Social Networking Group 3 Amie Desai, Brian Hatt, Donald Intrabartolo, Michael Trillo, and Lindsey Van Broekhoven Social Networking in the Arab Community Antonio Gramschi Marxist view – best express by Antonio Gramschi who regards civil society as a watchdog over the state and an instrument opposed to capitalism. (Talhami, 2001) He feels the state is destined to attempt imposing its ideology on society and that civil society offers the only arena where the oppress can struggle against his kind of dominance. (Talhami, 2001) A.R. Norton Argues that Islamist organizations in the Arab World today have fostered the growth of a cast array of voluntary organizations in order not only to compensate for the scarcity and inadequacy of governmental social services, but also as a means of generating political support for their causes. (Talhami 2001) Religious Islamic Studies Some studies argue that the Islamic social network in Egypt does not erode the legitimacy of the regime by providing for superior medical and other services. ( Talhami 2001) By the early part of this century, Islamic groups began to organize in the medical and healthcare fields, as well as in education, in order to combat incursion by foreign medical missionaries. It is estimated that in 1995, Islamic NGO’s officially registered with the Ministry of Social Affairs were greater in number than secular units and amounted to 8,000. The total number of registered associations for 1995 were of 14,000 demonstrates the dominance of the Islamic groups. Social Network Theory for Catholic Religion Social network theory suggests that embeddedness within a set of gratifying social relationships is an important predictor of religiosity. (Cavendish, Welch, and Leede, 1998) Many studies that discuss the importance of social networks are based on analyses of cult and sect recruitment (e.g. Lofland and Stark 1965; Bainbridge 1978), others are based on investigations of participation in conventional religious denominations. (Cavendish, Welch, and Leede, 1998) Siblings and Social Networks in Netherlands Kinship Viewing kinship as a category invites comparative research, exploring ways in which kinship differed among localities, regions, social groups and time periods, and how it influenced social relations and social demographic behavior. (Bras and Tilburg, 2007) A cross-national sociological study by Hollinger and Haller based on the 1986 survey of the International Survey Program shows significant differences between European nations and several indicators of social networks. (Bras and Tilburg, 2007) Differences There were clear differences in family types and in the accompanying social networks and sibling relations. Social Networks in Russia Friends Networks of friends served a basis and a foundation for the second economy, which channeled and distributed state-produced foods, consumer goods and services in response to persistent shortages, and for this purpose cultivated and maintained networks of exclusive ties and interpersonal trust. (Guseva, 2007) The need for this alternative system of distribution further strengthened the networks, and sharpened the boundary between insiders and outsiders, the trusted and the strangers. (Guseva, 2007) Soviet Relations The Soviet regime produced a particular constellation of social relations: informal social networks that acted as a refuge in a politically oppressive environment and helped overcome the inefficiencies of the Soviet command economy. (Guseva, 2007) The fall of Communism had led to the political roles played by informal networks in the lives of ordinary people have diminished. (Guseva, 2007) Emotional Support Star Trek Fan letters describing events of the Star Trek sagas help people cope with trauma. Social network sites such as these give hope of better times. Teens and Social Networking Why teens need social networking Teens use MySpace to explore who they want to be. (Rapacki, 2007) A recent study by the nonprofit organization Common Sense Media showed that parents they polled considered the Internet a bigger threat to their children’s safety than television. (Rapacki, 2007) The recent Deleting Online Predators Act controversy illustrates that there is a certain amount of social inertia towards keeping kids off these parts of the web. (Rapacki, 2007) Conclusion There are different views and types of social networks. Social Networks can be used for political and religious purposes People can use social networks as a way to cope with trauma. Teens can use social networking sites as a way to find themselves as well as express themselves. Overall social networking sites can be used as a way to communicate with friends and family as well as befriend people across the globe with common interests. Historical Evolution of Social Networking The Beginning One of the first recognizable social networking sites, Sixdegrees, was launched in 1997. It allowed users to create profiles, list friends, and within a year of its launch allowed users to search the friends list of other users. Although all these features existed before hand, Sixdegrees was the first to bring them all together. What happened? Sixdegrees attracted millions of users, but was shut down in 2000, because it was ahead of its time. Why? After accepting a friend request there wasn’t much to do on the site in addition to the fact that most people didn’t have a strong network of friends who commonly made use of the Internet. Many copycats sites appeared from 1997 to 2001 such as AsainAvenue, BlackPlanet, and MiGente which also allowed users to create personal, professional, and dating profiles. Friendster Attempts to design successful SNS continued in 2001 with the launch of Ryze.com. Those responsible for the design Ryze.com were a closely knit group investors of other SNS trying to get off the ground such as Tribe.net, LinkedIn, and Friendster. Friendster was the only site able to rise to its full potential with its 300,000 users made up primarily as bloggers, members of the Burning Man Arts Festival, and gay men. “Fakesters” posing as celebrities in order to increase the extent of their viewing privileges on Friendster outraged the site’s creators, leading them to start enforcing restrictions and to even delete these profiles. The conflict of interest between the sites creators and users and rumors of a fee-based system eventually caused the site to lose much of its short lived popularity. Friendster is now extremely popular in the Pacific Islands MySpace MySpace launched in Santa Monica California in 2003 and was designed to compete with Friendster. MySpace’s initial growth spurt can be attributed to estranged Friendster users. Including Indie-rock bands who were expelled from the site for not following profile regulations. Myspace’s success is also attributed to the “bands- and-fans dynamic”. Myspace continues to attract users by adhering to their feature demands and by allowing anyone to create a personalized profile. Currently MySpace is the most popular SNS worldwide, with 200 million users. Facebook Facebook was originally created as an exclusive niche community in 2004 for Harvard students. In 2005 it expanded its use to all college students, then highschool students, then working professionals, and eventually everyone. Unlike other SNS, facebook offers its platform for free to outside application developers, and allows them to keep any profits made. Facebook is among the six most-trafficked sites, and is only overshadowed by Myspace’s user population. Key Aspects of Social Networking Business Medical Privacy Disconnect Business Connect users at a low cost Advertising Operating Globally Making everyone accessible Improve the ability for people to advance professionally Medical Applications Used to manage institutional knowledge Available at all hours of the day Most medical social networking sites are screened against the state licensing board of practitioners Privacy Job Searching Do employers have the right to look you up? May not be as safe as we think. Networks claim personal profiles are “anonymous” and not personally identifiable. Majority of programmers are reluctant to build programs on these sites. Due to security and privacy concerns. Identity theft and sexual predators Information is beginning to be used in criminal investigations Disconnect Communication is becoming increasingly virtual. In some cases social networking can shut off users from the outside world. Lowers the need for face-to-face interaction. Concerns that constant use of this type of communication can have an effect on young people ability to communicate. (Wagner, 2008) Conclusion There are various aspects of social networking that can be evaluated. All of them have there own positives and negatives just as there are in any topic. While there are areas of concern, it seems social networking can be beneficial for both personal and business use. Social Networking Relatively new phenomenon Not utilized by many people Businesses beginning to explore possibilities Further analysis required Pros of Social Networking Promotion of services Millions of visitors per day Refined searches for target audience Efficient use of time and resources Pros of Social Networking Minimal cost Free to join / create profile Sense of community Shared space to communicate 1,500 Cisco employees use Facebook Cons of Social Networking Information leaks Company info, sensitive media (photos, videos) Excessive use during workday Cons of Social Networking Reputations at risk (inappropriate behavior by staff) Some companies ban access Intelligence gathering by rival organizations Attempt to steal staff of competitors Obtain corporate secrets Conclusion Despite possible negatives such as Information leaks, damaged reputation, & wasted time browsing sites, potential advantages (namely a new revenue source) cannot be overlooked by businesses.