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TRACER.PPT - DAPPLE

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TRACER.PPT - DAPPLE Powered By Docstoc
					  University of Bristol
  Tracer release
  Experiments


              Damien Martin, Catheryn Price, Graham Nickless, Alan Knights, Tony
                     Makepeace, Peter Simmonds and Dudley Shallcross



Tuesday 30th November 2004, London
Experimental

 Release – cyclic perfluorocarbons and
 sulfur hexafluoride


 Sampling – Automated bag samplers
 using Tedlar bags


 Analysis- Preconcentration of sample
 On carbon based adsorbents followed
 GCMS- NICI detection
                                                       9

                 Marylebone Road                                                                                                  8
                                                                              6                               7
                                        5
Library




               Westminster                                         Bickenhall Mansions
              Council House             4

                                                               3         Bickenhall
                                                                                         2
                Thornton Place




                                                                           Street




                                                                                             Baker Street
                                 10
                                            Gloucester Place




          x               York Street                                                    1




                                                                                                            X = tracer release site
First DAPPLE experiment - 2003
             DAPPLE 2003
• 10 receptors, 2 staggered tracers
• 90% data capture
• First paper being prepared
Results

                                          Site 5
                                                             SF6
                                                             PMCH
    Concentration




                                                                              Concentration
                    600                                                1000




                                                                                 (ppqv)
                                                                                 PMCH
       (pptv)




                    400
        SF6




                                                                       500
                    200
                      0                                                0
                          0.0           10.0          20.0          30.0
                                Time from release start (minutes)
2003 Results
Results- ADMS- Urban
2004 Release




 (A – data logger, B – 3 Litre stainless steel canister, C- pressure transmitter,
 D- flow controller, E – solenoid valve, F – battery)
2004 Release

                                     Re le ase data PM CH 11/11/04

                    2.90E+00

                    2.70E+00
   Pressure/Bar .




                    2.50E+00

                    2.30E+00

                    2.10E+00

                    1.90E+00

                    1.70E+00

                    1.50E+00
                               400   600      800   1000   1200   1400   1600   1800

                                           Frequency of measurement
Tracer Compounds

    Compound Name                               Abbreviated   Molecular   B Pt    M. Wt   Density
                                                Name          Formula     (C)            kg/l at 25 C
    Perfluorodimethylcyclobutane a,b            PDCB          C6F12       45      300     1.67

    Perfluoromethylcyclopentane                 PMCP          C6F12       48      300     1.707

    Perfluoromethylcyclohexane                  PMCH          C7F14       76      350     1.788

    Perfluoroisopropylcyclohexane               i-PPCH        C8F16       130     400     1.9

    Perfluoro-o-dimethylcyclohexane a           o-PDCH        C8F16       102     400     1.828

    Perfluoro-m-dimethylcyclohexane a           m-PDCH        C8F16       102     400     1.828

    Perfluoro-p-dimethylcyclohexane a           p-PDCH        C8F16       102     400     1.828

    Perfluorotrimethylcyclohexane c             PTCH          C9F18       128     450     1.888

    Sulphur hexafluoride                                      SF6         -63.8   146     Gas 6.602g/l

a   Both cis and trans isomers are applicable
b   1,2 and 1,3 bisubstitution applicable
c   Multiple geometric isomers applicable
Analysis




       Chromatogram of perfluorocarbon tracers within Mace Head air
Current work-DAPPLE 2

                                                                                             - 6 more receptors
                                                                                             - 3 tracers released

                                 5           6                     12
                                                                                             all perfluorocarbons-
                                                              11


      1                                          8                                           PDMCH- 6 isomers
                  C        A B
                                                     9


          2
                           4             7
                                                                                             - One analysis
                                                         10

                      X1


 X2
              D                      3
                                                                                             - 2 staggered in time
                                                                               KEY

                                                                        Receptor Site 1-12
                                                                                             at one position
                                                                        Receptor Site A-C

                                                                         Tracer Release
                                                                             Points          -Done in duplicate
                                                                                             -Indoor sampler
                                                                                             -Roof release
                                                                9

              Marylebone Road                                                                                               8
                                                                                 6                           7
Library                                  5
                         WCC                                            Bickenhall
                                                 4
                                                                        Mansions

                                                                    3      Bickenhall
                                                                                        2
              Thornton Place


                                                                             Street




                                                                                            Baker Street
                                 10          Gloucester Place




          x                    York Street                                              1




                                                                                                           X = tracer release
                                                                                                                  site
Results- non depositing

                          C/Q values for Super site
        1.6E-05                                                 PC-PDMCH
        1.4E-05                                                 MT-PDMCH
        1.2E-05                                                 MC-PDMCH
  C/Q




        1.0E-05                                                 PT-PDMCH
        8.0E-06
        6.0E-06
        4.0E-06
        2.0E-06
        0.0E+00
                  0   2       4       6      8        10   12
                                  Bag No.
                              Comparison between rooftop and indoor site                                     Roof conc. approx 10 times
                5.0E-05                                                             5.0E-06
                4.5E-05                                                             4.5E-06
                                                                                                             greater than Indoor
                                                                     Rooftop
                4.0E-05                                                             4.0E-06
                                                                     Indoor
                3.5E-05                                                             3.5E-06
C/Q Rooftop .




                                                                                              C/Q Indoor .
                3.0E-05                                                             3.0E-06
                2.5E-05                                                             2.5E-06                  Longer transport time to
                2.0E-05                                                             2.0E-06
                1.5E-05                                                             1.5E-06
                1.0E-05                                                             1.0E-06
                                                                                                             Indoor position
                5.0E-06                                                             5.0E-07
                0.0E+00                                                             0.0E+00

                          0         2        4             6     8             10
                                                 Bag No,                                                     Longer decay time
             DAPPLE 2004
• 16 receptors, 3 tracers, 2 complete expts
• Analysis on-going, first experiment
  complete
• Second experiment being analysed
Current work - plume spread

                    14 receptors
                    2 release positions
                    One roof level-
                    One ground level
                    all perfluorocarbons
                    Done in duplicate
Current work - mobile source

                      15 receptors
                      2 release positions
                      Instrumented car
                      Roof level release
                      Done in duplicate
Acknowledgements

Bristol Tracer Group
DAPPLE Group
Volunteers

EPSRC
Tracer Compounds
                     PDCB        PMCP        PMCH          ocPDCH        pcPDCH       mtPDCH         otPDCH       mcPDCH       ptPDCH

 SH (1997)a, Col.2   2.83        5.56        5.16          0.69          5.57         7.97           0.65         9.97         4.27
 NOAA (1997)b,       2.73±       5.91        5.18          0.75          5.77         8.16           0.70         10.07        4.49
 Col.2


 Bristol, UK         2.46±4.1    6.84±0.9    5.24±1.3
 (2000)c, Col.1

 Birmingham          3.35±0.72   9.83±0.1    5.66±0.31
 (2000)d, Col.1

 Mace Head,          2.38±0.3    7.18±0.4    5.23±0.4
 (2000)e, Col.1

 Mace Head           2.81±0.22   6.43±0.1    5.46±0.3      0.92±0.11     6.13±0.48    8.52±0.18      0.77±0.10    10.73±0.33   4.78±0.21
 (2001) f, Col.2


 SH (2001)g, Col.2   2.65        6.17        5.35          0.79          5.75         8.52           0.73         10.30        4.79


Notes: Col.1 Column 1: 100m x 0.32mm 5 mm CP-Sil capillary Col.2, Column 2: 30m x 0.32 mm Carbograph PLOT capillary
a Sample collected at Cape Grim, Tasmania in 1997.
b Sample collected at Niwot Ridge, Colorado in 1997.
c Continuous 2-hourly ambient measurements at Bristol University, August 15-28th, 2000.
d 4 Samples collected in the City of Birmingham, UK during 2000.
e 5 Samples collected at Mace Head, Ireland during 2000.
f 4 Samples collected at Mace Head, Ireland during 2000-2001.
g Sample collected at Cape Grim, Tasmania in 2001.
Tracer Compounds

Cyclic-   North Atlantic     North           Background      Atmospheric     Difference      Growth
PFC       Background         Atlantic        air, USA        Abundance,      Mace Head-      1986-2001
          air, (Mace Head,   Background      (Dietz,1986)    USA.            Dietz, 1986     Tonnes/year
          Ireland 2001)      Abundance1      (Conc fl l-1)   Metric tonnes   Metric tonnes
          (Conc fl l-1)      Metric tonnes

PDCB
          2.70               148.04          0.34            18.64           123.08          8.63
PMCP
          6.29               344.89          3.22            176.56          160.11          11.22
PMCH
          5.49               351.20          4.60            294.26          54.15           3.80
Perfluorocarbons - Uses

                               Medical Applications
TRACING AND TAGGING                                                    ELECTRONICS

Petroleum Reservoir Mapping    Blood Extenders (Substitutes)           Vapour Phase Soldering

Atmospheric Tagging            Wound Healing                           Gross Leak Detection

Emergency Simulation Studies   Eye Surgery                             Liquid Burn-in Testing

Building Ventilation Studies   Sterlisation                            Thermal Shock Testing

Cable Leak Detection           Imaging Applications                    Direct Contact Cooling / Heat Transfer

Storage Tank Leak Detection    Liquid Ventilation                      Dielectic Fluids

                               Organ Storage / Islet Transplantation   Cleaning
                                                                       CVD Chamber Cleaning
                                                                       Solvent for lubricant deposition

				
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