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					                                      IPP503 V2




Social Impact Management Framework

Rani Jamara Kulariya Irrigation Project




           Department Irrigation


            February 23, 2011




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                                                      Table of Contents

LIST OF ACRONYMS & TRANSLATIONS ........................................................................ iii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................................... 4
1.     Policy Framework for Land Acquisition and Resettlement.............................................. 7
     1.1    Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R) Policy Framework ...................................................7
     1.2    Objectives and principles of the framework .........................................................................7
     1.3    Applicable Legal and Policy Framework................................................................................8
     1.4    Identification of Gaps in National Policies and Recommendations to Bridge Gaps ............9
     1.5.   Social Impacts: Planning Steps and Methods ...................................................................... 10
     1.7.   Information Dissemination, Consultation, Participation and Disclosure .............................. 16
     1.8.   Grievance Redress Mechanism .......................................................................................... 16
     1.9.   Implementation Agencies .................................................................................................. 17
2.     Vulnerable Community Development Framework ........................................................ 19
     2.1.   Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 19
     2.2.   Relevant National & World Bank Policies on Vulnerable Peoples ........................................ 19
     2.3    Vulnerable People in Nepal ............................................................................................... 21
     2.4    Vulnerable Groups in the Project Areas.............................................................................. 23
     2.5    Concerns Relating to Vulnerable Communities in the Project Area ...................................... 24
3.     Gender and Social Inclusion Framework ..................................................................... 28
     3.1.   Definitions of Gender and Social Inclusion ......................................................................... 28
     3.2.   Existing Policies on Gender equality and Social Inclusion .................................................... 30
     3.3.   Gender-specific constraints to women’s participation in the project area: .......................... 31
     3.4.   Gender and Social Inclusion Strategies ............................................................................... 32
4.     Information & communication strategy ........................................................................ 36
     4.1.   Findings & Lessons from Past Information and Communication Efforts ............................... 36
     4.2    Barriers to Information and Communication ...................................................................... 37
     4.3    Issues to consider in implementing Information & Communication Strategies .................... 37
     4.4    Tools and Mediums for Information and Communication ................................................... 39
     4.5    Selective & Tailored Mechanism ........................................................................................ 40
     4.6    Information, communication & consultation contents and messages .................................. 40
     4.7    Community Consultation and Participation Plan during the Project Cycle ........................... 41
     4.8    Specific Information and Community Activities during the Project Cycle ............................. 43


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4.9    Information, Dissemination, Community Consultation & Participation Plan ........................ 44
4.10   Political and Conflict Sensitive Participation Approach ....................................................... 46


                        LIST OF ACRONYMS & TRANSLATIONS


Badghar                         The person in charge of managing village-wide affairs including
                                those related to irrigation at the village/sub-branch level.
CBOs                            Community Based Organizations
DDC                             District Development Committee
DOA                             Department of Agriculture
DOI                             Department of Irrigation
DOWD                            Department of Women‘s Development
FGD                             Focus Group Discussions
GESI                            Gender, Equality and Social Inclusion
GRC                             Grievance Redress Committee
ICCCP                           Information, Communication, Community Consultation &
                                Participation
IP                              Indigenous Peoples
IPM                             Integrated Pest Management
IPNM                            Integrated Pest and Nutrient Management
ISEA                            Integrated Social and Environmental Assessment
IUA                             Irrigation Users‘ Association for Rani, Jamara and Kulariya
IUC                             Irrigation User Committee
IUG                             Irrigation User Group
M&E                             Monitoring and Evaluation
KII                             Key Informant Interviews
Kulo                            Canal (Nepali word)
MOWR                            Ministry of Water Resources
NDC                             National Dalit Commission
NEFIWUAN                        Nepal Federation of Irrigation Users Association of Nepal
O&M                             Operation and Maintenance
PAP                             Project Affected Persons
PRA                             Participatory Rural Appraisal
RJK                             Rani, Jamara and Kulariya
RAP                             Resettlement Plan
RJKIS                           Rani Jamara Kulariya Irrigation System
Sahek Chaudhary                 The person in charge of managing irrigation-related issues at the
                                village/sub-branch.
VCD                             Vulnerable Community Development
VDC                             Village Development Committee
WB                              World Bank




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                                      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Rani, Jamara and Kulariya Kulos (or canals) were constructed by farmers more than a hundred
years go. These Kulos off-take from Jarahi Naala,western sub-course of the Karnali River. Each
Kulo has many branches and sub-branches to irrigate at present approximately 24,000 ha of
farmland. Since construction, the Kulo system has been traditionally operated, maintained and
managed by traditional irrigation user committees and headed by Kulo Chaudhary of each Kulo 1.

Nepal Government, as per the request of the irrigation users of the Rani, Jamara and Kulariya
system, has planned to upgrade the system through proper intakes. The Nepal Government is
also requesting the World Bank to assist in financing the project.

As part of the project preparation, the Department of Irrigation has engaged a group of social
scientists to carry out a social assessment in the project areas, and based on the social
assessment, develop instruments to mitigate possible adverse social impacts and maximize
project benefits. The social assessment developed a socioeconomic profile of the project;
mapped out stakeholders in the project area; assessed various social, economic and political
factors that play in the design and implementation of the project; and assess likelihood of the
social impacts of the project. On the basis of the social assessment findings, the consultant team
developed this Social Impact Management Framework (SIMP) for the Department of Irrigation
in compliance with relevant domestic and World Bank safeguard policies.

The SIMP is developed in view of the approach and progress for the engineering design. The
engineering design will be developed later for different schemes within the command area. The
design progress will vary across the project area, and therefore it is not possible to determine the
extent of impacts upfront. This SIMP is prepared to guide the detailed social planning process
during implementation when the engineering designs are completed. It proposes policy
guidelines, planning approaches and requirements, mitigation strategies and interventions under
the project. This SIMF covers involuntary resettlement in compliance with World Bank OP 4.12
on Involuntary Resettlement, indigenous people issue in compliance with OP 4.10 on Indigenous
Peoples, gender and social inclusion, as well as information, communication, consultation and
participation. It provides the guideline to address the social aspects of the program design and
implementation.

Policy framework for land acquisition and resettlement: The proposed Rani Jamara and Kulariya
irrigation project involves upgrading of an existing system, it is unlikely that the major issues of
land acquisition will come up in the course of project implementation and the project is not
expecting to have impacts on structures that may require relocation. Nevertheless, the upgrading
works may require small portions of lands. These will be determined only after engineering
design is completed. This framework is developed to guide planning to address such possible
impacts of land acquisition. It outlines measures to be adopted in instances where the following
1
 The project team was comprised of Dr Bimbika Sijapati Basnett, Team Leader; Dr Chudamani Basnet, Sociologist;
and Sanjay Mahato, Research Associate. The research team has profited tremendously from the direction of Deepak
Thapa, Director of the Social Science Baha as well as field-work support from and consultations with Suresh Dhakal
and Roshan Pokharel of the Social Science Baha.


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types of losses are inevitable: acquisition of private; tenancy and Guthi land; temporary loss of
land/crop; loss of residential, commercial and other structures; loss of community
structures/resources; loss of tree and crops; and loss of time and travel expenses. The framework,
in turn, recommends strategies for the design of: resettlement plans; information, consultation,
participation and disclosure; and grievance redress mechanisms.

Vulnerable Community Development Framework: The major objective of the Vulnerable
Community Development Framework (VCDF) is to ensure that the RJKIS modernization and
rehabilitation project not only causes no negative impacts on vulnerable peoples, including
Janjati communities, who are mainly the socially disadvantaged communities (such as Tharus,
Dalits, Hill-Janajatis, women-headed households, Mukta Kamaiyas and Sukumbasis) but that it
provides the necessary institutional and budgetary mechanisms to ensure that they get equal
access to program benefits. The VCDF has been designed in line with relevant government
policies as well as the World Bank‘s OP 4.10 on Indigenous Peoples, a key component of the
Bank‘s Operational Policies relating to Social and Environmental Safeguards. The framework
identifies the following social issues and potential impacts, and proposes corresponding
mitigation strategies and specific activities for each: demise of the Tharu-led irrigation
governance systems; social inequity within and between Tharus and non-Tharus; lack of
inclusion and equitable participation of non-Tharu vulnerable communities; and lack of access to
complementary services. The major agencies recommended for implementing the mitigation
strategies and specific activities include: RJK project officials, Department of Agriculture, local
NGOs, Irrigation User Groups and Committees, Irrigation User Association, and
training/research agencies.

Gender Equality and Social Inclusion (GESI) Strategy: The GESI strategy has the following
objecives: guide the development of measures to create a favorable environment for integrating
GESI in the RJIK modernization and rehabilitation project; enhance the capacity of service
providers and ensure equitable access and use of irrigation and project related benefits by the
poor, vulnerable and marginalized castes and ethnic groups; and improve demands for inclusive
decision-making and benefit sharing processes by the poor, vulnerable and marginalized castes
and ethnic groups. Because the VCDF has already focused on the vulnerable communities, this
framework is on gender-specific mainstreaming issues and strategies. Based on a stock-take of
the level of women‘s participation in the irrigation governance systems, the framework identifies
the following social issues and proposes corresponding strategies and specific activities for
addressing each: lack of participation in irrigation governance systems; women landholders and
women-headed households‘ membership in irrigation user groups; dearth in women‘s leadership
qualities; low-level of involvement and knowledge of RJK project and socio-economic benefits;
gender discriminatory rules and practices in irrigation governance; and low-level of agricultural
development know-how. The major agencies recommended for implementing the mitigation
strategies and specific activities include: RJK project officials, local NGOs, local women‘s
CBOs, Department of Women‘s Development, Department of Agriculture, Irrigation User
Groups and Committees, Irrigation User Association, and training/research agencies.

Information, Communication & Community Consultation and Participation (ICCCP) Strategy:
The major objectives of the (ICCCP) Strategy are to: (i) keep all stakeholders informed of the
project activities as well as its potential beneficial and adverse impacts; and (ii) ensure



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stakeholders actively participate in all levels of the project cycles, come up with mitigation plans
of the potential negative impacts of the project, and are well trained and equipped to take over
the responsibilities of operation and management once the project phases out. Based on an
assessment of the ICCCP strategies adopted by the RJK project office thus far, the framework
proposes employing face-to-face communication as well as mass media to disseminate
information about the project to all stakeholders (primary, secondary and tertiary levels); and
using selective and tailored mechanisms for informing and consulting women and vulnerable
beneficiaries as well as project affected persons in particular. Information dissemination,
consultation and participation strategies should be adopted at different project cycles – pre-
construction, construction, operation and maintenance and monitoring and evaluation. Given the
political climate of the country, a political and conflict sensitive approach should be adopted
which embraces the concept of ‗social, inclusion, equity and equitable distribution of benefits‘ as
guiding principles. The framework recommends the institutional re-arrangements and budgetary
commitments necessary within the DOI to oversee the implementation of the ICCCP.




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1. Policy Framework for Land Acquisition and Resettlement
    1.1 Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R) Policy Framework

Rani, Jamara and Kulariya Irrigation Scheme (RJKIS) is one of the largest farmer-based
irrigation systems in the Tarai. Located in the Kailali District in the Far West, it has a net
cultivable area of approximately 14,300 ha of which about 11,000 ha is currently irrigated. The
system is a cluster of three independent ‗kulos‘ or branch canal systems, each with its separate
water intake from a bi-channel of the main Karnali river2. According to the sources, Rani Kulo
was built by farmers in 1896, Jamara in 1960 and Kulariya in 1972 and each canal system has
several branches and sub-branches to irrigate the command area.

Since the proposed Rani Jamara and Kulariya irrigation project involves upgrading of an existing
project, it is unlikely, that the issue of land acquisition will come up in the course of project
implementation. As the project works will largely remain limited to the lands traditionally used
by the RJKIS canal systems, no significant social impacts on land acquisition and resettlement is
expected. Use of private lands, wherever needed, will occur along minor strips of existing canal
facilities and the associated impacts are unlikely to be severe because of the linear nature of the
irrigation systems.

The rationale of this framework is originated from the fact that there has not been final technical
design of the project for different components to understand the nature and scale of social
impacts. As the detailed design would take place later and very little is known at present about
the interventions and project activities, this framework is developed to guide detailed
resettlement planning to address land acquisition and resettlement impacts. This framework,
therefore, covers a range of possible land, structure, and livelihood related impacts that could
occur during later stage of project planning and implementation. In RJKIP, no physical
displacement is envisioned, but the framework provides guidance for all possible events in line
with the Safeguards Policy of the World Bank and Government of Nepal's Land Acquisition Act,
2034 (1977) and other relevant Acts and policies

    1.2 Objectives and principles of the framework
The objective of this framework is to ensure that adequate measures are designed and
implemented to make sure that people affected through loss of assets could improve or at least
restore their living standard. Possible impacts could include loss of land (homestead; agriculture;
community land), loss of structure (residential; commercial; community), loss of livelihood, loss
of standing crops/ trees, loss of access to common property resources (CPR) and facilities. The
following principles will be followed,

a) avoid and minimize land acquisition and resettlement impacts and identify the non-
   displacing or least-displacing alternatives;



2
 Source: World bank (2010) Technical Report: Modernization of Rani-Jamara-Kulariya Irrigation Scheme
Technical Report, Project Preparation Mission, June 14-23, 2010, Kathmandu.


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b) where avoidance is not possible, plan the Resettlement and Rehabilitation of Project Affected
   Families (PAFs), including special needs of vulnerable sections through proper assessment
   and consultations;
c) provide full compensation of acquired assets at replacement value and assist affected persons
   in maintaining/restoring their former living standards, income earning capacity, and
   production levels;
d) facilitate harmonious relationship between the Implementing Authority ( Acquiring Body)
   and PAFs through mutual cooperation and regular interaction; and
e) ensure that the affected persons are meaningfully consulted and provided opportunities to
   participate in the planning and implementation stages of the resettlement program in order to
   suitably accommodate their inputs and make this framework more participatory in nature and
   broad based in its scope

   1.3 Applicable Legal and Policy Framework

   a. GON Legal and Policy Framework

The Government of Nepal (GoN) has issued, formulated and reformed several national policies,
Acts, regulations and guidelines that are adapted and used while developing and implementing
the projects. The following national policy, legal and regulatory framework provides basis to
address the social issues at all stages of project cycle beginning from planning to implementation
and post implementation under proposed RJKIP.

The Interim Constitution (2007): Clause 2 of article 19 of the Interim Constitution refers
about Rights of Property specifying that except for public benefits the State cannot seize property
of individuals and cannot create any type of rights under such property. The State may acquire
the property from its owner by providing due compensation to owner for land or other properties
acquired, as prescribed by law.
Land Acquisition Act 1977: The Land Acquisition Act 1977 clearly outlines the procedures of
land acquisition and compensation for public purposes. The Act states that, GON can acquire
land at any place in any quantity by providing compensation pursuant to the Act (sections 3 and
4) for any development project. Once the decision is made to acquire land for the project, the
Project Manager initiates preliminary actions to assess the location and extent of land to be
acquired. The Act provides for cash compensation decided by the Compensation Fixation
Committee (CFC) constituted under the chairmanship of Chief District Officer (CDO). Under
section 15 of the act, the compensation for the Guthi Land (Religious Trust) is to be paid as per
the provision made under the Guthi Corporation Act, 1976. The section 42 of Guthi Corporation
Act authorizes GON to acquire Guthi land and reimburse it by providing land instead of paying
compensation if it wishes to do so.
Land Reform Act, 1964: The Land Reform Act, 1964 is considered as a revolutionary step
towards changing the existing system of land tenure by establishing rights of tenants and
providing ownership rights to actual tiller. To date it has been amended five times. Article sets
ceiling on land ownership according to geographical zones. Article 25 (1) of this act deals with
tenancy rights to the tenants.




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       Local Self Governance Regulation, 2000: Local Self-Governance Regulation empowers the
       local bodies to coordinate and implement development programs and for rationale utilization of
       local natural resources. Article -7 (69) empowers the VDCs for monitoring and supervision of
       development work implemented in the VDC. The Article - 4 of DDC has provision of three
       members (Agriculture, Forest, and Environment) committee to look after the concerned issues.

          b. World Bank Social Safeguard Policies

       Involuntary Resettlement Policy (OP 4.12) states that involuntary resettlement should be
       avoided as far as possible. If involuntary settlement is unavoidable, they should be minimized
       by exploring all viable options. People affected should be fully informed, and be compensated
       and assisted to improve or at least restore their livelihoods. The WB policy further states that the
       absence of a formal legal title to land on the part of affected groups should not be a bar to
       compensation and that special attention will be paid to households headed by women and other
       vulnerable groups. This provision, in particular, is likely to be an object of contention in the RJK
       Irrigation Project. According to WB policy, the date of the census will be the ―cut-off-date‖ for
       the entitlement, and titled as well as non-titled owners of affected assets will be eligible for
       compensation. Finally, WB policy states that the planning and implementation of any
       compensatory and resettlement measures should be appropriately monitored and evaluated.

          1.4 Identification of Gaps in National Policies and Recommendations to Bridge Gaps

          a. Identification of Gaps and Limitations in the National Policies

       The main gaps and limitations of the national legal and policy framework are:

  I.      National law makes provision for compensation to the titled landholder only and, by default,
          omits all other PAP, including non-registered tenant farmers, landless farmers, squatters,
          agricultural labourers, shopkeepers, artisan groups and Dalits.
 II.      National law does not make any provision for landless, encroachers or squatters regarding to
          the entitlement for compensation. There is no provision for rehabilitation assistance for such
          vulnerable groups.
III.      When GoN requires assets, national law does not specify about the provision of mandatory
          replacement cost.
IV.       The Land Acquisition Act, 1977 does not emphasize transparency and stakeholder
          participation for various decisions that directly affect the long-term wellbeing of PAPs.
V.        Lack of consideration of the apparent time gap between notification of acquisition and the
          payment of compensation is another limitation of the existing legal framework.




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          b. Recommendations to Bridge the Gaps

       Followings are the policy recommendations to close the identified gaps and limitations are:

  I.   A project affected person needs to be defined as a person or household whose livelihood or
       living standard is adversely affected through loss of land, housing and other assets, income, or
       access to services as a consequence of the implementation of the project, causing a change in
       land use.
 II.   Entitlements should be established for each category of loss covering both physical loss and
       economic loss.
III.   Special attention should be given to protect the interest of vulnerable groups. With a census date
       as cut-off date, no fraudulent encroachments after this date should be considered eligible for
       entitlements of compensation. However, landless farmers/ squatters who have been occupying
       public land for at least 3 years before the cut-off date, but without legal title, which has not been
       claimed by others, should be entitled to compensation for the lost land and entitled to be
       legalized on the remaining unaffected portion, if they do not have title to any other agricultural
       land. Non-land assets should be compensated at replacement value and their relocation and
       transportation must be assisted. Support for vulnerable groups should be provided to improve
       their livelihood.
IV.    Practical provisions must be made for the compensation for all lost assets to be made at
       replacement cost without depreciation or reductions for salvage materials. Efforts must be made
       to assess the real replacement costs of land to the extent possible.


       There must be legal provision of PAPs and local representatives of VDC/Municipalities
       participation in settling the resettlement issues related to compensation, relocation and
       rehabilitation.


          1.5. Social Impacts: Planning Steps and Methods

       The Resettlement Policy Framework is a guiding document to address the potential resettlement
       and land acquisition issues in the subprojects under RJKISP. As the project is likely to involve
       mostly improvement and upgrading of the existing irrigation canal facilities, the expected
       adverse impacts are generally considered to be minimal. As far as the social impacts are
       concerned, the core project area (footprint) and its influenced zone including surrounding areas
       likely to be impacted adversely, will be considered and delineated for identifying the impacts,
       especially considering the likely losses and damages caused by construction related activities.

          a. Social Impact Assessment

       Once the possibility of land acquisition has been confirmed, a fresh SIA incorporating socio-
       economic surveys of Affected People (AP) should be undertaken and integrated into the detailed
       design of project components. The SIA combined with Socio-economic survey based on 15-20%


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sample households of project area, will gather relevant information about PAPs (Project Affected
Persons), including: (i) demographic characteristics (ii) an inventory affected assets, facilities
and resources, (iii) landownership, usage and productivity (iv) socio-economic status of PAPs
and assessment of their risks including income (v) social and gender issues including prevalence
of indigenous people (vi) stakeholders and their activities (vii) people‘s interest and expectations
including their attitude towards the project, and (viii) impact minimization/ mitigation measures
based on community consultations. The SIA will help in determining the magnitude of
displacement, prospective losses, better targeting of vulnerable groups, ascertaining resettlement
magnitude and costs, and preparing and implementing resettlement and other plans as required

The SIA will identify measures to avoid/minimize/mitigate involuntary resettlement risks.
Vulnerability assessment of PAPs will be part of SIA and a list of vulnerable PAPs prepared and
finalized in consultation with local community.

The SIA will also assess options for any relocation, opportunities for income
restoration/economic rehabilitation, and any need of special assistance for vulnerable groups. It
will also solicit PAPs willingness to donate their land. Based on this information, the eligibility
criteria and entitlement for compensation/assistance will be established and appropriate
resettlement plans (RAP) will be prepared.

   b. Census Survey

Once a broader picture of the project affected area and peoples emerges from social impact
assessment, the proponent will need to undertake census survey of the affected people. . At this
stage, final designs of the project physical components and interventions are expected to be
ready to provide project impacts more precisely. The census will enumerate of all PAPs based on
site investigation sufficient to identify titled, legalizable and non-titled PAPs. The census will
also serve as a cut-off date for the entitlement purpose. The information will be gathered in
participation of community, local NGOs/CBOs, and PAPs.

   c. Resettlement Action Plan (RAP)

The Resettlement Action Plan (RAP), RAP, is a major planning document which is based on the
information gathered from census survey of affected people and inventory of lost assets. The
content of full RAP should include a statement of involuntary resettlement objective and
strategy, with (i) organization responsibilities, (ii) community participation and disclosure
arrangements; (iii) finding of the socio-economic survey ; (iv) legal framework, including
eligibility criteria and entitlement matrix; (v) mechanisms for resolution of conflicts and appeals
procedures; (vi) compensation and resettlement measures; (vii) inventory, valuation of, and
compensation for, lost assets; (vii) land ownership, tenure, acquisition, and transfer; (viii) access
to training, employment, and credit; (x) shelter, infrastructure and social services; (xi)
environmental protection and management; (xii) monitoring and evaluation; (xiii) a detailed cost
estimate with budget provisions; and (xiv) an implementation schedule, showing how activities
will be scheduled with time-bound actions in coordination with the civil works. The RAP should
establish an eligibility cut-off date.




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   1.6. Eligibility and Entitlement

The eligibility criteria defining different types of Project Affected Persons (PAPs) are as follows:

        Project Affected Persons includes any person or persons who because of the project
         activities would have their: (i) standard of living adversely affected; (ii) legally
         recognized title, or interest in any house, land (including residential, agricultural and
         grazing) or any other moveable or fixed assets acquired or possessed, in full or part,
         temporarily or permanent; and (iii) place of work or habitat adversely affected with or
         without displacement.
        Severely Project Affected Families (SPAFs) : Families who lose 10% or more of their
         land and/ or a residential house because of project activities;
        Project Affected Families: All members of a project affected households residing under
         one roof and operating as a single economic unit, who are adversely affected by the
         project or any of its components;
        Squatters: People who are occupying land in violation of the laws of Nepal and are not
         entitled to compensation of land under this policy. However, they are entitled to
         resettlement assistance if displaced as well as compensation for loss other than land, in
         particular, structures and crops.
        Encroachers: People who have trespassed into public/private/community land to which
         they are not authorized.
        Vulnerable Groups: Distinct groups of people who are socially distressed or
         economically backward and who might suffer disproportionately from resettlement
         effects. These include, but are not limited to the following: all ethnic
         minority/indigenous groups present in the Tarai; women-headed households; the most
         poor (based on poverty line and local wealth ratings); the disabled; elderly and
         landless/Kamaiya families.

In consistent with GON legal framework and World Bank Policy guidelines, different categories
of affected people will be entitled to different types of resettlement and rehabilitation packages.
These will include mainly the compensation at replacement value, displacement allowance,
transportation allowance and additional assistances to vulnerable households. The actual amount
of such compensation and allowances including other assistances will be provided in subproject
specific RAP. Table 9.2 provides major policy entitlements to the affected people / families
based on loss categories.




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Table 1: Entitlement Policy Matrix
 Type of Loss    Entitled Persons                Policy/Entitlement                    RJKIP Status/Remarks
                 Landowners           Provide land of area and productivity
                 Tenants             acceptable to owners in the same area or      Since the Kulos (canals) are
                                     cash compensation at replacement value       wide enough, it is unlikely that the
                                     including transfer costs and registration    land acquisition issue will come up
                                     fees, if land is not available.              in the majority of the existing
                                      If remaining land becomes unviable         branches and sub-branches.
1. Acquisition                       as a result of land acquisition, Project      Some even suggested that the
of private,                          Affected Persons (PAPs) will have            project could free land. But once
tenancy, or                          option to relinquish unviable portion of     again, it was difficult to determine
Guthi land                           land and receive the same benefits as the    the precise nature of the impacts
                                     relinquished land                            without having a finalized project
                                      Tenant will receive the 50% value of       design.
                                     the land
                                      Non-registered tenants will receive
                                     compensation for crops and subsistence
                                     allowance for one-year crop. Any up-
                                     front costs for the tenancy agreement will
                                     be reimbursed
                 Landowners           Advance notice for crop harvesting          This is a possibility in the RJK
2. Temporary     Tenants              Compensation at market price for the       project.
loss of          Non-titled          loss of income, damaged crops, trees etc.
land/crop        (encroachers/
                 squatters)
                 Landowners           Compensation for full/partial loss at       There was no evidence of
                 Tenants             replacement cost of affected structure       impact on commercial and other
3. Loss of       Non-titled          without depreciation                         structures, but the issue of non-
residential,     (encroachers/        Displacement and transportation            titled owners might come up when
commercial,      squatters)          allowance for residential and commercial     the project is implemented.
and other
                                     structures as per subproject specific RAP.    Allowances and rates to be
structure
                                      Rental stipend for tenants who have        specified on subproject specific
                                     to relocate from tented building as per      RAPs.


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    Type of Loss     Entitled Persons                     Policy/Entitlement                              RJKIP Status/Remarks
                                               subproject specific RAPs.



                     The users of the  Reconstruction by the project leaving                        No evidence of impact on
                     facility      or such facilities in a better condition than                    community structures or resources.
4. Loss of           community     or they were before; or                                          Community       forests    located
community            group             Cash        compensation      at     full                   adjacent to the canals might be
structures /                          replacement cost.                                             affected but according to forest
resources                                                                                           users, compensatory measures
                                                                                                    would be adopted as per legal
                                                                                                    provisions of GON Forest rules
                   Owner of affected  Advance notice for harvesting                                 This is a possibility.
                   fruit/nut trees        Cash compensation based on the
                                         Department of Agriculture norms.3
                   Owner of timber  Cash compensation based on the                                    This is a possibility.
                   and fodder trees      Department of Forestry norms.
                   Owner of affected  Advance notice for crop harvesting                              This is a possibility.
5. Loss of         crops                  Cash compensation based on the
trees, fruits and                        market prices for the produce of one year
crops                                    as per the norms of District Agriculture
                                         Development Office.
                                          If     crop under share-cropping
                                         arrangement, cash compensation of the
                                         lost crop will be divided between the
                                         sharecropper and the owner as per their
                                         sharecropping agreement/arrangement.
6. Loss of time The entire project  Cash compensation equivalent to cost                            The study team did not find
and         travel affected      persons of transport plus daily agricultural wage                  evidence for such an impact.

3
 DOA norms will depend to the particular district and year in concerned, so such norms will be reviewed during preparation of Resettlement Plan in order to
make sure that such rates are acceptable.


                                                                              14
 Type of Loss  Entitled Persons                            Policy/Entitlement                            RJKIP Status/Remarks
expenses       eligible         for            equivalent for the number of days spent
               compensation.                   on project related administration
7.        Land Voluntary donation               No compensation for the donated                    Respondents generally felt that
donations      is accepted only if             land, but entitled for compensation of              landowners       who     face     the
               AP is:                          other assets such as house, structures,             possibility of losing a part or entire
                Above poverty                 trees, crops, allowances, etc.                      land would and should be entitled
               line;                            Transfer of land ownership by                     to    compensation.        Voluntary
                All adult family              negotiation.                                        donation would be rare.
               members        have              Free/escape of any transfer costs,
               agreed to donation4.            registration fees or charges.
                Unforced        or             Preferential employment in the
               freely willing to               project construction
               donate (with an
               agreement,
               including a "no
               coercion" verified
               by VDC officials;

8. Additional Assistance
8.1Employmen All PAPs                 Allocation of employment to PAPs.                            Kamaiyas, landless people,
t opportunities                       PAPs shall be given priority after                          marginal farmers and the Dalits
                                     construction for work as maintenance                          should be included in the program.
                                     worker.
8.2      Income One member of  One time financial assistance; or                                   Kamaiyas, landless people,
restoration of each       vulnerable  Skill training and income generation                        marginal farmers and the Dalits
vulnerable      group         below support with equivalent amount.                                should be included in the program.
group           poverty line


4
 All adult members of the affected family should be consulted as far as possible so as to avoid litigations and claims by family members who were absent
during the process.




                                                                             15
   1.7. Information Dissemination, Consultation, Participation and Disclosure

The RAPs should identify primary and secondary stakeholders and include specific measures for
consultation, participation and information disclosure in full compliance with the WB‘s Policies
on Involuntary Resettlement and Public Communication. The primary stakeholders include
PAPs, beneficiaries and stakeholders directly involved in the subproject. The secondary
stakeholders include other individuals or groups with interest in the project, such as local NGOs
and VDCs and municipalities.

Local users highly value face-to-face interaction and FM radio programs. In addition, the
following documents should be provided and communicated to PAPs: (i) A draft RAP, before
sub-project appraisal; (ii) A final RAP, after completion of such RAP; and (iii) The revised RAP,
in case so prepared, following the detailed technical design or change in scope in the sub-project.
As part of disclosure, summary copies of the translated Nepali versions of RAPs should be
placed at publicly accessible places. At the centre, the RAP should be posted in the website of
the Project and DoI whereas in district and subproject level, hard copies of these documents
should be placed in different offices viz DDC, concerned Irrigation Division Office, Subproject
offices, VDCs etc.


   1.8. Grievance Redress Mechanism

Complaints and grievance procedures should be outlined and PAPs be duly informed. A
Grievance Redress Committee should be established which will comprise of different officials:
(i) Project Manager (Chaiperson), (ii) Representative of the local bodies (VDCs or
municipalities); (iii) Representatives of the PAPs; and (iv) Representatives of civil society
organizations.

The key functions of the GRCs are to: (a) provide support for PAPs to lodge any complains; (b)
record the complains, categories and prioritize them; (c) settle the grievances in consultation with
PAPs and the Program staff; (d) report to the aggrieved parties about the decision/solution; and
(e) forward the unresolved cases to higher authorities.

Other than disputes relating to legal rights, the Committee will review all grievances relating to
land acquisition. Grievances should be redressed within a reasonable time period—not more than
two to four weeks from the date of lodging of the complaints—to avoid public protests that have
become a commonplace in recent years.

The APs will have access to both locally constructed GRC as mentioned above and the formal
courts of appeal system. Under the later system, AP can appeal to the court if they feel that they
are not satisfied with the compensation provided by the project. Such appeal can be filed within
35 days of the public notice given to them by the local level GRC.

The verification of satisfactory implementation of RAP including completion of land
compensation should be a condition for contract award and commencement of civil works. A
verification report in this regard should be prepared and submitted to the WB before award of the
contract(s). The verification report has to be investigated the extent to which any land donations


                                                16
were freely made and with adequate safeguard, and whether assessed compensation/assistance
has been paid to the PAPs.

The implementation activities should be monitored and evaluated externally once in a year
through an independently appointed agency, consultant, or NGO not involved with any aspects
of the project, which will provide report to both DOI and the WB. The DOI will hire such
external monitoring agency with WB concurrence within six months after the project is
approved.

   1.9. Implementation Agencies

The key agencies involved in implementation of this framework are the Ministry of Irrigation
and Water Resources, Department of Irrigation, the RJK Project Office.

The MOIWR will be responsible for the overall coordination of RAP-related activities.
The Project Office will have the planning and implementation responsibilities. The DOI and the
Project Office will make sure that the contractors in civil works abide by the RAP (e.g. hiring
PAPs in project-related jobs).       The DOI has already recruited an experienced social
development specialist to oversee the implementation of the SIMF. This specialist will work
together with the engineers in the Project Office on-site to make sure that the SIMF will be
followed. They will coordinate with local administrations over further RAP planning activities
and implementation.

The local administrations at DDC and VDC level will also join the resettlement planning and
implementation process. They will participate particularly in impact inventory survey,
evaluation of the compensation rates, payment of compensation funds etc. Local competent
NGOs may also be hired and engaged to expedite the RAP implementation, especially for
activities related with training, skill transfer, input supply and distribution, income generation,
awareness raising on health, sanitation and HIV/AIDS.


   1.10.       Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)

The planning and implementation of social safeguards compliance will be monitored both
internally and externally. The purposes of both monitoring are to provide feedback to the
management to take timely corrections in the implementation procedure and improve the
performance both at outcome and impact levels. Major objectives of monitoring are to ensure the
followings: (i) the standard of living of APs as well as income sources are restored (ii) the time
lines for resettlement and compensation are met for land acquisition and transfer procedures (iii)
assess the adequacy of mitigation measures such as compensation, rehabilitation, livelihood
restorations and other supports provided to APs including construction of new houses for
relocation (iv) identify problems related to social, ethnic and other conflict, and (v) suggest
practical measures to address the outstanding issues.




                                                17
Two monitoring systems will be applied as follows.

  I.   Internal Monitoring: The internal monitoring is undertaken on a regular basis to track the
       problems and performance against the planned activities and schedules. The project will
       be responsible to undertake internal monitoring which will include mainly the key
       indicators of RAP implementation. The indicators to be captured are normally the
       progress on resettlement and compensation payment, payment of displacement and other
       allowances as per RAP, progress on providing other assistances and activities targeted to
       the vulnerable people, supports to severely affected people, restoration of income and
       livelihood of APs. The project will produce quarterly monitoring report and submit to
       World Bank.
 II.   External Monitoring: An external Social Development Expert or Independent Agency
       will be hired to undertake external monitoring of Social Safeguard actions. Overall
       objective of external monitoring is to provide unbiased and updated status on the
       implementation of social safeguard measures including compensation, resettlement,
       rehabilitation, training, income generation and livelihood improvement. Besides, this will
       also capture other parameters such as employment of locals, use of outside labor force,
       conflict between outsiders and locals, health and sanitation including potential spread of
       contagious diseases, awareness raising and precautions taken on HIV/ AIDS,
       employment including use of child labor etc. External monitoring should normally take
       place every half yearly until the second year of the project as the early stage of project
       implementation involves relatively crucial actions of RAP implementation such as land
       acquisition, compensation and relocation. From second year onward, the frequency
       could be reduced to yearly basis. The last monitoring report will be produced at the end
       of the project completion.

Planning steps and responsibility

When detailed designs are completed for different components of the project, resettlement
planning will be conducted as part of that process. DOI will engage specialists to guide and
assist the Project Office on-site to carry out the planning process. DOI will review the RAPs
prepared before submitting them to the World Bank for review and clearance. Civil works
cannot start before the RAP activities are completed.




                                              18
       2. Vulnerable Community Development Framework

    2.1. Introduction
Since the RJKI project will be implemented in an area where different indigenous groups, mainly
the Tharus are in a majority, the Bank‘s Indigenous People Policy (OP/BP 4.10) will be triggered
to ensure that i) indigenous peoples have a voice in project design and implementation; ii)
ensure that adverse impacts on indigenous peoples are avoided, minimized or mitigated; and iii)
that benefits intended for indigenous peoples are culturally appropriate.For this purpose,
aVulnerable Community Development Framework (VCDP) is developed in line with relevant
domestic and World Bank policies to guide the preparation of Vulnerable Community
Development Action Plans when the project designs are completed.

The major objective of the Vulnerable Community Development Framework (VDCF) is to
ensure that the RJKIS modernization and rehabilitation project avoids or minimizes adverse
impacts on vulnerable peoples, mainly the socially disadvantaged communities such as Dalits
and Janajatis, but that it also provides the necessary institutional and budgetary mechanisms to
ensure that they get equal access to program benefits.

This policy framework has been designed in line with relevant government policies as well as the
World Bank‘s OP 4.10 on Indigenous Peoples, a key component of the Bank‘s Operational
Policies relating to Social and Environmental Safeguards. This framework presents a summary
of the principles and approaches regarding indigenous people, with supplementary analysis of
priority areas5.


       2.2. Relevant National & World Bank Policies on Vulnerable Peoples

In order to support vulnerable policies, GON has adopted several instruments and passed various
laws. The main ones that would be especially relevant to EVENT including the following:

The Interim Constitution recognizes that marginalized groups should be provided with positive
discrimination and has specifically mentioned such groups: Dalit, Janajatis and Madhesis as well
as peasants, laborers and women.6 It has also introduced measures to improve social justice;
institutionalized proportional inclusion of Madhesis, Dalits, Janajatis, and women, in all organs
of the State; and provided for setting up necessary commissions to safeguard the rights of the
disadvantaged groups and communities.
In terms of Adivasi/Janajati, the Interim Constitution commits the government for the protection
and development of indigenous people. For the welfare of IPs (Adivasi/Janajatis), the
government set up a national committee for development of nationalities in 1997. The parliament
passed a bill in 2002 for the formation of National Foundation for the Development of
Indigenous Nationalities (NFDIN).

5
 This framework builds on the DOI‘s (2010) Integrated Social and Environment Assessment, Kathmandu; and also
draws from the Ministry of Health and World Bank (2010) Nepal Health Sector Programme: Indigenous People’s
Development Framework, Kathmandu.
6
    Article 11 (3) of 1990 Constitution and 13 (3) of Interim Constitution



                                                                  19
Three-Year Interim Plan (TYIP) Paper, 2007 – 2010: In the TYIP, inclusion goals are defined
as the need to, ―fulfill the physical, emotional and basic needs of all the people, groups or castes.
It has to be achieved by respecting their dignity and their own culture and also reducing the
disparities between excluded and advantaged groups and by reducing the gap in the existing
opportunities and access. In addition to this, it is to help to build a just society by ensuring
rightful sharing of power and resources for their active participation as a citizen.‖7
The TYIP includes the following provisions for IPs and other disadvantaged groups: (i) creating
an environment for social inclusion; (ii) participation of disadvantaged groups in policy and
decision making; (iii) developing special programs for disadvantaged groups; (iv) positive
discrimination or reservation in education, employment, etc.; (iv) protection of their culture,
language and knowledge; (vi) proportional representation in development; and (vii) making the
country‘s entire economic framework socially inclusive.
In this regards, the TYIP adopted the Gender Equality and Social Inclusion (GESI) framework in
planning, programming and monitoring and evaluation. In particular, the GESI approach begins
by systematically identifying barriers that women and different excluded groups may face in
taking advantage of a given policy or program and incoRAPorates mechanisms to help them
overcome the barriers – including a monitoring and evaluation system that provides
disaggregated data for tracking inclusion outcomes.

Water Related Policies. The Water Resources Strategy, 2002 emphasizes fulfillment of basic
needs, capacity building of stakeholders and sustainable water use. The National Water Resource
Development Policy of 2003 highlights equitable distribution and appropriate management of
water resources for irrigation, and defines service charge. The National Water Plan 2004
stipulates that the irrigation sector must collaborate with other line agencies to improve
livelihood strategies, and guides the privatization of irrigation systems that could not be managed
by users. Collection of water fees from the users of large systems is emphasised, to be used for
the upliftment of non‐beneficiaries.

Irrigation Policies: Irrigation Policy 2003 (Amended) provides guidelines to consider 33
percent women‘s participation with equal representation of backward caste groups and
minorities. It ensures financial concessions and technical support to women and backward caste
and ethnic for irrigation facilities. Further, the new amendment to Irrigation Policy and
Regulation 2003 also requires that user contribution for rehabilitation or construction of a new
irrigation system with government support be proportionate to landholding size.

Irrigation Regulation 2003 (Amended) stipulates that Water Users Associations shall be
composed of at least 33 percent women, and that there shall be representation of Dalit, the
downtrodden and backward ethnic communities.

Other Related GON Laws and Policies: NFDIN Act 2002, National Human Rights Action
Plan 2005, Environmental Act 1997 and Forest Act 1993 have emphasized protection and
promotion of indigenous people's knowledge and cultural heritage. In 1999, Local Self-


7
    Three Years Interim Plan, www.npc.gov.np/en/plans-programs/detail.php?titleid=19



                                                              20
Governance Act was enacted to give more power to the local political bodies, including authority
to promote, preserve and protect the IP's language, religion, culture and their welfare.

International Instruments: In addition, through various international instruments, the
Government of Nepal is also committed to supporting vulnerable communities especially
through inclusive development and participation. Additionally, other international conventions to
which Nepal as a member state has committed to are: i) the 1990 Jomtien World Conference on
Education for All (EFA); ii) the Dakar framework for Action; iii) the Millennium Development
Goals, 2000; iv) the UN Declaration for the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007; v) ILO
Convention 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples. The latter, ILO Convention 169, is a legally
binding international instrument and the government is currently in the process of formulating a
National Action Plan for the implementation of the convention. Further, the substantive themes
covered by Convention 169 and UNDRIP include among others, indigenous peoples‘ right to
self-determination, self-governance, autonomy, free, prior and informed consent and the right to
land and natural resources, etc.

World Bank’s Indigenous Peoples Development Policy (OP 4.10): Key objectives of the
Indigenous Peoples policy are to: (i) ensure that indigenous people affected by World Bank
funded projects have a voice in project design and implementation; (ii) ensure that adverse
impacts on indigenous peoples are avoided, minimized or mitigated; and (iii) ensure that benefits
intended for indigenous peoples are culturally appropriate. The policy is triggered when there
are indigenous peoples in the project area and there are likely potential adverse impacts on the
intended beneficiaries of these groups. When this policy is triggered an Indigenous Peoples
Development Plan is to be prepared to mitigate the potential adverse impacts or maximize the
positive benefits of the project interventions.


   2.3 Vulnerable People in Nepal

Nepal‘s complex social structure makes it challenging to define IPs in Nepal. The 2001 census
has identified 103 different social groups in the country with over 92 languages and a mix of
Hindu, Buddhist, Kirat, Animism and Muslim religions. The Government of Nepal (NFDIN Act)
has recognized 59 different indigenous nationalities, also known as Janajatis of Nepal who
comprises about 37.2% of the country's population. Hence, the term ‗vulnerable people‘ have
been used instead of ‗indigenous people‘. Vulnerable refer to both the low caste and ethnic
minority communities residing in the project areas.

Structural and systematic discrimination based on their ethnicity, language or religions has
barred the indigenous people from exercising their individual and collective rights and defend
their cultural identity. Language is considered as one of the most severe barriers experienced by
indigenous people in accessing basic health care services in Nepal. Language, combined with
geographical distance and economical disadvantage create greater risks for janajatis in receiving
proper health care and public services.

The Table below presents the 59 officially recognized Janajatis or indigenous ethnic groups.
Further, the Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities (NEFIN) has classified


                                               21
Adivasi/Janajati groups into five different categories in terms of their demographic, economic
and social characteristics: (i) endangered, (ii) highly marginalized, (iii) marginalized, (iv)
disadvantaged, and (v) advantaged. The ISEA report mentions that such a list will help irrigation
officials, irrigation project officials, and consultants to identify the indigenous groups during
project preparation/planning stage, and prepare the strategy for their development.



Table 2: Indigenous Groups of Nepal according to NEFIN Categorization
Category                     Groups

Endangered                      Kusunda (H), Bankariya (IT), Raute (IT), Surel (H), Hayu (H), Raji
(10 groups)                     (IT), Kisan (T), Lepcha (H), Meche (T), Kuswadiya (T)

Highly Marginalized Groups      Majhi (IT), Siyar (M), Lhomi/Shinsaba (M), Thudam (M), Dhanuk
(12 groups)                     (T), Chepang (H), Santhal (T), Jhagad (T), Thami (H), Bote (IT),
                                Danuwar (IT), Baramu (H)

Marginalized Groups             Sunuwar (H), Tharu (T), Tamang (H), Bhujel (H), Kumal (H),
(20 groups)                     Rajbanshi (T), Gangaai (T), Dhimal (T), Bhote (M), Darai (IT),
                                Tajpuriya (T), Pahari (H), Topkegola (M), Dolpo (M), Fri (H),
                                Mugal (M), Larke (M), Lohpa (M), Dura (H), Walung (M)

Disadvantaged Groups            Chairotan (M), Tanbe (M), Tingaule Thakali (H), Baragaunle
(15 groups)                     Thakali (M), MaRAPhali Thakali (M), Gurung (H), Magar (H), Rai
                                (H), Limbu (H), SheRAPa (M), Yakkha (H), Chhantyal (H), Jirel
                                (H), Byansi (M), Yolmo (H)

Advanced Groups                Newar (H), Thakali (M)
(2 groups)
M: Mountain (17 groups); H: Hills (24 groups), IT: Inner Tarai (7 groups), T: Tarai (11 groups)



Furthermore, the Hindu caste system has historically placed Dalits at the lowest rung of the caste
hierarchy. There have been efforts in the recent days to identify the number of Dalits sub-castes.
The Ignored, Oppressed and Dalit Group‘s Upliftment committee formed in 1996 under the
Ministry of Local Development identified 23 Dalit communities. But this list was revised later
during the formation of the National Dalit Commission (March 2002) which prepared a schedule
of 28 social groups as presented in the table below.

Table 3: Dalit Communities in Nepal

                                 Hill Groups       Tarai Group
                                 Badi              Bantar
                                 Chunar            Chamar
                                 Daai              Chidimar
                                 Gaine             Dhainr



                                                   22
                                Kadara            Dom
                                Kamai             Dusadh/Paswan
                                Parki             Gothe
                                Sarki             Halkhar
                                Sunar             Jhangad
                                Newar Group       Khatawe
                                Chyme             Lohar
                                Kasai             Mushar
                                Kunche            Paswan
                                Kusule            Tatme
                                Pode

In the irrigation sector, traditional practices of not eating food or drinking water touched by
Dalits have prevented them from accessing irrigation facilities. Additionally, high poverty rates,
landlessness, economic and social discrimination, along with very low levels of access to
decision-making at all levels, are the main barriers behind the continued exclusion and
deprivation of Dalit communities in the irrigation sector.


   2.4 Vulnerable Groups in the Project Areas

Based on the nationally identified categories presented above, the major vulnerable populations
in the project area are Tharu, Dalits and Magars.

The Socio Economic Environmental and Institutional Survey of Rani Jamara Kulariya Irrigation
Systems (RJIKIS) carried out by the Department of Irrigation (DOI) in 2010 found that the
Tharus constitute the majority of the population (48%) followed closely by Chhetri (17%),
Brahmin (10%), Dalit (15%) and others (7%). Others include Magar population who migrated
from the neighboring hill districts of Kailali (Refer to Box 1: History of Tikapur & the Migration
of Hill Communities in the Command Area). The updated VDC profiles collected from the
VDCs falling within the command area as well as the household survey carried out as a part of
this research project also suggest that ‗Tharus‘ constitute the majority of the population (Refer to
Table 1 and 2 in Section I of this report). According to NEFIN‘s categorization of the relative
positions of the Tharus and Magars, the former fall under ―marginalized‖ category while the
latter is categorized as a ―disadvantaged group.‖

According to informants, there are two main types of ‗Tharus‘ living in the command areas:
‗Purvariya-Kathariya‘ and ‗Dangoria‘. The former categories of Tharus are indigenous to the
Kailali belt, constitute the majority of the Tharu population in the area, and can trace their history
to more than 300 years. The latter, in comparison, came as daily labourers and Kamaiyas to
work in the construction and development of Tikapur town. They were later allocated land by the
Tikapur Development Committee and are concentrated mostly in the Ban Gaon village of
Tikapur Municipality. There are differences in language, customs, and historical roots between
the two types of Tharus. In spite of such differences, there is an increasing sense of solidarity and
common identity amongst them.

Furthermore, Mukta Kamaiyas [i.e., freed bonded laborers, also known as ex-Kamaiyas] are also
found in the project command area. While the majority of the ex-Kamaiyas have been allocated


                                                 23
between 1 and 5 katha of land by the government, 1,836 households are still awaiting
rehabilitation packages. Many have encroached in government land and are demanding their
rights be addressed.


   2.5 Concerns Relating to Vulnerable Communities in the Project Area

Based on an assessment of the field situations and consultations with different stakeholders, the
major vulnerable community identified above – the Tharus – are not being disadvantaged by the
current governance structure of the irrigation systems in terms of limited benefits from
agriculture, lack of participation/representation in decision-making of irrigation organizations,
and lack of consultation in water management systems.

The majority of those governing the irrigation systems remain Tharus, although other ethnic
groups are also represented. As the Social Assessment (Refer to Section I of this report) points
out, 32 out of a total of 59 (54%) irrigation committee members in Rani, Jamara and Kulariya are
of ‗Tharu‘ origin. Although there is a high presence of Tharus in all three IUCs, there is almost
double the member of Tharus than non-Tharus in Jamara. The ratio of Tharus to Non-Tharus is
the following: 9 to 8 in Rani, 10 to 12 in Kulariya, and 13 to 7 in Jamara. The Tharu-led
traditional governance system has been integrated into the modern one. Many of the Badghars
from the Tharu community are a part of and are occupying influential positions in the committee.
Furthermore, Badghars and Chiragis have considerable voice over rules of water allocation,
labour mobilization, and imposition of fines and penalties at the village and sub-branch levels.

The issue, therefore, is not the marginalization of Tharus from the management and decision-
making structure of the irrigation user groups. Rather, it is the increasing tendencies and dangers
of non-Tharus to free ride on Tharu efforts. Many FGD participants and KII pointed out that it is
increasingly difficult to get Non-Tharus to participate in source maintenance, pay ‗pankar‘ (or
water tax) when kulo water is scarce, and enforce levies for rule transgressions. This is because
many are migrant communities from different parts of the neighboring districts, have little pre-
existing social capital, which makes it difficult to draw on broader social relations to secure
cooperation. It is increasingly difficult to deny access to water to those who have contributed
little to kulo maintenance.

At the intra-Tharu level, disparities exist between the big and small landowners, tenants and
landowners, and male and female-headed households. Rani IUC and Badghars alike make all the
users contribute equally to source maintenance irrespective of how much land they own. Labour
contribution to source maintenance is a component of the tenancy contracts between landowners
and tenant, thereby extending the historical devaluation of labour vis-à-vis land. Female-headed
households, on the rise due to the growing seasonal migration of labour, are made to contribute
cash and labour for source maintenance.

Dalit and Magar communities have also been integrated into the existing irrigation governance
systems in varying capacities. Nevertheless, this does suggest that the system is decentralized,
and that ethnic majorities do not dictate how the irrigation system will be managed to minorities
and low-castes. The representation of Dalits in the committee is higher than that of Janajatis.



                                                24
There are four Dalits in total, one each in Rani and Kulariya and two in Jamara. There are only
two Janajatis (including one Magar) and both are in Jamara IUC. In comparison, the
representation of the Mukta Kamaiyas is non-existent in the IUCs. This could be because
majority of the ex-Kamaiyas either been allocated very little land, if any, and are hence
abandoning the agricultural sector for non-farm sources of income. Since they do not own land in
the irrigated command area, they are never direct beneficiaries of the irrigation sector.
Nevertheless, the Mukta Kamaiya community is expecting to benefit in numerous ways from the
project – i.e. in terms of construction related employment opportunities, daily wage agricultural
work, greater production of crops and vegetables from land owned etc. Although it is difficult to
pre-determine the impacts without detailed project design, small-land holders, Dalits and Mukta
Kamaiyas are likely to be particularly vulnerable to and their livelihoods at greater risk from the
potential widening and realigning of the canal systems.

Finally, the majority of the respondents in FGD and KII suggested that the biggest benefit of the
upcoming irrigation project would be in terms of increases in the production of staple crops and
vegetables for household consumption and sale. However, many said they lacked access to seeds,
fertilizers, linkages with agricultural market, and institutional credit to initiate income-generating
activities. The Department of Agriculture provided very little extension service and support in
the command areas.

Therefore, the major concerns from the perspectives of vulnerable communities within and
between Tharus and non-Tharus are as follows:

        Ensuring vulnerable communities – Tharus, Dalits, Janajatis, Women-headed
         households and – are actively involved in all phases of the project cycle, from planning
         to implementation;
        Ensuring the current Tharu-led governance structure is not disrupted by the upcoming
         modernization and rehabilitation project;
        Securing the inclusion and participation of Dalits, Janajatis, and Mukta-Kamaiyas in the
         governance systems, e.g., IUC;
        Providing incentives to and ensuring all users are contributing equally to the operation
         and maintenance of the modernized and rehabilitated irrigation systems;
        Addressing the implications of intra-Tharu inequalities based on disparities in gender,
         land-ownership, and land tenure arrangements on the irrigation systems;
        Enable vulnerable communities such as Dalits, Mukta-Kamaiyas and small Tharu
         landholders access to employment opportunities during the project construction
         activities on preferential basis; and
        Address potential gaps in access to complementary infrastructure.

2.6 Vulnerable Community Development Strategies

In order to address the concerns of vulnerable groups in the project catchment area of RJKIS,
enhance project benefits to these communities, and mitigate the adverse impacts, Table 14 lists
some of the strategies that could be adopted during the project design and implementation.




                                                 25
    Table 4: Possible Strategies, Activities and Responsibilities for the Development of
                                  Vulnerable Communities

Social     Issue     &     Strategies to address          Proposed Activities                                    Responsibilities
Potential Impacts          issues & impacts
Demise of the Tharu-led    Educate the WUA, IUG,          Frequent meetings, periodical review and               Project officials, IUG
governance system          IUC and the project staff      interactions with Tharu committee members and          and training/research
                           on the historical and          Badghars.                                              organization
                           contemporary involvement       Work with Tharu committee members and
                           of Tharus on irrigation        Badghars to communicate the goals, strategies
                           governance.                    and plans of the project.
                           Training of Tharu IUC          Design and organize specific capacity building
                           committee        members,      programs to strengthen their leadership,
                           position holders within the    management and organizational skills.
                           committee, and badghars        Capacity building programs could include:
                           on      leadership     and     training on group dynamics, organization, gender
                           organizational                 and social issues, participatory planning,
                           development.                   monitoring, accounts and record keeping,
                                                          relationship with line agencies and local bodies,
                                                          and skill enhancing training, processing and
                                                          marketing
Social inequity within     Facilitate      intra-social   Initiate special effort to reach the poor including    Project officials, IUG,
and between Tharus and     group interaction to lessen    men and women from disadvantaged ethnic                local NGO facilitators
non-Tharus                 the effect of rigid class,     groups and castes through a social mobilization
                           gender      and        caste   process
                           hierarchies                    Organize awareness raising campaigns by
                                                          involving all types of indigenous and Dalit people
                                                          for public awareness to share irrigation
                                                          development benefits equitably.
                                                          Create social space for all to have their say in the
                                                          decision making process, and in benefit sharing.
Lack of inclusion and      Encourage                the   Include a social mobilization component in the         DOI project officials,
equitable participation    participation of these         project design to ensure the inclusion and             IUCs,              NGO
of Dalits, Janajatis,      groups in IUG and              participation of the poor, women, Dalits, Tharu,       facilitator(s), external
women-headed               traditional        decision-   small landholders, ex-Kamaiyas                         or internal contractors,
households,          ex-   making structures.             Engage the vulnerable groups in a process of free,     leadership and capacity
Kamaiyas and Tharu         IncoRAProate               a   prior, and informed consultation throughout the        training institute
small landholders in       mechanism for regular          project cycle
irrigation governance      consultation            with   Work with the IUG to adopt a quota system and
                           vulnerable groups              ensure adequate representation of these groups in
                           Increase          awareness    the IUC.
                           regarding the negative         Provide leadership trainings to members of the
                           consequences              of   IUC.
                           discriminatory rules.          Work with IUGs and these groups to change
                           Ensure that Dalits, Tharu      discriminatory rules.
                           small landholders and ex-      Reserve certain number or percentage of
                           Kamaiyas are granted           employment opportunities for these groups
                           employment opportunities       during the construction period.
                           on a preferential basis        Offer relevant trainings for semi-skilled jobs.
                           when construction work         Work with the contractors to ensure wages are
                           for the project begins.        equivalent to the amount of work conducted and
                           Ensure there is no             not pre-determined by gender, caste or ethnicity
                           discrimination            on   When project requires contribution in kind from
                           employment opportunities       members, those from the vulnerable communities
                           and wages on the basis of      should be provided a certain percentage of their
                           gender.                        daily wage, based on participatory well-being
                                                          ranking to identify the poor households in the
                                                          catchment area so that they too can contribute
                                                          their labor in the modernization and rehabilitation
                                                          of the irrigation facility.
                                                          Include provisions for micro-irrigation facilities



                                                               26
                                                          that uses low-cost, appropriate and reliable
                                                          technology so that those that are unable to
                                                          directly access the larger irrigation scheme can
                                                          nevertheless benefit from the project
Exclusion of landless or   Ensure free, prior and         Organize regular consultations with ex-               Project officials, IUCs,
marginal     landholders   informed       consultations   Kamaiyas, marginal landholders, landless and the      NGO facilitator(s)
from           accessing   and consent of the ex-         poor households in the catchment area during the
irrigations     services   Kamaiyas and marginal          planning process so that their needs and
since they do not have     landholders throughout the     proiorities are adequately taken into consideration
access to land in the      project cycle                  in the project design and implementation
irrigated command area     Design      strategies    to   strategies
                           address barriers faced by      Information sharing about project interventions/
                           those who are functionally     participation of vulnerable communities through
                           landless                       awareness raising campaigns, public meetings in
                                                          the catchment areas, focus group discussions,
                                                          development of a grievance redress mechanism in
                                                          the project area.
                                                          Introduce systems of leasehold farming or
                                                          leasing common water catchments for fish
                                                          farming to the landless
                                                          Provide more shares per unit of land for marginal
                                                          landowners
Lack of access to          Ensure       need     based    Facilitate exposure to improved agriculture with      DOI, NGO, IUG in
complementary services     agriculture extension and      support from line departments and research            partnership         with
(agriculture and credit)   trainings.                     institutes.                                           training/research
                           Extend support to access       Ensure supply of seeds, fertilizers and pesticides    organization,      local
                           institutional credit.          and technical knowhow in coordination with line       marketing
                                                          ministries/departments.                               organization, and local
                                                          Support in periodic soil testing and demonstration    financial organization
                                                          of techniques to make the best use of soil
                                                          conditions.
                                                          Organize special training programs and
                                                          demonstration plots with help of line
                                                          departments.
                                                          Organize exposure trips to agricultural farms,
                                                          research stations and progressive farmers under
                                                          the project.
                                                          Provide information on various formal credit
                                                          lending institutions in the area.
                                                          Help eligible farmers to complete formalities.
                                                          Ensure credits received are productively used for
                                                          the various income-generating activities.
Absence of markets or      Provide trainings on           Provide training on packing harvested products,       DOI, NGO, IUG in
market-linkages            marketing                      especially vegetables                                 partnership         with
                                                          Provide trainings on marketing agricultural           training/research
                           Establish   linkages   with    produce                                               organization,      local
                           markets                        Enhance group strengthening skills such that          marketing
                                                          members can collect the produce, negotiate            organization, and local
                                                          collectively the price with the middleman instead     financial organization
                                                          of visiting distant markets or retail the produce
                                                          individually
                                                          Establish linkages with the agriculture-marketing
                                                          network, provide logistical support.




                                                               27
    3. Gender and Social Inclusion Framework

Gender is considered as one of the central determinants of differential access to, use of and
control over economically productive resources (land, labour and capital) and opportunities. Due
to the patriarchal structures of caste, class and ethnicity in Nepal, women often lack access to and
control over these resources. Women‘s marginalization within and outside the household is often
mirrored in the irrigation sector. Furthermore, because very few women hold titles to land in the
country, their representation in irrigation management and agriculture related activities are
limited.

In general, existing research on gender and irrigation reveals multiple systematic differences
between men and women in the irrigation system, including differences in field-irrigation
strategies, attendance at water-user meetings, conflicts faced in accessing water, night irrigation,
ethnicity based social restrictions in carrying out maintenance of work, and application of the
new share system and payment of irrigation fees.8 When these types of gender concerns are not
mainstreamed in projects such as in the proposed modernization and rehabilitation of the Rani,
Jamara and Kulariya Systems, women are at risk of benefitting in limited way and are quite often
marginalized by these projects. The Social Assessment has taken stock of the state of women‘s
participation in the irrigation systems of Rani, Jamara Kulariya and identified the barriers that
prevent women from actively participating in it.

In lieu of these findings, this framework outlines specific activities to alleviate gendered
differential access to project benefits and to ensure that women become real partners of the
proposed irrigation development project9.

    3.1. Definitions of Gender and Social Inclusion

Gender Equality: Gender equality is concerned with the socially constructed differences
between women and men (usually inequitable), and believes that in order to gain equitable
outcomes, different methods and approaches have to be adopted.

Social Inclusion: Social inclusion is defined as the removal of institutional barriers and the
enhancement of incentives to increase access of diverse individuals and groups to development
opportunities (World Bank Sectoral Analysis Sourcebook).

Social inclusion, in the context of the irrigation sector, means equal and equitable access to
irrigation and agricultural services. To achieve this fully and permanently, there needs to be a
combination of social inclusion and empowerment.



8
  World Bank/DFID/ADB. ―Irrigation: Sectoral Perspectives on Gender Equality and Social Inclusion.‖ Gender and
Social Exclusion Assessment, Volume II, (Draft).
9
  The design of this framework builds on and draws from the following: DOI‘s (2010) Integrated Social and
Environment Assessment, Kathmandu; and Ministry of Health & Population and RTI International (2009) Health
Sector Gender Equality and Social Inclusion Strategy, Kathmandu, Nepal.


                                                     28
Empowerment: Empowerment means building the excluded groups‘ economic, social and
emotional strength. This requires:

      Increasing their access to services, resources and materials;
      Providing them with information on service delivery organization's objectives,
      Working sectors and services, via the most appropriate medium;
      Improving their abilities to present their issues to service delivery organizations;
      Stimulating their self-confidence and self-respect;
      Organizing them for group work.

Social Exclusion: Social exclusion comes from the existing social practices, beliefs, values and
norms which puts the marginalized groups outside of mainstream development and are excluded
from its gains.

Equality: Equality means having no differences in facility, respect and rights. Gender and social
(caste/ethnicity) equality is to recognize biological and societal differences and bring changes to
the social values, norms, perspectives, thinking and beliefs such that women and men, and higher
and lower castes maintain equal status.

Equity: Equity is the state or quality of neutral, fair and just behavior. It is helpful to consider
inequity: differences which are unnecessary and avoidable; and considered to be unfair and
unjust. Equality cannot be gained through merely providing equal opportunities, as not everyone
is able to access the opportunity equally. In order to address the differences and exclusion of the
marginalized groups and communities, there is a need for more targeted resources and support to
bring about a change in equity.

Gender discrimination or social gender discrimination: Gender discrimination is the
relationship between women and men and the culturally and socially established difference in the
roles that they play and the subsequent inequality. The difference between men and women is
constructed by the society and changes with time; it differs according to place, context, cultures
of castes and ethnic groups. In many societies women are treated as subordinates (second class
citizens). This has affected women's ability to exercise their rights to services; there is even a
situational denial of their right to access information, adequate nutrition, health services,
education, access and control over finances and property, their reproductive rights, family
planning, etc.

Target group(s): The Interim Constitution 2006 (BS 2063) has defined the target group as the
ultra poor, vulnerable, poor, senior citizen, disabled, and FCHVs. The GESI strategy has defined
the target group as the following:

      Poor: economically, geographically and from empowerment's perspective, marginalized
       and disadvantaged groups, including women and children.
      Vulnerable: helpless (destitute), disabled, senior citizens over sixty years, displaced,
       conflict-affected, slum and trafficking-affected, including women and children.




                                                29
      Marginalized castes and ethnic groups: Dalits (hill and Tarai), backwards ethnic and
       indigenous groups, religious minorities (Muslims), including women and children and
       third gender.

Targeted Interventions: directed activities with the goal of ending gender discrimination and
social exclusion by removal of barriers and increasing the access and use of health services by
the target groups.


   3.2. Existing Policies on Gender equality and Social Inclusion

Nepal's Interim Constitution 2006 (BS 2063): Nepal's interim constitution has defined that
―every citizen will have the right to have free basic health care service as provisioned by the
State‖ and thus has established health as a fundamental right of every citizen.

Local Self-Governance Act 1999 (BS 2055): The Local Self Governance Act has provisioned
for women, economically and socially backward ethnic groups, communities and Adibasi
(indigenous) to be represented in the VDC and ward level development committees, and the
handover of the operation and management responsibility of health services to village level
committees. But this act does not clearly specify social inclusion and does not consider the very
real barriers that largely prevent the target/vulnerable groups from participating. The act does
mention women and child welfare, and has programmes for women empowerment.

Right to Information Act 2008 (BS 2065): The Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 1990
(2047 BS) was the first constitution to recognize right to information as a basic fundamental
right. Although the constitution speaks clearly on this right, the state never took initiative to
enact legal instruments necessary to exercising that right.

The Interim Constitution 2006 (BS 2063) has also established rights to information as a
fundamental right according to the sentiments of the Jana Andolan (―People's Movement‖). As
per Article 27, every citizen has the right to ask for information that is of individual and common
interest. It also states that citizens will have the right to access information on public
institutions/agencies.

Water Related Policies. The Water Resources Strategy, 2002 emphasizes fulfillment of basic
needs, capacity building of stakeholders and sustainable water use. The National Water Resource
Development Policy of 2003 highlights equitable distribution and appropriate management of
water resources for irrigation, and defines service charge. The National Water Plan 2004
stipulates that the irrigation sector must collaborate with other line agencies to improve
livelihood strategies, and guides the privatization of irrigation systems that could not be managed
by users. Collection of water fees from the users of large systems is emphasised, to be used for
the upliftment of non‐beneficiaries.

Irrigation Policies. Irrigation Policy 2003 (Amended) provides guidelines to consider 33 percent
women‘s participation with equal representation of backward caste groups and minorities. It
ensures financial concessions and technical support to women and backward caste and ethnic for



                                                30
irrigation facilities. Further, the new amendment to Irrigation Policy and Regulation 2003 also
requires that user contribution for rehabilitation or construction of a new irrigation system with
government support be proportionate to landholding size.
Irrigation Regulation 2003 (Amended) stipulates that Water Users Associations shall be
composed of at least 33 percent women, and that there shall be representation of Dalit, the
downtrodden and backward ethnic communities.

International Instruments: To fulfill commitments made under gender-related international
agreements such as CEDAW, BPFA, MDGs and United Nations Security Council Resolution
1325, the government of Nepal has launched a number of programmes in the economic and
social sectors including: provisions for a 25% rebate in registration fee on land transfer to
woman, 10% rebate on income tax to the women professionals, expansion of micro-credit
programs for poverty alleviation programmes primarily targeted to women.


   3.3. Gender-specific constraints to women’s participation in the project area:

 The Social Assessment has found that women‘s participation in the irrigation governance
systems have been historically low. But the government‘s policy of 33% reservation for women
in the irrigation governance system has served to increase women‘s representation. Nevertheless,
only 19% of members in the Irrigation User‘s Committee are women.

The major hindrances to women‘s participation in irrigation governance system are as follows:

              Lack of access to land and land titles as a result, women are not considered direct
               beneficiaries of irrigation facilities
              IUG membership is under the name of the male head of the head.
              Lack of awareness about and willingness to participate in irrigation governance.
              Difficulties in juggling and negotiating the ‗triple burden‘ that many married
               women face – as mothers/wives, daily wage or agricultural labourers, and
               community development workers.
              Prevalent view of irrigation decision-making arena as a male domain.
              Lack of gender sensitivity in the rules for committee meetings, time and venue.
              The emergence of male-dominated communication channels (such as rampant
               uses of mobile telephony) that are replacing traditional village canvassing by
               Chiragis, and excluding women from irrigation related information and
               communication channels.
              Linking of source maintenance with access to irrigation water as well as voice in
               the decision-making arena. But, view of source maintenance as beyond women‘s
               physical capacity. IUC‘s complacency to gendered verbal abuses that take place
               during source maintenance.
              Low levels of investment on small-scale schemes (drip or groundwater irrigation)
               at the levels of farmers or small groups, that have been found to be positive for
               women




                                               31
     Even when women were participating in the system, gendered discriminatory practices
        continued:

              Major committee positions, such as that of Chairperson, Vice Chairperson,
               Secretary and Treasurer, reserved for men.
              Too few women to be able to have a ―critical mass‖ and push for gendered
               sensitive changes.
              Too many expectations from the few women committee members. They are
               meant to represent not only their constituencies but also other women too.
              Gendered and ethnic disparities in Tharu women-headed households‘
               disproportionate contributions to source maintenance.
        
Furthermore, it was found that women and female-headed households were the least aware of the
upcoming RJIK modernization and rehabilitation project. This is because women did not think
that the project was a matter of concern to them. Individuals invited to participate in workshops
and orientation sessions were primarily male. In spite of the disparities in what they were able to
gain from these orientation sessions, the information has not trickled down to ordinary women in
the project areas. The information and communication channels used by the project office to
communicate with the IUC relied on mobile telephony, which women rarely have access to.

   3.4. Gender and Social Inclusion Strategies

While promoting a technology, in this case, modernization and rehabilitation of a farmer-
managed irrigation scheme, delineating women as a target group is very important so as to help
their empowerment, which is associated with stronger bargaining position in household and
community decision-making. In this regard, the major objectives of the GESI strategies for the
RJK modernization and rehabilitation are as follows:

Objective 1: Develop policies, strategies, plans and programmes that create a favorable
environment for integrating (mainstreaming) GESI in the RJIK modernization and rehabilitation
project.

Objective 2: Enhance the capacity of service providers and ensure equitable access and use of
irrigation and project related benefits by the poor, vulnerable and marginalized castes and ethnic
groups using a rights-based approach.

Objective 3: Improve demands for inclusive decision-making and benefit sharing processes by
the poor, vulnerable and marginalized castes and ethnic groups using a rights-based approach.




                                                32
                       Table 5: GESI Issues, Strategies, Activities & Responsibilities
Social Issues      Strategies             Proposed Activities                                         Responsibilities
Lack or low        Sensitize local men    Mandate at least 33 percent women‘s participation in all    Project officials, IUC
level of           and women              project activities in order to secure more equitable        members, NGO
participation in   farmers, IUG and       decision-making roles and responsibilities as well as       facilitator, women‘s
irrigation         project                distribution of benefits between the genders                CBOs, Department of
management         functionaries on the   Organize frequent meetings, periodical review and           Women‘s
                   involvement of         interaction with women groups and users.                    Development
                   women in the           Organize training and leadership among women IUC
                   institutional          members.
                   decision-making        Organize exposure visits of the women leaders/members
                   process.               of the IUG to other better performing Farmer Managed
                                          Irrigation Systems.
                                          Trainings for women committee members as well as
                                          well as women users to learn the functions of the IUG
                                          such as resource mobilization, water distribution, system
                                          maintenance, conflict management etc.
                                          Provide technical training to select groups of women for
                                          women on irrigation management
Enable women       Provide IUG            Identify the women-headed households and other              Project office, IUC,
landholders        membership to          households where women have held titles and update the      NGO facilitator,
and women-         landholder women       IUG membership record by entering them as IUG               Women‘s CBOs.
headed             including from         members.
household          vulnerable groups.     Identify women-headed households where men
members            Provide co-            periodically travel abroad for employment puRAPoses
(latter where      membership to          and grant them co-membership.
men are            women and men the      Consider extending the rule of co-membership to all
migrating for      in household,          households, irrespective of male out-migration.
employment         especially where
puRAPoses) to      men migrate abroad
join the IUG       for employment
                   puRAPose.
Poor/no            Training in            Work with women groups to communicate the goals,            Project officials,
leadership         leadership             strategies and plans of the IUG.                            NGO facilitator,
qualities                                 Increase representation of women in the IUCs.               WUA, Department of
amongst                                   Provide leadership training to women members of the         Women, Women‘s
women                                     IUG and to group leaders                                    CBOs.
                                          Design and organize specific capacity building programs
                                          for women groups with focus on skill management,
                                          communication skills, book-keeping, decision-making
                                          processes, governance, accountability and transparency,
                                          in order to enhance their involvement.
Low level of       Women-only and         Organize frequent meetings, periodical review and           Project office, IUC,
involvement        women and men          interaction with women groups and women users.              NGO facilitator,
and knowledge      orientation            Encourage them to voice their interests and concerns        Women‘s CBOs.
of the RJIK        sessions.              about the project design, and implementation.
modernization                             IncoRAPorate these as far as possible.
and                Involve women and      Ensure both women and men know about and are
rehabilitation     interested users       encouraged to attend as well as voice their concerns in
project and its    throughout the         future orientation sessions organized by the RJK Project
socio-             project cycle –        Office, and the World Bank.
economic           design to              Work with women‘s groups, women committee
impacts as well    implementation.        members and supportive male committee members to
as benefits                               communicate project design, goals, potential impacts
                                          and benefits to both women users.



                                                            33
Social Issues    Strategies            Proposed Activities                                          Responsibilities
                                       Encourage women‘s organizations and IUCs to work
                                       more closely with each other – i.e. attend irrigation
                                       related meetings, voice concerns etc.

Gender           Awareness,            Encourage IUCs to identify and change gender                 Project office, IUC,
discriminatory   collective            discriminatory rules, such as Tharu women-headed             NGO facilitator,
rules and        bargaining by         households‘ disproportionate contribution to source          Women‘s
practices        women committee       maintenance; organize meetings at a time and venue also      Organizations.
                 and users             suitable for women users and committee members; open
                                       important positions within committee for women
                                       candidates too etc.
                                       Involve women leaders, committee members and women
                                       members to raise these issues in the committee.
                                       Enhance capacity building activities focused on building
                                       strategic alliances between men and women through training
                                       on gender awareness while emphasizing group cohesion.
Low level of     Ensure need based     Facilitate exposure to improved agriculture practices        RJK project officials,
agricultural     agricultural          with support from line Departments and research              Department of
development      extension and         institutes.                                                  Agriculture, NGO
know-how         support services to   Ensure supply of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and          facilitator,
                 women users as        technical know how to make their correct use with line       research/training
                 well as women-        departments such as Department of Agriculture and            organization, and
                 headed households     research institutes                                          IUCs, women‘s
                 Provide pre- and      Organize special training and demonstration plots for        CBOs, and
                 post-production       women landholders with help of line departments such         Department of
                 support to women,     as Department of Agriculture                                 Women‘s
                 particularly those    Promote the farming of high-value crops such as              Development.
                 who are landless,     vegetables, herbs, fruits, etc.
                 poor                  Provide access to small rural infrastructure and provide
                                       trainings in cooperative processing, strengthening of
                                       supply chains, improved storage structures/handling
                                       practices
                                       Tune agricultural extension programs to the needs of the
                                       illiterate women
                                       Involve women in disseminating information on the
                                       above as well as demanding them
Lack of access   Enhance women‘s       Provide financial assistance, particularly to dalits and
to credit        access to credit      the ultra-poor women, in terms of collateral free low
                                       interest loan or subsidy.
                                       Provide subsidies to women and other vulnerable groups
                                       for agricultural implements, micro-irrigation
                                       technologies, improved seed variety etc. Flexibility in
                                       upfront contribution may be needed to reach a larger
                                       number of cash poor women and those from
                                       disadvantaged ethnic groups and castes.
                                       Extend support to women‘s access to institutional credit
                                       by initiating or linking with existing savings and credit
                                       groups
Unemployment     Ensure employment     Ensure at least 33 percent representation of women in        RJK project officials
and wage         to women in project   construction committee (same as the user‘s committee)        in partnership with
disparity        construction          so that women can also have a voice in decision-making       NGO facilitator
                 activities            related to construction work/employment opportunities
                 Ensure equal wages    Identify women interested in construction activities and
                 for equal work        provide employment opportunities on preferential basis.
                                       Monitor that women get same wages as their male



                                                          34
Social Issues      Strategies              Proposed Activities                                        Responsibilities
                                           counteRAParts for the same type of involvement in
                                           construction activities.
                                           Sensitize IUCs and users on the need to pay equal wages
                                           to women workers.
Insufficient       Ensure a                Establish linkages with cooperative processing,            NGO facilitator, IUG
access to          mechanism so that       agriculture marketing network and provide logistic         in partnership with
markets            women get a fair        support                                                    local marketing
                   price for their         Provide market information                                 organization
                   agricultural produce    Strengthen and encourage women‘s group to take up
                                           marketing of farm produce
                                           Provide trainings on usage of improved
                                           methods of packaging since it could potentially lead to
                                           better market price and reduced wastage.
                                           Trainings on group strengthening skills for women so
                                           that members can collect produce and negotiate
                                           collectively the price with the middleman.
                                           Encourage women groups to take up marketing
                                           Identify and select educated young women who after
                                           undergoing training on marketing aspects will help local
                                           women in marketing
Inability to       Ensure women‘s          Encourage gender sensitive technologies and program        RJK project officials,
access large-      access to project       activities in the project design                           NGO, DADO, WDO,
scale irrigation   benefits by             Promote micro-irrigation technologies including            women‘s groups
scheme,            incoRAPorating          household based kits and equipments (e.g., drip
especially by      program activities      irrigation, treadle pumps, sprinkler system) that are
women from         that are sensitive to   affordable, manageable and save time, especially for
poor,              gender concerns         women and others who do not have direct access to the
marginalized       and needs               RJK irrigation scheme
groups                                     Provide economic services to women by linking them to
                                           organizations that provide subsidies, trainings, and
                                           extension services

   Issues and strategies relating to the inclusion of vulnerable communities such as Tharus, Dalits
   and Kamaiyas have been discussed in the Vulnerable Community Development Framework.




                                                             35
     4. Information & communication strategy

The major objectives of Information, Communication, Community Consultation and
Participation (ICCCP) Strategy are two-fold10. First, it is to keep all stakeholders informed of the
project activities, the potential beneficial and adverse impacts. Second, it is to ensure that
stakeholders actively participate in all levels of the project cycles, come up with mitigation plans
of the potential negative impacts of the project, and are well trained and equipped to take over
the responsibilities of operation and management once the project phases out. These will
ultimately contribute towards narrowing down the gaps between the project officials and
beneficiaries, and help create a conducive-environment to mitigate the adverse social and
environmental issues through optimal cooperation from the project beneficiaries themselves.

     4.1.Findings & Lessons from Past Information and Communication Efforts

The Social Assessment included a review of the communication strategies adopted by the Rani
Jamara Kuliar Project Officials, Department of Irrigation (DOI) so far to disseminate information
about the project. Based on the review, the assessment team has come up with the following
findings and lessons learned:

         The DOI has only held two orientation workshops/trainings on the project design,
          components and activities. These have been primarily targeted at committee members
          and Badghars.
         The illiterate, women, landless and marginal farmers have not received adequate
          information about the project.
         Apart from the major committee position holders who could provide detailed
          description of the project design, many of the participants in the workshops/trainings
          were unable to grasp what was being discussed at the workshops/trainings.
         The DOI intends to carry out future orientation workshop/trainings through the Apex
          committee (association of the three Irrigation User Committees in Rani, Jamara and
          Kulariya). But there are significant disputes over the composition of the apex
          committee within and between the irrigation users groups.
         Beneficiaries want the project officials to disseminate information directly to them, and
          combine mixed orientation workshops with tole-level ones.
         Partisan political interference on decision-making (composition of the apex committee)
          and benefit-sharing (employment opportunities) mechanisms could hamper the
          transparency and integrity of the project.
         Many women wanted a special platform for them to be better informed about the
          planning and implementation of project, the potentiality of irrigated agriculture and
          improved farming opportunities.
         Secondary and tertiary stakeholders such as political parties, VDC secretaries, CBOs
          and NGOs had not been formally informed of and consulted about the project. This was
          despite the fact that each were directly or indirectly working on irrigation related issues,


10
  The design of this framework builds on and draws from the following: DOI‘s (2010) Integrated Social and
Environment Assessment, Kathmandu


                                                      36
         had overlapping memberships, and could play a role in determining the success of the
         project.

Based on the lessons learned, gaps in the information dissemination has been identified and these
have been carefully addressed in the information and communication as well as community
consultation and participation strategy outlined in the subsequent tables.


   4.2 Barriers to Information and Communication

Some of the major social and economic barriers to information and communication included the
following:

        Low literacy and wide differences in educational level between males and females.
        Lack of good governance and transparency in sharing complete information among all
         stakeholders.
        Availability of very limited information and communication services
        Language barrier for Tharu women in particular who had little experience
         comprehending Nepali spoken by government officials in general and habituated to
         working in Kathmandu in particular.
        Use of modern technologies such as mobile telephony that are not accessible to women
         and the poor.
        Limited human, technical and financial resources available at the disposal of agency
         responsible for information and communication activities.


   4.3 Issues to consider in implementing Information & Communication Strategies

Political Conflict

Given the highly fractious, competitive, and populist political climate in the country, information
and communication strategies have to be political and conflict sensitive. This is more so as it is
conducted in a multiple-stakeholders‘ consultation and participation mode, giving priority to the
voices and interests of the primary and co-primary stakeholders, who contribute to and are
responsible for the sustainable development and management of the irrigation infrastructure.

To tackle the issue of political conflict-sensitive participation, the concept of ―social inclusion,
equity and equitable benefit distribution‖ needs to be the guiding strategic principle. This means
the rise in the level of political conflict essentially asks for more social inclusiveness, and
equitable benefit distribution in a society that is very much politically fragmented as a
consequence of serious social gaps. Such an information and communication strategy will not
only enhance the acceptance of the investment, but also contribute to the quality of
representation and level of transparency in the project.

Political and conflict sensitive strategy has been outlined in the Table xxx below.




                                                37
Community Consensus

Public consultation and information dissemination are important parts of information and
communication strategy as these ensure greater public understanding of the project and allow the
affected population to express their voices. The dissemination of adequate information creates a
conducive-environment and builds mutual consensus between the project officials and
beneficiaries. Hence, it is essential that information dissemination and communication flow
network follows a two way track which needs to be monitored to see whether the information
intended for specific purpose and groups has reached the target groups or not. At the same time
any feedback or complains from the recipients should be listened, discussed and resolved. This
way, there is consensus between two parties‘ i.e., the project officials and project beneficiaries
which facilitate the information flow transparently and with much needed clarity.

Gender Issues

The Social Assessment revealed that information dissemination practices were gender
inequitable. Women had literally no or very poor access to most of the information. This was
because despite major role played by women in agriculture and their potentiality to work under
irrigated agriculture, women‘s role in participation in irrigation systems and their management
was minimal.

Gender sensitive communications strategy has been outlined in the Gender and Social Inclusion
Strategy as well as the ICCCP below.

Adequacy of Information and Dissemination Strategies

Field consultation and survey informed that the information given to the stakeholders was
inadequate and in many cases, the information was understood only partially. The reasons
identified included low literacy rates, inappropriate information and communication mediums,
language barrier, incomplete information and/or inappropriately designed message.

Capacity Building of DOI

Effective implementation of information and communication strategy would substantially add
new responsibilities to the program-implementing agency. Depending on the personnel,
budgetary allocations and other resource requirements, this could require either the creation of
new positions or the capacity building of existing personnel who would be able to devote more
time on information and communication components and activities.

The barriers as issues outlined above have been carefully analyzed and possible solutions have
been suggested in the information and communication as well as community consultation and
participation plan below.




                                               38
   4.4 Tools and Mediums for Information and Communication

Different tools of communication can be used to disseminate information effectively. The media
selection must be guided by several factors such as: accessibility of the area, availability of
infrastructure and technology, literacy level of the people, gender outreach, mobility and
interaction of people, neighbourhood relationship, population of disadvantaged/ vulnerable
groups, etc.

The tools that can be effectively used for the puRAPose of circulating the information and for
communication are listed below:

        FM/AM Radio
        Television
        Telephone
        Posters/pamphlets
        Newspapers
        Mobile mikes or loud speakers

One or a combination of these tools could be effectively used through following methods.

        Group/mass meetings
        Person to person contact/Workshops
        Haat Bazar
        Local community messenger (Chowkidar or village Katuwal)
        Local/ regional concerned offices
        People‘s representatives/ social leader/women leader/opinion leaders
        Leaders of users groups
        Neighbours/ relatives
        Mobile vans, etc.
        Community organizations and groups such as Clubs and Guthis

The Social Assessment found that despite a wide variety of communication tools and methods
available, the current mechanism widely preferred by local people/potential beneficiaries of the
project was community/ mass meeting or person to person information flow. Local social
leaders, women leaders, local leaders of users group, VDC secretary and irrigation office were
also identified as potential information disseminating sources. The Haat Bazaar in Tikapur, for
instance, was a common venue for mass meeting and therefore an ideal place for more effective
dissemination of information.

Focus group participants and key informants generally agreed that advanced communication
tools like posters, newspapers, radio, telephones and televisions were less effective for
information dissemination. Local FM radio stations were listened to by many of the
beneficiaries. But along with proven mediums for information dissemination, it is recommended
that efforts be made to identify other possible means and ways that are underutilized so far. For
instance, graphic portrayals or posters of the project design could help people who are not very
literate and/or exposed to understanding outsider explanations visualize the project design.



                                               39
   4.5 Selective & Tailored Mechanism

One major finding from the Social Assessment was that a common set of tool and mechanism
was adopted to disseminate information. There was no practice of using selective tool for
different target groups with different socio economic and cultural backgrounds. There was no
special effort put on addressing and reaching out to the audiences on the basis of literacy status,
gender, language, identity (such as Indigenous People) and disadvantaged/vulnerable groups
(such as Dalits, and landless depending more on the local common property resources). This
non-selective approach was bound to create a disparity of information level among the members
of the same community or the group, which was prominently noticed by the study team during
the fieldwork.

At the same time, as participants in focus group discussions with women committee members
and users pointed out, having separate meetings for different groups will make it difficult to
discuss the information provided, voice differing concerns and build consensus around
conflicting ones. However, these joint approaches must be inclusive and address differing
constraints faced by participants and of disadvantaged members in particular. Furthermore, joint
sessions could be complemented with segregated ones.

Hence, to make information dissemination more inclusive following approach is suggested:

     i) Segregating the target groups according to their socio-economic and literary status,
     ii) Developing the contents and messages separately to different groups based on their
          level and needs,
     iii) Disseminating the message to different categories of target groups at different times
          and venue using appropriate tools and mechanism,
     iv) Complementing the above with joint information dissemination workshops/trainings
          where differential concerns and needs of disadvantaged population are also considered
          in organizing the meetings, in designing the contents and facilitating discussions.


   4.6 Information, communication & consultation contents and messages

In order to have intended results from information dissemination it is pertinent to give correct,
complete and timely information to the target groups. The contents of the message to be
delivered are to be designed in such a way that the specific information requirements of each
target groups are appropriately prepared and disseminated through right media / channels.

In general, the project affected people and beneficiaries should be provided wide range of
information about the project implementation; the implementing authorities and modalities; the
budget and its allocation; information regarding land acquisition and compensation packages
during pre-construction phase; canal operation, water distribution and sharing, rotation methods,
canal repair and maintenance during operation and maintenance phase.




                                                40
Equally important information to be disseminated include improved agricultural practices, use of
new varieties of seeds and inputs and their availability, the prices and markets for inputs and
outputs, social and environmental impacts and mitigation/ enhancement measures, etc.


   4.7 Community Consultation and Participation Plan during the Project Cycle

Communication and information sharing is not a onetime activity; rather it is a reiterative process
which needs to be carried out throughout the project cycle.

Pre-construction Phase

During this phase, identification, screening, planning, design and prioritization of the project
activities are worked out in details. It is the most appropriate phase to disclose information
regarding project intervention, probable issues and mitigation measures to all the concerned
stakeholders in the sub-project area. The informal communication channels developed earlier by
the DOI now need to be formalized and an effective modality for communication between the
DOI and the stakeholders needs to be standardized. At this phase, extensive formal and informal
consultations and meetings with stakeholders are recommended.

Although the information, dissemination and consultation strategies need to be focused on
project beneficiaries in particular, a wider range of stakeholders needs to be informed and
consulted from the very outset of the project and during each project cycle. Some have parallel
memberships (i.e. project beneficiaries are also a part of CBOs and political parties, for
instance), others have invested in the irrigation systems in differing ways (such as VDC and
DDC), and still others can play effective roles in mediating disputes and conflicts as they arise.
One of the major findings of the social assessment was that the information and dissemination
strategies adopted thus far assume that irrigation management systems operate in isolation and
are not a part of and linked with wider social and political relations and systems. There are a
number of ways in which these stakeholders can either jeopardize the project and/or the social
assessment has identified three layers of stakeholders:

        Primary stakeholders are the direct beneficiaries of the project and those who will be
         responsible for the management of the modernized and rehabilitated irrigation system
         once the project phases out. They include user groups, committee members, Badghars,
         Chiragis and others with roles in the traditional irrigation management system.
        Secondary stakeholders are local-level actors who have a stake in and/or cab influence
         the success of the project. These include CBOs, NGOs, VDC, line agencies such as
         Agriculture, and political parties.
        Tertiary stakeholders are non-local actors who also have a stake in and/or can influence
         the success of the project. These include DDC, DOA etc.

Reconstruction phase consultations are imperative to enhance participation of the community
people and Irrigation Committees and User Groups in subproject design and planning which also
establishes a platform for the stakeholders to express their views about the project and provide
feedbacks. These consultations provide opportunities in identifying closely the social and



                                                41
environmental issues, probable mitigation measures, needs and priorities of the local people and
ensure greater participation right from the beginning, which in turn creates sense of ownership
among local people.

Timely communication with the stakeholders can be beneficial during the pre-construction phase
because landless, vulnerable groups living within the target command areas can benefit from
wage employment during construction. Those losing private lands, structures and other
properties will also come forward with genuine claims for necessary compensation and
assistances from the project.

Table below shows the dissemination of information among different stakeholders during
planning/pre-construction phase.


           Table 6: Information Dissemination during Planning/ Pre-Construction Phase
S.
        Means of Communication               Generic Information/ Messages              Responsibility
No.
1       Media campaign (FM Radio,            Subproject features, implementation        IDD/IDSD in partnership
        TV, CDs and cassettes,               schedule, affected people and              with NFWUAN District unit
        Newspapers & other print             beneficiaries                              and mass media
        materials)
2       Workshop, use of public              Overall project impacts including          IDD/IDSD in partnership
        gatherings and official letters &    environmental and social impacts           with NFWUAN District unit
        meetings, print materials, key       (land acquisition, resettlement,           and CBO/NGO
        informants and socio-political       compensation, resettlement and             Working in education and
        and economic leaders,                rehabilitation assistances), schedule of   environmental fields
        committees, water user               compensation payment, legal
        committees/apex committee.           requirements for claims, grievances
                                             hearing and management.
3       Open meeting, stall at haat          Project status/ progress in terms of       IDD/IDSD in partnership
        bazar, leaflet, audio-visual aids,   design, contract awarding,                 with locally-based
        meetings by AOs, official letters,   employment opportunities for local         NGOs/CBOs, Farmer
        use of social and community          people (skilled/ unskilled), gender        Trainers (FTs) or SOs
        leaders, mobile miking system        equal opportunity for works, wage
                                             rates, subproject budget for different
                                             components.



Construction Phase

At this stage, the stakeholders should be informed of the final plan of the project interventions,
process and sequence of implementation activities. Project beneficiaries should also be informed
of their role in the project implementation activities and how they could share the anticipated
benefits including employment, running tea shops, petty business, and undertaking micro
enteRAPrises. Consensus building through intensive consultations and social gathering during
this stage can avert the possibilities of conflicts in the future. Different ways in which secondary
stakeholders can avert potential disputes and conflicts over the distribution of benefits should be
considered through consultations with them.




                                                        42
Operation and Maintenance Phase with Monitoring and Evaluation

Adequate communication and participation is particularly critical at this stage because users will
be responsible for the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the system. Users, committee
members and potential candidates responsible for overseeing operation and maintenance could
be taken to exposure trips / visits to best management practices in other irrigation user groups.
Further, transparency in the IUG functioning can be made effective by establishing a community
monitoring system. Education on alternative techniques like IPM and IPNM should also be given
through trainings.

   4.8 Specific Information and Community Activities during the Project Cycle

The specific ICCCP activities to be carried during all three stages of the project cycle and the
agencies responsible for implementing the information and dissemination strategies include:

     1. The RJK Project Officials/DOI is responsible for the mobilization of the irrigation user
        groups during pre-construction phase. The DOI should also work in more close
        coordination and cooperation with other I/NGOs and government agencies engaged in
        rural development programs, and focussed on specific community or groups in the
        project area such as women, Dalits, and other socio-economic groups.
     2. The RJK project officials should facilitate the establishment and development of an
        Apex committee (or a Irrigation Users Association of all the users in RJK) as the focal
        point capable of assuming full responsibility for O&M of the irrigation system along
        with collecting and generating data/information concerning social and environmental
        screening criteria and guidelines for ensuring sustainable development. However, the
        project officials should be cognizant of the ongoing disputes about the composition of
        the apex committee. It should consider involving secondary stakeholders such as
        political parties and respected/neutral leaders in mediating and deliberating the process.
     3. The RJK Project Office should discuss with the Apex Committee and the affected
        people, the compensation package to be paid to the Project Affected Persons. This kind
        of consultation and information forms the basis for formulating the compensation,
        rehabilitation and resettlement policy.
     4. The Contractor needs to communicate to the labourers and the Apex Committee the
        Occupational Health and Safety measures to be adopted by the labourers during
        construction phase.
     5. The RJK project office needs to work in partnership with CBOs and NGOs in order to
        offer skill development trainings throughout the project cycles. Examples of such
        trainings include electrical/ mechanical works, steel works, concrete works, knitting
        and sewing, dry food making, modern farming methods, integrated pest management,
        integrated pest and nutrient management, operation and maintenance of the system.
        Women, indigenous and disadvantaged groups‘ should be given preferential
        consideration for such trainings so as to ensure that the project contributes to their
        human resource development and livelihood improvement.
     6. Any infrastructure, cultural resources or property which may be disrupted needs to be
        assessed in consultation with the VDC, Apex Committee, IUCs and local communities
        before and during construction phase. The contractors should be informed about the
        guidelines for physical management of socio-cultural resources.


                                               43
        4.9 Information, Dissemination, Community Consultation & Participation Plan

    To address the issues and gaps in information dissemination and communication as well as in
    community communication and participation plan as identified above, a comprehensive strategy
    has been prepared (Table 4-2) to be implemented at all stages of the project cycle. The personnel
    responsible for information and communication should be overseeing the implementation of the
    strategy and assist the relevant agencies implement the activities outlined below. This strategy
    shall be implemented with an action approach and adapted according to the specific needs of
    disadvantaged communicates such as illiterates, women, Indigenous groups, Dalits, Janajatis,
    landless and marginal farmers etc.

                Table 7: Information, Education and Communication Strategy for Sub-projects
                       Suggested
Information &
                       Dissemination &
Communication                                     Activities proposed under the project                    Responsibilities
                       Consultation
Issues
                       strategies
-        Low level     -        Conduct           -         Organize campaigns with focus on the           DOI/ NGO/
of awareness           awareness campaigns        diverse socio-economic characteristics of target         WUA/WUG/Irrigat
about the project                                 groups in association with line agencies and local       ion Management
                       -         Increase         institutions.                                            Division (IMD)
-         Insufficie   access to mass media to
nt information and     generate awareness.        -         Use posters, newspapers, letters, pamphlets,   CBOs/ Local
knowledge about                                   television, telephone, and group meetings for            clubs/ schools,
project‘s              -         Train and        literates and socio-economically well off; use audio-    other local
beneficial and         mobilize                   visual aids, miking in haat bazaars, radio               institutions
adverse impacts        representatives from the   broadcasting for illiterates.
including land         Dalit, women or
acquisition,           indigenous community       -        Use audio-visual aids, group meetings, and
displacement,          also for disseminating     individual messengers of who are willing and able to
mitigation             information                interact with disadvantaged groups such as Dalit,
measures.                                         bonded labourers, women groups and landless tenant
                       -        Formation/        cultivators.
                       strengthening of IUGs/
                       IUAs with clear roles      -       Use local leaders, group meetings of
                       and responsibilities in    indigenous groups.
                       subproject activities
                       including ICCCP            -         Organize frequent formal and informal
                                                  meetings and workshops in the area and fully inform
                                                  the participants about project impacts, environmental
                                                  and social management plans.

                                                  -        Use other sources of information like
                                                  newspaper, television, radio, etc.
Unclear                -         Ensure           -        Ensure all information and communication        DOI/NGO/
information/           efficient transparent/     materials are simple to understand.                      Committee/Irrigati
messages               flexible system to                                                                  on user
                       respond to the queries/    -       Create transparent communication                 groups/IMD/CBO
                       concerns of people         environment and sharing of information

                                                  -        Create an environment for interactive
                                                  discussion on the information given, address the
                                                  feedbacks and complains from the audiences.



                                                              44
                     Suggested
Information &
                     Dissemination &
Communication                                    Activities proposed under the project                   Responsibilities
                     Consultation
Issues
                     strategies
Coping with          -         Educate           -        Hold frequent meetings, periodical review      DOI/ Irrigation
different interest   stakeholders on various     and interactions amongst various stakeholders.          User
groups               aspects of the project                                                              Groups/Committee
                     i.e. potential issues,      -          Invite socio-political leaders & officials   s/IMD/ NGO/
                     magnitude of problems,      operating at the district or higher-level offices for   CBO
                     mitigation measures         site visits and group meetings.
                     etc.
                                                 -        Prepare information and communication
                     -        Develop            materials focusing on issues/ rights and the
                     consensus and               opportunities for the disadvantaged and poor people
                     cooperation
                                                 -         Employ mass media and local cultural
                                                 forums and means of information dissemination.
Addressing needs /   -         Ensure need-      -         Design and promote programs that are          DOI/
issues of            based project               interesting and easily understood by the illiterates,   NGO/IMD/CBO
vulnerable           interventions (including    women, Dalits, indigenous groups and other
communities          agricultural extension      vulnerable groups.
                     and support services);
                     -         Ensure            -         Prepare information & communication
                     mandatory membership        materials to address the issues/ rights considering
                     in Irrigation User          cultural differences among the communities and
                     Groups and                  groups.
                     Committees and fair
                     representation of all       -        Develop the competency of the irrigation
                     caste/ ethnic groups        user groups and committees to oversee project-
                                                 related activities

                                                 -        Involve NGOs/CBOs to ensure attendance
                                                 and active participation of different Irrigation user
                                                 group and committee members.

                                                 -        Develop information and education
                                                 materials to address the issues/ rights of different
                                                 target communities and groups.

                                                 -
Low level of         -         Promote           -         Integrate skill development trainings with    DOI/
literacy amongst     functional literacy;        literacy classes for women.                             NGO/CBO/IMD
beneficiaries,       coordinate with other
particularly         I/NGOs &GO working          -        Customize training programs to meet the
women,               in specific areas such as   needs of communities and groups with varied socio-
indigenous groups,   literacy IGAs, skill        economic characteristics.
landless and         training etc. .
Dalits.




                                                             45
                      Suggested
Information &
                      Dissemination &
Communication                                    Activities proposed under the project                     Responsibilities
                      Consultation
Issues
                      strategies
Vulnerable and        -         Ensure both      -      Design gender sensitive information                Irrigation User
disadvantaged         men and women have         campaign.                                                 Groups/Committee
groups have           equal access to                                                                      s/ NGO/CBO/IMD
limited access to     information;               -         Mobilize women members of the apex and
information           -         Ensure an        branch committees in information dissemination
                      equal number of            activities.
                      women are members of
                      irrigation user groups     -         Organize meetings such that women of all
                      and committees;            caste/ ethnic groups are able to participate.
                      -         Encourage
                      women‘s active
                      participation in group
                      meetings and in
                      decision-making
                      processes.


        4.10          Political and Conflict Sensitive Participation Approach

    Table 8:          Political Conflict-Sensitive Participation Approach
Identified Issue    Strategy        Indicators               Steps                    Responsibility       Proposed Reform
Social inclusion,   Local                   No public                Information    Project officials    Sub-project-in-
equity and          acceptance of   grievances against       about the project        in partnership       Charge is authorized
equitable benefit   project         the project in the                Information    with political       to make adjustment
distribution                        given period             about the benefits of    parties, in          in the sub-project
                                                             the project and also     partnership          implementation
                                                             the adverse social       with local           procedures if
                                                             impacts.                 community/IUA        community
                                                                      Formulation                         unanimously request
                                                             of rules on benefit                           for such adjustment
                                                             sharing
                    Representativ            Inclusion of            Local          Sub-project-in-
                    eness of        the deprived/Dalit       community discusses      Charge in
                    WUG/WUA         and disadvantaged        and agrees on            partnership with
                                    group members in         principle and process    NGO- IUA
                                    key decision making      of representation in     facilitator and
                                    positions                IUA                      local community
                                             Gender                  The agreed
                                    equality                 principle and process
                                             Representat    of representation is
                                    ion from head,           reflected in IUA
                                    middle and tail of the   constitution and rules
                                    irrigation canal
                    Transparency             Public         Local community          Local
                    of financial    hearing/general          discusses and agree      Community in
                    transactions    assembly                 on principle, process    partnership with
                    (accounts)               Public         and means of             NGO and IUA
                                    review                   maintaining              facilitator and
                                             Public audit   transparency in IUA      project officials.
                                                             rules and operation



                                                             46
   5. Institutional Arrangements
Taking into account the weak institutional system within DOI set up regarding ICCCP
implementation it seems all the more important to give added emphasis for developing a precise
and effective system that handles the ICCCP activities from within the DOI and Project
management. A brief account of this is made hereunder.

4.10.1 The project officials should consider recruiting a separate Information & Communication
Expert (Senior Communication Specialist) to be stationed at the DOI project office in
Kathmandu and responsible for the designing, planning, coordination and implementation of all
the information, communication, community consultation and participation related activities.

Other assistants with experience in mass media, communication and community facilitation
could also be recruited to assist the IC Expert and be involved in implementing information,
communication, community consultation and participation (ICCCP) activities at the project level.

The key responsibilities of this ICCCP Team should be comprised of but not limited to the
following:

      Preparing plan of action for implementing information and communication as well as
         community consultation and participation component and activities
        Design, test, modify and finalize all IC materials pamphlets, brochures, posters and
         reproduce them in required numbers
        Identify and contract communication media for information dissemination through
         Radio Nepal/ FM/ TV/ local and national newspaper etc.
        Hold consultations, meetings, seminars, and workshops with various stakeholders
         (primary, secondary and tertiary) and at different levels (district, project, tole-levels).
        Monitor closely the ICCCP activities taking place at regional, division, district and
         project level.
        Seek and receive regular feedback and take timely corrective measures to improve IC
         performance and impacts.
        Prepare quarterly, half yearly and yearly progress report.

At the central level of DOI, the ICCCP Team should carry out all the ICCCP-related activities in
close guidance, supervision and consultation with the lead Sociologist as well as Project
Director. The central together with the project office should work closely to prepare action plans
as well as ICCCP materials and messages, and disseminate them through differing and relevant
mediums.

In particular, the ICCCP team will take the lead role in preparing detailed action plans and
implementing a wide range of activities. Such activities should include distributing ICCCP
materials to appropriate locations at project sites; holding consultations, seminars, workshops,
meetings at project, district and national levels; liaisoning with the local governments such as


                                                47
DDCs, VDCs, Wards, WUA, other related district level line agencies and NGOs/ CBOs as
necessary. In addition, the ICCCP team will be responsible for contacting and contracting
different local media (local FM, TV, newspaper), conduct mobile campaigns, and other
appropriate mediums for disseminating project specific information to target groups, and
especially those not reached by conventional communication channels.


   6. Budget
The budget for ICCCP component will be apportioned from total project cost of Rani, Jamara
and Kulariya Modernization and Rehabilitation Project.

The major budget overhead would include the following:

        Salary and allowances of professionals and field staff; cost of ICCCP materials
         (posters, pamphlets, brochures etc);
        Cost of contracting communication media (radio, TV, newspaper etc),
        Organizing and holding workshops, meetings, consultations, campaigns, training and
         exposure visit to the project beneficiaries.

The tentative budget for ICCCP component is estimated to be in the range of 0.25 percent of the
total funding but the actual budget will be prepared and approved by the Department once the
designed plans are approved and a separate ICCCP Unit is created.




                                              48