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Thyme pressed powder

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					‫الرجاء اغالق المحمول‬
             Thyme
Origin:
 It’s the dried leaves and flowering
  tops of Thymus vulgaris
Family: Labiatae.
G. S.: Europe and North Africa
It’s a herbaceous perennial plant
  with an aromatic odour and a
  characteristic warming taste.
• The stem:
• It is erect, subcylindrical to nearly
  quadrangular in terminal parts;
  greenish-brown to purplish, hairy
  and woody at the base.
• Leaves:
• They      are     small,     opposite
  decussate, lanceolate or oblong
  ovate, sessile to shortly petiolated.
• Young stems have:
1- Numerous covering trichomes
  (unicellular or bicellular conical
  non-glandular hairs covered with
  warty cuticle).
2- Glandular trichomes (yellowish-
  brown, very large consisting of a
  short, rounded unicellular stalk
  and a glandular head of indistinct
  radiating cells with a raised
  cuticle.
3- capitate hairs with a unicellular
  stalk and a unicellular head).
• Note the following:
• A continuous zone of
  collenchyma.
• A narrow cortex and starchy
  endodermis.
• Groups of lignified pericyclic
  fibres.
  Thyme, A.C.:
-V.O. contains thymol (phenolic)
-saponins and tannins


Uses:
1-Excellent expectotrant and
  antispasmodic
2-Effective for treatment of digestive
  disorders and flatulence
3-Antiseptic, antibacterial and antifungal
      History of thymol
Thymol was discovered by Caspar
Neumann in 1719. It was purified, in
1853, by M. Lallemand, who gave it the
name "thymol," and ascribed the
formula C20H14O2, which was corrected
later to C10H14O.
 Lobelia (Indian Tobacco)
Origin:
dried aerial parts of Lobelia inflata
            F. Campanulaceae
G. S.: USA, Canada, India
The drug was used in the folk
 medicine by the North American
 Indians
                      The stem:
 * It is monopodially branched,
angular to winged, irregularly
                    furrowed.
* Green to yellowish with large
             purplish patches.
 * Hairy on the upper parts and
nearly glabrous on the lower.
Histology:
T. S. of the Stem:
2-5 wings, epidermis with
  hairs· The non-glandular hairs
  are longer than those of the
  leaf.
, phloem with laticeferous
  vessels
Leaf:
Dorsiventral, has one row of
 palisade. Epi. Cells papillosed
 With beaded wall and show
 anomocytic stomata
Powder: Diagnostic elements:
Trichomes, seed coat, laticeferous
   vessels, anomocytic stomata
A.C.:
1- Piperidine alkaloids:
lobeline, lobelanine and
   lobelanidine
2- Pungent volatile oil, resin and
   waxes.
Uses:
1- Bronchodilator and expectorant
2- Treatment of chronic bronchitis
3- In some antismoking
 preparations (nicotine like action)
4- Diaphoretic
5- In large doses, it has paralytic
 action following to sever vomiting
  Mechanism of action of
        lobeline
Lobeline inhibits nicotine-evoked
dopamine release and nicotine
binding, thus acting as a potent
antagonist at both alpha3beta2
and alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic
receptor subtypes
• Chemical test:
• Extract powdered Lobelia with
  acidulated water on hot water
  bath, filter. To the filtrate add
  few drops of Mayer’s reagent
  where a whitish turbidity is
  observed.
CANNABIS (INDIAN HEMP)
Origin:
dried flowering tops of the
 female (pistillate) plant of
Cannabis sativa F.
 Cannabinaceae
G.S.:
Central and Western Asia, India
 and in tropical and temperate
 regions
Cultivation and Collection:
1-Seeds are sown in August
2-In November, male plants are
 shaken over female plants to
 ensure pollination
3-The tops of the female plants are
 collected in March, tied into
 bundles and pressed flat under feet
4-The resinous secretion causes the
 parts to mat together
Cannabis, (cont.)

In Egypt:
aerial parts called Bango and
Resin secretion called: Hashish
In USA:
aerial parts called Marihuana,
In North Africa called: Kief
• Indian Hemp or ganjah: it is
  collected as mentioned above
  then the resinous tops are cut
  and pressed into cakes by
  rolling between hands. It
  contains fruits, large foliage
  leaves and stems.
• Bhang (Hindustani) or Hashish in
  arabic: consists of the larger
  leaves and twigs of both male
  and female plants, it is used in
  India for smooking with or
  without tobacco and other drugs
  as Opium, Datura or prepared by
  mixing with melted butter.
• Charas or Churrus: is the crude
  resin which exudes spontaneously
  from the leaves, tops, stems,
  rubbed between hands, beating
  them on clothes or on carpets,
  then the resin is scrapped off or
  the plant is squeezed between the
  palms and thus forming an
  ingredient of smoking mixture.
Shape: flattened masses or      
cylindrical pieces, rough and
                          dusty.
             greenish in colour. 
Resinous having a heavy 
narcotic odour and nearly
                      tasteless.
                      The stem: 
 It   is  straight   cylindrical, 
longitudinally furrowed, hairy,
pale green to light brown and
                          hollow.
                    The leaves: 
  They are alternate, petiolate 
                          simple.
The lower leaves are palmately 
        divided consisting of 3-5
 leaflets, the central one is the
                         largest.
  It’s lanceolate in shape with 
     serrated margin and acute
                            apex.
             The inflorescence:
   A small cymose inflorescence
arises in the axile of each
bract, consisting of an ovary
closely   enveloped    by    a
membranous perianth. It has
two long, brownish-red hairy
                     stigmas.
• Histology of the leaves and bracts:
• They have a dorsiventral structure
  with single layer of palisade.
• The upper epidermal cells have
  straight anticlinal walls covered
  with striated cuticle, bearing
  unicellular, sharply pointed, curved
  conical hairs with enlarged bases
  containing     calcium     carbonate
  (cystolith).
• It also bears glandular
  trichomes with a secreting
  head of 8-16 radiating cells
  and a cylindrical, pluriseriate,
  multicellular stalk or short
  unicellular one.
• The cells of the lower surface
  have slight wavy walls and
  covered with smooth cuticle,
  bearing unicellular conical
  hairs but without cystolith.
• Glandular hairs as the upper
  epidermis and another of
  unicellular head and unicellular
  stalk and anomocytic stomata.
• The mesophyll contains
  numerous clusters of calcium
  oxalate and the vascular
  bundle at the midrib shows
  laticiferous vessels with brown
  contents in the phloem.
 The stem:
Circular in outline with outer
 epidermis       carrying    non-
 glandular hairs similar to those
 of the leafy structure.
Cortex is formed of collenchyma
 and parenchyma containing
 clusters of calcium oxalate.
Pericycle consisting of groups of
 slightly lignified fibres.
Phloem       shows        brownish
 unbranched laticiferous vessels
 and small clusters of calcium
 oxalate.
Xylem of pitted and reticulate
 lignified      vessels,     wood
 parenchyma and wood fibres.
Active Const.:
  A narcotic resin consisting of
   more    than    60   compounds
   (cannabinoids).    Cannabinoids
   are terpenophenolic compounds
   composed of two major portions:
  Aromatic portion (C-11 or C-12).
 Isoprenoid component (C-10).
• The most important
  cannabinoids are:
  cannabinol,
  tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
  and cannabidiol.
 Volatile    alkaloids  resemble
  nicotine, choline, trigonelline
  and cannabinine.
 It also contains terpenes,
  sesquiterpenes and traces of
  volatile oil.
Flavonoids and oxidase enzyme.
• Cannabis evaluation for resin
 production:
• To evaluate Cannabis for
  production of resin (i.e. resin
  producing variety or fibre
  producing type), this must be
  determined from the following
  equation:
• THC + CBN / CBD = > 1 (resin
  producing).
• THC + CBN /CBD = < 1 (fibre
  producing).
• THC is tetrahydrocannabinol.
• CBN is cannabinol.
• CBD is cannabidiol.
Uses:
Cannabis acts upon the nervous
 system producing excitement
 accompanied by hallucination
 followed by sleep.

It has analgesic and narcotic
  actions.
It’s used as a sedative in
  migrain,    neuralgia      and
  hysteria.
Used as an antispasmodic in
  spasmodic   cough     and    in
  cramps of summer diarrhoea.
Recently used to treat the
  nausea and vomiting caused by
  chemotherapy     of     cancer
  patients.
• POSITIVE effects
• mood lift
• relaxation, stress reduction
• creative, deep thinking : ideas
  flow more easily
• increased appreciation of
  music. More aware of, deeper
  connection to music.
• increased awareness of senses.
  (eating, drinking, smell)
• change in experience of muscle
  fatigue. Pleasant body feel.
• pain relief (headaches, cramps)
• reduced nausea, increased appetite
  (used medically for this)
• NEGATIVE
• nausea, especially in combination
  with alcohol, some
  pharmaceuticals, or other
  psychoactives
• coughing, asthma, upper
  respiratory problems
• difficulty with short term memory
  during effects and during periods
  of frequent use
• mild to severe anxiety
• headaches
• dizziness, confusion
• paranoid & anxious thoughts
  more frequent
• possible psychological
  dependence on cannabis
• loss of coordination at high
  doses
• can precipitate mental
  disorders
Chemical tests:

 1-Powder + HCl: effervescence

 2-Beam’s Test: Powder skake
  with pet. Ether, filter, add alc.
  KOH, shake, add amyl alcohol:
  violet pink color
3-Modified Beam’s test or
Fahmy and El-Keiy test:
for detection of cannabis in biological
  fluids:
 Extract the sample with ethanol, evaporate
  the alcohol, mix the extract with little
  sand, extract with pet. ether, transfer the
  extract to a separating funnel, wash
  successively with 5% Na2CO3, 5% H2SO4
  then wash with water, decolorize with
  charcoal, evaporate the extract, add few
  drops of N/10 alc. KOH where a purple
  colour is obtained.
‫شكرا لحسن االستماع‬

				
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posted:8/14/2011
language:English
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