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					Leadership and Change
          Management
    Session 5: Approaches to Change Management
OVERVIEW
                                       Introduction
•   Deriving from research, done by Lewin in 1950s

•   Three main schools of thought: Individual Perspective School,
    Group Dynamic School; Open System School

•   A number of emergent theories
          Theoretical Foundations
    Change management is not a distinct discipline with clearly defined boundaries,
     but draws on a number of social science disciplines and traditions

    Difficult to set it apart from different areas of study, such as management
     education and learning or theories of knowledge (epistemology)

    The main task is therefore to range wide enough to capture the theoretical
     foundations of challenge management, which will be done by limiting oneself to
     three schools of thought:

1)    The Individual Perspective School

2)    The Group Dynamics School

3)    The Open System School
     The Individual Perspective
                        School
   Two opposite groups: The Behaviourists and the Gesalt-Field
    psychologists

   Behabiourists: view behaviour as resulting from an individual’s
    interaction with their environment

   Gesalt-Field psychologists: see the first explanation as being only
    partial. They argue that an individual’s behaviour is the product of
    environment and reason.
            Behaviourist Approach
Main assumptions:
  •    All behaviour is learned; the individual is the passive recipient of
      external and objective data
  •    Pavlov’s experiment in the field of conditional behaviour in 1972: A dog
      could be ‘taught’ to salivate at the ringing of a bell, by conditioning the
      dog to associate the sound of the bell with food
  •   Thus, according to the group, human actions are conditioned by their
      expected consequences. Behaviour that is rewarded tends to be repeated,
      and behaviour that is ignored tends not to be.
  •   Skinner (1974) : In order to change behaviour, it is necessary to change
      the conditions that cause it.
                        Gestalt-Field group
Main assumptions:
•   Learning is a process of gaining or changing insights, outlooks,
    expectations or thought patterns.
•   In explaining individual’s behaviour, the group takes into account not
    only person’s actions and the responses, but also individual’s
    interpretation
•   Behaviour is not just a product of external stimuli, but rather, it arises
    from how the individual uses reason to interpret these stimuli.
•   Organisational context: help an individual change their understanding
    of themselves and the situation in question, which will lead to changes
    in behaviour (Smith et al, 1982)
        Group Dynamics School
Key assumption:

   Emphasis on bringing about organisational change through teams or
    work groups, rather than individuals. Rationale: Because people in
    organisation work in groups, individual behavior must be seen,
    modified or changed in the light of groups’ prevailing practices and
    norms.

   To bring about change, it is useless to concentrate on changing the
    behaviour of individuals. The individual in isolation is constrained by
    group pressures to conform (‘peer pressure’)

   The focus of change must be at group level and should concentrate on
    influencing and changing the group’s norms, roles and values
    (Cummins and Worley,2005; Burnes, 2009)
        Group Dynamics School
   Norms: rules or standards that define what people should do, think or feel in a
    given situation

Implicit/explicit norms: formal, written rules which are known by and applicable to
  everyone/ informal and unwritten norms, of which individuals might not be
  aware of.

   Roles: patterns of behaviour to which individuals and groups are expected to
    conform.

Roles are formally defined by job descriptions and performance targets and usually,
  individuals hold more than one role.

   Values: ideas and beliefs that individuals and groups hold about what is right
    and wrong. Values refer not so much to what people do or think or feel in a
    given situation; instead they relate to the broader principles that lie behind these.

In comparison with roles and norms, values are more difficult to determine.
          Group Dynamics School
   The Group Dynamics School proved to be very influential in the study of
    change management as most organizations view themselves as
    comprising groups and teams, rather than merely collections of
    individuals (Mullins, 1989)

“ …the most important single group of interventions in OD (Organization
  Development) are team-building activities, the goals of which are the improved and
  increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization… The… team-
  building meeting has the goal of improving the team’s effectiveness through better
  management of task demands, relationship demands, and group processes… (The
  team) analyzes its way of doing things, and attempts to develop strategies to
  improve its operation.”
        The Open System School
Key assumptions:

   Organisations are seen as composing of a number of interconnected sub-
    systems where any change to one part of the system will have an impact
    on other parts of the system, and in turn, on its overall performance
    (Scott, 1987).

   Organisations are ‘open’ systems in two ways- internally and externally;
    internal changes in one area affect other areas, and in turn have an
    impact on the external environment, and vice versa. (Buckley, 1968).
                               Planned Change
   First coined by Kurt Lewin to distinguish change that was consciously
    embarked upon by an organisation, as opposed to unintended change,
    such as those that might come about by accident, by impulse, by
    misunderstanding or that might be forced on an unwilling organisation
    (Marrow, 1969).

   Planned change is characterized by the organisation identifying an area
    where it believes change is required and undertakes a process to
    evaluate, and if necessary, bring about change.
                               Planned Change
   Planned approach is closely associated with the practice of
    Organization Development (OD):
” Organization development is a unique organizational improvement strategy that
   emerged in the late 1950s and early 1960s… It has evolved into an integrated
   framework of theories and practices capable of solving and helping to solve most
   of the important problems confronting the human side of organizations.
   Organization development is about people and organizations and people in
   organizations and how they function. OD is also about planned change, that is
   getting individuals, teams and organizations to function better. Planned change
   involves common sense, hard work applied diligently over time, a systematic,
   goal-orientated approach, and valid knowledge about organizational dynamics
   and how to change them. Valid knowledge derives from the behavioural sciences
   such as psychology, social psychology, sociology, anthropology, systems theory,
   and the practice of management.” (French and Bell, 1995:1-2)
                      Lewin and Planned
                                Change
   Kurt Lewin was a German/American psychologist, known as one of
    the modern pioneers of social, organizational and applied psychology

   Lewin’s lifetime preoccupation was the resolution of social conflict
    and, in particular, the problems of minority or disadvantaged groups.

   He was a humanitarian who believed that only by resolving social
    conflict, whether it be religious, racial, marital or industrial, could the
    human condition be improved; he also believed that the only key to
    resolving social conflict was to facilitate learning and so enable
    individuals to understand and restructure their perceptions of the world
    around them.
                         Lewin and Planned
                                   Change
    A central theme of his work is the view that ‘the group to which an
     individual belongs is the ground for his perceptions, his feelings and his
     actions’ (Allport, 1948).

    His work is comprised of four individual elements:

1)    Field Theory

2)    Group Dynamics

3)    Action Research

4)    The Three-Step Model
                                          Field Theory
   Lewin believed that for group behaviour to change, it was necessary to
    ‘unfreeze’ the forces restraining change, such as personal defences and
    group norms. In order to achieve this, it is first necessary to identify the
    restraining forces.
   Lewin argued that in order to understand any situation, it was necessary
    to view the present situation – the status quo- as being maintained by
    certain conditions or forces.
   The status-quo is maintained because forces driving change are in balance
    with the forces restraining change.
   In Lewin’s opinion, if one could identify, plot and establish the potency of
    these forces, then it would be possible not only to understand why
    individuals, groups and organisations behave they way as they do, but also
    what forces would need to be diminished or strengthened in order to bring
    about change.
                               Action Research
Lewin offered two assumptions:
1)   Firstly, it emphasizes that change requires action, and is directed at
     achieving this
2)   Secondly, it recognizes that successful action is based on analysing the
     situation correctly; identifying all the possible alternative solutions and
     choosing the one most appropriate to the situation at hand (Bennett,
     1983).
- Draws on Field Theory and Group Dynamics – he stressed that the routines
    and patterns of behaviour in a group are more than just the outcome of
    opposing forces. They have value in themselves and have a positive role
    to play in enforcing group norms.
Action Research stresses that for a change to be effective, it must take place at
    the group level, and must be participative and collaborative process
    which involves all of those concerned.
Action Research
                             Three-Step Model
    Often cited as Lewin’s key contribution to organisational change
    A successful change project consists of three steps:
1)    Unfreezing – all organisations suffer from the state of inertia – the
      inability of organisations or groups to change, which increases with the
      amount of success the group has had. Lewin argued that this
      equilibrium of forces or inertia has to be unfrozen before old behaviour
      can be discarded and new behaviour successfully adopted.
2)    Moving- According to Schein (1996), unfreezing is not an end to itself,
      as it creates motivation to learn but does not necessarily control or
      predict the direction of learning. According to Lewin, it is difficult to
      predict a specific outcome from Planned Change because of the
      complexity of forces concerned.
                        Three-Step Model
3) Refreezing – it seeks to stabilise the group at new quasi-stationary
   equilibrium in order to ensure that the new behaviour is relatively safe
   from regression. The key point with refreezing is that the new
   behaviour must be harmonious with the rest of the behaviour,
   personality and environment of the learner or it will simply lead to a
   new round of disconfirmation (Schein, 1996).
                          The Coping Cycle
    Adopted by Carnall (2003) drawing on the Three-Step Model
    Looks at how people react and adjust when faced with a change
    5 Stages:
1)    Denial – When faced with the need to make or accept significant
      changes, the first reaction by many people or groups is to deny there
      is a need for change
2)    Defence – Once people realise that change is taking place and they
      cannot stop it, they may feel rejected and depressed. This can turn
      into defensive behaviour whereby people will defend their past
      practices and behaviours and deny that the new ways are suitable to
      them and their job.
                           The Coping Cycle
3) Discarding – If people realise that the change will take place whether they
   like it or not, and that it does affect them and that they need to adjust to
   the new situation, they begin to process of discarding past behaviour –
   recognising that what was suitable in the past is no longer suitable for the
   current situation.
4) Adaptation – No proposed change is ever likely to be 100 per cent suitable
   at the outset. Therefore, for change to be successful, not only must those
   affected by it adapt to the new ways, but the new ways must also be
   adopted to fit in with the existing people and circumstances.
5) Internalisation- This is the stage of the Coping Cycle where change
   becomes fully operational, and new ways of working and behaving have
   been developed. People reach the point where, psychologically, they see
   the changes not as new but as normal – the way things should be.
                                           Summary
   Looks at the core theories of Change Management

				
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