to large-scale
  migration of people within the country
• Usually carried out by the government
• The most famous example – Transmigration
  Programme in Indonesia
• Aims of the Transmigration Programme
  – Relieve population pressure in Java, Madura,
    Bali and Lombok
  – Increase job opportunities and raise standard of
    living in Java, Madura, Bali and Lombok
  – Increase production of food and tree crops
  Planned Migration (Transmigration)
          Causes               Effects
• uneven population   • overcome landless
  distribution          problem & food shortage
                      • raise std of living eg
                        introduce cash cropping
                      • cultural clash between
                        migrants and locals
• plans to develop    • disrupt local way of life
  undeveloped areas   • widespread deforestation
                        and soil erosion
                      Sudan
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=USLDoIiFzzg
  9 mins Darfur explained
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tx-
  yD7__ChU&feature=related Hard hitting 3 mins
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqI2s4oUlBI 3
  mins
• http://blip.tv/scripts/flash/blipplayer.swf?autoStart
  =false&file=http://blip.tv/file/get/Gatm-
  Darfur602.flv?source=3 Flash video
• http://www.freedocumentaries.org/film.php?id=1
  14 55 min film Invisible Children
            Sudan (Darfur)
• The UN estimates five years of conflict in
  Darfur have left 300,000 people dead and
  more than two million homeless.
• Aid agency Oxfam says about 1,000
  people are being displaced every day in
  the region.
                    Sudan
• http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/5316306.stm
  Sep 2006 QUICK GUIDE
• http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3496731.stm
  July 2008 Q & A
• http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7237326.stm
  Feb 2008 Click on video for refugee camp in
  Chad, 1.15 mins
• http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7535297.stm
  Aug 2008
• http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6213202.stm
• Dec 2006
• http://www.darfurisdying.com/index.html Game
  of empathy
International Migration – Involuntary Migration
• Involuntary Migration = Forced Migration
• Movement of people caused by events which
  force people to move against their will
• People involved in this movement = Refugees
Refugees are persons who owing to well-founded fear of
persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality or
political opinions, are outside of their country of origin and
cannot or owing to such fear, do not wish to avail themselves
of the protection of that country.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/apr/21/so
  malia Somalia 2008
Refugees trying to move to move to safer places
with whatever belongings they have.
Rwanda Forced Migration
            • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi
              /in_depth/africa/2004/rwa
              nda/default.stm
            • BBC Rwanda archive
            • http://www.freedocument
              aries.org/film.php?id=116
              Rwanda film Do Scars
              ever fade? 50 mins
            • http://blip.tv/scripts/flash/b
              lipplayer.swf?autoStart=f
              alse&file=http://blip.tv/file/
              get/Adtastic2001-
              Rwanda494.flv?source=3
            • Flash video
During the latter half of July 1994, nearly 1.5 million
Rwandans fled to Zaire, giving rise to some of the largest
refugee camps in the world. Kibumba camp, Goma
region, Zaire.
Living conditions in refugee camps are at best subsistence
and nothing more. They can become permanent features.
                 Kenya
• http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/
  2008/01/080108-kenya-video-ap.html
         Involuntary Migration
                  Causes
• unfavourable social / political conditions
Examples
• South Vietnamese fled communist Vietnam to
  Canada, USA, etc
• Rwanda civil war in mid-1990s led to the fleeing
  of 2 million refugees
• Migration of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs to Britain
  in 1950s when Pakistan and India became
  separate countries
         Involuntary Migration
        Causes
• unfavourable
  environmental
  conditions
   eg droughts
Example
• Ethiopians fled Sahel
  to go to surrounding
  areas
            Involuntary Migration
         Causes                        Effects
• unfavourable social     • refugees cause economic
  conditions                strain in host countries
• eg persecution, civil   • poorly equipped refugee
  wars                      camps
                          • unrest … refugees refuse to
• unfavourable              go home
  environmental           • racial conflicts in host country
  conditions              • Many refugees depend on aid
• eg droughts, floods       from developed countries
                          • Locked up in barricaded
                            detention camps
                          • Refugees who return face
                            integration problems
International Migration – Voluntary Migration
• Voluntary migration – movement of people
  by choice or one’s own free will
• Reasons given for such movement is quite
  similar to reasons for rural-urban migration
International Migration – Voluntary Migration
Causes:
• Lower living cost
• More relaxed and less stressful lifestyle
• Higher income and better lifestyle
• Better recognition of their talents and skills
International Migration – Voluntary Migration
Impact:
• Ethnic congregation, eg. Little Chinatowns
  and Little Indias in foreign land
• Poor quality housing
• Language difficulty
• Racial tensions
• Brain Drain
                                 TYPES OF
                                 MIGRATION
                                                           ?
            Internal   International                      Legality



Rural-Urban                       Voluntary     Legal



 Seasonal                         Involuntary   Illegal



 Planned
          Migration Difficulties
•   physical barriers
•   immigration policies
•   Lack of capital
•   Travel costs
•   Illiteracy
•   Military service
•   Language
•   Family pressures
  Migration is a common phenomenon.
         The world is shrinking.
 The world is becoming a global village.
Country boundaries and barriers no longer
       restrict people movement.
Sit On It!
It's not known whether Enrique Aquilar
Canchola, 42, thought his disguise would work,
but it definitely didn't. The Mexican national
tried to cross the Mexico-U.S. border into San
Ysidro, California, disguised as a car seat. A
U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service
Inspector discovered the unusual camouflage
when he checked the back of a van when it
tried to sneak Canchola over the border.
(London Times) ...He agreed to it after learning
immigrants are often treated like furniture.
http://www.cazalis.org/border/guardian/ Border video
Impact of International
      Migration
  On the SOURCE country
                                             Discuss?




http://www.geographyalltheway.com/igcse_geography/population_settlement/population/spiny_cactus_mexicans_in_the_usa.htm
                                            Click on Mexican Tourism advert
Country of departure (source)
Positive      Negative
               Headings?
•   Population & jobs
•   Social impact
•   Brain drain
•   Remittances
•   Return migration
•   Transnational communities
           Good examples
• Mexico
           Exam style questions
•
    (i) Name a place that people have migrated away from
    (ii) State whether this place is urban (town or city) or
    rural (village or countryside)
    (iii) Describe the facts that caused people to migrate.
    Refer to push and pull factors
    (iv) Explain how the area they migrated away from was
    affected
    A place from where people have migrated (June 2002)
    (i) Name a place from where people have migrated
    (ii) Describe the place they migrated away from
    (iii) Explain why they moved away (refer to push and pull
    factors)
       Exam style questions
• When groups of people move huge
  distances from one country to another
  there are usually several PUSH and PULL
  factors involved.
• Using countries you have studied give
  details of TWO PUSH and TWO PULL
  factors. (4 marks)
                                     Answer
     • Answer 1: Over the past 50 years there has been a
         steady flow of migrants from Mexico to the United States
         of America. For many people in rural south west Mexico
         there are very few jobs. Most are low paid and,
         sometimes, the farming jobs are seasonal and only
         available at harvest time. In some of the villages the
         medical centres are very basic and some villages have
         difficulty getting teachers because of the low pay.
     • In the US, if someone has a skill or trade, like an
         electrician or a carpenter, they can expect to get wages
         at least five times what they are earning in Mexico. A
         primary teacher moved from Mexico to San Diego and
         earned more working as a nanny. There are a wider
         variety of jobs in the cities, in places like San Diego, and
         after a few years, if they can get citizenship, they have
         access to a lot more support systems as far as medical
         care answer because it is concerned.
 This is a good and education sticks to PUSH and PULL migration factors from ONE
donor and ONE receiving country. It gives more detail on low standards of living, like poor
     •
     medical care and poor education facilities. The pull factors, like the difference in
       Exam style questions
• Many people in the last 50 years have
  migrated from Less Economically
  Developed Countries to More
  Economically Developed Countries.
• For one country you have studied
  describe the social and economic factors
  which led to a migrant moving to the rich
  country. (4 marks)
                                    Answer
     • In Mexico there is a very high unemployment rate and it
       is difficult to find a well-paid job. Because there is no
       shortage of labour wages are kept at a low level making
       it difficult to look after a family and maintain a high
       standard of living. You can earn up to ten times the
       salary doing the same job in the US. One primary
       teacher moved to San Diego in the US because her
       school was destroyed in an earthquake. She had no
       problem getting reasonably well paid casual work as a
       cleaner in San Diego. She eventually earned more ($45
       per day) working as a nanny. She now has a much
       better standard of accommodation with access to a
       much higher standard of living. On her evenings off she
       can go to the cinema or the theatre or go to clubs or
       restaurants etc.
  This answer gets full marks because it has stuck to the social and economic factors for
a migrant moving from a less developed country to a more developed country. The answer
    contains specific economic differences between the two named countries including
    the figure for the salary and the comparison between similar jobs. There are social
     reasons mentioned in the form of losing her job with the destruction of her school
              and the better quality housing and services she has access to.

				
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