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Social Networking in the Arab Community


									       Social Networking

                       Group 3

Amie Desai, Brian Hatt, Donald Intrabartolo, Michael Trillo, and
                  Lindsey Van Broekhoven
Social Networking in the
   Arab Community
            Antonio Gramschi
 Marxist view – best express by Antonio
  Gramschi who regards civil society as a
  watchdog over the state and an instrument
  opposed to capitalism. (Talhami, 2001)
 He feels the state is destined to attempt
  imposing its ideology on society and that civil
  society offers the only arena where the
  oppress can struggle against his kind of
  dominance. (Talhami, 2001)
               A.R. Norton
 Argues that Islamist organizations in the Arab
  World today have fostered the growth of a
  cast array of voluntary organizations in order
  not only to compensate for the scarcity and
  inadequacy of governmental social services,
  but also as a means of generating political
  support for their causes. (Talhami 2001)
                Islamic Studies
 Some studies argue that the Islamic social network in
  Egypt does not erode the legitimacy of the regime by
  providing for superior medical and other services. (
  Talhami 2001)
 By the early part of this century, Islamic groups
  began to organize in the medical and healthcare
  fields, as well as in education, in order to combat
  incursion by foreign medical missionaries.
 It is estimated that in 1995, Islamic NGO’s officially
  registered with the Ministry of Social Affairs were
  greater in number than secular units and amounted
  to 8,000.
 The total number of registered associations for 1995
  were of 14,000 demonstrates the dominance of the
  Islamic groups.
  Social Network Theory for Catholic
 Social network theory suggests that embeddedness
  within a set of gratifying social relationships is an
  important predictor of religiosity. (Cavendish, Welch,
  and Leede, 1998)
 Many studies that discuss the importance of social
  networks are based on analyses of cult and sect
  recruitment (e.g. Lofland and Stark 1965; Bainbridge
  1978), others are based on investigations of
  participation in conventional religious denominations.
  (Cavendish, Welch, and Leede, 1998)
  Siblings and Social
Networks in Netherlands
 Viewing kinship as a category invites comparative
  research, exploring ways in which kinship differed
  among localities, regions, social groups and time
  periods, and how it influenced social relations and
  social demographic behavior. (Bras and Tilburg,
 A cross-national sociological study by Hollinger and
  Haller based on the 1986 survey of the International
  Survey Program shows significant differences
  between European nations and several indicators of
  social networks. (Bras and Tilburg, 2007)
 There were clear differences in family types
  and in the accompanying social networks and
  sibling relations.
Social Networks in

 Networks of friends served a basis and a foundation
  for the second economy, which channeled and
  distributed state-produced foods, consumer goods
  and services in response to persistent shortages, and
  for this purpose cultivated and maintained networks
  of exclusive ties and interpersonal trust. (Guseva,

 The need for this alternative system of distribution
  further strengthened the networks, and sharpened
  the boundary between insiders and outsiders, the
  trusted and the strangers. (Guseva, 2007)
            Soviet Relations
 The Soviet regime produced a particular
  constellation of social relations: informal
  social networks that acted as a refuge in a
  politically oppressive environment and helped
  overcome the inefficiencies of the Soviet
  command economy. (Guseva, 2007)
 The fall of Communism had led to the political
  roles played by informal networks in the lives
  of ordinary people have diminished. (Guseva,
Emotional Support
                  Star Trek
 Fan letters describing events of the Star Trek
  sagas help people cope with trauma.
 Social network sites such as these give hope
  of better times.
Teens and Social
Why teens need social networking
 Teens use MySpace to explore who they
  want to be. (Rapacki, 2007)
 A recent study by the nonprofit organization
  Common Sense Media showed that parents
  they polled considered the Internet a bigger
  threat to their children’s safety than television.
  (Rapacki, 2007)
 The recent Deleting Online Predators Act
  controversy illustrates that there is a certain
  amount of social inertia towards keeping kids
  off these parts of the web. (Rapacki, 2007)
 There are different views and types of social
   Social Networks can be used for political and
    religious purposes
   People can use social networks as a way to cope
    with trauma.
   Teens can use social networking sites as a way to
    find themselves as well as express themselves.
   Overall social networking sites can be used as a way
    to communicate with friends and family as well as
    befriend people across the globe with common
Historical Evolution of
 Social Networking
                    The Beginning
 One of the first recognizable social networking sites,
  Sixdegrees, was launched in 1997.
 It allowed users to create profiles, list friends, and within
  a year of its launch allowed users to search the friends
  list of other users. Although all these features existed
  before hand, Sixdegrees was the first to bring them all
                  What happened?
 Sixdegrees attracted millions of users, but was shut down in
  2000, because it was ahead of its time.
 Why? After accepting a friend request there wasn’t much to do
  on the site in addition to the fact that most people didn’t have a
  strong network of friends who commonly made use of the
 Many copycats sites appeared from 1997 to 2001 such as
  AsainAvenue, BlackPlanet, and MiGente which also allowed
  users to create personal, professional, and dating profiles.
 Attempts to design successful SNS continued in 2001 with the
    launch of Those responsible for the design
    were a closely knit group investors of other SNS trying to get off the
    ground such as, LinkedIn, and Friendster.
   Friendster was the only site able to rise to its full potential with its
    300,000 users made up primarily as bloggers, members of the
    Burning Man Arts Festival, and gay men.
   “Fakesters” posing as celebrities in order to increase the extent of
    their viewing privileges on Friendster outraged the site’s creators,
    leading them to start enforcing restrictions and to even delete these
   The conflict of interest between the sites creators and users and
    rumors of a fee-based system eventually caused the site to lose
    much of its short lived popularity.
   Friendster is now extremely popular in the Pacific Islands
 MySpace launched in Santa Monica California in
    2003 and was designed to compete with Friendster.
   MySpace’s initial growth spurt can be attributed to
    estranged Friendster users. Including Indie-rock
    bands who were expelled from the site for not
    following profile regulations.
   Myspace’s success is also attributed to the “bands-
    and-fans dynamic”.
   Myspace continues to attract users by adhering to
    their feature demands and by allowing anyone to
    create a personalized profile.
   Currently MySpace is the most popular SNS
    worldwide, with 200 million users.
 Facebook was originally created as an exclusive
  niche community in 2004 for Harvard students.
 In 2005 it expanded its use to all college students,
  then highschool students, then working professionals,
  and eventually everyone.
 Unlike other SNS, facebook offers its platform for free
  to outside application developers, and allows them to
  keep any profits made.
 Facebook is among the six most-trafficked sites, and
  is only overshadowed by Myspace’s user population.
Key Aspects of Social Networking

 Business
 Medical
 Privacy
 Disconnect

 Connect users at a low cost
 Advertising
 Operating Globally
 Making everyone accessible
 Improve the ability for people to advance
           Medical Applications

 Used to manage institutional knowledge

 Available at all hours of the day

 Most medical social networking sites are screened

  against the state licensing board of practitioners
 Job Searching
    Do employers have the right to look you up?

 May not be as safe as we think.
   Networks claim personal profiles are “anonymous” and
    not personally identifiable.
 Majority of programmers are reluctant to build
  programs on these sites.
      Due to security and privacy concerns.
 Identity theft and sexual predators
 Information is beginning to be used in criminal
 Communication is becoming increasingly
 In some cases social networking can shut off
  users from the outside world.
 Lowers the need for face-to-face interaction.
 Concerns that constant use of this type of
  communication can have an effect on young
  people ability to communicate.
                                (Wagner, 2008)
 There are various aspects of social
  networking that can be evaluated. All of them
  have there own positives and negatives just
  as there are in any topic. While there are
  areas of concern, it seems social networking
  can be beneficial for both personal and
  business use.
           Social Networking

 Relatively new phenomenon

 Not utilized by many people

 Businesses beginning to explore

 Further analysis required
    Pros of Social Networking

 Promotion of services
   Millions   of visitors per day

 Refined searches for target
  Efficient use of time and resources
    Pros of Social Networking

 Minimal cost
   Free   to join / create profile

 Sense of community
   Shared space to communicate
   1,500 Cisco employees use
    Cons of Social Networking

 Information leaks
   Company   info, sensitive media
   (photos, videos)

 Excessive use during workday
     Cons of Social Networking

 Reputations at risk (inappropriate
  behavior by staff)
   Some   companies ban access

 Intelligence gathering by rival
   Attempt to steal staff of competitors
   Obtain corporate secrets

 Despite possible negatives such as
 Information leaks, damaged
 reputation, & wasted time browsing
 sites, potential advantages (namely
 a new revenue source) cannot be
 overlooked by businesses.

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