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					     PROJECT WORK
         2011
             MYOPIA
           EYEPROTECH


Done by:
Goh Xin Ying 3SE
Renee Tay 3GR
Gillian Chai 2SE
Shannon Low 3GR
CONTENT PAGE:

1.1 ABSTRACT
1.2 INTRODUCTION
1.3 SCOPE OF STUDY
1.4 HYPOTHESIS

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

3. METHODOLOGY

4. DATA FINDINGS

5.1 HOW WE CAN USE THE FINDINGS FOR OUR SOLUTION
5.2 ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this research project is to identify the main causes of an increasing
prevalence of myopia in children. The first phase of the project involved research on
known causes of myopia as well as existing myopia prevention strategies. Research
was gathered from textual resources, interviews with experts, and through two surveys.
The second phase involved the development of a device, the CC EyeProtech, which
aims to promote good eye care habits and protect children from myopia. The final step
involved research into materials and functionality in order to improve the prototype and
to make it more attractive to users. This is carried out through conducting a survey and
research into marketing strategies. From the first part of our research, we have
discovered that bad eye care habits are the main cause of myopia. Thus, we hope to
develop a final product that promotes good eye care habits while being user-friendly,
affordable and attractive to the general public.


1.2 INTRODUCTION
Myopia is an incurable condition affecting more than half the population of Singapore
and more than 70% of youths. Singapore has one of the highest rates of myopia in the
world! By the age of 6, roughly one third of Singaporean children have been diagnosed
with myopia. Why are Singaporeans so prone to myopia and how can we solve this
problem? We set out to find some answers to these questions during the First Lego
League competition and produced many interesting findings. Eventually, we came up
with our very own device and even made a prototype of it.


1.3 SCOPE OF STUDY
Now that we have come up with a device to combat this problem of myopia in
Singapore, we seek to improve this device. We created surveys to see what the public
feels about our present device, and have found ways to improve it. The professionals
we interviewed in the course of our study have also given their suggestions. The
questions we were trying to answer were mainly how can this device be improved to
help slow or prevent myopia, how can we improve the market of this product, and last
but not least, how is this product better than current products in the market?


1.4 HYPOTHESIS
1) The high myopia prevalence in Singapore is caused largely by environmental factors,
the habits and activities of the people as well as the rise of technology. Technology is a
large contributing factor to high myopia prevalence.
2) We can create a device to help slow Myopia progression or prevent myopia. (Use of
technology to protect us from technology)



2. LITERATURE REVIEW
The prevalence of myopia is increasing significant and many children are becoming
near-sighted even though neither of their parents is myopic. A study has shown that the
prevalence rate of myopia is higher in urban Asian cities like Singapore and China.
Despite the fact that the roles of gene and environment interaction is still uncertain,
there is strong evidence that near work is a very strong factor that causes myopia.


In 2001, The Ministry of Health’s State of Health Report revealed that myopia in
Singapore is among the highest in the world. It was estimated that 34 percent of
Primary One students were diagnosed with myopia, with an increase to 66 percent for
Primary Six students, and lastly, 68 percent for Secondary Four students.


In Singapore, myopia is one of the areas with an increasing health concern. More
worryingly, the prevalence of myopia occurring in Singapore is accounted to be one of
the highest in the world. This is a problem which affects all ages, which includes 15% of
our pre-schoolers, 33% of our Primary One students and more than 70% of our youths
who are completing their university education are affected. To add on, a large
proportion of Singaporeans have severe cases of myopia. It is estimated at about 10%
of Singapore adults compared to less than 2% in most Western populations. To make
matters worse, both the prevalence and severity of myopia have increased significantly
over the past two decades. Nearly 40% of our adults aged 40 and older, are myopic.
The incidence is much higher with each new cohort and generation.


The underlying causes for the high prevalence and severity of myopia in Singapore are
still not well understood. It is likely that both genetic and environmental factors are
involved. More basic research, epidemiological studies and clinical trials in myopia is
needed to be carried out. Research which would enable us to ultimately modify the
biological course of the condition and ideally to prevent the onset of myopia altogether.


As the prevalence of myopia is highly related to near work and other urban
environmental factors, we studied the current solutions available in the market that is
said to help slow myopia progression or to heal myopia, as well as solutions being
researched.


From the current solutions and environmental causes of myopia, we have identified
possible ways to prevent myopia and have collated the information and formulated it
into our own solution, which we presented to an eye research professor and an
optometrist for suggestions for improvement.


There is new evidence now to show that regular outdoor activity can protect against
myopia. As engagement in too much near work may be a reason why more children
need to visit the optometrist at such a young age, we have come up with a pair of
glasses to combat this. The glasses serve as a protection to the eye to prevent or slow
down the rate of myopia.

The glasses are designed to relieve the stress or the weight of the glasses on the user’s
ears, as well as allow those who wear spectacles to wear it comfortably. The main aim
of the glasses is to encourage good eye care habits, as according to our survey, many
people do not take eye breaks in between doing near work. According to an optometrist
we interviewed, taking eye breaks is very important. Our main target audiences for the
device are children aged between 6 and 12, as research has shown that most children
develop this condition around the age of 6-8.
3. Methodology
We have conducted a lot of research on Myopia and even went to the Singapore National Eye
Centre for an interview with Professor Roger Buerman, a researcher and myopia/eye specialist.
He gave us positive feedback on our first planned device and also gave suggestions to improve
it. We also interview Mr Roland Eng, who told us about current myopia aid available in the
market and also the effectiveness of such devices. We conducted two surveys. The first survey
collects responses on the eye care habits of Singaporean youths. The second survey is on the
device itself. Our device is targeted at children and youths as they are more prone to myopia
and myopia tends to worsen faster during childhood, as the eye has not fully matured yet.
Therefore our surveys conducted with the younger generation.
After that, we did more research on the mechanics required for such a device and also the
materials that we can use.

4. DATA FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION


When did you become myopic?

1-5 years old:                      0%
6-10 years old:             51.4%
11-16 years old:            45.9%
17-23 years old:            2.7%
After 23 years old:         0%


What is your degree? (average of both eyes)

Below 100:                  8.1%
100-200:                    24.3%
200-300:                    16.2%
300-400:                    27%
400-500:                    13.5%
500 and above:              10.8%


What kind of vision aid do you use?

Glasses: 94.6%
Contact lenses (day): 29.7%
Night lenses (Ortho-K): 0%
Others (please specify): 0%


Do you have the habit of taking vision breaks or doing eye exercises?

Yes: 0%
No: 38%
Sometimes: 41.7%
Only when my parents ask me to: 19.4%


For how long do you do near work before taking a vision break?

Half an hour to 45 mins: 8.1%
1 hour: 2.7%
2 hours: 8.1%
3 hours and above: 13.5%
I usually do not take vision breaks: 67.6%


What do you do to maintain your degree?

Through the use of devices like EyeRelax: 0%
Eye exercises: 0%
Following good eye care guidelines: 13.9%
Using contact lenses such as Ortho-K: 5.6%
Atropine eye drop therapy: 0%
I don't really do anything in particular: 80.6%


Do you follow good eye care guidelines? (eg: sitting at least 2m from the TV,
30cm from the book etc...)

Yes: 24.3%
No: 24.3%
Occasionally: 45.6%
Only when my parents ask me to: 5.4%


If there was a device that would help you take regular vision breaks and help
relax your eyes, thus preventing your myopia from worsening, will your buy it,
even though it costs slightly more than ordinary glasses?

Yes: 40%
No: 25.7%
My parents would probably buy it for me/my siblings: 34.3%
GENERAL INTERPRETATION OF FIRST SURVEY

From the first survey, we’ve realized that most Singaporean youths do not have the habit of
taking regular vision breaks. (67.6%) 80.6% of the participants do not do anything in particular
to maintain their myopic degree. Only 24.3% have the habit of practicing good eye care habits.
Therefore, we can tell that the high prevalence of myopia in Singaporean youths is probably due
to their habits and activities. However,74.3% of the participants have indicated that their family
or they themselves may be potential buyers for such a device.




Also, based on the two surveys, 53% of the people we surveyed has no family history of myopia.
43 has family history of myopia and 3% gave an unsure response



                                                                         Do you have a family
                                                                         history of myopia?



                                                                yes
                                                                no
                                                                other




SECOND SURVEY

We surveyed 30 people from the age of 11 onwards to collect responses about our current
device. We also collected opinions on how we can improve the device and what would attract
people more to want to purchase such a device.
Would you be interested in buying a product that can maintain your level of
myopia/prevent myopia?




                                                                         yes
                                                                         no
                                                                         parents
                                                                         other




70% said yes. 4 % said no. 23% said their parents are likely to purchase one for them. 3% said
they already have a device which can perform the function of slowing myopia progression.

What do you think of the current device?



  16
  14
  12
  10
   8
   6
   4
   2
   0
        No, it is too        Yes.      No, I do not   Yes. Good      No. Its
       bulky to wear     Appearance like the current appearance   functions are
                        and design can appearance    and design   not sufficient
                         be improved   and design
                            but gd
                          functions


Most people feedback that the device was too bulky to wear.
Please rank in order of importance the properties you would look for in such a product (1
being the most important and 5 as the least important.

This graph show the feature that the participants who answered the question on which
feature of the device is the most important.

 16

 14

 12

 10

  8

  6

  4

  2

  0
      Hypoallergenic   appearnace     No. of    Comfortable      Cost
                                    Functions


The number of functions the device has is the next rated most-important feature. The rated less
important features are hypoallergenic, cost and appearance.

How much are you willing to pay for such a device?

 9
 8
 7
 6
 5
 4
 3
 2
 1
 0
      $50-$100   $100-$150 $150-$200 $200-$250 $250-$300      $300 and
                                                               above
From the bar graph, most people are not willing to pay very much for such a device. Most feel
that the ideal price of the device would be between $150 and $200.



How would you like the appearance/design of the device to be like?

  25
  20
  15
  10
   5
   0




Most participants of the survey would like the device to look like a pair of trendy shades/glasses,
followed by simple designs with colour variations.

GENERAL INTERPRETATION FOR SECOND SURVEY

From the results, we found out that the younger generation are rather concerned about the
appearance of the device. They would like the device to look fashionable and attractive and
comfort is a very important feature of the device. However, the survey also tells us that although
they are happy with the functions and would like improvements to be made to the device, they
are not willing to pay very much for it. From the age range, we have inferred that this is probably
because youths are not able to afford expensive devices or are not willing to invest their money
on such a device. Therefore, we must find ways to create a device that is attractive, comfortable
to use, effective, yet maintain it at an affordable price for our target audience.

HOW WE CAN USE THE FINDINGS FOR OUR SOLUTIONS

From the survey we have determined that the majority of the potential buyers of our product
would like an improved product with the following improvements made:

Most of the audience preferred the improved design to be lightweight, and not too bulky. This
was the main issue that is bringing down the potential sale of our device. Majority of the
audience are more concentrated in the fashion market, therefore the most popular choice in the
audience for a new look for our device is a pair of trendy shades.
The functions do not require any major changes as potential buyers are satisfied with the
available functions with our current device; therefore the main target of improvement for our
device is the enhancement of the appearance and comfort during usage, since our device
requires the user to put it on while doing near work. And also at the same time ensure the
device stays at a affordable price ranging from $150-$200.

However, the functions will have to be modified slightly if the physical appearance of the device
has to be changed. Based on research and interviews with experts, this probably will cost a lot
more that our initial design as the technology required to condense the device into a compact
glasses/shades-like physical design is very advanced.

ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS

Our research is limited in that younger audiences are unable to complete the survey so we do
not have a large amount of response from the younger population. Therefore, we did not
manage to get younger children below the age of 10 to complete the survey.

However, judging from the feedback of youths, who are our main target, appearance is one of
their main concerns, and therefore we can only assume that the majority of the younger
generation might also be rather concerned with the looks of the device. Thus our focus of
improvement on the new product will be its exterior design.




RECOMMENDATIONS

Myopia is not completely genetic. We need to stop the problem of Myopia before it becomes
permanently genetic. In order to do that, our device will be able to aid in the prevention of
Myopia. And to be able to ensure the product is welcomed into the market and with plenty of
potential buyers on hand, we have to ensure the wants of the customers are met, and the
device shall be modeled into an overall suitable in both looks and functions for buyers of all
ages.

CONCLUSION

Therefore, we conclude that there is indeed room for improvement for our device,
although we received rather good response on whether one would buy such a device.
From our research, we know that the world today is exposed to so much technology that
myopia is a common eye problem.




ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to thank our seniors and mentor, Mrs Kho for guiding us through this
project, giving us advice on research etc. We would also like to thanks Dr. Roger
Buermen and Mr. Roland Eng for taking time out for the interview.




Bibliography
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Charlotte E. Grayson, M. (2005, 6 21). MYOPIA. Retrieved 3 25, 2011, from Medcinenet.com.
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Singapore Eye Research Institute staff. (2010). Retrieved 12 8, 2010, from Singapore Eye Research Institute:
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Other sources:

http://www.naturalvisiontherapy.com/images/vte801l.gif
http://www.clearvisionhawaii.com/img/light_reduced.jpg

http://vision.about.com/od/eyeglasses/f/Pinhole_Glasses.htm .


http://www.amazingeye.com/files/lasik_diagram.jpg

				
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