ITS Michigan 2010 Stinnett

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					Migrating From Research To Reality

  V2X Communications for Safety
            Presented by
      Ford Motor Company
            20 May 2010

                Joe Stinnett
         Senior Research Engineer
            Active Safety R&D
Fatal Crash Statistics (1975 – 2001)

Active/Passive Safety Benefits

      Active Safety Using
Autonomous Sensing Technology

    Autonomous Sensing Technologies
   Sensors can be expensive
       Sensors have limited use outside auto industry - low volume
       ACC in 1999 - ~$2000 / ACC in 2007 - ~$1500
   Sensors difficult to package inside/outside vehicle
       Sensors can be large
       Restricted mounting locations due to field of view
   Sensors may have difficulty operating in certain conditions
       Cameras in fog, rain, and snow
       Radar in areas of high reflectivity
       Multiple sensors may be needed for detection/verification
   Data from multiple sensors can be computationally
   Sensors have limited field of vision

     Active Safety Using
Cooperative Sensing Technology

          Enabling Technology – DSRC
 Dedicated Short Range Communications
     In 1999, FCC allocates spectrum for “Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)”
     In 2005, FCC dedicates 1 of 7 channels for vehicle safety communications
     Technology standardized as 802.11p “Wireless Access in Vehicular
      Environments (WAVE)”
     Transmission rates from 3 – 27 Mbps

    Cooperative Sensor Technology – V2X

   360° coverage when communicating with similarly
    equipped vehicles
   Greater situational awareness through information
   Up to 1000m of communication range (line-of-sight)
   Leverages existing Wi-Fi communication standards
   High volume, low cost hardware useful in a broad
    range of applications

Cooperative Safety Requires…Cooperation!

Completed V2V Consortium Efforts
   Vehicle Safety Communications – Applications (VSC-A,
    VSC2 Consortium)
     Follow-on to Vehicle Safety Communications (VSC)
     3-Year project completed in 2009
     Focus on pre-deployment elements needed for DSRC-
      based safety
        Over-the-air (OTA) interoperability
        Wireless security
        Protocol standards
        Relative vehicle positioning using GPS
        Communications scalability

    Pre-Deployment Efforts in VSC-A
   Over-the-air Interoperability
       IEEE 802.11p / 1609.4 for PHY+MAC
   Wireless Security
       IEEE 1609.2, consortium developed
        methods/enhancements (Verification On-Demand)
   Protocol Standards
       SAE J2735 for message sets, data frames and data
        elements, encoding/decoding
   Relative GPS positioning
       Exploration of GPS solutions for lane-level relative
        positioning (dead-reckoning, RTK, mixed modes,

    Pre-Deployment Efforts in VSC-A
   Communications Scalability
       DSRC Pods developed to assist with preliminary DSRC
        scalability testing
            Each pod supports two DSRC radios
            Scalability testing supported up to sixty DSRC radios
       Design of Pods allowed for static testing or use on fleet of
        non-DSRC instrumented vehicles (minimize cost)
       Test bed evaluated current communication methods and
        standards in congested environments
       Results exposed deficiencies in communication
        performance with existing communication standards

DSRC Pod used for Scalability Testing

VSC-A Multi-OBE Testing Sample Results
               1609.4               1609.4 - random CCH interval Tx
      1609.4 - timer based

     Dedicated safety channel 172
    Dedicated safety channel 172

    VSC-A Multi-OBE Testing Results
   Complete data analysis and document results
       Technical recommendation on 172 vs CCH for V2V Safety
       Need policy decision to decide deployment approach –
        Single vs Dual Radio OBE

   Take lessons learned into next project (V2V-
    Interoperability/ Track 2)
       Test Bed design and development
       Software design and stability
       Scalability logistics for testing

   Under Track 2: Develop large scale Test Bed to
    supplement simulations for scalability studies
    (channel congestion and mitigation)
    Current V2V Consortium Efforts
   Vehicle – Vehicle Interoperability (V2V-I, VSC3
       Follow-on to Vehicle Safety Communications –
        Applications project
       Track 2 under NHTSA Vehicle-Vehicle Safety
        Application Research Plan
       3-Year project to be completed in 2012
       Support benefits assessment and 2013 NCAP or
        regulation decision by NHTSA
       Focus on remaining deployment challenges for DSRC
           Over-the-air Interoperability
           Communications Scalability
           Security Management

    NHTSA V2V Safety Application Research Plan
   CY 2009                      CY 2010                     CY 2011                       CY 2012                     CY 2013
  Complete CAMP-V SC-A
                                                                                                                                            TRACK 0
                                                                                                                                            Current Activities
          Update Crash          Define Initial Performance                                                                                  TRACK 1
          Scenarios             Requirements                                                                                                Crash Scenario
                                                                                                                                            Frame Work

          IntelliDriveSM                          Select Applications                                                                       TRACK 2
          System                                                                                                                            Interoperability
                                  Complete Message and                Data Authentication                        Final Standards &
          Engineering                                                                                            Protocols
                                  Communication Standards
                           Security & Privacy (Certificate Authority)                     Tests

                           Define Performance                                    Field Trails                                               TRACK 3
                           Measures                                                                                                         Benefits
                                                                                           Performance Requirements                         Assessment
                                            Objective Tests
                                                                                                   Safety                    Regulation
                                                     Adapt ACAT          Conduct Objective         Benefits                   or NCAP
                                                     Methodology         Tests                     Estimate                   Decision

                                             Develop & Build Prototype Safety                                                               TRACK 4
                                             Application Vehicles                                                                           Application
                            DVI Effectiveness –                Driver Workload           Driver                                             TRACK 5
                            Multiple Warnings                  Issues                    Acceptance                                         Driver Issues

      IntelliDriveSM           Retrofit & Aftermarket Req’ts            5.9 Enforcement                        Governance (V2V)             Track 6
      Principles                                                                                                                            IntelliDriveSM
                              Security & Privacy Policy (V2V)                        Business Models                                        Policy Issues
Update Crash                 Define Initial Performance        Develop and
                                                                                     Driver Workload Issues
                                                                                     and Acceptance
                                                                                                                                            Track 7
Scenarios                    Reqs and Measures                 Conduct                                               CVO Regulation         Commercial
                                                               Objective Tests       Field Tests                       Decision             Vehicle

Update Crash                Define Initial Performance
                                                              Develop and
                                                                                    Driver Workload Issues
                                                                                    and Acceptance
                                                                                                                  FTA Implementation
                                                                                                                       Decision             Track    8
Scenarios                   Reqs and Measures                 Objective Tests                                                    (TBD)      Transit Vehicle
                                                                                           Field Tests                                                   17
                                         *Courtesy of Ray Resendes from ITS America Annual Meeting (May 2010, Houston, TX)
Pre-Deployment Efforts in V2V-I
   Over-the-air Interoperability
       Evaluate V2V safety communication and security
        performance using On-Board Equipment (OBE) from
        various manufacturers
       Specify minimum performance requirements for V2V
        safety communications and security (SAE JXXXX)
       Evaluate adequacy of current communication and security
        standards using independent implementations
       Implement remedies for known technology deficiencies
        and provide feedback to standards bodies

                    OTA Interoperability
   Focus: Construction, transmission, receipt, and parsing
    of the OTA message according to the relevant DSRC
                           Supplier X OBE                           Supplier Y OBE

                       GPS               DSRC                   DSRC              GPS
                      Antenna           Antenna                Antenna           Antenna

                      GPS               DSRC                  DSRC              GPS
                     Receiver           Radio                 Radio            Receiver

         Vehicle                                                                             Vehicle
         Access                  OBU                                     OBU                 Access
          Point                                                                               Point

                   User Access         Data Access         User Access         Data Access
                      Point               Point               Point               Point

    Pre-Deployment Efforts in V2V-I
   Communications Scalability
       Deploy up to 200 V2V nodes from various manufacturers
        in a controlled environment
       Move forward from simulations to create a real-world test
        bed of scale that can be centrally managed
       Evaluate standards based on unique manufacturer
        interpretations for:
            Reliability, Prioritization, Technological Stability, and
       Evaluation criteria will likely include Packet Error Rate,
        Number of Consecutive Packets Lost, End-End Message
        Latency, etc…

               Scalability Interoperability
                                                Supplier TBD OBE                                           Supplier TBD OBE

Focus: Communications                              Supplier TBD OBE

                                                        Supplier X OBE
                                                                                                        Supplier TBD OBE

                                                                                                   Supplier Y OBE

channel reliability and                             GPS                DSRC                    DSRC                GPS

minimum performance in
                                                   Antenna            Antenna                 Antenna             Antenna

order to enable                                    GPS                DSRC                    DSRC                GPS

deployment levels of                              Receiver            Radio                   Radio              Receiver

interoperable OBEs                    Vehicle                                                                                  Vehicle
                                      Access                  OBU                                        OBU                   Access
                                       Point                                                                                    Point

   Scales up from low to mid-level              User Access         Data Access          User Access            Data Access
                                                   Point               Point                Point                  Point
   deployment numbers of OBEs

                                                                      Wireless              Wireless
                                                                      Router                Router

   Adds test bed support for remote
   command and control of all OBEs                                               Wireless
        involved in the testing

                                                                                and Control

                                   Scalability Testing
   Test with Both static (red) and moving (green) vehicles
   Multiple Scaling increments (50, 100, 200+ vehicles)
   Employ control and mitigation techniques
   Integrate Security Solution
   Potentially incorporate RSE transmitting at higher power than

NOTE: The animation in this diagram is for illustration purposes only. The actual deployment of static and moving vehicles will
                                     be determined through the activities of this task.
    Pre-Deployment Efforts in V2V-I
   Security Management
       Develop a functional security framework to facilitate
        policy solutions that fall under the IntelliDriveSM policy
        roadmap activities
       Security framework efforts will include:
            Creation and operation of a centralized certificate authority
             including distribution and installation of certificates
            Develop methods to detect, report, and revoke “bad actors”
            Develop methods to create and distribute certificate revocation
            Develop efficient methods to authenticate sender and payload
            Analyze the risks to driver privacy under the chosen framework

 Thank you.

       Joe Stinnett
  Ford Motor Company

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