Giving a presentation

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III. Giving presentations
Aims: to present and practice basic presentation skills and phrases
      to provide input for various presentations
      to provide criteria for the assessment of presentations

A. Brainstorming

1. How to prepare the presentation

There are six main questions you have to consider when preparing your presentation.
Work in pairs or small groups and briefly talk about each point to make sure you understand
the details of this diagram.


                                                                      - age
   - to inform                                                        - laymen / professional
   - to persuade                Why?           Who for?
                                (purpose)      (audience)             - education + training
   - to entertain                                                     - hierarchy



 - time of          When?                                        Where?            - supplies
   day              (time)             PRESENTATION              (location)        - equipment
 - how long                                                                        - devices




                       What ?                How?
                       (content)             (performance)

              - topic                       - language: formal / informal
              - structure                   - visual aids: transparency, slide …
              - logical order               - planning the time
                                            - eye contact
                                            - linking the parts
                                            - use of keywords
                                            - rehearsal



2. What fears do you have? What can you do to overcome your fears?

   -   Fear 1:

   -   Fear 2:

   -   Fear 3:
                                                                                             2

B. Worksheet - Video 'Effective Presentations' (OUP)

1. What's the point?
   Joanna Brookes is a PR Manager at Westwood Brewery. She wants to introduce a
   discussion about the corporate image of the brewery.

    Watch the video and take notes according to what you liked and what you did not like
    about her presentation:

I liked ...                       I didn’t like ...




2. Making a start
   Geoff Maxwell is the Factory Manager at Standard Electronics. He introduces his
   company to a group of visitors who will go on a tour of the factory.

    Watch version 1 and say what you did not like:
    -
    -
    -

    Watch version 2 and take a note of the different steps of his presentation.

    A) Introduce your talk:

    1- greet/welcome the audience

    2-…………………………………………….

    3-…………………………………………….

    4-…………………………………………….

    5-…………………………………………….

    6-…………………………………………….

    7- how to handle questions (you may allow the people to interrupt you or to hold their
       questions until the end of your talk)


    B) Give your talk

    8- ………………………………………………………………………………………
    9- Talk about each part
    10- Finish your talk
                                                                                                                                 3

3. Linking the parts
   Watch version 1 and find out how Geoff connects the different parts of his presentation.


    Watch version 2 and write the phrases he uses to connect the different parts of his
    presentation:

    Part 1:      - introducing part 1   : ………………………………………….
                 - talk about part 1
                 - finishing part 1     : ………………………………………….
    Part 2:      - introducing part 2   : …………………………………………
                 - talk about part 2
                 - finishing part 2
    Part 3:      - introducing part 3   : ……………………………………….......................
                 - talk about part 3
                 - finishing part 3

    Leaving the topic:                  …………………………………………
    Returning to the topic:             ………………………………………….......................
                                        ......................................................................................

4. The right kind of language

    Dr Linden works in the field of management psychology. At a conference he presents the
    results of recent surveys into leadership styles.

    Watch version 1 and 2 and complete the table. In addition, say how he makes use of the
    slides.

                                                Version 1                                          Version 2
     Sentence length
     (Im)personal
     Open/closed manner

5. Visual aids

    You are going to see Joanna Brookes.
    Watch version 1 and 2 and take notes according to the points given in the table.

                      Version 1                                        Version 2
Layout of visuals



Use of visuals
                                                                                                     4

6. Body language

    You are going to see Dr Linden. Watch version 1 and 2 and fill in the table.

                       Version 1                                 Version 2
Posture

Position - hands

Gestures

Eye contact

Facial expressions

Movement


7. Finishing

You are going to see Joanna Brookes.

Watch version 1 and say what you like or don’t like about her finish:


Watch version 2 and find the names for the different stages of her finish:

_________________________              So, before we move on to discuss these matters,
                                       let me just summarise the main issues.
_________________________              Firstly, the products ... Secondly, the markets ...
                                       And thirdly, the people ...
_________________________              So, I suggest we take things in that order ...
_________________________              Before we start, are there any questions you’d like to ask?

    8. Question time

          You are going to see Dr Linden. While watching this section note the differences in the
          way he handles the questions and fill in the table. Mark whether he does (√) or does
          not (x) carry out each stage in the checklist below.

                                   Version 1                            Version 2
welcomes the questions
takes time to think
before answering
clarifies the question
replies positively
checks whether the questioner
is satisfied
                                                                                            5

9. Summary of the video

Watch section 9 and check which of the points below are considered in Joanna’s presentation.
Tick them.

General points to be covered in a presentation

a) Introduce your talk
- greet the audience
- introduce yourself, if people do not know you
- introduce your topic (why it is interesting; motivation)
- topic/aim of the presentation
- duration (how long it will last)
- (use of visual aids)
- say how to handle questions, i.e. that you will answer them after finishing your
    presentation or that the listeners may interrupt you

b) Give your talk                                  Signposts:
- give the structure of your presentation
- introduce your first part:                       Let's start with ...
    talk about it
    tell the audience that you are finishing it:   I'll leave the ... there.
    introduce the next topic:                      Let's now turn to ...
                                                   That brings me to the final part of my
                                                   presentation.

    (leaving and getting back to a point):         By the way, ...
                                                   Let me get back to what I was saying
                                                   about ...

c) Finish your talk
- finish, e.g. by giving a summary / recommendations / conclusions,
    or introducing a discussion
- invite questions and answer questions
                                                                                                                6

C. Organising a Presentation
(adapted from ‘Effective Presentations’, OUP; ‘Presenting in English’, LTP; ‘Professional Presentations, CUP)

Complete this handout.

a. Before the presentation: (read M. Brown’s guidelines in the file ‘Presentation Tips’ in the folder
                                         ‘Academic English’ on my homepage)

Use the words on the right to complete the blank spaces.

Who, Why, What

- define the ............................... (how formal the language should be)          content
- clarify the ......................./purpose                                             structure
- plan the .........................                                                      objective
- design suitable ..................................                                      audience
- control the length                                                                      visual aids
- follow a clear .....................: introduction, main parts, summary and
  conclusion

b. During the presentation: (cf. video)

Use the words on the right to complete the blank spaces.

How

 Delivery and style:                                                                     use
- don’t ...................... (remember to pause)                                        articulate
- ............................. clearly and project your voice                            use short
- ...................................... sentences                                        rush
- don’t ............................. written English                                     linking expressions
- use .............................................. to guide the audience

 Body language:                                                                          don’t stand
- maintain good ....................................... with different people in          facial expressions
  the audience                                                                            straight ahead
- use ................................................. (e.g. smiles) to emphasize your   pockets
  feelings                                                                                eye contact
- use your ......................... to emphasize what you say                            hands
- keep hands out of ....................                                                  posture
- .............................. completely still – a little movement between
  table and board, or between notes and audience, is more
  interesting; don’t move around too much
- try to keep your ............... upright but relaxed;
  look ................... ................., not down at the floor or up at the
 ceiling
                                                                                                              7

c. Visual aids:
       Remember that your visuals should help you communicate your message.
       They should not distract your audience’s attention from what you say.
         (Read the file ‘PowerPoint slides’ in the folder ‘Academic English’ on my homepage)

Use the words on the right to complete the blank spaces.

Design
- use visuals to ............................. or ............................ what you say     summarize
- think about which .............. of visual is right for you, e.g. graph,                      colour
  table, picture, words etc.                                                                    key words
- don’t .............................. visuals with too much information                        overcrowd
  (Try the Seven-Seven Rule: 7 words per line, 7 lines per slide)                               support
- only use ............................., not lines of text                                     kind
- ................ font sizes large and font styles simple                                      use
- use .................. but not too much (light text on dark background or                     keep
  dark text on light background)
- One-One Rule: one theme on one transparency
- ........ descriptive title phrases on each visual rather than ‘Chart 1’ etc.
Use
- ............. to your audience, not to the visual (maintain eye contact)                      too many
- don’t use .......................... visuals                                                  block
- don’t ............ from the visual                                                            understands
- make sure the audience .................................. the visual                          talk
- use a ................... and/or ...................... techniques where                      pointer
  appropriate                                                                                   read
- don’t ................ the audience’s view                                                    masking

d. Disadvantages of reading a presentation

Use the words on the right to complete the blank spaces.

- no/not enough ................................ with the audience                       understand
- the reader often speaks too ......................                                     quickly
- ................. English is more complex and difficult to ................            eye contact
- the tone is more ......................                                                difficult
- the phrasing is less natural, so it’s ........................ to listen to            written
                                                                                         impersonal
 Therefore use keywords and speak freely.
                                                                                                       8


D. Giving a Presentation – Practising Phrases

1. Organisation

1a) Use the words on the right to complete the blank spaces.

1. Making a start:    - get the .......................... of the audience             length
  (Opening)           - ............................ yourself (if necessary)           introduce
                      - motivate the audience to listen to your talk                   structure
                      - give your .................                                    attention
                      - give the ................... of your presentation              topic
                      - outline the ........................ of your presentation      ask questions
                      - say when the audience may ..................................
2. Main part:         - introduce your topic (e.g. part 1)
                      - talk about it
                      - finish the topic
                      - introduce the next topic (e.g. part 2) etc.
3. Finishing:         - summary
                      - thank your audience
                      - invite questions and/or give
                        recommendations for a discussion
                                                     9

1b) Study the phrases used for specific functions.
                                                                                                     10

2. How to start your presentation? – The introduction

1) Getting attention:           words: - Right .          - OK.          - So.
                                       - Well then.       - Now.         - Fine.

2) Introducing yourself and your talk:

How you begin your presentation depends on how formal the situation is.
Most audiences prefer a relatively informal approach.

Below you will find two alternative ways of introducing yourself and the subject of your
presentation – one fairly formal, the other more friendly. Read the phrases. At each stage
choose the expression you would feel more comfortable using and highlight it.

More friendly                                           Fairly formal

OK, let’s get started.                                  1- Well then. Perhaps we should begin.
Morning, everyone.                                      2- Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.
Thanks for coming.                                      3- On behalf of ...., may I welcome you to ....
As you know, ....                                       4- For those of you who don’t know me already,
     I’m in charge of ....                                    I’m responsible for ....
What I want to do this morning is ....                  5- This morning I’d like to ....
     talk to you about ....                                   discuss ....
     tell you about ....                                      report on ....
     and show you ....                                        and present ....
Feel free to ask any questions you like                 6- If you have any questions you’d like to ask,
as we go along.                                            I’ll be happy to answer them.
or:                                                     or:
And don’t worry, there’ll be plenty of time left over      Perhaps we can leave any questions you may
for questions at the end.                                  have until the end of the presentation.


3) Different degrees of formality (Effective Presentations, Unit 2, Lang. knowledge 1)

3a) You are going to hear twelve extracts (a – l) from the introductions to two presentations –
    one internal, one external. As you listen, decide which presentation each extract comes
    from and complete the table.

Internal: to colleagues at a    External: to delegates at a
budget meeting                  professional conference
 more friendly                  fairly formal
a                               b
                                                                                                    11

3b) Follow-up to exercise 3a.
Use the words in the middle to complete the sentences on the left and on the right.

More friendly                                             Fairly formal
My name's ... . I'm the new ... and      too hard a time, Ladies and gentlemen. It's an honour to
I hope you won't give me ______          the opportunity have _______________________ such
____________________                     of addressing    a distinguished audience.
I'd like _______ you today about         of my paper,     The subject ____________ today is ...
the ...                                  to tell
This ______ should serve as a            talk,            My ______ is to update you on ...
springboard for a discussion of ...      aim
I plan to take only ___________          10 minutes, the During ____________________, you'll
of your time this morning.               next half hour hear about ...
I've divided my ___________ into         presentation,    The _________ can be looked at under
three parts:                             subject          two headings:
firstly, we'll look at ...                                firstly, the ...
secondly, I'll run through the ...                        and secondly, the ...
and, finally, I'll be presenting ...
Feel free to __________ me at            interrupt,         We have ten minutes __________ for
any time.                                allotted           questions following the presentation.

4) Practising phrases / tenses

4a) Use the verbs to complete the sentences.

stop     give      make          focus     have       do       want      hesitate     take

1- What I __________ to _______ this morning is to …
2- My talk will _________ about 30 minutes.
3- I’ll be ________ing out copies of my overhead transparencies at the end.
4- If you ________ any questions, or comments you’d like to ________, please don’t
___________ to __________ me.
5- During my presentation, I’m going to be ___________ing on four main areas. Firstly, …

4b) Future Progressive
When talking about the schedule for the presentation, the future progressive (I’ll be
presenting) is often used. You do not have to use it, but it is quite common.

Rewrite these extracts in the future progressive.

1- Use of simple future / going to:                   3- Use of future progressive:

… and then I’ll /I’m going to show you some           ………………………………………………
examples of …                                         ………………………………………………

2- Use of modal verbs: would like to / want to:

Secondly, I’d like to talk a bit about the            ………………………………………………
problems …                                            ………………………………………………
Finally, I want to look at the possible               ………………………………………………
commercial applications of this new product.
                                                                                               12

4c) Questions
Match the beginnings on the left with an appropriate end on the right.

1- If anyone has any questions, please feel       a- me at any time, and I’ll be happy to
2- If you have any questions, please stop            answer them.
3- I’ll be happy to answer any questions you      b- appreciate it if you could keep your
   have                                              questions until then.
4- At the end of my talk, there will be a         c- free to interrupt me at any time.
  question and answer session. I would            d- at the end of my presentation.

5) Opening your presentation

Read the two openings on the following page and fill in this table after your discussion.

                       Advantages                          Disadvantages
Opening 1:
is more appropriate
for ………………
…………………




Opening 2:
is more appropriate
for ………………..
……………………




Additional questions for finding the advantages and disadvantages:

1. Which opening is safer for non-native speakers? Which is more risky?
2. Which opening relies more on personality, i.e. how lively or outgoing a person is?
3. Which opening guarantees that all the important points will be covered?
4. Which opening makes the structure clear at the beginning?
5. Which opening is more flexible, i.e. allows the speaker to deal with what the audience is
   interested in?
6. Which opening tells the audience when to ask questions?
7. Which opening is more lively and involves the audience immediately?
8. In which opening might the speaker lose directions or miss important points?
                                   13

5) Introducing your presentation
                                                                                              14

5a) Complete this opening with words or phrases from the list.

                talk about      look at          points of view
                questions       brief            finally
                hear            act as           go along

Good afternoon and thank you for making the effort to be here with us today.
My name’s Rachel Rawlins and I’m responsible for public affairs.
What I’d like to do today is (a)___________________ our recent corporate campaign. This
(b) _____________________ talk will hopefully (c) __________________ a springboard for
discussion. I’m going to (d) ___________________ the corporate campaign from three
(e) _________________: firstly, the customers; secondly, the financial institutions; and
(f) ________, the shareholders. If you have any (g) ________________ just interrupt me as I
(h) _________. Your point of view may well be different, and we’d like to (i) _______________
from you.

5b) Openings can become repetitive. It’s important to have a choice of words and
    expressions at your fingertips.

Use one of the following expressions to replace each of the expressions in italics in this
introduction.

don’t hesitate -                          a chance -                    I take care -
I’m delighted -                           sections -                    go through -
in more depth -                           divide    -                   my purpose is -

Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. (1) It’s a pleasure to be with you today.
My name’s Gordon Matthews and (2) I’m in charge of corporate finance at our
headquarters here in Brussels. (3) We are here today to (4) review some key figures and
to outline financial strategy over the next five years. So what I intend to do is
to (5) break down this presentation into three (6) parts: first, the financial review;
second, the options facing us; and finally the strategy I propose. If you have
any questions, please (7) feel free to interrupt me, but I should also say there’ll
be (8) an opportunity to discuss issues (9) at greater length after my talk.

5c) Prepare and present an opening using this information and the above samples.

Audience:       company executives
Presenter:      responsible for the administration of the computer equipment in the company
Subject:        replacement of CRT (cathode-ray tube) screens by flat screens
Purpose:        to introduce the discussion, give background information
Main points:    1- health impact of CRT screens
(for intro-     2- advantages of flat screens
duction)        3- who do we need them for?
                4- costs expected
Time:           20 minutes
Questions:      after the talk
                           15

3. Main part + Singposts

1) Signposts
16
                                                                                                                                17


     2) Practising signposts

     2a) Based on the signposts on the right, write the name for each part
         of the presentation on the left. Keep these signposts and their use
         in mind.

                                                                    Signposts:
           Motivation/Introduction:                                (Before you start your presentation say a few words
                                                                    to motivate the audience to listen to your talk)
              ............................................:        Today I’d like to talk about ...
              ............................................:        I’ve divided my talk into (three) main sections ...
              ............................................:        My talk will last about half an hour.
              ............................................:        If you have any questions, please ...
              ................ :                                   Let’s start with ...
                                                                    So that covers ...
           ................ :                                      That brings me to ...
                                                                    Let’s leave that/the ... there
              ................ etc.:                               and turn to ...
              ...........................................:         To sum up ... / Let me now summarize the main ...
              ...........................................:         In conclusion ... / To conclude ... /
              ...........................................:         So before we move on to discuss ...
                                                                    Are there any questions?

2b) The approach

          tell the audience what                                say it                tell the audience that you’re finishing
          you are going to say                                                        the topic and turn to the next one

has two advantages:              - it’s easier for the audience to follow the presentation, and
                                 - it’s easier for the speaker to follow his/her plan

Work in pairs. Match the sentences on the left with a synonym expression given on the right.

Student A:                                                          Student B:
a) OK, let’s start with the history.                                1) In passing, let me tell you about a press report.
b) Anyway, I’ll leave the history there.                            2) So, we come to the last part of my introduction.
c) So, let’s turn now to a brief overview                           3) To start with the history then.
   of our main markets.
d) By the way, you may have seen the                                4) That covers the history.
   story in the news.
e) Anyway, let me get back to what I was                            5) To come back to the point I was making.
   saying about new markets.
f) And that brings me to the final part                             6) Let’s stop here and see if there are any questions.
   of this short introduction.
g) So, before I go on, are there any                                7) So, we can go on to a survey of our principal
   questions?                                                          markets.

2c) Finishing: Make full sentences by matching the correct beginnings and ends of each sentence.
a-   Before we come to the end,                           1-   there are four major features.
b-    I’d be glad to answer                               2-   we start the discussion now.
c-   To summarise,                                        3-   by quoting a well-known saying.
d-   We can conclude                                      4-   we should reduce our costs
e-   In my opinion,                                       5-   any questions now.
f-   I’d like to suggest                                  6-   I’d like to thank you for your participation.
                                                                                                  18

2d) Signposts and their functions: Find the language functions for each set of signposts.

Language function             Singposts
                              Today, I'm going to talk about …
                              I’m going to give you a short presentation on …
                              My topic today is …
                              The purpose of my presentation is to introduce/present …
                              I’ve divided my presentation/talk into (3) main parts/sections.
                              I want to talk about (3) main parts/sections/points.
                              What I intend to do is to break down this presentation into three
                              parts/sections.
                              During my presentation I’ll be talking about three main areas.
                              Firstly … secondly … thirdly … lastly …
                              First of all … then … next … after that … finally …
                              To start with … later … to finish up …
                              Let me start by… / I’ll start by…
                              First of all, I’ll …
                              To start with I’ll talk about …
                              I’d like to begin with …
                              Feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions.
                              I'll try to answer all of your questions after the presentation.
                              I plan to keep some time for questions after the presentation.
                              My talk will last/take about …
                              I plan to take only 10 minutes of your time.
                              Let’s now                 move on to…
                              I’d now like to           turn to …
                              I now want to             go on to …
                              This brings me to …
                              So far we‘ve looked at … Now I’d like to …
                              Let’s look at … now.
                              Are you with me so far? / Is everyone with me?
                              Is that clear to everyone?
                              Before I go on, are there any questions about …?
                              For example, …
                              A good example of this is …
                              To illustrate this point, let’s look at some examples.
                              So, to sum up, … / I’d like to sum up now…
                              To summarise, …/ To recap, …
                              Let me now sum up.
                              Let me summarise briefly what I’ve said.
                              Now I'll try to answer any questions you may have.
                              Are there any questions?
                              Do you have any questions?
                              So, what I would suggest is that we …
                              So, I would recommend that …
                              Let me end by saying …
                              I’d like to finish by emphasising …
                              In conclusion / To conclude, I’d like to say …
                              Thank you for listening.
                              Thank you for your attention/time.
                              May I thank you all for being such an attentive audience.
                                                                                                                  19

3) Rhetorical questions

Rhetorical questions, or questions which you do not expect the audience to reply to, create
expectation and a feeling of dialogue. They are a useful tool for outlining the structure or to
start a new point. Remember to pause for a few seconds after asking one.

Look at the following statements and transform them into rhetorical questions.

Statement                             Rhetorical question                  Solution
1- Our profits dropped by             How can we stop our profits          I suggest that the answer is
   11% last year.                     dropping this year?                  downsizing.
2- We are under too much              ……………………………..                        One suggestion is to build a
   stress.                            ……………………………..                        gym in the basement.
3- Commitment, not                    ……………………………..                        The only way to get
   authority gets results.            ……………………………..                        commitment is to build teams.

4) Emphasising – Intensifiers

You can make a presentation more persuasive by using simple intensifiers to emphasise your
points.

First, read the following presentation extracts. Then write in the intensifiers given at the end
of the sentence. Finally, read the sentences again. What’s the effect?

1- We’re doing extremely well now. But how can we do even better?            extremely, even
                                                     
2- The project is underfunded.                                               whole, badly

3- It’s obvious that we made a mistake.                                      pretty, terrible

4- It works out cheaper to take on casual workers.                           actually, much

5- I’m aware that it’s been a disaster from start to finish.                 fully, total

6- I’m certain that we’re in a better position now.                          one hundred percent, significantly

7- There’s no hope of reaching our targets by the end of phase two.          absolutely, at all

8- There’s been a decrease in demand, and yet sales are up on last year.     dramatic, well

9- We shouldn’t be neglecting a lucrative market.                            really, such, highly

10- There’s no chance of making progress.                                    absolutely, whatsoever, real

11- It’s going to be too expensive to re-equip the factory.                  just, far, entire

12- It’s difficult to know where the figures are going to improve.           just, so, actually

13- We can’t be expected to manage on a tiny budget. It’s ridiculous.        really, such, just

14- It’s too late to do anything about it.                                   actually, far, at all
                                                                                                    20

4. Written and spoken language
1) Read the extracts from Dr Linden’s presentation below (a – d) which illustrate the
   differences between written and spoken language. Then decide which are written
    language and which are spoken language. Find examples to support your answers.
Written language                 Spoken language
long sentences                   shorter sentences
complex vocabulary               simpler vocabulary
complex arguments                simpler arguments
impersonal style                 personal style

a – You can see here, 35% of the group of managers classified as participative reached senior
    management positions. On the other hand, 74% of the more individualistic managers
    achieved senior management status.
b – An individualistic style appears to be closely associated with rapid career path progression,
    whereas a group or participative style, despite its evident attractiveness to all members of
    staff, is correlated with a relatively slow career progression.
c – Although lip service is paid to the concept of participative management, their real perceptions
   of leadership qualities completely contradict this view. It can be further seen that ...
d – So, we find there is a massive contradiction. Good managers are supposed to be
    participative – to make sure they consult and discuss. Good leaders are supposed to be strong
    individuals – able to make decisions on their own.
2) Match up the informal (conversational) words on the left with their formal equivalents on
   the right. Then match each pair of verbs with a phrase on the right to make a complete
   expression. The first example has been done for you.
We really need to ...
informal                formal              phrase
1. set up               a. conduct          1. the problem of distribution.
2. carry out            b. investigate      2. a subsidiary in Hamburg.
3. strengthen           c. establish        3. our position in South America.
4. look into            d. consolidate      4. more research in this area.

5. buy                  e. re-locate        1. the possibility of direct selling.
6. think about          f. purchase         2. our headquarters in Lyon.
7. move                 g. amalgamate       3. our raw materials at source.
8. combine              h. explore          4. the two departments.

9. show                 i. penetrate        1. the development of a new product.
10. work out            j. accelerate       2. the importance of the project
11. speed up            k. calculate        3. new markets in Eastern Europe.
12. break into          l. demonstrate      4. exactly what our margins are.

13. pay                 m. collaborate      1. the goods within the month.
14. send                n. exploit          2. staff according to performance.
15. work together       o. remunerate       3. our cross-cultural expertise.
16. make use of         p. dispatch         4. on the design of the product.

17. use                 q. formulate        1. all our resources.
18. build in            r. capitalize on    2. several new product features.
19. think up            s. incorporate      3. the new opportunities in the CIS
20. take advantage of   t. utilize          4. an immediate plan of action.
                                                                                                 21

4) Work in pairs.

4a)
Student A: Listen to student B’s presentation. Try to take notes of the results of the studies
          and reports. Do not interrupt student B.
          Take some notes:

a) results of the studies
-
-
-
b) results of the report
-
-
-

After that, in pairs, discuss why it was easy or difficult to understand the presentation and
take some notes.
                                                                                                     22

Student B: Read the following text aloud to your partner, which is meant to be a presentation.

Air pollution and health
This paper will deal with the increasing problem of air pollution, and its effect on the health of
people living and working in densely populated urban areas. It will focus in particular on the
danger to health of tiny airborne particles, produced principally by diesel-engined vehicles.
Recent studies carried out in a number of European cities have revealed that the concentration of
particles in urban air pollution is not only much higher than previously thought, but may also be
a crucial factor in the rise in the numbers of deaths from heart and lung problems in cities with
high levels of smog……..
Types of pollutants
A recent report by the Department of Environmental Medicine at a leading British university
demonstrated that the number of airborne particles in even relatively ‘clean’ air is far higher than
previously estimated. The data comes from extensive studies of PM10s, particles which are less
than 10 micrometres in diameter and which are emitted by diesel engines. These particles are
highly acidic, and are able to penetrate into buildings where they persist for long periods of time.
There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that PM10s in high concentrations may be
responsible for as many as 10,000 deaths in the UK each year, particularly among people already
suffering from heart and lung disorders. In some cities in the European Union, concentrations of
PM10s have reached levels in excess of 100,000 parts per millilitre of air……

4b) Make all necessary changes so that the above text has a spoken style.

We generally present information in a less formal way and use spoken style. Therefore, use
      - short sentences (by splitting up complex information into smaller pieces)
      - replace difficult grammar structures and vocabulary by easier ones
      - presentation phrases (signposts), e.g.
               - starting (topic): ……………………………………………………………………
               - main points (structure): ……………………………………………………………
               - linking the parts: ……………………………………………………………………
      - ……………........ sentences, e.g. These particles have 4 main features.
      - …………………, e.g. in these studies, these particles
      - …………………, e.g. first, second
      - …………………., e.g. moreover, in addition, in particular
      - contractions, e.g. I’ve divided up my presentation into ...
      - the active instead of the passive if possible, e.g. We discussed the issue of .. instead of: The
        issue of ... was discussed ...

4c) In pairs, complete the left-hand column of the table. Fill in the phrases after
  you have checked them with the transparency.

4d) Pair work. Student A gives the presentation again using the table. Student B listens
    carefully and tries to take short notes of the results of the studies and reports.
    Was it now easier to understand the presentation? Why?
                                                                                    23

Presentation phrases      Information / Content
1- Topic: ………………………….     Air pollution and its effect on people’s health

2- Structure: ………………………
   …………………………………
   ………………………….            1) Air pollution and health
   ………………………….            2) Types of pollutants

3- Part 1: ……………………..     Air pollution and health

………………………………...           … the increasing problem of air pollution.
 …………………………………            …. its effect on the health of people living and working in
                          densely populated urban areas.

4- ………………………………..         … the danger to health of tiny airborne particles, that are
                          produced principally by diesel-engined vehicles.

5- ………………………………..         …recent studies which have been carried out in a number
   …………………………………          of European cities.
 - …………………………………          … the concentration of particles in urban air pollution
                          was measured.
- …………………………………           … is much higher than previously thought.
- …………………………………           … may also be an crucial factor in the rise in the numbers
                          of deaths from heart and lung problems in cities with high
                          levels of smog……..
6- …………………………………          Air pollution and health
   ………………………………….
Part 2: ……………………………. Types of pollutants

7- …………………………………          … a recent report by the Department of Environmental
   ………………………………….         Medicine at a leading British university:
 - ………………………………….         … demonstrated that the number of airborne particles in
                          even relatively ‘clean’ air is far higher than previously
                          estimated.
- ………………………………….          … PM10s.
- ………………………………….:
  ……………………….              … are less than 10 micrometres in diameter,
  ……………………….              … are emitted by diesel engines,
  ……………………….              … are highly acidic,
  ……………………….              ..... are able to penetrate buildings where they persist for
                          long periods of time.
8- …………………………………          … that PM10s in high concentrations may be responsible
                          for as many as 10,000 deaths in the UK each year
- …………………………………           … among people already suffering from heart and lung
                          disorders.
                          In some cities in the European Union, concentrations of
9- …………………………………          PM10s have reached levels in excess of 100,000 parts per
                          millilitre of air……




……………………………..                   ……………………………………..
                                                                                      24


6. Preparing your presentation


                                      Organising your presentation



      Topic                Topic 1                Topic 2            Topic 3         Summary




     Interest /           Details 1              Details 2           Details 3       Benefits /
    Motivation                                                                       Outcome
    Relevance /
     Purpose
                          Details 1              Details 2           Details 3      Action, e.g.
                                                                                 inviting questions,
     Structure                                                                       discussion
      Agenda

                          Details 1              Details 2           Details 3
25
                                                                                                  26

Preparing a presentation:
Worksheet – Organising a presentation (Computers)

    1. Read the text on pages 26 to 27. Study the vocabulary.
    2. Study the presentation chart on page 24.
       Then find a topic for the complete presentation.
       Develop the introduction (motivation) and structure.
    3. Develop a summary and outcome for your talk.
       summary  refer to the structure, main points
       outcome  refer to the motivation or purpose
    4. Study the keywords and visuals on the following pages.
       In pairs, practise this presentation. Use signposts and introductory sentences.
       Turn to page 8 or 25. The signposts on these pages will help you to go along in your
       presentation.
    5. Finally, one student or one pair gives the presentation in front of the class.

Characteristics of computers

/1/ Computers are machines to process, electronically, specially prepared pieces of information which are
    termed data. Handling or manipulating the information that has been given to the computer, in such
    ways as doing calculations, adding information or making comparisons is called processing.
    Computers are made up of millions of electronic devices capable of storing data or moving them, at
    enormous speeds, through complex circuits with different functions.                                   5
/2/ All computers have several characteristics in common, regardless of make or design. Information, in
    the form of instructions and data, is given to the machine, after which the machine acts on it, and a
    result is then returned. The information presented to the machine is the input; the internal
    manipulative operations, the processing; and the result, the output. These three basic concepts of
    input, processing and output occur in almost every aspect of human life whether at work or at play. 10
    For example, in clothing manufacturing, the input is the pieces of cut cloth, the processing is the
    sewing together of these pieces, and the output is the finished garment.

               INPUT                          PROCESSING                           OUTPUT
                                              (COMPUTER)




                                              SECONDARY
                                               STORAGE


/3/ Figure 3.1 shows schematically the fundamental hardware components in a computer system. The
    centrepiece is called either the computer, the processor, or, the central processing unit (CPU). The
    term ‘computer’ includes those parts of hardware in which calculations and other data manipulations 15
    are performed, and the high-speed internal memory in which data and calculations are stored during
    actual execution of programs. Attached to the computer are the various peripheral devices such as
    card readers and keyboards (two common examples of input devices). When data or programs need
    to be saved for long periods of time, they are stored on various secondary memory devices or
    storage devices such as magnetic tapes or magnetic disks. Peripheral devices also include output 20
    devices, e.g. a printer and a monitor.
/4/ Computers have often been thought of as extremely large adding machines, but this is a very narrow
    view of their function. Although a computer can only respond to a certain number of instructions, it is
    not a single-purpose machine since these instructions can be combined in an infinite number of
    sequences. Therefore, a computer has no known limit on the kinds of things it can do; its versatility is 25
    limited only by the imagination of those using it.
/5/ In the late 1950s and early 1960s when electronic computers of the kind in use today were being
                                                                                             27

    developed, they were very expensive to own and run. Moreover, their size and reliability were such
    that a large number of support personnel were needed to keep the equipment operating. This has all
    changed now that computing power has become portable, more compact, and cheaper.                   30
/6/ In only a very short period of time, computers have greatly changed the way in which many kinds of
    work are performed. Computers can remove many of the routine and boring tasks from our lives,
    thereby leaving us with more time for interesting, creative work. It goes without saying that
    computers have created whole new areas of work that did not exist before their development.

Study these phrases and keep them in mind.
- to do calculations - Berechnungen machen
- to make comparisons - Vergleiche anstellen
- to be made up of - bestehen aus
- to be capable of + Gerund - in der Lage sein, fähig sein
- to have ... characteristics in common - Eigenschaften gemeinsam haben
- to occur - erscheinen, auftreten
- term - Begriff, Fachwort
- to perform data manipulations - Manipulationen an Daten ausführen
- execution of programs - Ausführung von Programmen
- to be attached to - angeschlossen sein an
- a narrow view - eine enge Sicht
- to respond to instructions - auf Befehle reagieren
- the versatility is limited - die Vielseitigkeit ist begrenzt
- reliability, reliable - Zuverlässigkeit; zuverlässig
- it goes without saying - es versteht sich von selbst
- regardless of - ungeachtet
- although - obwohl
- thus, thereby - wodurch, dadurch
- therefore - deshalb
                                                                                           28

Keywords for giving the presentation on characteristics of computers

1. Definition:
- machine – process information – electronic
- make up of – different electronic components – store and move – data
- purpose: not single-purpose machines = use for different purposes
           versatility – only limit – by people using them

2. Operation:
- operating principle (3 processes): input – processing – output
        - input: information – give/present – to the computer
        - processing: carry out manipulative operations
        - output: give a result

3. Hardware components of a computer system:
- system – 3 components: CPU, internal memory; peripheral devices
- peripheral devices – 3 types: input (e.g. keyboard), output (e.g. printer, monitor),
                                secondary storage devices (e.g. magnetic disks)

4. Development:
- 50s / 60s: expensive to own and run
           no high reliability  large number of support personnel – require – keep computers
              – operating
- present: portable, more compact, cheaper

5. Advantages for human work:
       - replace people in routine + boring tasks  people – do more creative work
       - create new areas of work


Summary
- computer = machine – process information; different purposes
- operation: 3 processes  input, processing, output
- components; different devices – connect – to computer (= peripherals)
- advantages for human work
                                                                                 29

Transparencies

Characteristics of computers

1. Definition: electronic machine  information processing

2. Operation:

             Input                  Processing                 Output


3. Components of a computer system:

                       Computer system



     CPU                Internal memory              Peripherals


                                  Input            Output      Secondary
                                  devices          devices     storage devices

4. Development:
- 50s / 60s: expensive + no high reliability
- present: portable, more compact, cheaper

5. Advantages:
      - replace people in routine + boring tasks
      - created new areas of work
                                                                                                                30


E. Presentation practice
Task 1: Use the material of the following three pages to prepare a presentation on types of
computers, their main features and applications. The information given here has been taken
from different sources. Therefore, after reading all the information, develop the structure for
your presentation, i.e. find the main points you want to talk about. Then prepare short
keywords for the information that you want to present. You should not present all the
information given, that means you can leave out any information you wish to. Try to develop a
classification diagram of the different types. Prepare visuals. Your presentation should last 5-
7 minutes.

What are the different types of computers?           (http://www.howstuffworks.com/question543.htm)
There are a lot of terms used to describe computers. Most of these words imply the size, expected use or
capability/power of the computer. While the term computer can apply to virtually any device that has a
microprocessor in it, most people think of a computer as a device that receives input from the user through a
mouse or keyboard, processes it in some fashion and displays the result on a screen.

The traditional classification of computers into types includes the following main types:
Microcomputer
A microcomputer is a complete computer on a smaller scale and is generally a synonym for the more common
term, personal computer or PC, a computer designed for an individual. A microcomputer contains a
microprocessor (a central processing unit on a microchip), memory in the form of read-only memory and random
access memory, I/O ports and a bus or system of interconnecting wires, housed in a unit that is usually called a
motherboard.

Minicomputer
A minicomputer, a term no longer much used, is a computer of a size intermediate between a microcomputer and
a mainframe. Typically, minicomputers have been stand-alone computers (computer systems with attached
terminals and other devices) sold to small and mid-size businesses for general business applications and to large
enterprises for department-level operations. In recent years, the minicomputer has evolved into the "mid-range
server" and is part of a network. IBM's AS/400e is a good example.

Supercomputer
A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near the currently highest operational rate for computers. A
supercomputer is typically used for scientific and engineering applications that must handle very large databases
or do a great amount of computation (or both). At any given time, there are usually a few well-publicized
supercomputers that operate at the very latest and always incredible speeds. The term is also sometimes applied
to far slower (but still impressively fast) computers. Most supercomputers are really multiple computers that
perform parallel processing. In general, there are two parallel processing approaches: symmetric multiprocessing
(SMP) and massively parallel processing (MPP).
Perhaps the best-known builder of supercomputers has been Cray Research, now a part of Silicon Graphics.
Some supercomputers are at "supercomputer centers," usually university research centers.
---
Mainframe computer           (http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mainframe_computer)
Mainframes (often colloquially referred to as "big iron") are large, powerful, and expensive computers used
mainly by large companies for bulk data processing (such as bank transaction processing).
Description
Mainframe computers' abilities are not so much defined by their CPU speed as by their massive internal
memory, large, high-capacity external storage, fast high-throughput I/O, high-quality internal engineering and
resulting proven reliability, and expensive but high-quality technical support. These machines can and do run
successfully for years without interruption, with repairs taking place whilst they continue to run. Mainframe
vendors offer such services as off-site redundancy—if a machine does break down, the vendor offers the option
to run customers' applications on their own machines (often without users even noticing the change) whilst
repairs go on. The internal redundancy of these computers can be such that, in at least one reported case,
technicians could move one from one site to another by disassembling it piece by piece, and reassembling it at
the new site, whilst leaving the machines running. The switchover in this example took place entirely
transparently.
Often, mainframes support thousands of simultaneous users who gain access through "dumb" terminals.
                                                                                                               31

Some mainframes have the ability to run (or "host") multiple operating systems and thereby operate not as a
single computer but as a number of "virtual machines". In this role, a single mainframe can replace dozens or
hundreds of smaller PCs, reducing management and administrative costs while providing greatly improved
scalability and reliability. The reliability is improved because of the hardware redundancy noted above, and the
scalability is achieved because hardware resources can be reallocated among the "virtual machines" as needed.
This is much harder to do with PCs, because adding or removing hardware resources often requires the machine
to be taken offline, and the hardware limitations are much more restrictive. When running as the host for many
"virtual machines" a mainframe can provide the raw power for which they have always been valued, but also the
flexibility provided by PC networks.
Currently, IBM mainframes are dominant in the market, with Hitachi, Amdahl, and Fujitsu also producing
machines. Prices start at several hundred thousand dollars.

Comparison with supercomputers
The distinction between supercomputers and mainframes is not a hard and fast one, but generally one can say
that supercomputers focus on problems which are limited by calculation speed while mainframes focus on
problems which are limited by Input/Output and reliability. As a consequence:
- Supercomputers typically exploit massive parallelism, often with thousands of processors, while mainframes
have a single or a small number (up to several dozen) of processors.
- Because of the parallelism visible to the programmer, supercomputers are quite complicated to program; in
mainframes, the limited parallelism (if present) is usually hidden from the programmer.
- Supercomputers are optimized for complicated computations that take place largely in memory, while
mainframes are optimized for simple computations involving huge amounts of external data accessed from
databases.
- Supercomputers tend to cater to science and the military, while mainframes tend to target business and civilian
government applications.
---------------------------------------
As computer technology and computer applications have developed further, new types of computers have been
made.
        PC - The personal computer (PC) defines a computer designed for general use by a single person.
         While a Mac is a PC, most people relate the term with systems that run the Windows operating system.
         PCs were first known as microcomputers because they were a complete computer but built on a
         smaller scale than the huge systems in use by most businesses.

        Desktop - A PC that is not designed for portability. The expectations with desktop systems are that you
         will set the computer up in a permanent location. Most desktops offer more power, storage and
         versatility for less cost than their portable brethren.

        Laptop - Also called notebooks, laptops are portable computers that integrate the display, keyboard, a
         pointing device or trackball, processor, memory and hard drive all in a battery-operated package
         slightly larger than an average hardcover book.

        Palmtop - More commonly known as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), palmtops are tightly
         integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a hard drive for storage. These computers
         usually do not have keyboards but rely on touchscreen technology for user input. Palmtops are typically
         smaller than a paperback novel, very lightweight with a reasonable battery life. A slightly larger and
         heavier version of the palmtop is the handheld computer.

        Workstation - A desktop computer that has a more powerful processor, additional memory and
         enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task, such as 3D Graphics or game
         development.

        Server - A minicomputer that has been optimized to provide services to other computers over a
         network. Servers usually have powerful processors, lots of memory and large hard drives.

        Mainframe - In the early days of computing, mainframes were huge computers that could fill an entire
         room or even a whole floor! As the size of computers has diminished while the power has increased, the
         term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor of enterprise server. You'll still hear the term used,
         particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every
         day.
                                                                                                        32

      Minicomputer - Another term rarely used anymore, minicomputers fall in between microcomputers
       (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers). Minicomputers are normally referred to as mid-range
       servers now.

      Supercomputer - This type of computer usually costs hundreds of thousands or even millions of
       dollars. Although some supercomputers are single computer systems, most are comprised of multiple
       high performance computers working in parallel as a single system. The best known supercomputers are
       built by Cray Supercomputers.


Task 2: Form groups or pairs to prepare your presentations. Choose one of the topics given
below.
For each presentation prepare a structure (what points you want to talk about) and the
necessary keywords (do not write a complete text that you may simply read out). To do this,
1- read the text and find out what its structure is
2- and prepare your keywords. That means you have to decide which information you want to
use for your presentation. For example, write the topics on the left of your sheet of paper and
the important facts (in the form of keywords) next to them on the right.
3- Don’t forget to think of a finish, e.g. a summary.
4- Also prepare visual aids.
Practise giving your presentation in groups or pairs before you talk to the whole class.

Download the required material (Task 1 to 3) from my homepage (Academic English).
For Task 4 use the university’s homepage (be careful about the English version, it has not
been revised for a number of years) and material available at the registration office. You can
also use the script of the General English material.

Topic 1:
Prepare a presentation on
       - the British school system
       - the US school system

Topic 2:
Prepare a presentation on
       - Higher education in GB (2 sections = 2 different presentations)
       - Higher education in the USA (3 sections = 3 different presentations)

Topic 3:
Prepare a presentation on
       - Studying in GB (2 sections)
       - Studying in the USA (4 sections)

Topic 4:
Prepare a presentation on Stralsund University which informs students from foreign countries,
who wish to study here, about the departments and courses, the teaching facilities, student
accommodation and the social and cultural life at the university.
                                                                            33

G. Assessment form

You can use this form to evaluate each other’s performance.

                                      poor   satis-      good   excellent
                                             factory
System:
general organization:
- introduction
- main part
- finish/conclusion/summary
linking the parts
Delivery:
tempo
clear articulation/pronunciation
Language:
correct vocabulary
correct grammar
creative use of functions
(emphasizing, repetition,
rhetorical questions, linkers etc.)
sentence length
Body language
Effective visual aids:
design/layout
use
Overall impression
                                                                                                                    34

Literature:
Malcolm Goodale: Professional Presentations, CUP
Mark Powel: Presenting in English; LTP
Jeremy Comfort: Effective Presentations, OUP

Key section E:

Part 3:
3) Rhetorical questions
     - How can we prevent stress? / What can we do against stress?
     - How can we get commitment?

4)
2- What we did was to look for …
3- What we’re trying to do is to improve …
4- So, what these people have taken is the rate …
5- What I’ve put in this overhead are the figures …
6- What is also surprising here is that many …
7- What I’m trying to do is to justify …

Key: transformation of text (Air pollution and health)
1- Today I'd like to talk about ..... /
          - // -      to give a presentation on .....
2- I've divided my presentation into 2 sections/parts.
         First(ly), .....
         Second(ly), .....
3- Let's start with .....
    Let me first deal with .....
    In addition, we/I will look at …
4- In particular, I'll focus on / concentrate on .....
5- I'd like to present the results of .....
    In these studies .....
    They have found out that this concentration .....
    Furthermore/Moreover/In addition, this high concentration of particles in urban air pollution …
6- This covers / concludes what I wanted to tell you about .....
    Let's now turn to .....
7- To start with let's have a look at the results of …
    This report .....
    These particles are called ….
    They have the following characteristics: Firstly, they ..... / Secondly, they… / Thirdly, they ..... / Finally, …..
8- There's no doubt that ...../ It's quite clear that ...../It's quite obvious that .....
    This is particularly the case ...../ This particularly refers to .....
9- of over / of more than
--
- use introductory sentences
- redundancy
- numbering
- connectives

				
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