TEACHING SOCIAL SKILLS TO PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

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TEACHING SOCIAL SKILLS TO PRESCHOOL CHILDREN Powered By Docstoc
					  REGIONAL EARLY CHILDHOOD
  DIRECTION CENTER PRESENTS:

 SOCIAL EMOTIONAL
DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG
     CHILDREN –
WHAT ADMINISTRATORS
   NEED TO KNOW.
HANDOUT
        Social-emotional Problems
         Among Young children
♦ Between 9.5 and 14.2 percent of children between
birth and five years old experience social emotional
problems that negatively impact their functioning,
development and school-readiness.
♦ Approximately 9 percent of children who receive
specialty mental health services in the United States
are younger than 6 years old.
♦ Boys show a greater prevalence of behavior
problems than girls.
        Prevalence rates of behavioral problems in pediatric
        primary care sample of preschool children by age and
        by gender (N=3,860)
         14

         12

         10
                                                                           2
          8                                                                3
          6                                                                4
                                                                           5
          4
          2

           0
Source: Lavigne, J.; Gibbons, R.; Christofel, K. K.; Arend, R.; Rosenbaum, D.;
Binns, H. et al. 1996.Prevalence Rates and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders
among Preschool Children. Journal of theAmerican Academy of Child and
Adolescent Psychiatry 35: 204-214.
Mental Health Disorders in Young Children
Anxiety Disorders                  1 to 11%

Simple Phobias                     1 to 11%

Oppositional Defiant Disorder      1 to 26%

Conduct Disorder                   1 to 5%

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity    1 to 7%
Disorder
            Why??????
   Overscheduled or Under Stimulated Home
    Environments.
   Effects of unsafe environments, TV and
    Video Game overload.
   Health issues, diet, lack of sleep, exercise,
    etc.
   Lack of good roles models, and community
    activities that promote socialization.
   Push down of more academics and less
    play/recess in PreK and Kindergarten
     HOW CAN WE CHANGE
     THESE STATISTICS?
   Staff are well trained in teaching academic
    skills, but lack training and information on
    how to teach Social Skills to young children
    involving understanding emotions, problem
    solving and making good choices.
   Limited Age Appropriate/User Friendly
    curriculums available at affordable costs,
    and without extensive training involved.
     I. What are Social Skills?
Self Awareness, ability to:   Awareness of others, ability to:

1. Understand Feelings        1. Show Kindness; Manners
2. Feel good about who we     2.   Engage in Turn-Taking;
    are                       3.   Cooperate
3. Feel Safe                  4.   Resolve Conflicts
4. Communicating Wants        5.   Follow rules
    and Needs
                              6.   Share
5. Problem Solving
                              7.   Wait when necessary
6. Handling Anger
                              8.   Understand Differences
7. Cope with Frustration
                                   Make and keep Friends
8. Make Good Choices
II. Why do we need to teach them?
•· Change in family structure from extended families to single parent
(divorce, separation, unwed parents, death of parent).

•· Change in who’s raising children: teens, grandparents, single parent,
siblings, working parents, daycares, etc.

•· Change in child’s environment; dangerous neighborhoods, less exposure
to good role models, less involvement with family and community i.e.
church groups, scouts, Y programs.

•· Increased exposure to aggression, violence, and conflict at home, in the
neighborhoods, on television.

•· Increase in behavior problems, mental health issues, depression,
aggression, medications, diet, less appropriate physical outlets.

•Increase in preschool expulsion, negative attitude toward school, dropout
rates, youth involvement in crime.
     III. How do we teach them?
Choose or develop a social skills curriculum
• Choose developmentally appropriate materials, books,
  video/DVDs, puppets, magazines, songs, games

•   Set up environments that encourage peer interactions, and
    positive behaviors, i.e. post picture rules charts

•   Plan social skills lessons to be taught throughout each
    day, work with families toward carry over of skills.

•   Assist families with referrals for evaluation, mental health
    services, etc. when additional help is needed.
     Strategies...
1.   “Planned” modeling - Staff work together to model use
     of manners, coping skills i.e. deep breathing, taking a
     break when frustrated or angry, solving problems,
     identifying emotions, communicating feelings.
2.   Positive Communication strategies i.e. positive
     phrasing, identify emotions through reflective listening
3.   Games, to teach and practice social skills, i.e. sharing,
     turn taking, cooperation, manners, waiting.
4.   Use Role-play–Adults play the part of children involved in
     common conflicts; have children help to come up with
     solutions.
5.   Puppets to act out typical problems of preschool children;
     have children help problem solve.
      Stories:
Read stories with pictures about challenges children face,
focusing on emotions and problem solving. Write stories with
children have them illustrate with drawings or magazine pictures
i.e. Me Books, Emotion Books.Tell or make up stories that involve
children’s participation in solving problems. Use flannel board,
props, pictures and other visuals.
      Songs, finger plays, and poetry to reinforce skills taught.
      Practice! Reinforce skills learned with many opportunities to
Practice.Keep families informed of lessons taught through bulletin
boards, notes home, newsletter, projects sent home, i.e. Emotion
and Me Books made by children. Incorporate into the community
through filed trips library, parks, markets, museums.
      Positive Reinforcement Reinforce immediately and frequently
for all efforts to build self-esteem and encourage good choices!
Focus on positive, catch them being good!
      Media/Technology i.e. videos, DVD’s children’s television
programming, the Internet to supplement lessons taught.
  KEY COMPONENTS OF A
SOCIAL SKILLS CURRICULUM

   ENVIRONMENTS
   SCHEDULES/ROUTINES
        RULES
   SOCIAL SKILLS
     LESSONS
   POSITIVE BEHAVIOR
     STRATEGIES
  TEACHING SOCIAL
SKILLS TO PRESCHOOL
     CHILDREN
Linda Sullivan, Inclusion Associate
Regional Early Childhood Direction
              Center
                             CONTENTS
I.ENVIRONMENTS                     V. BEHAVIOR
   Arrangement/Design               Hierarchy of Strategies
   Checklist for Positive          Checklist for Problem
    Environments                      Behaviors
II. SCHEDULES/ROUTINES              Solutions Chart
   Schedules/Routines              Communication Strategies
   Picture Schedules
                                    Prevention Strategies
   Transitions
III. RULES                          Teacher Tool Kit

    Tips/Examples                  Cards for Interventions
                                    Artificial Authority
IV. SOCIAL SKILLS
   Social Skills Materials        VI APPENDIX
                                    Forms
   Social Skills Objective
                                    Mini Books
   Group Activities
                                        I Can Stay Safe
   Strategies
                                        Tucker Turtle
   Problem Solving/Solutions
                                        Amigo Make Friends
   Book List                           I Can Be a Super Friend
                                        Waiting
I. ENVIRONMENT
 Door         ACTIVITY                sink
                                                  C
                                                  U
Circle Area
                Name 5 things you                 B
                could do to improve               B
                this classroom                    I
                layout.                           E
 Housekeeping                                     S
 Area

                           Water Table
Block Area                               Snack/Art Table

                  Books
I. ENVIRONMENT
   Set up of room?
      Are areas clearly defined?
      Enough room in areas?
      Large spaces that may be conducive to
        running?
      Over stimulating, visually, auditorily?
      Temperature, lighting...?
      Safety?

   Routines
   Social
   Activities/Materials
Environments -Tips for Classroom Design
1.Consider Traffic Patterns
 Check for obstacles or hazards, i.e. sharp corners, cords, etc.
 Consider children with physical or sensory challenges

2. Look at the Physical Design
 Check for clear boundaries of areas, ensure good visibility
 Use signs, pictures to indicate when centers are “closed”.
 Create enough centers and make sure the size and location of area
   is appropriate, i.e. quiet, messy, motor
 Monitor the number of children in centers, visuals can help
 Materials should be sufficient, developmentally appropriate, and
   organized for easy child access.
 Consider, temperature, lighting, stimulation level (noise, visual)
3.Learning Centers
 Create meaningful and engaging learning centers that are relevant
   to children’s needs and interests, consider cultural differences!
 Change and rotate centers as needed to keep up interest
    (caution, for children with special needs you may need to keep
       materials longer and gradually add new items)
Classroom Arrangement

          Bathroom
   Wet/Messy areas            Circle Area



        Snack/Art         Fine       Q    Break Area

                          Motor      U
                                     I      Books
                                     E
                                     T
Housekeeping                         Area

                     Blocks
                                      Cubbies

                                            Door
A. Schedules and
    Routines
     Schedules and Routines                         Daily Schedule
                                                    Free play
Develop a schedule that promotes child engagement,
 success, and that encourages peer interaction.

Establish routines to follow                        Circle


Post a picture schedule and teach children the
 schedule                                            Playground


Balance activities:
  • active and quiet
  • small group and large group
                                                    Table toys

  • teacher-directed and child-directed
                                                    Goodbye
Teach flexibility by building in change
  • Prepare children for changes that will occur.
Photograph Visual Schedule
                    Transitions
                 Plan for transitions
•Minimize the transitions that occur throughout the
day.

•Prepare children for transitions with cues or
“presets”, i.e. verbal statements, lights, music, songs.

•Teach children the expectations related to
transitions, i.e. what needs to be done first, where to
wait, etc.

•Minimize the length of time children spend waiting.

•Structure transitions so children have something to
do while they wait.
B. Rules
Rules
Keep Rules simple, not too many,
address the following
• Movement inside
• Interactions with property
• Interactions with adults
• Noise level
• Interactions with peers
Teaching Strategies
•Involve the children in making a rules chart
•Name a rule and have children identify pictures
that might go with it (can be photos of children
following rules to go on the rule chart)
•Make up “rules game”, i.e. Bingo, Lotto, Charades,
what rule is this?
•Review rules often until they are learned. Have
children who have difficulty with rules, remind
peers of the rules.
•Use visuals to remind children of rules in each area.
Circle Time Rules
II. Social Skills
 Goals/Objectives
     Materials
     Resources
  Group Activities
                   Social Skills
• Use curricula, books, videos to teach emotions,
   sharing, turn-taking, cooperation, helping, etc.

• Model appropriate social behaviors, sharing,
   taking a break, using words to gain attention,
    apologizing, cooperating, helping, having sympathy,
     etc.

• Ensure that staff are spending more time using
  positive descriptive language and less time giving
  directions or correcting inappropriate behavior

• Give children attention when they are engaging in
  appropriate behaviors. Catch them being good!
Problem Solving Steps




    1        2   Would it be safe?
                 Would it be fair?
                 How would everyone
                 feel?




         3
Turtle Technique

  Recognize
                   “Think”
  that you
                     Stop.
  feel angry.



Go into shell.     Come out of
   Take 3           shell when
   deep              calm and
   breathes.          thinking
   And think               of a
   calm,              solution.
   coping
   thoughts.
  Checking in on Emotions
                                            How do you feel
                                            today?




Teachers and children can “check in” each morning by choosing a
feeling face that best describes their affective state and putting it next
to their name. Children can be encouraged to change their feeling
faces throughout the day as their feelings change
How Do These Children Feel?
          Five Green Speckled Frogs

5
       Five Green and speckled frogs
         Sitting on a great big log
eating some most delicious flies, yum yum!!
         One jumped into the pool…
     (OOPS.... frogs won’t jump because they are
    Too scared,, mad, sad, confused silly, excited,, etc!)
Lsullivan/RECDC
                           ……..
         Kids ask frog why he won’t jump in....
                             I’m tooo scared,
                              it’s to far down,
                             what if I drown?



                       Lsullivan/RECDC



             (Kids come up with solutions, support,
                 frog jumps in, song continues.)
            ....One jumped into the pool………..
                Where it was nice and cool,
    now there are four green speckled frogs, glub glub!
Lsullivan/RECDC
4
       four Green and speckled frogs
         Sitting on a great big log
eating some most delicious flies, yum yum!!
         One jumped into the pool…


  Lsullivan/RECDC
(Oops again...frog won’t jump, kids ask why),

                                  I can’t jump, I’m too
                                   mad! I wanted to be
                                           first!




(Kids come up with solutions, support, frog jumps in, song
continues.)
....One jumped into the pool………..
Where it was nice and cool,
now there are three green speckled frogs, glub glub!
  Lsullivan/RECDC
   3
      Three Green and speckled frogs
         Sitting on a great big log
eating some most delicious flies, yum yum!!
         One jumped into the pool…
                   ……..
Lsullivan/RECDC
(Oops again...frog won’t jump, kids ask why)

                                   Nooooo, I’m way to
                                  sad to jump today, my
                                   friend didn’t wait for
                                            me!




(Kids come up with solutions, support, frog jumps in, song
continues.)
....One jumped into the pool………..
Where it was nice and cool,
now two are two green speckled frogs, glub glub!

 Lsullivan/RECDC
    2
       Two Green and speckled frogs
         Sitting on a great big log
eating some most delicious flies, yum yum!!
         One jumped into the pool…

                   ……..
Lsullivan/RECDC
    Kids ask frog why he won’t jump in....

                         I’m so confused? Should
                           I jump, or shouldn’t I
                          jump? I might get hurt,
                              but I’m a frog!?




        (Kids come up with solutions, support,
            frog jumps in, song continues.)
       ....One jumped into the pool………..
          Where it was nice and cool,
now there is one green speckled frog, glub glub!
                  Lsullivan/RECDC
        1
        One Green and speckled frog
         Sitting on a great big log
eating some most delicious flies, yum yum!!
         One jumped into the pool…


 Lsullivan/RECDC
       Kids ask frog why he won’t jump in....

                            I can’t jump, I’m feeling
                           so silly, hee ha, ha ha, my
                              friends just told me a
                                 joke, I can’t stop
                                     laughing!




           (Kids come up with solutions, support,
               frog jumps in, song continues.)
          ....One jumped into the pool………..
                Where it was nice and cool,
   now there are no green speckled frogs, glub glub!
Lsullivan/RECDC
0

       GOOD BYE!
Lsullivan/RECDC
STORIES
I  Stay Safe
 I Can Be a Super Friend
 Amigo Makes New
  Friends
 Tucker Turtle
I Can Stay Safe




       Created especially for Brendan and Josh
   Words by Rochelle Lentini and Picture Selection by
         Michelle Duda and Rochelle Lentini
                     June 2002
    III.
 BEHAVIOR
STRATEGIES
STRATEGIES.... Teach:
   Deep Breathing
   Taking a Break
   Coping
   Problem Solving
   Star Charts
   New Behaviors
   Use of Visuals
SOLUTION
CARDS
Teach “Replacement” Behaviors
    Since we know behavior serves a purpose, it doesn’t
     make sense to try to eliminate it without replacing it
     with a more appropriate behavior that serves the same
     purpose What is the behavior “communicating”?
BEHAVIOR               PURPOSE           REPLACEMENT
RUNNING          TO RELEASE ENERGY       JUMPING ON A
                                         MAT
SCREAMING TO COMMUNICATE                 USE WORDS, SIGNS
                                         OR GESTURES
                 FRUSTRATION
                                         TAKE BREATHS
HITTING          TO COMMUNICATE          USE WORDS, SIGNS
                                         OR GESTURES,
                 ANGER
                                         POUND PLAYDOH
                           stop           today




           Wet/Messy
             Area
    stop
                                      Circle

                             p
      Open                                          Open

                                                  Book
Break Area
             Open
                                                  Area

                             Block Area
                    Open

                                            Children’s
   Housekeeping                             Cubbies
V.BEHAVIOR
Understanding the Causes
1. Physical causes– Always rule out first!!
    medical condition, health problems (cold, flu),
   fatigue, hunger, pain, side effects of medicines,
   disability
2. Environmental causes
   too bright, cold, hot, noisy, too much space, too little
   space, too loud
3. Emotional causes
   fear, confusion, anger, excitement, sadness, uncertainty
4. Adult Expectations**
   are not developmentally appropriate
Strategies start with the Least Amount of Intervention
                 P.A.R. for the Course!
                       1.Preventive Strategies!
                               •Modeling
 L                     •Positive Reinforcement
 E                    •Communication/Choices
 A                     •Replacement Behaviors
                             •Redirection
 S                              •Humor!
 T                  2. Mild Interventions
                        •Planned Ignoring
                        •Limited Choices
                            •Proximity
To
                         •Touch Control
                                                 Like Golf,
                          3. Moderate               the
M                         •Consequences
                             •Breaks             Lower the
O                           4. Intense            Number
S                           •Time Out               the
T                          •Restraining
                                                  Better!
               YOUR BEHAVIOR TOOLKIT
Understand behaviors, USE ABC Charts.
Have many strategies to choose from!                               abc

Use P.A.R.!
  Nothing works 100% of the time, all children are unique!
Plan to teach problem solving and coping skills throughout the day
USE ROLE PLAY; MODELING; COLLECT STORIES, AND GAMES THAT
   TEACH GOOD SOCIAL SKILLS
Use teaching strategies that match:
    – Child’s level– Teacher’s style– The activity or situation.

Check for delays in:
– language, – social, behavioral,
– and/or emotional development
    RESOURCES
   Center for Social Emotional Foundations for Early Learning
      http://www.vanderbilt.edu/csefel/preschool.html
   Promoting Positive Social Peer Interactions
     http://www.vanderbilt.edu/csefel/ppt/wwb8instructor.ppt
   Positive Behavioral Supports
     http://www.challengingbehavior.org/explore/pbs/pbs.htm
   Schools Families and Social Emotional Learning
     http://www.casel.org/downloads/parentpacketLSS.pdf
   Circle of Inclusion
     http://www.circleofinclusion.org/english/guidelines/module
         one/index.html

				
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