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					                         Parc Extension
                         Social and Affordable housing




Friday, April 22, 2011
                               Contents
                         1.   Intro
                         2.   Overview of Parc Extension
                         3.   Comparison
                         4.   Successful Social Housing Development
                              Strategies in Canadian Cities
                         5.   Effects of university expansion on low
                              income areas
                         6.   Housing strategies
                         7.   References
Friday, April 22, 2011
          1.
                         Intro




Friday, April 22, 2011
      1.                   Socio economic profile of Parc-Extension




                  This report looks at the effects of University expansions on low

                  income areas. Selected policies, programs, strategies and
    - 62 % of population born outside
          projects that aim to provide social and affordable housing will
    of Canada in 2000
                  the be discussed.




Friday, April 22, 2011
      1.                   Socio economic profile of Parc-Extension



                The provision of social and affordable housing is a key factor in

                achieving livability and economic prosperity in lower income

                neighbourhoods. With the recent development of the University
    - 62 % of population born outside
    of Canada in 2000
                of Montreal’s campus expansion their should be concern of

                effects of the expansion on the current housing stock.




Friday, April 22, 2011
           2.
                         Overview of Parc Extension




Friday, April 22, 2011
Friday, April 22, 2011
      2.                      Socioeconomic profile of Parc-Extension



                         Population (2006) - 30,261

                         Land area (sq. Km) – 1.67

                         Population density – 18,120.36 persons/sq. Km

                            Montreal average – 853.62 persons/sq. Km

                         Large number of renters

                         Average rent - $559.50/month



                                                                         Source:	
  Sta-s-cs	
  Canada

Friday, April 22, 2011
      2.                     Socioeconomic profile of Parc-Extension


                         Larger family sizes in Parc-Ex

                         1.4 children/family vs. 1.1 for the city

                         3.2 persons/census family vs. 2.9

                         Smaller rental units

                         Average 4 rooms/unit

                         Montreal average 5.6




                                                                    Source:	
  Sta-s-cs	
  Canada

Friday, April 22, 2011
      2.                        Socioeconomic profile of Parc-Extension



                         High unemployment rate
                            17.9%

                         Low median income
                            $14,288 ($25,161 for Montreal)

                         High instances of low-income
                            47.3% of all economic families (16% for Montreal)
                             41.1% of renters spend 30% or more household income on
                             rent, 34.4% spend 30-99%




                                                                       Source:	
  Sta-s-cs	
  Canada

Friday, April 22, 2011
      2.                                  Social Housing in Montreal



                         Total of 23,441 units (2006)
                             2,699 run by housing coops and non-profits
                             20,742 run by municipal housing agencies

                         Office Municipal d’Habitation de Montreal (OMHM)
                            Non-profit organization operating at the municipal level
                            Manages social housing and subsidized housing units for families
                            and seniors




                                                            Source:	
  La	
  Société	
  d’Habita-on	
  du	
  Quebec	
  and	
  OMHM


Friday, April 22, 2011
      2.                 Social	
  Housing	
  in	
  Parc-­‐Extension




Friday, April 22, 2011
      2.                   Social Housing in Parc-Extension



                    OMHM

                           328 units
                           222 for seniors
                           106 for families




                                                              Source:	
  OMHM


Friday, April 22, 2011
          3.
                         Comparison to Pointe St.
                         Charles




Friday, April 22, 2011
      1.                      Comparison – Pointe-St.-Charles



            •	
  Other neighbourhoods in Montreal have had more success in
            providing social and affordable housing for low-income residents

            •Pointe-Saint-Charles is a good example of an area where a large
            number of residents benefit from social housing provided by the
            OMHM and non-profits

            • Strategies used to achieve high levels of affordable housing could
            provide a good model for future initiatives in Parc-Ex




Friday, April 22, 2011
     1.                  Comparison – Pointe-St.-Charles




Friday, April 22, 2011
      1.                      Comparison	
  –	
  Pointe-­‐St.-­‐Charles



              • Pointe-St.-Charles bears some similarities to Parc-Extension
                  - High density
                  - High unemployment rate – 11.8%
                  - Low Median income - $17,437
                  - Low-income rate of 35.6% for economic families
                  - 77% renters




                                                                    Source:	
  Sta-s-cs	
  Canada,	
  2006	
  Census

Friday, April 22, 2011
      1.                         Comparison – Pointe-St.-Charles



       • Unlike Parc-Ex it has a much larger number of affordable housing units
       especially for families:
       	


               - OMHM runs 1559 social housing units
           	

          	

     - 313 for seniors
           	

          	

     - 1246 for families

                     -­‐0.45 units per family while Parc-Ex has 0.01 units per family




                                                                                  Source:	
  OMHM

Friday, April 22, 2011
      1.                       Comparison	
  –	
  Pointe-­‐St.-­‐Charles



           •	
  37% of rental units are social housing
                  - A mix of public and private non-profit initiatives and
                  cooperatives 	




           •The mix of approaches could be a key to the success in the provision
           of affordable units




                                                                     Source:	
  Boivin	
  and	
  Humphrey	
  ,	
  2005

Friday, April 22, 2011
           4.            Successful social housing
                         development strategies in
                         Canadian cities




Friday, April 22, 2011
      4.                        Case Studies




                         1. Peel Region, Ontario

                         2.Vancouver, British Colombia




Friday, April 22, 2011
      4.                                   Peel Region




           •	
  Peel Region
                     Regional government for municipalities of Brampton, Caledon, and
                     Mississauga
                     Operates infrastructure services for the region
                                                   Text
                     Successful in building affordable housing (602 new units between
                     2003 and 2007)




                                                                          Source:	
  Evans,	
  2007


Friday, April 22, 2011
      4.                                  Peel Region


        • How?

                  - Education of politicians and citizens
                  - Built through municipal housing corporation
                  - Cooperation between government agencies
                  - Funding from Provincial and Federal governments
                  - Regional government donates land and gives tax incentives
                  - Partners with private developers and suppliers who donate
                  materials
                  - Partners with non-profits to manage affordable housing




                                                                        Source:	
  Evans,	
  2007


Friday, April 22, 2011
      4.                                      Vancouver


           • Vancouver
                     In 2007 the provincial government partnered with the City of
                     Vancouver to build new social housing units
                     The city of Vancouver leases sites to non-profits and exempts
                     them from property taxes
                     Provincial government funds the construction
                     Non-profits manage the units
                     569 new units




Friday, April 22, 2011
      4.                                     Vancouver




                 -­‐ 2010 the project was expanded
                 	

        1,006 new units
                 - Funded by provincial government and charity organizations on
                 land donated or leased at very low rates by the city

                 - Since 2001 the province of B.C. has built 2,070 affordable
                 housing units in Vancouver with 1,575 planned

                 - B.C.’s housing budget for 2010-11 is nearly $562 million




Friday, April 22, 2011
      4.                                  Vancouver


              • City of Vancouver initiatives
                  Releasing land for social housing use
                  Public benefit tax – large developments have to set aside 20% of
                  site for social housing

              • Downtown Eastside
                 50% of all units are non-market housing
                 Built by neighbourhood groups and government




                                                                  Source:	
  Ley	
  &	
  Dobson,	
  2008	
  


Friday, April 22, 2011
      4.                               Implications for Parc-Ex



                         • Canadian cities and regions have been successful in
                         implementing social and affordable housing through
                         partnerships between governments and community groups




Friday, April 22, 2011
      4.                                     Implications for Parc-Ex


      •	
  Using	
  funding	
  from	
  a	
  variety	
  of	
  sources	
  the	
  Peel	
  Region	
  and	
  
      Vancouver	
  were	
  able	
  to	
  provide	
  new	
  units
      •	
  Ci-es	
  play	
  an	
  important	
  role	
  in	
  the	
  funding	
  and	
  development	
  
      process
             -­‐	
  Providing	
  land
             -­‐	
  Tax	
  incen-ves
             -­‐	
  Coordina-ng	
  between	
  agencies	
  and	
  community	
  groups




Friday, April 22, 2011
      4.                             Implications for Parc-Ex

        •	
  Building Partnerships
               - The “AccèsLogis Québec” program offers funding for the
               creation of social housing
                    - 50% funding for eligible project costs dependent on a 5-15%
                    community contribution (SHQ)

                 - 15% community contribution can be met through finding new
                 partners and sources for funding

                 - Contractors, developers, and suppliers in the case of the Peel
                 region




Friday, April 22, 2011
          5.             Effects of university
                         expansions




Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.




       When any major development occurs in a given neighbourhood
       externalities occur, which can either have negative or positive effects on
       residents. This section looks at the effects of university expansions on low
       income neighbourhoods. Two case studies will
       be presented.




Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                         Case Studies




                         1. Colombia University

                         2.University of Illinois at Chicago




Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                                                           Colombia University

           -Manhattanville New York, is a working class neighbourhood
           undergoing a major development project similar to Parc Extensions
           recent development project

           - Additionally the two neighbourhoods have similar socio economic
           profiles

           - This case study provides insight from activists and Colombia
           University officials on the effects of the campus expansion on a low
           income neighbourhood

           -The case study also provides solutions and alternative by community
           organization for Colombia’s current expansion plan

     source:
     shttp://www.stopcolumbia.org/
     Velázques. S, 2009
     http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cssn/expansion/info.html
     http://www.weact.org/Programs/SustainableDevelopment/ColumbiaUniversityExpansionProject/tabid/216/Default.aspx


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                                                           Colombia University



                 -2003, Columbia University announced its plans to expand its
                 campus by 5 million square feet into the West Harlem
                 neighbourhood of Manhattanville

                 - Manhattanville is home to a large working-class population

                 - the median household income of West Harlem in 2000 is under
                 $20,000/year)




     source:
     shttp://www.stopcolumbia.org/
     Velázques. S, 2009
     http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cssn/expansion/info.html
     http://www.weact.org/Programs/SustainableDevelopment/ColumbiaUniversityExpansionProject/tabid/216/Default.aspx


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                                                           Colombia University




               - Columbia University plans to expand its campus by building an
               additional 6.8 million square feet of space for classrooms, research
               facilities, administration, housing, and parking

               - The proposed expansion will include redeveloping 17-acres in a
               neighbourhood called Manhattanville from W. 125th to W. 133rd
               (between Broadway and 12th Avenue) just north of Columbia's
               existing 36-acre campus.



     source:
     shttp://www.stopcolumbia.org/
     Velázques. S, 2009
     http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cssn/expansion/info.html
     http://www.weact.org/Programs/SustainableDevelopment/ColumbiaUniversityExpansionProject/tabid/216/Default.aspx


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                                                           Colombia University


             - Columbia has rezoned 35 acres of industrial land use to mixed
             use because mixed use encourages investment in residential and
             industrial neighbourhoods by permitting expansion and new
             development of a variety of uses

             - Tenants rights activists and urban planners warn that mixed use
             zoning is often a euphemism for gentrification because mixed use
             encourages the development of trendy retail and refurbished
             residential space

             - Mixed use allows gentrification by infusing neighbourhoods with
             private capital, displacing longtime residents and changing the
             character and affordability of community
     source:
     shttp://www.stopcolumbia.org/
     Velázques. S, 2009
     http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cssn/expansion/info.html
     http://www.weact.org/Programs/SustainableDevelopment/ColumbiaUniversityExpansionProject/tabid/216/Default.aspx


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                                                           Colombia University




             - Gentrification is the process by which poor and working-class
             neighbourhoods in the inner city are refurbished via an influx of
             private capital and middle-class homebuyers and renters

             -The gentrification of Harlem has been a longterm trend in its
             urban landscape. If Harlem's current residents can't participate in
             Columbia's economic and residential developments
             they will be pushed out



     source:
     shttp://www.stopcolumbia.org/
     Velázques. S, 2009
     http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cssn/expansion/info.html
     http://www.weact.org/Programs/SustainableDevelopment/ColumbiaUniversityExpansionProject/tabid/216/Default.aspx


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                                                           Colombia University

            - According to many community activists West Harlem residents
            will be negatively impacted by increased of property values and
            influx of the wealthy middle class and be displaced through this
            large development if community resources, affordable housing and
            jobs concerns are not met
            within the expansion

            -In 2007 Colombia acknowledged that 85 businesses with 880
            employees and 219 residents would be directly displaced

            - additionally they will be destroying 150 units of affordable housing
            in the expansion area, and they have estimated that 5,000 tenants
            within 1⁄2 mile of their expansion will be displaced through rising
            rents
     source:
     shttp://www.stopcolumbia.org/
     Velázques. S, 2009
     http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cssn/expansion/info.html
     http://www.weact.org/Programs/SustainableDevelopment/ColumbiaUniversityExpansionProject/tabid/216/Default.aspx


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                                                           Colombia University

                                                                                                  - The West Harlem community
                                                                                                  has developed an alternative
                                                                                                  plan to Colombia’s current
                                                                                                  expansion plan

                                                                                                  - The framework of the plan
                                                                                                  would allow for Columbia to
                                                                                                  expand in a way that recognizes
                                                                                                  and supports the needs of the
                                                                                                  existing and future generations
                                                                                                  of the community that already
                                                                                                  live in West Harlem

                                                                                                  -Many of the recommendations
                                                                                                  do not conflict with Columbia’s
                                                                                                  plans for the area
     source:
     shttp://www.stopcolumbia.org/
     Velázques. S, 2009
     http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cssn/expansion/info.html
     http://www.weact.org/Programs/SustainableDevelopment/ColumbiaUniversityExpansionProject/tabid/216/Default.aspx


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                                                           Colombia University


        - According to many community activist:

        - Columbia does bear a responsibility for affordable housing in the
        community and it should not be surprised at being singled out

        - The enhancement and preservation of the community's housing
        stock should be
        reflective of the area's income levels and should be a key part of the
        University's expansion plans.




     source:
     shttp://www.stopcolumbia.org/
     Velázques. S, 2009
     http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cssn/expansion/info.html
     http://www.weact.org/Programs/SustainableDevelopment/ColumbiaUniversityExpansionProject/tabid/216/Default.aspx


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                                                           Colombia University




        -The university also needs to address the issues of displacement and
        gentrification

        -Columbia needs to stabilize the residential patterns in the
        neighbourhood and essentially address the housing problem their
        expansion will create 




     source:
     shttp://www.stopcolumbia.org/
     Velázques. S, 2009
     http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cssn/expansion/info.html
     http://www.weact.org/Programs/SustainableDevelopment/ColumbiaUniversityExpansionProject/tabid/216/Default.aspx


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                 University of Illinois at Chicago

      -Chicago lower west side has long been a port entry for immigrants
      and is now one of the most densely populated areas in the city

      -Pilson’s history and socio-economic profile
      is akin to that of Parc Extension

      -In the 1960‘s Pilsen experienced the effects of a University
      expansion and is currently undergoing more development from the
      university

      -This case study illustrates the effects of the 1960’s expansion and
      the expected effects of the recent University and housing
      developments in lower west Chicago.


     Source:
     Betancur. J 2005
     Huestis. J 2005


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                       University of Illinois at Chicago




                 - Pilsen is a working class neighbourhood

                 - predominantly a low- income Latino (Mexican) neighbourhood

                 - - home to many artists and bohemians because of affordable rent




     Source:
     Betancur. J 2005
     Huestis. J 2005


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                   University of Illinois at Chicago




           - The Harrison/Halsted area was chosen for the UIC's new location

           - Construction of the campus demolished the majority of the vibrant
           Little Italy neighbourhood and the eastern part of the Maxwell
           Street Market

           - More than 5,000 people were displaced, 200 businesses forced out
           and 800 homes destroyed.




     Source:
     Betancur. J 2005
     Huestis. J 2005


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                    University of Illinois at Chicago



           - Additionally , the University forced eviction of the famous Sunday
           Market on Maxwell Street

           -Hundreds of vendors who depended financially on the well-known
           Maxwell Street Market name and history were displaced

           - Ultimately the residential community and culture were disbanded
           and the area gentrified.

           -The displaced neighbourhood, which was predominately Mexican,
           fled to Pilsen a nearby neighbourhood


     Source:
     Betancur. J 2005
     Huestis. J 2005


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                     University of Illinois at Chicago




            - In 2001 UIC announced another major development project, the
            South Campus residences which will be located near Pilsen

            - The university has set aside 28% of the units for affordable
            housing , prices ranging from $143,000 to $237,000

            - While these prices are lower than the average townhouse,
            $707,000, they are high compared to the income of current
            neighbourhoods


     Source:
     Betancur. J 2005
     Huestis. J 2005


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                      University of Illinois at Chicago


             - Although little residents were physically displaced by building the
             South Campus,it is believed that the new residents will alter the
             fabric of surrounding neighbourhoods like Pilsen and cause
             exclusionary displacement of residents and businesses

             - Pilsen, is one of the communities at risk of losing their ethnic
             charm and inhabitants

             - Most small businesses in Pilsen have specialty markets and believe
             that they will lose demand if Latinos are displaced from their
             neighbourhood and they too will eventually be forced out of the
             neighbourhood


     Source:
     Betancur. J 2005
     Huestis. J 2005


Friday, April 22, 2011
      5.                    University of Illinois at Chicago

                    community organization, The Resurrection Project, have
           - Pilsen's
           created aninitiative, the
            Quality of Life Campaign,

           - It is composed of three sub campaigns:Viviendas Economicas
           Ahora, an affordable housing campaign designed to create 1000 units
           through leveraging $87 million in community investmentEl Zocalo, a
           Mexican-like plaza designed to foster social and cultural
           opportunities for residents

           - La Casa, a student dormitory for commuting Latinos to escape
           overcrowded homes and
           reside in affordable units close to universitiesThese projects, in
           combination are said to potentiality to stop or even counter
           gentrification
     Source:
     Betancur. J 2005
     Huestis. J 2005


Friday, April 22, 2011
           6.
                         Housing Strategies




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.



       - Social and affordable tends to be a severe problem particularly where
       universities are located. University students, staff, and faculty add to the
       demand side of the market, driving down vacancy rates and driving up
       housing prices and rents

       -This puts enormous strain on the budgets of low income families in
       almost all cities. Even though universities provide jobs to the local
       community, the influx of people they bring with them inevitably affect
       the housing market and the cost of living for community residents

       -This section provides a range of affordable and social housing
       approaches.


      Source:
      Drdla, R, 2010
      Mah, J. 2009
      Gladki, J., & Pomeroy, S.2007


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                              Inclusionary Zoning


       -Inclusionary zoning has emerged in recent years in Canada as a
       potential policy tool to help improve housing affordability

       -Its attractiveness to many is its ability to leverage high growth housing
       markets and use the private sector to build social and affordable
       housing

       - Inclusionary housing encompasses various housing strategies that seek
       to produce affordable housing, but may include case-by-case negotiated
       agreements and other informal understandings promoted through
       policy determinations rather than adopted laws


      Source:
      Drdla, R, 2010
      Mah, J. 2009
      Gladki, J., & Pomeroy, S.2007


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                              Inclusionary Zoning

       - Inclusionary zoning is a form of inclusionary housing that refers to a
       zoning regulation or land use ordinance that requires developers of
       projects of a certain size to produce a set amount of affordable housing
       in their market-rate residential developments as a condition of
       development approval

       - Inclusionary zoning programs can be either mandatory or voluntary

       - The mandated approach features usually features density bonuses or
       other cost offsets to help developers defray the costs of providing
       affordable housing units

       - The voluntary approach attempts to entice developers to participate
       in the program by offering incentives
      Source:
      Drdla, R, 2010
      Mah, J. 2009
      Gladki, J., & Pomeroy, S.2007


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                              Inclusionary Zoning


          - Quebec law does not currently permit municipalities to establish
          mandatory inclusionary programs, so the City of Montréal created a
          voluntary incentive-based program

          - Montreal’s strategy for the inclusion of affordable housing was created
          in 2005, and seeks to achieve an increased creation of social and
          affordable housing units, encourage housing mix in large developments

          -The strategy asks for 30 percent of all new residential housing to be
          affordable




      Source:
      Drdla, R, 2010
      Mah, J. 2009
      Gladki, J., & Pomeroy, S.2007


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                              Inclusionary Zoning


          - 15 percent of new housing units should be social and community
          housing units

          - 15 percent of new housing units should be affordable rental or
          ownership units

          -The strategy targets projects that have more than 200 housing units,
          but it is not restricted to that size

          -The policy has been utilized when major zoning changes or master
          plan amendments are required and when projects are on municipal and
          publicly owned land.

      Source:
      Drdla, R, 2010
      Mah, J. 2009
      Gladki, J., & Pomeroy, S.2007


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                     Inclusionary Zoning Case Studies




                         1.The Lavo – N.O.V.O. Project, Montreal, Quebec

                         2. Woodswards project,Vancouver, British Colombia




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                              N.O.V.O. Project



         -The Hochelaga - Maisonneuve borough of has a population of
         approximately 125 000, and is one of the least privileged areas of
         Montreal

         - More than 43% of tenants in the area spend more than 30% of their
         income on rent

         - 38% of households in the borough are below the low-income cut-off




      Source:
      Drdla, R, 2010
      Mah, J. 2009
      Gladki, J., & Pomeroy, S.2007


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                              N.O.V.O. Project




       - Although the neighbourhood did not have a shortage of affordable
       housing in the early 2000’s, many local residents were displaced as
       more and more rental units were taken out of the rental market and
       the vacancy rate decreased

       -Hochelaga - Maisonneuve at the time was suffering both from the rapid
       pace of gentrification and a low rate of home ownership




      Source:
      Drdla, R, 2010
      Mah, J. 2009
      Gladki, J., & Pomeroy, S.2007


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                              N.O.V.O. Project




       - The City of Montreal and the provincial government agreed to acquire
       the land and relocate the Lavo Chemical factory

       - The land would then be rezoned for residential use

       - A percentage of social housing was required to be built on the site




      Source:
      Drdla, R, 2010
      Mah, J. 2009
      Gladki, J., & Pomeroy, S.2007


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                              N.O.V.O. Project


         - The City, who owned the land, mandated the Collectif en
         aménagement urbain Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, a local grassroots
         planning organization, to conduct a public consultation with residents,
         merchants and other local actors as to the future of the site

         - They then tried to come to an agreement as to the best mix of social
         and market-rate units

         - a proposed a chequered plan where social and market-rate units were
         interspersed was selected for the site



      Source:
      Drdla, R, 2010
      Mah, J. 2009
      Gladki, J., & Pomeroy, S.2007


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                              N.O.V.O. Project




         -The City approved of the scheme, and the zoning changes from
         industrial to residential were approved

         - The City also specified that in the eastern block most units had be
         affordable less than $170 000

         - A condominium project, co-op and non-profit units were built




      Source:
      Drdla, R, 2010
      Mah, J. 2009
      Gladki, J., & Pomeroy, S.2007


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                    The Woodwards project
        Woodward’s district is a redevelopment project in Vancouver’s
        Downtown Eastside, a neighbourhood that is struck by poverty,
        homelessness and crime.

        History
        •Woodward’s store opened in 1903 at Hastings and Abbott,
        Downtown Eastside

        •Over multiple phases, it expanded to 600 000 square feet

        •Famous for its « 1.49$ day » promotion on the first Tuesday of every
        month

        •Closed in 1993 following bankruptcy of Woodwards Lt,
        it has remained an important icon in Vancouver

Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                      The Woodwards project


           •Sold to Fama Holdings in 1995 with the idea of developing a
           mixed-use project comprising condominiums and commercial and
           retail space

           •With no mention of social housing, project generated a lot
           opposition

           •Designated as a heritage building in 1996

           •Negotiations over the project between Fama Holdings and the
           government of BC were unsuccessful




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                  The Woodwards project


             •Purchased	
   by	
   the	
   Province	
   of	
   BC	
   for	
   $22	
   million	
   from	
   Fama	
  
             Holdings	
  in	
  March	
  2001

             •Inten-on	
   of	
   province	
   is	
   to	
   redevelop	
   the	
   site	
   with	
   co-­‐opera-ve	
  
             units,	
   commercial	
   space,	
   and	
   facili-es	
   for	
   Simon	
   Fraser	
  
             University’s	
  School	
  for	
  Contemporary	
  Arts

             •Province	
  being	
  unable	
  to	
  find	
  a	
  partner	
  for	
  the	
  commercial	
  aspect	
  
             put	
  project	
  on	
  hold	
  in	
  2002




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                        The Woodwards project


           Some guiding principles for the project

           •be financially viable and self-sustaining

           •include at least 100 units of non-market housing

           •incorporate the talents, visions and desires of the Downtown
           Eastside community

           •maintain and enhance the existing community

           •provide employment opportunities for local residents in both the
           construction and operation of the new building
           •




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                            The Woodwards project




                   •provide opportunities and create synergies for local
                   owners and businesses

                   •be environmentally sustainable

                   •respond to local, physical context.

                   •be open and inclusive




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                       The Woodwards project


           Overview of the project

           •Combines market and non-market housing, retail and commercial
           space, as well as institutional arts space

           •Provides 200 non-market units, 9 universally accessible units, daycare
           facility, SFU School for Contemporary Arts,

           •Also houses London Drugs, Nester’s food store, and non-profit and
           federal space

           •Provides environmental sustainability with its green spaces on
           rooftops and Silver Leed certification



Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing




              -Universities have an important role to play in the life of the
              communities that house them. Not surprisingly, some support
              this role with more efficacy than others do.

              -Increasing numbers of American colleges and universities are
              undertaking long-term partnerships with community-based
              organizations and municipal government agencies committed to
              improving the quality of life in the poorest urban communities.




       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000



Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing




                -The most successful of these initiatives bring community
                leaders, municipal officials and university students together to
                develop innovative solutions to critical economic and social
                problems overcoming the significant race, class, and gender-
                based barriers that often make such cooperation difficult.

                -This section describes how community residents, municipal
                officials, and university students worked together to transcend
                these obstacles to create and sustain a highly effective
                community development partnership.


       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000



Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing


                We have identified 3 different ways in which universities have
                partnered with communities for affordable housing:

                - Financial contributions to the community to assist in the
                production or preservation of housing

                - Direct production of affordable housing for community
                residents

                - Housing development and planning assistance using university
                resources targeted at specific communities or neighbourhoods
                partnership.


       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000



Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing


             Financial contributions to the community to assist
             in the production or preservation of housing

             - Of the four partnerships described this is the least common.

             -This may be because most universities do not have the financial
             resources to directly fund local housing initiatives.

             - Also when a University commits financial resources to a
             project it usually wants to have a say in how its money is spent.




       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000



Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing




                -There are various models for this type of partnership the most
                popular are:

                - Universities developing a low interest loan programs

                - Universities giving grants to develop and preserve social and
                affordable housing




       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000



Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing


                  Case Study

                  To promote the development of a stronger housing delivery
                  system in Delaware

                  The University of Delaware provides predevelopment
                  funding to support community housing organizations
                  physical development efforts




       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000



Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing



                 -They collaborates with several organizations including the
                 Center for Community Development and Family Policy, the
                 Delaware Community Foundation, in order to provide
                 information, training, technical assistance, and funding

                 -Twenty-eight nonprofit housing organizations were
                 awarded $156,000 in grants to date

                 -These grants are used to address a variety of housing
                 development needs




       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000



Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing



             Direct Production of Affordable Housing for
             Community Residents

             -This type of partnerships directly produces affordable or social
             housing for local residents Universities can create their own
             community development cooperations to support their efforts

             -Or universities can also work through established housing local
             nonprofit organizations




       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000



Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing

             Case Study

             - Northeastern University’s Davenport Commons is an example
             of this type of university-community partnership

             - Davenport Commons was developed in partnership with the
             University and two for-profit housing organizations

             - By combining student housing with affordable housing, the
             project addressed the needs of both parties while helping to
             reduce the upward pressure on rental prices in the immediate
             neighbourhood



       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000



Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing




                -The student component of Davenport provided housing for
                595 students, taking them out of the local private housing
                market and thereby easing pressures on rents for low- income
                households

                -75 housing units were then created for low income families




       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000



Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing


                Housing Development and Planning Assistance

                -In creating partnership with communities, on key role for
                universities involves planning for housing and urban revitalization,
                usually in communities adjacent to or near the campus

                -Thus, they have a self self-interest in assuring that the
                neighbourhoods surrounding their campuses are attractive to
                students and faculty and provide housing opportunities for a broad
                range of income levels.

                -Universities have incredibly valuable resources in their schools of
                urban planning, architecture, law, education, medicine, and business
                and in such programs as social welfare and criminal justice

       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000

Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing



            -Faculty often view community relationships as great teaching
            opportunities, and students benefit from real-world experience to
            add to academic theory

            -Community leaders, for their part, recognize that they have much
            to gain by engaging universities in the seemingly intractable
            problems confronting them in today’s world of shrining resources
            at all levels of government




       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000

Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing



            -Law students working to overcome barriers encountered on
            brownfield sites

            -Engineering students helping with difficult development sites

            -Affordable housing experts helping to guide the community
            through the complicated process of housing development




       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000

Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing



            Case study

            -The World Class Housing Collaborative at Northeastern
            University partnership relies upon development ideas being
            brought from the community to the university

            -Northeastern the responding with all the tools available

            -Architecture students working on graphic visions of new
            neighbourhoods




       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000

Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Community-University partnerships for social and affordable housing


              -They have also developed and implemented a clinic to teach
               both nonprofit and for-profit organizations the basics of
               affordable housing development

              -Additionally they have developed a close working partnership
               with a grass-roots community organization, and is assisting
               them in a diverse range of activities designed to revitalize their
               distressed neighbourhood
              -
              These activities range from architectural visioning of key areas of
               their neighbourhood and negotiating with landowners to
               acquire sites for housing development to assisting in assessing
               the viability of various housing strategies and projects for their
               community
       Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, 2000
       Kenneth. M, 2000
       Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, 2000



Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                 Cohousing

              -Cohousing provides an excellent and affordable alternative to
               traditional homeownership by supporting the notion of shared
               community and a secure living environment

              - These projects are initiated by a group of individuals and
               families who share a common vision of neighbourhood, shared
               spaces and private spaces

              -Typically they choose an affordable location, work together to
               create a functional design, and then contract with a builder to
               deliver the project

              -The Cohousing Network can provide support on the execution
               of the process including how to secure the financing and project
               management
       Wake.T ,n.d




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                Cohousing




              - Cohousing projects typically have 20 or 30 homes in a
                neighborhood, each home being self sufficient, but also having
                access to a large common space with a kitchen, dining room
                and other amenities to be shared by all participants

              - There are seventeen cohousing projects in Canada that are
                members of the Canadian Cohousing Network

              - Some of these groups are still forming but the 9 projects that
                are complete comprise of over 200 units, 178 of them are in
                British Columbia


        Wake.T ,n.d


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                             Cohousing


                         examples:




     Wake.T ,n.d


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                             Resale Price Restrictions




              - Resale price restrictions on homes involve putting a covenant,
              or deed restriction on the title of a home that limits the
              escalation of the resale price.

              - The price is determined by an index or a formula instead of
              being determined by the market.

              - This type of housing is not subject to any ongoing subsidy, but
              is still non-market housing
              - With the exception of Whistler, resale price restrictions have
              only begun to be applied recently in Canada.



    Wake.T ,n.d


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                             Resale Price Restrictions




              - Victoria is just began with the Dockside Green project

              - The Verdant project at the new UniverCity development at
              Simon Fraser University in Burnaby is currently using it

              - Whistler, despite some challenges over the years, has
              successfully managed a resale price restricted inventory since
              1997 that has grown to 458 units in ten years




    Wake.T ,n.d


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.
                                     Resale Price Restrictions




                         examples:




    Wake.T ,n.d


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                  Land Banking


                                Land Banks in North America



              In the 70s most major cities have dealt with land banks

              Used for suburban undeveloped land
              Since then, less used because it requires major government funding




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                                                                         Land Banking


                                                        Austin city council anti-gentrification



             Increased property taxes in the city invested in the social housing of
             East Austin to fight gentrification

             Preserving urban and minority neighbourhoods in the face of
             gentrification through a mix of housing options to promote
             sustainable growth



                Atlanta	
  City	
  Council,	
  A	
  CITY	
  FOR	
  ALL,	
  Report	
  of	
  the	
  Gentrifica-on	
  Task	
  Force,	
  ,	
  September	
  17,	
  2001




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                 Land Banking




                         Atlanta	
  city	
  council,	
  an--­‐gentrifica-on




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.




            Goals:
               - Encouraging the economic growth of the
               city of Atlanta neighbourhoods
               - Encouraging in-migration of new residents in
               areas of gentrification while not discouraging
               long term residents. Having a mixed
               population of wealthy and poor
               - Maintaining and controlling growth within the city




                           Atlanta	
  City	
  Council,	
  A	
  CITY	
  FOR	
  ALL,	
  Report	
  of	
  the	
  Gentrifica-on	
  Task	
  Force,	
  ,	
  September	
  17,	
  2001

Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                                       Land Banking




           • Task force created a comprehensive plan addressing gentrification
             that preserved affordable housing.
           • Fought for individuals and low income families to be able to compete
             in the housing market through affordable housing
           • Land-banking linked with land production.




                           Atlanta	
  City	
  Council,	
  A	
  CITY	
  FOR	
  ALL,	
  Report	
  of	
  the	
  Gentrifica-on	
  Task	
  Force,	
  ,	
  September	
  17,	
  2001

Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                         Land Banking




                         • Buying land prevents people from biding on it, preventing speculat
                           on the value.

                         • No speculation 	

      no gentrification
                         • No gentrification	

       no displacement




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                  Land Banking




                         Brightmoor - Tools for Abandoned Properties




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                              Land Banking



        • Use city funding to purchase land in decay and abandonment
          properties.
        • To provide a long term strategy by restoring properties within poor
          metropolitan communities.
        • Working with Wayne County Land-bank (WCLB) they identified
          land that was tax delinquent, they claimed them and made them
          affordable or social housing.




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                                         Land Banking



               • The Partnership with WCLB ensured redevelopment of abandoned
                 properties.

               • The Collaboration between community development corporations
                 and municipal organizations renovated old abandoned buildings and
                 transformed them for the communities




                              Atlanta	
  City	
  Council,	
  A	
  CITY	
  FOR	
  ALL,	
  Report	
  of	
  the	
  Gentrifica-on	
  Task	
  Force,	
  ,	
  September	
  17,	
  2001

Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                     Land Banking




                         Public Land Banks




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                               Land	
  Banking



        • In Quebec, The group who takes care of land banking is la Société
             d’Habitation du Québec.

        • They deal mostly with non-profit community groups.

        • They give grants for social housing and affordable housing.




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                              Land Banking



        • When the idea of buying old property to restore them in social
          housing came up we called la Société d’Habitation du Québec.

        • What came up is:
          – Grants will be given from the following:
             • CMHC (Seed Funding Program, up to 20,000$ per project)
             • Société d’Habitation du Québec (Accès Logis), up to $20,000 a
               year




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                 Land Banking

                             Potential Benefits of Land Banking



           • Housing cost under market value to be sold as social/ affordable
             housing
           • Possibility of reshaping areas through rezoning
           • Power of expropriation
           • Prevents speculation on land value own by government




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                  Land Banking

                            Potential Problems With Land Banking


         •    Hard to implement in center of city
         •    Mostly used for undeveloped land
         •    Government conflict of interest ( provincial/ municipal)
         •    Serves the greater public, not necessarily the neighborhood.




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                       Land Banking

                                Solution:



                         Community Land Trusts




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                                                                  Land Banking


        • Community Land Trust: any non-profit corporation that gains and
          manages land on behalf of the residents of a community which tries
          to preserve affordability while avoiding foreclosures for any housing
          located upon its land.




                         Source:	
  Dr.	
  Eric	
  Shragge,	
  community	
  economic	
  development,	
  lecture	
  on	
  march	
  28	
  2011,	
  urbs	
  380	
  guest	
  speaker,	
  Concordia	
  university;	
  
                         Informa-on	
  from	
  the	
  phone	
  interview	
  with	
  CMHC,	
  societe	
  d’habita-on	
  du	
  Quebec,	
  acces	
  logis	
  

Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                Land Banking

                         Community Land Trusts - How They Work:


         • Community group buys the land
           – Possibility of grants given from federal and provincial governments
             for
           – Restoring properties,
           – transforming properties into social or,
           – affordable housing




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                               Land	
  Banking

                          Community	
  Land	
  Trusts	
  –	
  Implica-ons	
  for	
  Parc-­‐Ex:


         •    Many	
  organiza-ons	
  in	
  Park	
  Ex	
  sharing	
  a	
  common	
  goal
         •    Possible	
  financing	
  from	
  the	
  governments
         •    Control	
  of	
  the	
  land	
  trust	
  by	
  the	
  community
         •    Possibility	
  of	
  coops,	
  having	
  possession	
  of	
  land	
  prevents	
  people	
  from	
  
              bidding	
  on	
  it,	
  hence	
  slowing	
  down	
  gentrifica-on	
  and	
  the	
  increase	
  of	
  
              land	
  value	
  through	
  specula-on




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                    Land Banking

                         Community Land Trusts – Implications for Parc-Ex:



        • As we saw, land banks are not a viable option anymore, governments
          don’t give capital upfront.
        • The solution resides in community land trust, where the community
          organizations bare the initial cost, and then governments intervene
          with monetary grants.




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                               Land Banking
                               Community Land Trusts




        • Very feasible in Park Ex due to the amount of non-profit
          organizations that could get together to bare the initial costs of
          buying properties and transforming them after in social or affordable
          housing.
        • Grants available from:
           – CMHC up to 20,000$
           – Société d’Habitation du Québec up to 20,000$




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                         Land Banking



                         Case	
  Studies:


                         1.	
  Ouseburn,	
  UK
                         2.Milton	
  Park




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                               Land Banking

                                                Ouseburn	
  case	
  study




               •Varied,	
  mixed	
  land	
  uses
               •With	
  new	
  developments	
  of	
  condos	
  land	
  prices	
  increased
               •The	
  popula-on	
  is	
  being	
  displaced	
  because	
  of	
  the	
  increase	
  in	
  rents
               •Popula-on	
  consists	
  of	
  mostly	
  ar-sts	
  and	
  workers	
  from	
  home	
  such	
  as	
  
               people	
  from	
  the	
  IT	
  industry




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                               Land Banking


               •At	
  the	
  head	
  the	
  organiza-on	
  were	
  paid	
  staff,	
  volunteers	
  and	
  
               members	
  of	
  the	
  city	
  council
               •Helped	
  by	
  Salford	
  university	
  to	
  plan	
  the	
  project
               •Mo-ves:
                  •Expensive	
  condos	
  being	
  built	
  in	
  the	
  neighbourhoods
                  •Need	
  to	
  slow	
  gentrifica-on
                  •Build	
  affordable	
  housing	
  	
  for	
  the	
  increasing	
  popula-on	
  with	
  less	
  
                  means
                  •Prevent	
  the	
  community	
  from	
  being	
  bought	
  out	
  by	
  a	
  wealthier	
  
                  popula-on




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                                                                Land	
  Banking
                                                                     Ouseburn – The Project


           •Housing association partnered with the community to build the first
           site
              •50 affordable housing units
              •Work/ live units for low income people

           •The project is still under consultation, it has yet to be built




                         Source:	
  Elaine	
  Paterson	
  and	
  Michael	
  Dunn,	
  (2009)	
  Perspec<ves	
  on	
  u<lising	
  Community	
  Land	
  Trusts	
  as	
  a	
  vehicle	
  for	
  affordable	
  housing	
  
                         provision,	
  Local	
  Environment	
  Vol.	
  14,	
  No.	
  8,	
  September	
  2009,	
  749–764

Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Land Banking




                         Milton Park




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                              Land Banking



        •	
  Milton Park Citizens Committee was started in 1968 and supports
        the residents of Cote-Des-Neiges by protecting the neighbourhood
        from demolition of houses, constructions of completely new urban
        landscapes, and in turn a complete change of the demographic
        composition of the neighbourhood.

        • During the years that Milton Park Citizens Committee has been in
        progress they have established 22 co-ops and non-profit housing
        corporations. They managed to save about two thirds of the
        neighbourhood by renovating the remaining houses and letting any
        residents who wished to stay do so.




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                               Land Banking




        • The Milton Park Cooperative Project explains that it is not only a
        benefit to the residents but also to the community and city as a
        whole, since it is now a demographically mixed and liveable area due
        to their inputs. The committee supports the citizen’s rights to have a
        say about what happens to their neighbourhood.

        • They support organizations that have 20% of    their new units put
        aside for subsidized housing.




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                                Land Banking




        •	
  It	
  is	
  not	
  only	
  low	
  income	
  people	
  who	
  benefit	
  from	
  social	
  housing	
  in	
  
        the	
  long	
  run,	
  so	
  does	
  the	
  community	
  and	
  the	
  city.	
  The	
  income	
  mix	
  in	
  
        these	
  neighbourhoods	
  provides	
  stability	
  and	
  a	
  safe	
  place	
  for	
  residents	
  
        because	
  there	
  is	
  lijle	
  movement	
  of	
  tenants	
  in	
  and	
  out.	
  

        •	
  Ci-zens	
  of	
  the	
  city	
  of	
  Montreal	
  can	
  walk	
  and	
  dine	
  throughout	
  these	
  
        safe	
  neighbourhoods	
  and	
  enjoy	
  a	
  culturally,	
  socially,	
  economically	
  and	
  
        demographically	
  mixed	
  use	
  area.	
  




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                                                                                                    Land Banking


        •	
  The mix of social housing close to expensive condos and the array
        of renters and owners provide an excellent mix of residents and the
        outcome is a safe environment for all. Not to mention once people
        get to know each other in the neighbourhood it becomes a more
        vibrant area to live.




           Sources:	
  Milton-­‐Parc	
  Ci-zens	
  Commijee	
  Supports	
  the	
  Ci-zens	
  of	
  Côte-­‐des-­‐Neiges,	
  hjp://drupal.comcitmp.org/?q=node/77,	
  downloaded	
  on	
  march	
  26	
  2011
           Rosalind	
  Greenstein	
  and	
  Yesim	
  Sungu-­‐Eryilmaz,	
  (2	
  0	
  0	
  7),	
  Community	
  Land	
  Trusts	
  A	
  Solu-on	
  for	
  Permanently	
  Affordable	
  Housing.	
  Lincoln	
  Ins-tute	
  of	
  Land	
  Policy	
  •	
  Land	
  Lines,	
  hjp://
           community-­‐wealth.com/_pdfs/ar-cles-­‐publica-ons/clts/ar-cle-­‐greenstein.pdf


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                              Land Banking

                                      Conclusion



        • CLT is a new way of providing social and affordable housing through
        community organizations.

        • Great solution for buying and renovating housing into social/
        affordable housing.

        • Gives power to community, through the decision of which land will
        become a CLT.




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                                Land Banking

                                       Conclusion



        •	
  CLT is a great way for Park Ex to transform the land for the social
        housing which it needs

        • CLT gives much more freedom to choose the areas in which social
        housing can be implemented




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                     Public-Private Partnerships and Social Housing Provision




                         •	
  Public-­‐Private	
  Partnerships	
  are	
  currently	
  not	
  well	
  suited	
  
                         for	
  social	
  housing	
  provision
                         	
  
                                                                  Text
                         •	
  However,	
  social	
  housing	
  can	
  be	
  incorporated	
  into	
  PPP	
  
                         projects




Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Public-Private Partnerships and Social Housing Provision




           	
  
           •Advantages
              -­‐	
  PPPs	
  are	
  versa-le	
  and	
  flexible,	
  bejer	
  matched	
  to	
  local	
  needs
              -­‐	
  PPPs	
  offer	
  access	
  to	
  public	
  funding	
  for	
  private	
  developers
              -­‐	
  Public	
  agencies	
  can	
  u-lize	
  private	
  sector	
  exper-se
              -­‐	
  Uses	
  private	
  sector	
  skills	
  and	
  resources




                                                                      Sources:	
  Moskalyk,	
  2008;	
  CMHC	
  Research	
  Report,	
  1998


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Public-Private Partnerships and Social Housing Provision



           	
  
           •	
  The	
  United	
  States	
  and	
  the	
  United	
  Kingdom	
  make	
  extensive	
  use	
  of	
  
           PPPs	
  for	
  social	
  housing	
  provision

           •	
  PPPs	
  in	
  Canada	
  play	
  a	
  very	
  limited	
  role
                  -­‐	
  Lacking	
  a	
  framework	
  and	
  coordina-on	
  between	
  governments	
  
                  and	
  agencies




                                                                                                Source:	
  Moskalyk,	
  2008


Friday, April 22, 2011
      6.                 Public-Private Partnerships and Social Housing Provision



        	
  
        •	
  The	
  lack	
  of	
  official	
  framework	
  for	
  PPPs	
  in	
  the	
  provision	
  of	
  affordable	
  
        housing	
  make	
  it	
  a	
  less	
  viable	
  op-on	
  in	
  the	
  situa-on	
  of	
  Parc-­‐Ex
        •	
  The	
  idea	
  of	
  partnering	
  with	
  the	
  private	
  sector	
  however,	
  could	
  have	
  
        some	
  poten-al
        •	
  The	
  future	
  success	
  of	
  PPPs	
  in	
  providing	
  affordable	
  housing	
  rests	
  on	
  
        more	
  government	
  involvement	
  in	
  financing	
  and	
  organiza-on




                                                                                                 Source:	
  Moskalyk,	
  2008


Friday, April 22, 2011
           6.
                         Housing Strategies




Friday, April 22, 2011
      7.                                                          References

                         Atlanta City Council, A city for all, Report of the Gentrification Task Force, September 17, 2001
                         Boivin, J., & Humphrey, S. (2005). L'avenir du quartier Pointe-Saint-Charles: lié à la préservation
        	
               de son habitat social. Québec: Société d`habitation Québec.
                         Coalition to preserve community (n.d.) retrieved from http://www.stopcolumbia.org/
                         Drdla, R. (2010). Introduction to inclusionary housing programs. Inclusionary Housing Canada;
                         Planning Inclusive neighborhoods for all
                         Evans, L. (2007). City-regions and the provision of affordable rental housing. Ottawa: Canadian
                         Policy Research Networks.
                         Gladki, J., & Pomeroy, S.(2007). Implementing inclusionary policy to facilitate affordable
                         	

 housing development in Ontario. Ontario Non-Profit Housing Association.
                         Greenstein, Rosalind and Sungu-Eryilmaz,Yesim, (2007), Community Land Trusts A Solution for
                         Permanently Affordable Housing. Lincoln Institute of Land. http://community-wealth.com/_pdfs/
                         articles-publications/clts/article-greenstein.pdf
                         Huestis, J (2005): Will the University of Illinois at Chicago Threaten Surrounding Communities?
                         retrieved from file:///Users/latanyaaustini/Desktop/school/parkex/university%20case%20studies/
                         Untitled%20Document.webarchive
                         Kenneth. M, (2000), An Experiential Approach to Creating an Effective Community-University
                         Partnership:The East St. LouisAction Research Project, Cityscape: A Journal of Policy
                         Development and Research ,Volume 5, Number 1



Friday, April 22, 2011
      7.                                                           References

                         Levy, D. K., Comey, J., & Sandra, P. (2006). In the face of gentrification: case studes of local efforts
                         to mitigate displacement. Washington DC: Urban Institute.
        	
               Ley, D., & Dobson, C. (2008). Are there limits to gentrification? The contexts of impeded
                         gentrification in Vancouver. Urban Studies , 2471-2498.
                         Lieberman. J , Miller. J and Kohl.V, (2000),Creating Linkages Among Community-Based
                         Organizations, the University, and Public Housing Entities, Cityscape: A Journal of Policy
                         Development and Research ,Volume 5, Number 1
                         Mah, J.(2009). Can inclusionary zoning help address the shortage of affordable housing in
                         	

 Toronto? CPRN Research Report
                         Milton-Parc Citizens Committee Supports the Citizens of Côte-des-Neiges, http://
                         drupal.comcitmp.org/?q=node/77, downloaded on march 26 2011
                         Moskalyk, A. (2008). The role of public-private partnerships in funding social housing in Canada.
                         Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks. Office Municipal d’Habitation de Montréal: http://
                         www.omhm.qc.ca/ (Retrieved April 1, 2011)
                         Paterson, Elaine and Dunn, Michael (2009) Perspectives on utilizing Community Land Trusts as a
                         vehicle for affordable housing provision, Local Environment Vol. 14, No. 8, September 2009,
                         749–764




Friday, April 22, 2011
      7.                                                         References

                         Pomeroy, S., & Greg, L. (1998). The role of public-rpivate partnerships in producing affordable
                         housing. Ottawa: Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation.
                         Statistics Canada. 2006 Cumulative Profile, Montréal (878 Census tracts) (table), 2006 Census
                         of Population (48 Census Metropolitan Areas/Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts)
                         (database), Using E-STAT (distributor)
                         Student coalition on expansion and gentrification (n.d), retrieved from http://
                         www.columbia.edu/cu/cssn/expansion/info.html
                         Student coalition on expansion and gentrification (n.d), retrieved from rams/
                         SustainableDevelopment/ColumbiaUniversityExpansionProject/tabid/216/Default.aspx
                         Société d’Habitation Québec, Parc de logements sociaux Par municipalité, Statistique 2006.
                         http://www.habitation.gouv.qc.ca/bibliotheque/parc/index_mun.html (Retrieved April 1, 2011).
                         Velázques. S, ( 2009) Columbia University Gentrifying Harlem: Who is the Neighborhood
                         Improving For?, University Thesis
                         Wiewel. W, Gaffikin. F and Morrissey. M, (2000), Community-University Partnerships for
                         Affordable Housing Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research ,Volume 5,
                         Number 1
                         Wake.T ,(n.d), Review of best practices in affordable housing, retrieved from, http://
                         www.growourregion.ca/images/file/Capacity_housing/
                         SGBCAffordableHousingBestPracticesReport.pdf



Friday, April 22, 2011
                         THE END




Friday, April 22, 2011

				
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