Document Sample
References Powered By Docstoc
					Appendix A1

                                                                Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 2002b. Central
Chapter 1. Purpose and Need for                                 Puget Sound Urban Centers Report—Overlake
East Link Project                                               Manufacturing/Industrial Center.
                                                                Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 2002c. Central
American Public Transportation Association. 2008.
                                                                Puget Sound Regional Growth Centers Report—Redmond.
2007 Public Transportation Fact Book.                Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 2006. 2006 Sub-
x.cfm, last accessed May 1, 2008.                               County (Small Area) Forecasts of Population and
                                                                Employment, Central Puget Sound Region (Released
City of Bellevue. 2004. Downtown Subarea Plan.
                                                                October 26, 2006). Available at:
City of Bellevue. 2007. Bel-Red Corridor Project Final
Environmental Impact Statement.
                                                                Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 2008. Vision
City of Redmond. 2005. Downtown Neighborhood Plan.              2040. 2008 Update. April, 2008.
                                                                projects/vision/index.htm, accessed May 2008.
City of Redmond. 2007. Overlake Neighborhood Plan
Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement.              Sound Transit. 1996a. Regional Transit Long-Range
City of Seattle. 2007a. Building in Downtown Seattle.
Downtown Development Project Overview Map.                      Sound Transit. 1996b. Sound Move—The Ten-Year
                                                                Regional Transit System Plan. May 1996.
City of Seattle. 2007b. Seattle Transportation and
Analysis Zone (STAZ) Data.                                      Sound Transit. 2005. Regional Transit Long-Range Plan.
                                                                July 2005.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 2004. I-90
Two Way Transit and HOV Operations Project Record of            Sound Transit. 2006. East Corridor High Capacity Transit
Decision. FHWA-WA-EIS-3-01-F. September 2004.                   Mode Analysis History. August 2006.
Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and Federal                Sound Transit. 2008. Sound Transit Ridership Model
Highway Administration (FHWA). 2005. Integration of             Output. 2008
Planning and NEPA Processes. February 22, 2005.
                                                                Transit Cooperative Research Program. 2003. Transit
King County. 2007. King County Metro Transit                    Capacity and Quality of Service Manual. 2nd Edition.
Automated Vehicle Locator Data. 2007.                           Report 100. Washington, DC.
King, Emil. Planner with the City of Bellevue, Personal         Washington State Department of Transportation
communication on new and future development in                  (WSDOT). 2004. Amendment to the 1976 I-90
Bellevue. May 2008.                                             Memorandum Agreement. Available in Sound Transit
                                                                (2006), Appendix B.
Puget Sound Council of Governments (PSCOG; now
Puget Sound Regional Council). 1981. Light Rail                 Washington State Department of Transportation
Element: A Feasibility Assessment.                              (WSDOT). 2006. I-90 Travel Analysis, Preliminary Data
                                                                and Discussion: Report to the Sound Transit Board of
Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 1995. Vision
                                                                Directors. April 27, 2006.
2020 1995 Update. May 1995.
                                                                Washington State Department of Transportation
Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 2001.
                                                                (WSDOT) and Sound Transit. 2002. Trans-Lake
Destination 2030: Metropolitan Transportation Plan for the
                                                                Washington Study. 2002.
Central Puget Sound Region. Available at:                 Washington State Department of Transportation
May 24, 2001.                                                   (WSDOT) and Sound Transit. 2004. I-90 Two Way
                                                                Transit and HOV Operations: Volume I, Final
Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 2002a. Central
                                                                Environmental Impact Statement. May 21, 2004.
Puget Sound Regional Growth Centers Report—Bellevue.

East Link Project Draft EIS                              A1-1
December 2008
Appendix A1 References

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census            King County Metro. 2008. Personal Communication.
(U.S. Bureau of the Census). 2000. United States             E-mail from Robin Anderson, Senior Transportation
Census 2000. Washington, D.C.                                Planner at King County Metro, to CH2M HILL staff
                                                             regarding Mercer Island Park-and-Ride utilization.
                                                             February 25, 2008.
Chapter 2. Alternatives
Considered                                                   Korve, H. W., J. I. Farran, D. M. Mansel, H. S.
                                                             Levinson, T. Chira-Chavala, and D. R. Ragland. 1996.
King County Metro. 2006. TransitNow Program.                 TCRP Report 17: Integration of Light Rail Transit into City
November 2006.                                               Streets. Transportation Research Board of the National
                                                             Academies. Washington, D.C.
Sound Transit. 1996. Sound Move—The Ten-Year
Regional Transit System Plan. May 1996.                      Port of Seattle. 2008. Eastside Rail Corridor.
Sound Transit. 2006a. Environmental Scoping
                                                             siderail.shtml. Last accessed September 5, 2008.
Information Report. September 1, 2006.
                                                             Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 2007. Vision
Sound Transit. 2006b. Sound Transit Board Briefing Book,
                                                             2040 Final Environmental Impact Statement. April 2008.
Light Rail Alternatives. November 2006.
                                                             Sound Transit. 2002. Central Link Light Rail Transit
Sound Transit. 2006c. East Link Alternatives Evaluation
                                                             Initial Segment Project Environmental Assessment.
Report, Seattle to Bellevue to Redmond. December 2006.
                                                             February 2002
Sound Transit. 2006d. Scoping Summary Report.
                                                             Sound Transit. 2006. North Link Final Supplemental
December 2006.
                                                             EIS. March, 2006
Sound Transit, 2008. Sound Transit 2 Planning:
                                                             Sound Transit. 2007. East Link Transit Integration Plan.
Sustainability Assessment of Sound Transit 2 Plan.
September 18, 2008.                                          Transit Cooperative Research Program. 2003. Transit
                                                             Capacity and Quality of Service Manual.
Washington State Department of Transportation
(WSDOT). 1976. Memorandum Agreement. Signed by               Transportation Research Board (TRB). 1999. “Light
City of Seattle, City of Mercer Island, City of Bellevue,    Rail Service, Vehicular and Pedestrian Safety.” TCRP
King County Metro, and Washington State Highway              Research Results Digest 34. Transportation Research
Commission.                                                  Board of the National Academies. Washington DC.
                                                             July 1999
Washington State Department of Transportation
(WSDOT). 2004. Amendment to the 1976 I-90                    Transportation Research Board (TRB). 2000. Highway
Memorandum Agreement. Available in Sound Transit             Capacity Manual.
(2006), Appendix B.
                                                             U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Transit
                                                             Administration and Sound Transit. Central Link Light
Chapter 3. Transportation                                    Rail Transit Project Environmental Assessment Initial
                                                             Segment. February 2002.
Environment and Consequences
                                                             Washington State Department of Transportation
City of Bellevue. 2007. Bel-Red Corridor Project Final       (WSDOT). 2005. Washington Transportation Plan Update:
Environmental Impact Statement. Bellevue, Washington.        Freight Movement. December 2005.
July 2007.
                                                             Washington State Department of Transportation
City of Redmond. 2007. Overlake Neighborhood Plan            (WSDOT). 2006. Interstate 90 Center Roadway Study.
Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement.           July 2006.
King County Metro. 2007. King County Metro Transit           Washington State Department of Transportation
Park-and-Ride Utilization Report, Second Quarter 2007.
                                                             (WSDOT), 2007. Roadway average daily traffic volume
July 2007.
                                                             data, 2006. http://www.wsdot.gove/Northwest/
King County Metro. 2008. Automatic Passenger                 TrafficVolume/RampAndRoadway2006.htm Accessed
Counter Data: Average weekday daily passenger                2007.
loads across Lake Washington February 9 through
                                                             Washington State Department of Transportation
May 30, 2008. February, 2008.
                                                             (WSDOT). 2008. WSDOT 95% Reliable Travel Times.

                                                      A1-2                                          East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                                                               December 2008
                                                                                                       Appendix A1 References                   Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 2001.
reliability. Last accessed September 5, 2008.                   Destination 2030: Metropolitan Transportation Plan for the
                                                                Central Puget Sound Region. Available at:
Washington State Department of Transportation
                                                       May 24, 2001.
(WSDOT) and Sound Transit. 2004. I-90 Two Way
Transit and HOV Operations: Volume I, Final                     Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). 1996.
Environmental Impact Statement. May 21, 2004.                   Development near Transit: An International Perspective.
                                                                Available at:
Chapter 4. Affected Environment                                 16-4.pdf. Accessed June 21, 2007.
and Environmental Consequences
                                                                4.3 Economics
4.1 Acquisitions, Displacements, and                            Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2007. Unemployment Data.
Relocations                                                     Available at:
City of Bellevue. 2007. Bel-Red Corridor Project Final          Accessed August 20, 2007.
Environmental Impact Statement. Bellevue, WA. July              Cervero, R. 2004. Development in the United States:
2007.                                                           Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects. TCRP Report 102.
Colliers International. 2007a. The Knowledge Report:            Transit Cooperative Research Program, Transportation
Eastside Office. Second Quarter 2007.                           Research Board of the National Academies,
                                                                Washington, D.C.
Colliers International. 2007b. The Knowledge Report:
Eastside Industrial. Second Quarter 2007.                       CH2M HILL. 2007a. Sound Transit East Link Project,
                                                                Transportation Discipline Report. Prepared for Sound
GVA Kidder Matthews. 2007. Seattle Real Estate Market           Transit. December 2007.
Review: Retail, Mid-Year 2007.
                                                                CH2M HILL. 2007b. Construction Impact Report. Table:
Northwest Multiple Listing Service (MLS). 2007.                 Percent Construction Mat Equip.xls spreadsheet.
Northwest MLS. Available at: http://sea.                        Prepared for Sound Transit. October 2007.
xprp_44CFQbFXgodrmsAvA. Updated daily.                          City of Bellevue. 2007. 2007-2008 Preliminary Budget.
Accessed October 3, 2007.                                       Available at:
4.2 Land Use                                                    Accessed August 7, 2007.
City of Bellevue. 2006. City of Bellevue Comprehensive          City of Mercer Island. 2007. 2007-2008 Budget.
Plan: Volume 2, Subarea Plans and Transportation Facility       Available at:
Plans. Bellevue, WA.                                   Accessed
                                                                August 7, 2007.
City of Mercer Island. 2005. Comprehensive Plan of the
City of Mercer Island. Mercer Island, WA.                       City of Redmond. 2007. 2007-2008 Adopted Budget.
                                                                Available at:
City of Redmond. 2006. Redmond Comprehensive Plan.
Redmond, WA.
                                                                e/budget/0708adoptedindex.asp. Accessed August 7,
City of Seattle. 1998. Seattle Station Area Planning,           2007.
Market Analysis, and Development Strategies. Seattle,
                                                                City of Seattle. 2007a. 2007 Adopted and 2008
                                                                Endorsed Budget. Available at:
City of Seattle. 2005. Seattle’s Comprehensive Plan:  
Toward a Sustainable Seattle. Seattle, WA.                      ptedbudget/default.htm. Accessed August 7, 2007.
King County. 2004. King County Comprehensive Plan.              City of Seattle. 2007b. Seattle Transportation and
Updated July 25, 2005.                                          Analysis Zone (STAZ) Data.
Overlake Hospital Medical Center. 2005. Overlake                King County Department of Assessments. 2007.
Hospital Medical Center Master Plan. Bellevue, WA.              Available at:
Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 1995. Vision     
2020 1995 Update. May 1995.                                     005/TaxStats/05CompareState.pdf. Accessed
                                                                September 26, 2007.

East Link Project Draft EIS                              A1-3
December 2008
Appendix A1 References

Minnesota IMPLAN Group, Inc. 2007. Construction                 4.6 Air Quality
Multipliers for King, Snohomish and Pierce Counties.
                                                                Bradley, M.J., & Associates. 2007. Comparison of Energy
Peterson et al. 2006. Freight Movements on Washington           Use & Emissions from Different Transportation Modes.
State Highways: Comparison of Results 1993 to 2003.             Accessed via web on May 2007. Available at: http://
Pflum, E.K. 2004. Employment Density in the Puget
Sound Region. Available at:                                     California Department of Transportation. 1979.              Caltrans CALINE3 – A Versatile Dispersion Model for
03-04dp/employment_density_KP.pdf. Accessed                     Predicting Air Pollutant Levels Near Highways and
September 26, 2007.                                             Arterial Streets. November 1979.
Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 2006. 2006 Sub-            Cervero, Robert. 2008. Effects of TOD on Housing
County (Small Area) Forecasts of Population and                 Parking and Travel. TCRP Report 128. August 1, 2008.
Employment, Central Puget Sound Region (Released
                                                                Climate Registry. 2008. General Reporting Protocol,
October 26th, 2006). Available at:
                                                                Version 1.1. Available at:
Accessed May 17, 2007.
                                                                pdf. Accessed on May 30, 2008.
Sommers, P. 2003. Regional Industry Growth Patterns:
                                                                Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 2006.
Trends in Bellevue, the Seattle Central Business District,
                                                                Transportation Conformity Guidance for Qualitative
and the Rest of King County. Technical Memorandum
                                                                Hot-Spot Analyses in PM2.5 and PM10 Nonattainment
for the City of Bellevue.
                                                                and Maintenance Areas. March 2006.
Sound Transit. 2007. Summary of Estimated ST2 Program
                                                                King County Metro. 2007 Active Fleet Summary
Costs and Revenues.
                                                                KJS Associates, Inc. 1995. Guidebook for Conformity: Air
Washington State Department of Transportation
                                                                Quality Assistance for Nonattainment Areas. Final Draft
(WSDOT). 2005. Washington Transportation Plan Update:
                                                                Report. May 1995.
Freight Movement. December 2005.
                                                                Munkers, Joy. 2008. Community Transit
Washington State Department of Transportation
                                                                representative. Personal communications with Kevin
(WSDOT). 2007. Managing and Reducing Congestion
                                                                Murphy/CH2M HILL on April 25, 2008.
in Puget Sound: Performance Audit. October 2007.
Available at:                                                   Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 2001.               Destination 2030: Metropolitan Transportation Plan
reportfiles/ar1000006.pdf. Accessed on: October 25,             for the Central Puget Sound Region. Available at:
2007.                                                  May 24, 2001.
                                                                Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 2005.
4.4 Social Impacts, Community
                                                                2005-2007 Regional Transportation Improvement
Facilities, and Neighborhoods                                   Program. October 2005.
U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Data sets downloaded from
                                                                Puget Sound Clean Air Agency (PSCAA). 2007. 2006
Census American Factfinder. Available at:
                                                                Air Quality Data Summary. Available at www.
lang=en. Accessed September 2007.
                                                                RSMeans Building Construction Cost Data, 65th Annual
American Public Transportation Association. 2008.
                                                                Edition. Construction Publishers & Consultants,
2007 Public Transportation Fact Book.
                                                                Kingston, MA. 2007.
x.cfm. Last accessed May 1, 2008.                               Sacramento Air Quality Management District. Road
                                                                Construction Emissions Model Version 5.2. 2007.
4.5 Visual and Aesthetic Resources                              South Coast Air Quality Management District
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 1981.Visual              (SCAQMD). 1993. California Environmental Quality
Impact Assessment for Highway Projects. Office of               Act (CEQA) Air Quality Handbook.
Environmental Policy. March 1981.
                                                                Speis, Bill. 2004. Pierce Transit representative. Personal
                                                                communications with Kevin Murhpy/CH2M HILL on
                                                                April 28, 2008.

                                                         A1-4                                          East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                                                                  December 2008
                                                                                                    Appendix A1 References

Urban Land Institute, 2008. Growing Cooler: the              National Institute of Occupational Safety Health
Evidence on Urban Development and Climate                    Association (NIOSHA). 1998. Publication No. 98-126,
Change. Washington, D.C., 2008                               Occupational Noise Exposure, June 1998.
U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. 2004. National     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1974.
Transportation Statistics 2003. Table 4-49. March 2004.      Information on Levels of Environmental Noise Requisite to
Available at                Protect Public Health and Welfare with an Adequate
national_transportation_statistics/2003/index.html.          Margin of Safety," EPA/ONAC 550/9-74-004. March,
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). 2007.
Transportation Energy Data Book, Version 26.
                                                             4.8 Ecosystem Resources
Available at:
Accessed on May 27, 2008.                                    City of Bellevue. 2008. Representatives attendance at
                                                             East Link Resource Agency Meeting on March 4, 2008.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2003.
U.S. EPA Mobile6: Mobile Source Emission Factor              Fisher, L. 2007. Biologist with the Washington State
Model. August 2003.                                          Department of Fish and Wildlife. Personal
                                                             communication on the status of construction windows
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2007a.           on Lake Washington. November 17, 2007.
About Air Toxics website. EPA Office of Air and
Radiation. Available at                                      Hobbs, M. 2007. Friends of Marymoor Park, Redmond,                    WA. Personal communication. April 23, 2007.
Accessed June 6, 2007.                                       Hruby, T. 2004. Washington State Wetland Rating System
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2007b.           for Western Washington Revised. Publication 04-06-025.
Six Common Air Pollutants website. EPA Office of Air         Washington State Department of Ecology. August
and Radiation. Available at                                  2004. Accessed                   Kerwin, J. 2001. Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Limiting
October 11, 2007.                                            Factors Report for the Lake Washington Watershed, WRIA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2007c.           8. Washington Conservation Commission, Olympia,
Six Common Air Pollutants website. EPA Office of Air         WA.
and Radiation. Available at                                  U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 2001. NAAQS               Streamlined Endangered Species Act Consultation:
standard.                                                    Programmatic Biological Evaluation, Phase 1. Updated
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2008.            work windows for Lake Washington. Seattle District,                             Regulatory Branch, Seattle Washington.
resources/calculator.html. Accessed August 27, 2008.         U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2007. National
Washington Department of Community, Trade and                Bald Eagle Management Guidelines. U.S. Fish and
Economic Development. 2007. Available at:                    Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. Accessed April 2008.                 Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
Washington State Department of Transportation                (WDFW). 2007. Priority Habitat and Species Database.
(WSDOT). 2005. Washington State Intersection                 Available at:
Screening Tool. WASIST Version 1.0. October 2005.            Accessed 2007.
                                                             Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
4.7 Noise and Vibration                                      (WDFW). 2001. Priority Habitat and Species Management
Federal Transit Administration (FTA). 2006. Transit          Recommendations: Volume IV, Birds. Bald Eagle
Noise and Vibration Impact Assessment. Report FTA-VA-        (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Available at:
90-1003-06. May 2006.                              
Washington State Department of Transportation                4.9 Water Resources
(WSDOT). 2006. Traffic Noise Abatement Policy and
Procedures. March 2006.                                      City of Bellevue. 2002. As-Built Survey, City of
                                                             Bellevue Storm Drain System. Utilities Department,
Wilson, Ihrig & Associates Inc. 2007. Sound Transit          Engineering Division, System Planning and Mapping,
Kinkysharyo LRV Force Density Level Memorandum.              April 24, 2002.
November 30, 2007.

East Link Project Draft EIS                           A1-5
December 2008
Appendix A1 References

City of Bellevue. 2007a. Bel-Red Corridor Project Final       4.10 Energy Impacts
Environmental Impact Statement. Bellevue, WA. July
                                                              California Department of Transportation
                                                              (CALTRANS). 1983. Energy and Transportation Systems.
City of Bellevue. 2007b. Drainage Basin Maps and              July 1983.
Facts. Available at:
                                                              Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 2007. Safe,
                                                              Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity
Accessed August 27, 2007.
                                                              Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). Available at:
Horizon Systems Corporation (Horizon). 2007.        
National Hydrography Dataset Plus. Available at:              Accessed November 16, 2007.
                                                              Puget Sound Energy. 2006 Annual Report. Available at:
Accessed August 27, 2007.
                                                     Accessed November 15, 2007.
Johnson, R. 2007. Seattle Public Utilities. Personal
                                                              Seattle City Light. 2006. 2006 Annual Report: Defining
communication. June 7, 2007.
                                                              Stewardship. Seattle, WA.
King County. 2007a. Streams Water Quality Data.
                                                              U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). 2007. Transportation
Available at:
                                                              Energy Data Book, Version 26. Available at:
                                                     Accessed on
Accessed August 27, 2007.
                                                              May 27, 2008.
King County. 2007b. Hydrologic Information Center.
                                                              Washington State Department of Community Trade
Available at:
                                                              and Economic Development (CTED). 2007. 2007
                                                              Biennial Energy Report. Available at: http://www.
Accessed August 27, 2007.
King County. 2004. Impervious/Impacted Surface                /DesktopDefault.aspx. Accessed November 15, 2007.
Interpretation. Available at:               4.11 Geology and Soils
/MultispectralClassificationAndProductsSpecification          American Association of State Highway and
s.doc. Accessed October 22, 2007.                             Transportation Officials (AASHTO). 2006. Guide
Parametrix. 2007. Federal Emergency Management                Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design,
Agency Letter of Map Revision – Lower Bear Creek.             Subcommittee for Seismic Effects on Bridges, T-3, March
Prepared for the Washington State Department of               2007 for new bridges and the FHWA Manual titled
Transportation. August 2007.                                  Seismic Retrofitting Manual for Highway Structures.
                                                              December 2006.
United States Geological Survey (USGS). National
Water Information System. Available at:                       Booth, D.B., K.A. Troost, A.P. Wisher, compilers. 2006. Accessed August               Geologic Map of King County. GeoMapNW.
27, 2007.                                                     City of Bellevue. 2005. City of Bellevue GIS
Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology).             Information.
2005. Stormwater Management Manual for Western                City of Bellevue. 2007. City of Bellevue GIS
Washington. Olympia, WA. February 2005.                       Information.
Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology).             City of Redmond. 2007. City of Redmond GIS
2004. 2004 Water Quality 303(d) List for                      Information.
Cedar/Sammamish Water Resource Inventory Area
(WRIA) 8. Available at:                                       City of Seattle. 2002. City of Seattle GIS Information.               City of Seattle. 2007. City of Seattle GIS Information.
3d/w8-303d.pdf. Accessed August 27, 2007.
                                                              Jacobs Associates. 2007. Sound Transit East Corridor
Washington State Department of Transportation                 HCT, Draft Summary Geotechnical Report for Preliminary
(WSDOT). 2006. Highway Runoff Manual. Publication             Route Selection. Submitted to CH2M HILL. June 26,
M31-16. Olympia, WA.                                          2007.
Watson, R. 2007. City of Bellevue Utilities Department.       King County. 2006. King County GIS Information.
Personal communication. March 9, 2007.

                                                       A1-6                                          East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                                                                December 2008
                                                                                                      Appendix A1 References

Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). 2007.           Golder Associates, Inc. 2004. Phase II Environmental Site
Web Soil Survey. Available at:                                 Assessment for 10610 NE 8th Street Site, Superblock              Project, Bellevue, Washington. November 1, 2004.
vey.aspx. Accessed September 2007.
                                                               Hart Crowser. 1990. Diesel Tank Remediation, Eastside
Troost, K.G., and A.P. Wisher. 2006. Geologic Map of           Disposal, Bellevue, Washington. Hart Crowser, Seattle,
Mercer Island, Washington. City of Mercer Island and           WA. June 21, 1990.
                                                               Hart Crowser. 1997. Limited Phase II Soil and
Troost, K.G., D.B. Booth, A.P. Wisher, and S.A. Shimel.        Groundwater Assessment, Bellevue Way Cleaners, 103
2005. The Geologic Map of Seattle – A Progress Report.         Bellevue Way, Bellevue, Washington. Hart Crowser,
USGS Open File Report 2005-1252, Version 1.0.                  Seattle, WA. March 14, 1997.
United States Geological Survey (USGS). 2007.                  Hart Crowser. 2001. Supplemental Groundwater
Quaternary fault and fold database for the United              Monitoring Well Installation, Capri Property (Bellevue
States. Available at:                                          Way PCE Plume), Bellevue, WA. Hart Crowser, Seattle,                 WA. October 26, 2001.
Accessed September 2007.                                       Hart Crowser. 2005. Groundwater Monitoring Results for
                                                               February 2005, Capri Foods and Proposed Safeway Project
4.12 Hazardous Materials                                       Site. Hart Crowser, Seattle, WA. March 17, 2005.
City of Redmond. 2004. Bear Creek Parkway
                                                               Marsh Industrial Research. 1996. Update on Site
Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement.
                                                               Assessment and Clean-Up from Previous Tank Removal at
Redmond, WA. March 2004.
                                                               1021 118th Ave SE. Marsh Industrial Research, Fircrest,
Dalton, Olmsted and Fuglevand, Inc. 1994. Ground-              WA. October 7, 1996.
Water Monitoring Wells and Soil-Gas Probe Results,
Desimone Property, 1614 Bellevue Way SE, Bellevue, WA.         Maul Foster Alongi. 2003. 2002 Remediation System
                                                               Performance Report, Former Unocal Service Station 0587,
November 1, 1994.
                                                               Bellevue, WA. Maul Foster Alongi, Seattle, WA.
EMCON Northwest, Inc. 1994. Independent Remedial               January 28, 2003.
Action Report, Former UNOCAL Service Station 4384,
Bellevue, Washington. January 11, 1994.                        O'Sullivan Omega. 1993. Independent Action Cleanup
                                                               Report, Eastside Disposal, 969 118th Ave SE. O'Sullivan
ENSR Corporation. 2006. First Semester Groundwater             Omega, Seattle, WA. September 16, 1993.
Monitoring Report, 2006, Former Unocal Service Station
0587, Bellevue, Washington. ENSR Corporation,                  PES Environmental, Inc. 2006. Site Characterization
Redmond, WA. June 28, 2006                                     Report Bellevue and Main Property, Bellevue, Washington.
                                                               August 17, 2006.
Environmental Data Resources, Inc. 2007. Sound
Transit East Link, King WA. Inquiry number 01854411.1r.        SCS Engineers. 2006. Annual Groundwater Monitoring
Environmental Data Resources, Inc. Milford, CT.                Report, Former Hollywood Cleaners, Overlake Village
February 15, 2007.                                             Shopping Center, TCP Identification No. NW0584. SCS
                                                               Engineers, Bellevue WA. January 23, 2006.
Environmental Resolutions, Inc. 2006a. Confirmation
Boring Report, Former Exxon Station 7-0337, 1960 148th         Seattle-King County Department of Public Health.
Avenue Northeast, Redmond Washington. September 22,            1995. Letter to Tom Dunkin, Dunkin and Bush
2006.                                                          Painting, Inc., regarding site hazard assessment of
                                                               Dunkin & Bush Property, 17343 NE 70th St, Redmond,
Environmental Resolutions, Inc. 2006b. Exxon Mobil             WA. Letter dated January 25, 1995.
Oil Corporation Groundwater Monitoring Report.
November 7, 2006.                                              Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology).
                                                               2004. Letter to Mr. John Morris II, Davey Tree Service,
Floyd Snider. 2007. Results of 2006 Groundwater                regarding Davey Tree Service, 1021 118th Avenue SE,
Sampling, Shops at First Street, 100 108th Avenue              Underground Storage Tank #3016, changing site status
Northeast, Bellevue, WA. Floyd Snider, Seattle, WA.            from "Unknown" to "Reported Cleaned Up". Letter
January 12, 2007.                                              dated May 12, 2004.
Floyd Snider McCarthy, Inc. 2003. Cleanup Action               Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology).
Report, Shops at First Street. Floyd Snider McCarthy,          2002. Professional Certification Confirming Environmental
Inc., Seattle, WA. December 22, 2003.                          Remedial Action by Farallon Consulting, L.L.C., Cleaning

East Link Project Draft EIS                             A1-7
December 2008
Appendix A1 References

Center of Redmond, 15796 Redmond Way, Redmond, WA.            Seattle Fire Department. 2007. Fire Stations. Available
December 3, 2002.                                             at:
Washington State Department of Transportation
(WSDOT). 2007. Environmental Procedures Manual.               Seattle Police Department. 2007. Crime Stats. Available
Publication M31-11. Section 447, Hazardous Materials.         at:
April 2007.                                                   Accessed September 12, 2007.
                                                              Seattle School District. 2007. Schools. Available at:
4.13 Electromagnetic Fields
Brecher, A. 1995. A White Paper On: Health Effects from       x.dxml. Accessed September 10, 2007.
Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) and Radio-Frequency
Radiation (RFR) Associated with Transportation Systems:       Sound Transit. 2007a. Sound Transit. 2007b. Transit
An Emerging Cross-Modal Issue. USDOT/RSPA/Volpe               Service Integration Plan.
Center, Cambridge, MA.                                        Sound Transit. 2007c. Fire/Life Safety Report Mount
LTK Engineering Services. 2006. Sound Transit Link            Baker and First Hill Tunnels Final Draft Report.
Light Rail Project North Link Hi-Lo Mitigation EMI            University Link Safety and Security Management Plan,
Report. Report Number LTK.ST.0406.001. Seattle, WA.           SSMP 2007.
April 2006.
                                                              Tubbs, C. 2007. Deputy Chief, Mercer Island Fire
4.14 Public Services                                          Department, Mercer Island, WA. Personal
                                                              communication. December 5, 2007.
Bellevue School District. 2007. Schools Directory.
Available at:                                                 Washington Association of Sheriffs and Police                 Chiefs. 2007. Crime Statistics. Available
Accessed September 10, 2007.                                  at:
                                                              atistics. Accessed September 12, 2007.
City of Bellevue. 2007. Bellevue Fire Stations.
Available at:                   4.15 Utilities
fire_stations.htm. Accessed September 4, 2007.
                                                              CH2MHILL. 2007. Sound Transit East Link Project.
City of Mercer Island. 2007. Fire and EMS Operations.         Utilities Technical Memorandum. Prepared for Sound
Available at:              Transit. September 25, 2007.
Page.asp?NavID=2055. Accessed September 4, 2007.
City of Redmond. 2007. City Maps - Public Safety.             4.16 Historic and Archaeological
Available at:                    Resources
cityservices/citymaps.asp. Accessed September 4,              Greengo, R.E. 1966. Archaeological Site Survey Form
2007.                                                         for 45KI8. On file at State Department of Archaeology
City of Seattle. 1999. Staying on Track: Review of Public     and Historic Preservation, Olympia, Washington.
Safety and Security on Light Rail Systems. Seattle            Hanscom, D.W. 1979. Justice William White House,
Strategic Planning Office.                                    National Register of Historic Places nomination. On
Lake Washington School District. 2007. Schools.               file at State Department of Archaeology and Historic
Available at:              Preservation, Olympia, WA.
default.aspx. Accessed September 10, 2007.                    Hardy, N. 2001. Historic Downtown Redmond Walking
Liggett, R., A. Loukaltou-Sidens, and H. Iseki. 2002.         Tour. Redmond Historical Society and Eastside
The Geography of Transit Crime: Documentation and             Heritage Center, Redmond, WA.
Evaluation of Crime Incidence On and Around the Green         Krafft, K. 1991. Frederick W. Winters, National
Line Stations in Los Angeles.                                 Register of Historic Places nomination. On file at State
Mercer Island School District. 2007. Schools. Available       Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation,
at: Accessed              Olympia, WA.
September 10, 2007.                                           Kreisman, L. 1979. Will H. Thompson House, National
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 2007.            Register of Historic Places nomination. On file at State
NFPA 130: Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit Systems.        Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation,
2007 Edition.                                                 Olympia, WA.

                                                       A1-8                                        East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                                                              December 2008
                                                                                                        Appendix A1 References

Lee, G., and S. Mathison. 1978. United States                   agencies. Council on Environmental Quality,
Immigration Station and Assay Office, National                  Executive Office of the President, Washington, D.C.
Register of Historic Places nomination. On file at State
                                                                Federal Highway Administration. 2003. Interim
Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation,
                                                                Guidance: Questions and Answers Regarding the
Olympia, WA.
                                                                Consideration of Indirect and Cumulative Impacts in the
Phelps, M. 1978. Public Works in Seattle: A Narrative           NEPA Process. Federal Highway Administration,
History. Kingsport Press, Seattle, WA.                          Washington, D.C.
Schniewind, A.P., R. Baird, and D.P. Kronkright. 1996.          ICF Consulting. 2005. Executive Order 13274 Indirect
Rescuing Dudley Carter’s Goddess of the Forest. 1996            and Cumulative Impacts Work Group Draft Baseline
Wooden Artifacts Group of the American Institute for            Report. Transportation Infrastructure Streamlining
Conservation Postprints, Norfolk, Virginia. Available           Task Force, U.S. Department of Transportation,
at:                  Washington, D.C.
_schniewind.pdf. Accessed 19 March 2007.                        National Cooperative Highway Research Program
Soderberg, L. 1980. Mount Baker Ridge Tunnel, HAER              (NCHRP). 2006. Indirect and Cumulative Impact
Inventory form.                                                 Analysis. NCHRP Project 25-25, Task 11. Report
                                                                prepared by Megan Stanley, PB Consult, for the
4.17 Parkland and Open Space                                    American Association of State Highway and
Recreation and Conservation Office (RCO). 2004.                 Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Standing
Manual 7: Funded Projects, polices and the Project              Committee on the Environment. National Cooperative
Agreements. March 17, 2004.                                     Highway Research Program, Transportation Research
                                                                Board, Washington, D.C.
Recreation and Conservation Office (RCO). 2008.
Projects receiving RCO funds were located in the RCO            Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 1995. Vision
web base maps,                     2020 1995 Update. May 1995.
July 30, 2008.                                                  Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 2001.
USDOT Letter to WSDOT on the Consideration of the               Destination 2030: Metropolitan Transportation Plan for the
I-90 Trail as a transportation facility, November 25,           Central Puget Sound Region. Available at:
2002.                                                  May 24, 2001.

See references in 4.2, Land Use, for listings of                U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1999.
                                                                Consideration of Cumulative Impacts in EPA Review of
Comprehensive Plans for Seattle, Mercer Island,
                                                                NEPA Documents. Publication 315-R-99-002. U.S.
Bellevue, Redmond and King County.
                                                                Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Federal
                                                                Activities, Washington, D.C.
Chapter 5. Cumulative Impacts
                                                                U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2008.
City of Bellevue. 2006. City of Bellevue Comprehensive
Plan. Bellevue, WA.                                             resources/calculator.html. Accessed August 27, 2008.
City of Bellevue. 2007. Bel-Red Corridor Subarea Plan.          Puget Sound Energy. 2007. Integrated Resource Plan.
Bellevue, WA.
                                                                Seattle City Light. 2006. Integrated Resource Plan.
City of Redmond. 2006. Redmond Comprehensive Plan.
                                                                Urban Land Institute. 2008. Growing Cooler: the
Redmond, WA.                                                    Evidence on Urban Development and Climate Change.
Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). 1997.                   Washington, D.C.
Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National
                                                                Washington State Department of Ecology (DOE). 2007.
Environmental Policy Act. Council on Environmental
                                                                UW Climate Impacts Group. King County News Release.
Quality, Executive Office of the President,
                                                                June 28, 2007.
Washington, D.C.
Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). 2005.
Guidance on the Consideration of Past Actions in
Cumulative Effects Analysis. Memorandum from James
L. Connaughton, Chairman, CEQ, to heads of federal

East Link Project Draft EIS                              A1-9
December 2008
Appendix A1 References

Chapter 6, Alternatives Evaluation
City of Bellevue. 2003. City of Bellevue Downtown
Implementation Plan. Bellevue, WA. June 2003.
City of Bellevue. 2007. Bel-Red Corridor Project Final
Environmental Impact Statement. Bellevue, WA. July
Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 1995. Vision
2020. 1995 Update. May 1995.
Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). 2001.
Destination 2030: Metropolitan Transportation Plan for the
Central Puget Sound Region. Available at: May 24, 2001.
Sound Transit. 2005. Regional Transit Long-Range Plan.
July 2005.

                                                         A1-10   East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                            December 2008
Appendix A2

List of Preparers
A2.1 Public Agencies                                      M.B.A., Information Systems Management, Baylor
                                                          University (1994)
Federal Transit Administration (FTA)                      M.S., Transportation Engineering, University of
                                                          Washington, (2003)
John Witmer, Community Planner
B.S., Economics, University of Kansas (1984)              Steve Kennedy, Senior Environmental Planner
M.P.A., University of Washington (1990)                   B.A., Urban Studies, Occidental College (1972)
                                                          M.U.P., Urban Planning, University of Oregon
Washington State Department of                            (1978)
Paul Krueger, Environmental Review                        Ann Mueller, Community Outreach Coordinator,
I-90 Corridor and Sound Transit Environmental             AICP
Manager                                                   B.S. Applied Behavioral Sciences, UC Davis (1993)
B.A., Art History, Beloit College (1992)                  M.U.P. Master of Urban Planning, University of
M.L.A., Landscape Architecture, University of             California Los Angeles (1996)
Washington (1996)                                         Leonard McGhee, Project Manager
                                                          B.A., Social Science, University of California, Irvine
A2.2 Sound Transit                                        (1976)
                                                          B.A., Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine
Brooke Belman, Community Outreach                         (1976)
Program Manager                                           M.U.P., Urban Planning, California State Polytechnic
B.A., History, University of Georgia (1997)               University, Pomona (1983)
Don Billen, Project Manager                               Andrea Tull, Senior Planner
B.A., Peace and Global Studies, Earlham College           B.A. English, University of Washington
(1989)                                                    B.A. Political Science, University of Washington
M.P.A., Master of Public Administration, University       M.P.A., Master of Public Administration, University
of Washington (1996)                                      of Washington
M.S., Transportation Engineering, University of
                                                          Michael Williams, Link Project Development
Washington (1997)
Elma A. Borbe, Environmental Planner                      B.A., Public Administration, San Diego State
B.A. Community, Environment and Planning,                 University (1977)
University of Washington (1987)                           M.U.P, Masters of Urban Planning, University of
M.U.P. Master of Urban Planning, University of            Washington (1980)
Washington (1992)
                                                          Tom Wilson, PE. Link Right-of-Way Engineer
Sue Comis, Project Manager                                BA Washington State University 1988
B.A., Psychology, Reed College (1975)
M.U.P., Master of Urban Planning, University of
                                                          A2.3 Sound Transit Consultants
Washington (1980)
James Irish, Link Environmental Manager                   Bolima Drafting
B.A., Philosophy, State University of New York            Kelly McGee, CAD Manager
(1977)                                                    B.S., Psychology (1993)
M.L.A., Landscape Architecture, University of
Washington (1989)                                         CH2M HILL (Primary Consultant for EIS)
                                                          Donald G. Anderson
Brant Lyerla, Project Development Coordinator
                                                          B.S., Civil Engineering (1966)
B.A., Architecture, Washington University in St.
                                                          M.S., Civil Engineering (Geotechnical) (1968)
Louis (1993)
                                                          Ph.D., Civil Engineering (Geotechnical) (1974)

East Link Project Draft EIS                        A2-1
December 2008
Appendix A2 List of Preparers

Mark Assam, Environmental Justice                       Jodi Ketelsen, Purpose and Need/Planning
B.S., Biology/Botany (1990)                             Manager/Cumulative Impacts
                                                        B.S., Landscape Architecture (1989)
Mary Beth Baxter, Air Quality
                                                        MCPL, City Planning (1994)
B.A., Chemistry (1988)
                                                        MLAR, Landscape Architecture (1994)
Chuck Blair, Ecosystems
                                                        Jitka Kotelenska, Geographic Information System
B.S., Wildlife Ecology (1975)
M.S., Ecology (1978)
                                                        B.A., Geology and Anthropology (1999)
Rachel Chang, Hazardous Materials                       M.S., Geography (2005)
B.S., Biomedical Engineering (1989)
                                                        Diane Morin, Geographic Information System
M.S., Environmental Engineering (1991)
Josh Cooper, Economics/Energy                           BA, Environmental Science (2003)
B.A., Economics (2005)
                                                        Sandra Schwabel McGinnis, Geology
Jeff Crisafulli, Editor                                 B.S., Environmental and Engineering Geology (1995)
B.A., English (1991)
                                                        Alisa Moffat, Relocations and Acquisitions/Utilities
Sharon Feldman, Senior Review/EIS Technical             B.A., Environmental Studies (1999)
Review                                                  M.S., Environmental Science (2004)
B.S., Soil Science (1983)
                                                        Thomas Mudayankavil, Civil Design Lead, Segment
M.S., Geology and Soils (1989)
                                                        A, B, C
Nicole Gaudette, Visual Resources                       B.S., Civil Engineering (1986)
B.A., Physical Geography (1995)                         M.S., Civil Engineering (1992)
Craig Grandstrom, Transportation                        Mark Mullins, Ecosystems Resources
B.S., Civil Engineering (1999)                          B.S., Biology (1989)
                                                        M.S., Fish and Wildlife Management (1991)
Mark Greenig, Visual Impacts and Aesthetics
B.S., Landscape Architecture (1978)                     Bob Pearson, Electromagnetic Fields
M.U.P., Urban Planning (1985)                           M.S., Remote Sensing of Natural Resources (1971)
                                                        Ph.D., Remote Sensing of Natural Resources (1973)
Dave Hedglin, Cost Estimating
A.A., Construction Management (1981)                    Dan Pitzler, Economics/Energy
A.S., Arts and Sciences (1973)                          B.A., Economics (1982)
                                                        M.A., Resource Economics (1985)
Gretchen Honan, Wetlands
B.A., Physical Geography (1980)                         Kurt Playstead, Economics
M.A. Marine Policy (1989)                               B.S., Economics (1994)
                                                        M.B.A. (2004)
Maya Hunnewell, Cumulative Impacts
B.S., Government and Legal Studies (2001)               Tom Rigert, Editor
M.P.A., Public Administration (2006)                    B.S., Physics (1967)
                                                        M.S., Solid State Physics (1970)
Steve Kambol, Project Manager
B.S., Civil Engineering (1975)                          Rob Rodland, Land Use/Neighborhoods/Public
M.S., Transportation Engineering (1977)                 Services/Environmental Justice
M.A., History (1981)                                    B.A., Geography (2000)
Katina Kapantais, Ecosystems                            Rene Rodriguez, GIS
B.A., Ornithology(1999)                                 B.A., GIS and Spatial Analysis (2004)
M.S., Environmental Science (2004)
                                                        Gery Rudolph, Graphics
Arjun KC, Water Resources                               General Equivalency Diploma (GED) (1980)
B.S., Civil Engineering (2001)
                                                        King Sampaco, Geotechnical Lead
M.S., Environmental Engineering Science (2003)
                                                        B.S., Civil Engineering (1983)
Mark Keller, Quality Manager                            M.S., Geotechnical Engineering (1988)
B.A., Political Science (1968)                          Ph.D., Geotechnical Engineering (1996)

                                                 A2-2                                      East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                                                      December 2008
                                                                                               Appendix A2 List of Preparers

Robin Senner, Cumulative Impacts                           INCA Engineering
B.A., Biology (1968)                                       Chuck Hathaway, Right-of-Way Lead
Ph.D., Public Policy (2004)                                B.S., Civil Engineering (1967)
Pete Sturtevant, Water Resources                           Jeff Juel, Utilities Lead
B.S., Biology (1971)                                       B.S., Civil Engineering (1986)
M.S., Water Resources Management/Civil
Engineering (1974)                                         Jacobs & Associates
                                                           Carol Ravano, Geotechnical and Ecology
Randy Whitman, Aquatic Resources
                                                           B.S., Civil Engineering (1983)
B.S., Fisheries Sciences (1976)
                                                           M.S., Civil/Geotechnical Engineering (1984)
M.S., Fisheries Sciences (1987)
Alene Wilson, Parklands/Public and Agency                  Michael Minor and Associates
Involvement/Section 4(f)/6(f)                              Michael Minor, President (Noise)
B.A., Economics (2000)                                     B.A., Physics, Whitman Collage (1988)
                                                           B.A., Mathematics, Whitman Collage (1988)
Dan Winstanley, Project Controls
B.S., Geology (1977)                                       Parsons Transportation Group
M.S., Hydrogeology (1985)
                                                           Keith Anderson, Maintenance Facility Lead
Entech Engineering                                         B.S., Civil Engineering (1975)
Michelle Jones, Air Quality                                Frank Delizza, Systems Lead
B.S., Civil Engineering (1992)                             B.S., Electrical Engineering (1975)

Grijalva Engineering                                       John Feng, Ventilation Lead
                                                           B.S., Mechanical Engineering (1980)
Gabe Grijalva, Civil Design Lead, Segment D, E
B.S., Civil Engineering (1984)                             Winn Frank, Operations Lead
                                                           B.S, Business Administration (1964)
Historical Research Associates, Inc. (HRA)                 M.S., Business Administration (1972)
Gail Thompson, Historic Properties and Cultural
Resources                                                  Roger Koester, Engineering Lead
B.A., Anthropology (1969)                                  B.S., Civil Engineering (1964)
M.A., Anthropology (1971)                                  Randy Walker
Ph.D., Anthropology (1978)                                 B.S., Civil Engineering (1980)
Ann Gillespie, Historic Properties
MA, History/Historic Preservation (2006)
                                                           Nicole Kistler
Gretchen Kaehler, Archaeology and Paleontology             B.S., Environmental Geography (1995)
B.A., Anthropology (1993)                                  M.S., Landscape Architecture (2002)
M.A., Anthropology (2002)
                                                           Rita Brogan
Harris Miller Miller & Hanson, Inc. (HMMH)                 B.S., Editorial Journalism (1972)
Lance Meister, Noise and Vibration                         M.S., Communications (1975)
B.S., Civil Engineering, Temple University (1994)

IBI Group
Phil Klinkon, Architectural Design Lead
B.S., Architecture (1984)

East Link Project Draft EIS                         A2-3
December 2008
Appendix A3

List of Recipients
                                                               •   Washington State Office of Governor
A3.1 Federal Agencies                                          •   Washington State House of Representatives
                                                               •   Washington State Joint Transportation Committee
•    Advisory Council on Historic Preservation
                                                               •   Washington State Senate
•    Federal Aviation Administration
                                                               •   Washington State Utilities and Transportation
•    Federal Emergency Management Agency
•    Federal Highway Administration
•    Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration               A3.4 Regional Agencies
•    Federal Railroad Administration Region 8
•    Transportation Security Administration US                 •   Port of Seattle
     Homeland Security                                         •   Puget Sound Clean Air Agency
•    National Oceanic and Atmospheric                          •   Puget Sound Regional Council
•    National Park Service                                     A3.5 County Agencies
•    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
                                                               •   King County
•    U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs
                                                               •   Pierce County
•    U.S. Coast Guard
                                                               •   Snohomish County
•    U.S. Department of Commerce
•    U.S. Department of Fish and Wildlife
•    U.S. Department of the Interior
                                                               A3.6 Transit Agencies
•    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Region 10)          •   Community Transit
                                                               •   Everett Transit
A3.2 Tribes                                                    •   King County Metro Transit
                                                               •   Pierce Transit
•    Muckleshoot Tribe
•    Snoqualmie Tribe
•    Suquamish Tribe
                                                               A3.7 Cities
•    Tulalip Tribe                                             •   City of Bellevue
•    Yakama Tribe                                              •   City of Clyde Hill
•    Duwamish Tribe                                            •   City of Issaquah
                                                               •   City of Kirkland
A3.3 State Agencies                                            •   City of Medina
                                                               •   City of Mercer Island
•    Washington State Department of Community
     Trade and Economic Development                            •   City of Redmond
•    Washington State Department of Ecology                    •   City of Seattle
•    Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife          •   Town of Beaux Arts Village
•    Washington State Department of Health
•    Washington State Department of Natural
                                                               A3.8 Libraries
     Resources Interagency Committee for Outdoor               •   APTA Information Center
     Recreation                                                •   Bellevue Community College Library
•    Washington State Department of Social and                 •   King County Library System
     Health Services                                               − Bellevue Regional Library
•    Washington State Department of Archaeology and                − Mercer Island Public Library
     Historic Preservation                                         − Newport Way Library
•    Washington State Office of the Attorney General               − Library Connection at Crossroads
•    Washington State Parks and Recreation                         − Redmond Regional Library
     Commission                                                •   Library Municipal Research and Services of
•    Washington State Patrol                                       Washington
East Link Project Draft EIS                             A3-1
December 2008
                                                                                                Chapter 9 Distribution List

•    Seattle Public Library History Department              •   Seattle Public Utilities
•    Seattle Public Library Branches                        •   Sprint
     − International District /Chinatown Branch             •   XO Communications
         Library                                            •   Verizon
     − Douglas Truth Branch Library
•    University of Washington Libraries
                                                            A3.12 Business and Community
•    Washington State Department of Transportation
     Library                                                Organizations
•    Washington State Library
                                                            •   Ames Lake Community Club
•    Washington Talking Book and Braille Library
                                                            •   Asian Counseling and Referral Services
                                                            •   Bellecrest Neighborhood Association
A3.9 Railroads and Rail Service                             •   Bellevue Chamber of Commerce
                                                            •   Bellevue Downtown Association
•    Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad                  •   Bellevue Neighborhood Network North
                                                            •   Chinese Information Service Center
A3.10 Schools and Community                                 •   Coalition for Effective Transportation Alternatives
Centers                                                     •   Concord Hill Homeowners
                                                            •   Crossroads Community Center
•    Bellevue School District
                                                            •   Downtown Seattle Association
•    Bellevue Community College
                                                            •   East Lake Sammamish Community Association
•    Mercer Island School District
                                                            •   Eastside Transportation Association
•    Lake Washington School District No. 414
                                                            •   enterpriseSeattle
•    City of Bellevue Community Centers
                                                            •   Grass Lawn Neighborhood Association
•    City of Mercer Island Community Center
                                                            •   Greater Redmond Transportation Mgmt. Assn.
•    City of Redmond Community Centers
                                                            •   Greater Seattle Chamber of Commerce
•    City of Seattle Community Centers
                                                            •   Issaquah Chamber of Commerce
     − International District/Chinatown Community
                                                            •   Jackson Place Community Council
                                                            •   Judkins Park Community Council
     − Garfield Community Center
                                                            •   Kimberlee Park Homeowners
     − Yesler Community Center
                                                            •   King County Housing Authority
•    City of Seattle Neighborhood Service Centers
                                                            •   Kirkland Chamber of Commerce
     − Downtown Service Center
                                                            •   Lake Heights Community Club
     − Central Service Center
                                                            •   Master Builders Association
     − Southeast Service Center
                                                            •   Mercer Island Chamber of Commerce
•    Seattle Public Schools
                                                            •   Minority Executive Director's Coalition
                                                            •   Mount Baker Community Club
A3.11 Utilities                                             •   Newport Hills Community Club
                                                            •   Puget Sound Partnership
•    AT&T Long Distance
                                                            •   Greater Redmond Chamber of Commerce
•    Cascade Water Alliance
                                                            •   Redmond Ridge Residential Owners Association
•    Comcast
                                                            •   Somerset Community Association
•    DNRP – Wastewater Treatment Division
                                                            •   Southeast District Council
•    Electric Lightwave, Inc.
                                                            •   Squire Park Community Council
•    Ledcor Technical Services / 360 Network
                                                            •   Suburban Cities Association
•    Level 3
                                                            •   Surrey Downs Community Club
•    MCI Worldcom
                                                            •   Transportation Choices Coalition
•    Metromedia Fiber Optic
                                                            •   Washington Environmental Council
•    Olympic Pipeline
                                                            •   West Bellevue Community Club
•    Puget Sound Energy
                                                            •   Wilburton Community Association
•    Qwest
                                                            •   Woodridge Community Association
•    Seattle City Light

East Link Project Draft EIS                          A3-2
December 2008
Appendix A4
Acronyms and Glossary

                                        Segment D. Bel-Red/Overlake
Acronyms                                124th
East Link Project Alternatives          Overlake Village
Segment A. Interstate 90                Overlake Transit Center
A1, I-90 Alternative                    Segment E. Downtown Redmond
Segment B. South Bellevue               Redmond Town Center
                                        SE Redmond
B1, Bellevue Way
                                        Redmond Transit Center
B2A, 112th SE At-Grade
B2E, 112th SE Elevated                  East Link Maintenance Facilities
B3, 112th SE Bypass                     MF1, 116th
B7, BNSF                                MF2, BNSF
Segment C. Downtown Bellevue            MF3, SR 520
C1T, Bellevue Way Tunnel                MF5, SE Redmond
C2T, 106th NE Tunnel
C3T, 108th NE Tunnel                    General Acronyms and
C4A, Couplet                            Abbreviations
C7E, 112th NE Elevated
C8E, 110th NE Elevated                  AASHTO      American Association of State
                                                    Highway and Transportation
Segment D. Bel-Red/Overlake
D2A, NE 16th At-Grade
                                        ADA         Americans with Disabilities Act
D2E, NE 16th Elevated
                                        ADT         Average Daily Traffic
D3, NE 20th
                                        AM          morning
D5, SR 520
                                        ANSI        American National Standards
Segment E. Downtown Redmond                         Institute
E1, Redmond Way                         APE         Area of Potential Effect
E2, Marymoor                            AQMA        Air Quality Maintenance Area
E4, Leary Way                           ASC         Ambulatory Surgery Center
                                        AST         above-ground storage tank
East Link Stations                      ASTM        American Society for Testing
Segment A. Interstate 90                            and Materials
Rainier                                 AWSC        all-way stop-controlled
Mercer Island                           AWD         average weekday
                                        AWT         average wait time
Segment B. South Bellevue
South Bellevue                          BIA         Bureau of Indian Affairs
SE 8th                                  BMP         best management practice
118th                                   Btu         British thermal unit
Segment C. Downtown Bellevue
Old Bellevue                            CAA         Clean Air Act
Bellevue Transit Center                 CAFÉ        corporate average fuel economy
East Main                               CCTV        closed-circuit television
Hospital                                CEQ         Council on Environmental
Ashwood/Hospital                                    Quality

East Link Project Draft EIS      A4-1
December 2008
Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

CEQA                California Environmental                 FAA         Federal Aviation Administration
                    Quality Act                              FAQ         frequently asked question
CFR                 Code of Federal Regulations              FAZ         Forecast Analysis Zone
cfs                 cubic feet per second                    Final EIS   Final Environmental Impact
CH4                 methane                                              Statement
CNG                 compressed natural gas                   FEMA        Federal Emergency
CO                  carbon monoxide                                      Management Agency
CO2                 carbon dioxide                           FFGA        Full Funding Grant Agreement
CO2e                carbon dioxide equivalent                FHWA        Federal Highway
CPP                 Countywide Planning Policy                           Administration
CPR                 cardiopulmonary resuscitation            FLSC        Fire/Life Safety Committee
CPTED               Crime Prevention Through                 FIRES       finance, insurance, real estate,
                    Environmental Design                                 and services
CT                  Community Transit                        FR          Federal Register
CTED                Washington State Department of           ft          feet
                    Community, Trade, and                    FTA         Federal Transit Administration
                    Economic Development
CWA                 Clean Water Act                          g/gal       gallons of gasoline
                                                             GHG         greenhouse gas
DAHP                Washington Department of                 GIS         geographic information system
                    Archaeology and Historic                 GMA         Growth Management Act
                    Preservation                             GWP         global warming potential
dB                  decibel
dBA                 A-weighted decibel                       HAC         high-accident corridor
DC                  direct current                           HAL         high-accident location
DOE                 U.S. Department of Energy                HCT         high-capacity transit
DPM                 diesel particulate matter                HFC         hydrofluorocarbon
Draft EIS           Draft Environmental Impact               HGM         hydrogeomorphic classification
                    Statement                                Horizon     Horizon Systems Corporation
DRO                 diesel-range organics                    HOT         high-occupancy toll
DSHS                Department of Social and Health          HOV         high-occupancy vehicle
                    Services                                 HPA         Hydraulic Project Approval
                                                             HVAC        heating ventilation and air
EIA                 Energy Information                                   conditioning
                    Administration                           Hz          Hertz
Ecology             Washington State Department of           HUD         Department of Housing and
                    Ecology                                              Urban Development
Ecology             Stormwater Management Manual
Manual              for Western Washington                   I-90        Interstate 90
                    (Washington State Department             I-405       Interstate 405
                    of Ecology, 2005)                        IPCC        Intergovernmental Panel on
EIS                 Environmental Impact                                 Climate Change
EMF                 electromagnetic field                    JRPC        Joint Regional Policy Committee
EMI                 electromagnetic interference
EO                  Executive Order                          KCM         King County Metro
EPA                 United States Environmental              KOP         key observation point
                    Protection Agency                        kV          kilovolt
ERIC                Eastside Refugee and Immigrant
                    Coalition                                lb          pound
ESA                 Endangered Species Act                   lb/day      pounds per day

                                                      A4-2                             East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                                                  December 2008
                                                                                 Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

Ldn                    24-hour, time-averaged, A-
                       weighted sound level (day-              O3         ozone
                       night)                                  OCS        overhead catenary system
Leq                    equivalent continuous sound             OHWM       ordinary high water mark
                       level                                   ORO        oil-range organics
LID                    low-impact development
Lm                     maximum noise level                     PCB        polychlorinated biphenyl
Lmax                   maximum noise level                     PCE        perchloroethylene
LOS                    Level of Service                                   (tetrachloroethene)
LWCF                   Land and Water Conservation             PFC        perfluorocarbon
                       Fund                                    PGIS       pollutant-generating impervious
MA                     Memorandum Agreement                    PHS        Priority Habitat and Species
MBTA                   Migratory Bird Treaty Act               PM         afternoon, particulate matter
METRO                  King County Metro                       PM2.5      particulate matter 2.5 microns or
mpg                    miles per gallon                                   less in size
MPO                    Metropolitan Planning                   PM10       particulate matter 10 microns or
                       Organization                                       less in size
MOA                    Memorandum of Agreement                 ppm        parts per million
mph                    miles per hour                          PPV        peak particle velocity
MRI                    magnetic resonance imaging              PSCAA      Puget Sound Clean Air Agency
MSA                    Magnuson-Stevens Fishery                PSCOG      Puget Sound Council of
                       Conservation and Management                        Governments
                       Act                                     PSRC       Puget Sound Regional Council
MSAT                   mobile source air toxic
MTCA                   Model Toxics Control Act                RCO        Washington State Recreation
MTP                    Metropolitan Transportation                        and Conservation Office
                       Plan                                    RCW        Revised Code of Washington
MVM                    million vehicle miles                   RFFA       reasonably foreseeable future
NAAQS                  National Ambient Air Quality            RHL        Redmond Historic Landmark
                       Standards                               rms        root mean square
NEPA                   National Environmental Policy           ROD        Record of Decision
                       Act                                     ROG        reactive organic gases
NFPA                   National Fire Protection                RTA        Regional Transit Authority
                       Association                             RTIP       regional transportation
NHPA                   National Historic Preservation                     improvement program
                       Act                                     RTP        regional transportation plan
NIOSHA                 National Institute for                  RTPO       Regional Transportation
                       Occupations Safety and Health                      Planning Organization
NMFS                   National Marine Fisheries
                       Service                                 SAFETEA-   Safe, Accountable, Flexible and
NOA                    Notice of Availability                  LU         Efficient Transportation Equity
NOI                    Notice of Intent                                   Act: A Legacy for Users
NO2                    nitrogen dioxide                        SCAQMD     South Coast Air Quality
N2O                    nitrous oxide                                      Management District
Nox                    oxides of nitrogen                      SEM        sequential excavation mining
NPDES                  National Pollutant Discharge            SEPA       State Environmental Policy Act
                       Elimination System                      SHPO       State Historic Preservation
NPS                    National Park Service                              Office
NRHP                   National Register of Historic           SIP        State Implementation Plan
                       Places                                  SL         Seattle Landmark

East Link Project Draft EIS                             A4-3
December 2008
Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

SMC                 Seattle Municipal Code                   WAC      Washington Administrative
SMP                 Shoreline Master Program                          Code
SF6                 sulfur hexafluoride                      WASIST   Washington State Intersection
SO2                 sulfur dioxide                                    Screening Tool
Sound               Central Puget Sound Regional             WDFW     Washington Department of Fish
Transit             Transit Authority                                 and Wildlife
sq ft               square feet                              WDNR     Washington Department of
SR                  state route                                       Natural Resources
SSMP                safety and security management           WHR      Washington Heritage Register
                    plan                                     WPZ      wellhead protection zone
ST2                 Sound Transit 2                          WSDOT    Washington State Department of
SWPPP               stormwater pollution prevention                   Transportation
                    plan                                     WTCU     wholesale trade, transportation
                                                                      services, communication, and
TCP                 traditional cultural property                     utilities sector
TCRP                Transit Cooperative Research
TCQSM               Transit Capacity and Quality of
                    Service Manual
TESCP               temporary erosion and sediment
                    control plan
TIP                 Transportation Improvement
TMDL                total daily maximum load
TNM                 traffic noise model
TPH                 total petroleum hydrocarbon
TPSS                traction power substation
TRB                 Transportation Research Board
TSM                 transportation systems
TSP                 total suspended particulates
TWSC                two-way stop-controlled

μg/m3               micrgrams per cubic meter
USACE               United States Army Corps of
U.S.C.              United States Code
USDOE               United States Department of
USDOT               United States Department of
USFWS               United State Fish and Wildlife
USGS                United States Geological Survey
UST                 underground storage tank

v/c                 volume to capacity ratio
VdB                 vibration decibel
VHT                 vehicle hours traveled
VMT                 vehicle miles traveled
VOC                 volatile organic compound

                                                      A4-4                         East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                                              December 2008
                                                                                    Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

                                                            Area Source. A general classification of the
Glossary of Terms                                           origin of an air pollutant (e.g., park-and-ride lots
                                                            are area sources of CO emissions).
Access Time. The time required to walk, bike, or
drive from the origin of the trip (for example,             Arterial. A major thoroughfare used mainly for
from home) to a (boarding) transit stop, plus the           through traffic rather than access to adjacent
waiting time based on the frequency of transit              property. Arterials generally have greater
service, and/or the transfer time and the                   traffic-carrying capacity than collector or local
walking or driving time from the transit (de-               streets and are designed for continuously
boarding) stop to the destination. For auto trips,          moving traffic.
it is the time required to walk to and from                 Artifact. Any portable object used and/or
parking places, and delays within parking                   modified by civilization (particularly during
facilities, if any.                                         prehistoric times).
Accessibility. The ease by which an individual              At-Grade. Term used to express that a feature,
can reach desired activities in any location by             such as a rail track or crosswalk, and a roadway
use of the transportation system.                           meet at the same elevation.
Air Pollutant (also, Air Contaminant). Smoke,               At-Grade Crossing. Any intersection of two or
dust, fumes, or odors in the ambient air that               more flows of traffic at the same elevation
have potential for harmful effects.                         (possibly involving more than one mode of
Air Quality Maintenance Area (AQMA). An                     transportation), such as road crossings by light
area having the potential to violate a federal or           rail.
state ambient air quality standard, based on                Atmospheric Stability. A measure of the
expected growth and development in the area.                capacity of the ambient air to disperse air
Alignment. Horizontal geometric elements,                   pollutants.
which define the location of the light rail track           Attainment Area. An Attainment Area is an
or roadway.                                                 area considered to have air quality as good as or
Alluvium. An unconsolidated, terrestrial                    better than the national ambient air quality
sediment composed of sorted or unsorted sand,               standards for specific pollutants as defined in
gravel, and clay that have been deposited by                the Clean Air Act.
water.                                                      Average Annual Megawatt. The average hourly
Alternative R-8A. The preferred alternative                 demand for or supply of electricity measured in
outcome of a 1998 study initiated by Sound                  megawatts over a year.
Transit to study two-way transit and high-                  Average Daily Traffic (ADT). The total volume
occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on I-90. The                  of traffic during a given time period divided by
preferred alternative (R-8A) called for the                 the number of days in that time period,
construction of HOV lanes on the outside                    representative of average traffic in a one-day
roadways and the dedication of the center                   time period.
roadway for future high-capacity transit
operations.                                                 Average Time (also, Exposure Time). The
                                                            duration of exposure to a given concentration of
Annualized Capital Cost. A one-time capital                 an air contaminant, specified in ambient air
cost converted into an annual value that                    quality standards (e.g., the two national
incorporates both the depreciation on the capital           standards of 9 parts per million and 35 parts per
item and the foregone interest on the money                 million specify averaging times of 8 hours and 1
invested in the project.                                    hour).
Archaeological Sensitivity Zone. An area                    Average Wait Time (AWT). Average time spent
where the potential for finding an                          by passengers at a station or bus stop waiting
archaeological resource is high.                            for transit service.

East Link Project Draft EIS                          A4-5
December 2008
Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

Average Weekday (AWD). A measurement of                      Capacity, Roadway. The maximum hourly rate
average conditions during one weekday, i.e.,                 at which persons or vehicles can reasonably be
Monday through Friday.                                       expected to traverse a point or uniform section
                                                             of a lane or roadway during a given time period
A-Weighted Sound Level (dBA). To
                                                             under prevailing roadway and traffic
approximate the way humans interpret sound, a
filter circuit with frequency characteristics
similar to the human hearing system is built into            Capacity, Vehicle. The maximum number of
sound measurement equipment. Measurements                    vehicles that can be accommodated in a given
with this filter enacted are referred to as A-               time by a transit or highway facility.
weighted sound levels, expressed in dBA. (See
                                                             Capital Costs. Nonrecurring costs required to
                                                             construct transit systems, including costs of
Background Concentration. The pollutant level                right-of-way, facilities, rolling stock, power
that would exist at a site in the absence of air             distribution and the associated administrative
pollution sources in the neighborhood of the site            and design costs, and financing charges during
(different from Modeled Concentration).                      construction.
Baseline Energy Consumption. Energy                          Carbon Monoxide (CO). A colorless, odorless,
consumption, usually for a no-build alternative,             tasteless gas, and one of the criteria air
that is used as a reference against which energy             pollutants released from automobile exhaust.
consumption for a build alternative is
                                                             Car Pool. A group of passengers and drivers
                                                             organized to use one automobile on a regular
Before Present. An archaeological term that                  basis, riding together, for the same trip purpose
considers radiocarbon dating at a specified                  (generally the work trip).
point in time before A.D. Because the "present"
                                                             Cathodic Protection. Cathodic protection is an
time changes, standard practice is to use
                                                             effective method of preventing stress-corrosion
January 1, 1950, as the arbitrary origin of the age
                                                             cracking. It is a technique used to control the
                                                             corrosion of a metal surface by making that
Boarding. Term describing the arrival of                     surface the cathode or terminal that transports
passengers onto a bus or transit vehicle.                    the current.
Boarding Trips. A trip on a transit line or group            Census Tract. A Census tract is a small
of lines where each boarding of a transit vehicle            subdivision of an urban area used by the U.S.
is considered the start of a new trip. Number of             Census Bureau to identify population and
trips boarding (entering) transit vehicles,                  housing statistics. Census blocks are
regardless of whether the trip involves a transfer           subdivisions of census tracts and are the
from another transit vehicle. A fare may or may              smallest unit of census geography for which the
not be collected for each boarding trip,                     Census Bureau collects data. The boundaries of
depending on whether a transfer is used.                     census blocks are generally streets or other
                                                             notable physical features and often correspond
British Thermal Unit (Btu). An energy unit
                                                             to a city block. A census block group is a
equal to the quantity of heat required to raise
                                                             combination of census blocks, typically
the temperature of 1 pound of water 1 degree
                                                             encompassing two to four city blocks. The
Fahrenheit. One therm equals 1,000,000 Btu.
                                                             Census collects some information at the block
Capacity, Person. The maximum number of                      level, some at the block group level, and some at
persons that can be carried past a given location            the tract level.
during a given time period under specified
                                                             Channelization. The use of traffic markings or
operating conditions without unreasonable
                                                             islands to direct traffic into certain paths. For
delay, hazard, or restriction. Usually measured
                                                             example, a “channelized” intersection directs
in terms of persons per hour.
                                                             portions of traffic into a left turn lane through
                                                             the use of roadway islands or striping that

                                                      A4-6                                  East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                                                       December 2008
                                                                                    Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

separates the turn lane from traffic going                 noise because most people are more easily
straight.                                                  annoyed by noise during the nighttime hours
                                                           when background noise is lower and most
Circulation. The free movement or passage of a
                                                           people are sleeping.
vehicle, pedestrian, bicycle, or other
transportation mode through a given area.                  Decibel. The unit used to measure the loudness
                                                           of noise.
Concentration (also, level). A measure of the air
pollutant in the ambient air, having the units of          Displacement. A property acquisition that
mass per volume.                                           would require removing an existing use.
Conformity. A process that ensures federal                 Disturbed Habitat. A habitat in which naturally
funding and approval goes to transportation                occurring ecological processes and species
activities consistent with federal air quality             interactions have been significantly disrupted
goals. The Federal Highway Administration and              by the direct or indirect results of human
the Federal Transit Administration jointly                 presence and activity.
determine that specific regions meet air quality
                                                           Drop-Off Zone. A station that provides
                                                           temporary loading and unloading facilities for
Construction Energy. In transportation analysis,           autos and/or buses. The station may be
the energy used to build stations, terminals,              combined with feeder bus stations.
roadbeds, trackbeds, tunnels, vehicles, and other
                                                           Ecologically Sensitive Area. An area, valued
equipment and facilities. Construction energy
                                                           locally for its rare or sensitive habitat, existing in
includes the energy content of materials and the
                                                           a relatively undisturbed, natural state and
energy used to haul and place them.
                                                           supporting indigenous species.
Construction Staging Area. During
                                                           Elasticity. In economic analysis, the sensitivity
construction, a site temporarily used for
                                                           of the demand or supply of a commodity to
materials or equipment storage, assembly, or
                                                           changes in another variable (e.g., the price
other temporary, construction-related activities.
                                                           elasticity of gasoline is the ratio of the percent
Corridor. A general path from one point to                 change in consumption to percent change in
another; the East Link study corridor begins in            price).
Seattle and travels to Redmond.
                                                           Elevated Guideway. A guideway that is
Couplet. A place where a two-way street                    positioned above the normal activity level (e.g.,
changes temporarily into a one-way paired set              elevated structure for light rail to cross over a
of streets.                                                street).
Criteria Air Pollutants. Those air pollutants              Emission. Particulate, gaseous, noise, or
which have been recognized by the EPA as                   electromagnetic byproducts of the transit system
potentially harmful and for which standards                or vehicle.
have been set to protect the public health and
                                                           Emission Control. Method by which emissions
welfare. The criteria air pollutants are carbon
                                                           are governed in an effort to minimize the
monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulates, nitrogen
                                                           pollutants and/or noise emitted.
dioxide, ozone, hydrocarbons and lead.
                                                           Emission Inventory. A listing by emission
D2 Roadway. In Seattle, an HOV ramp onto I-90
                                                           source of the amounts of air pollutants released
between Downtown Seattle and Rainier
                                                           into the atmosphere (generally, in tons or
                                                           kilograms per day).
Day Night Sound Level (Ldn). Ldn, also
                                                           Emission Source. The origin of an air pollutant
abbreviated DNL, is a 24-hour equivalent
                                                           (e.g., automobiles and trucks are sources of
continuous sound level (Leq), but with a 10-dB
                                                           carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen
penalty assessed to noise events occurring at
night. Nighttime is defined as 10 p.m. to 7 a.m.
This strongly weights Ldn toward nighttime

East Link Project Draft EIS                         A4-7
December 2008
Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

Emission Standards. A limitation on the release             Fare. The authorized amount (cash or token)
of an air contaminant into the ambient air (e.g.,           paid or the valid transfer or pass, presented for
the federal government limits carbon monoxide,              a transit ride.
hydrocarbon, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
                                                            Fare Box. A device that accepts and, in some
emissions per mile of travel in new
                                                            cases, registers coins and tokens used by
                                                            passengers as payment for rides.
Endangered Species. According to the Federal
                                                            Fare Structure. The methodology of
Endangered Species Act of 1973, an endangered
                                                            determining the fare that a passenger pays for
species is any species in danger of extinction
throughout all or a significant portion of its
range, other than an insect determined by the               Feeder Bus Station. A station that provides
Secretary of the Interior to constitute a pest              lateral bus transportation service for riders to
whose protection under the provisions of this               transfer to a light rail mode.
act would present an overwhelming and
                                                            Feeder Service. Local transit service that feeds
overriding risk to man.
                                                            trunkline (usually faster and at higher capacity)
Energy Factor. A number that when multiplied                transit service.
by the appropriate usage units (e.g., vehicle
                                                            Fixed Route. Transit service provided on a
miles, tons, dollars), yields a measure of energy
                                                            repetitive, fixed-schedule basis along a specific
consumption (e.g., 0.5 gallon per vehicle mile x
                                                            route with transit vehicles stopping to pick and
10 miles = 5.0 gallons consumed for propulsion).
                                                            deliver passengers to specific locations.
Energy System. The network of major and
                                                            Forest or Woodland Habitat. A habitat type
minor routes, vehicles, facilities, and other
                                                            generally dominated by Douglas fir, western red
energy-consuming entities that are considered
                                                            cedar, and western hemlock, frequently with a
in energy analysis.
                                                            hardwood understory. The ground cover is
Equity. The incidence of fairness and the                   generally lush. Birds and small mammals
distribution of benefits, costs, and impacts                abound, and larger mammals are common in
among population subgroups except as defined                large stands.
for subareas per allocations set out in Sound
                                                            Frequency, Vehicle. Time rate of vehicle
                                                            arrivals at a station stop or along a transit line.
Equivalent Level (Leq). Leq is a measure of
                                                            Full Acquisition. A type of property
sound energy over a period of time. It is referred
                                                            encroachment that would require the
to as the equivalent sound level because it is
                                                            acquisition of the full parcel and displace the
equivalent to the level of a steady sound which,
                                                            current use.
over a referenced duration and location, has the
same A-weighted sound energy as the                         General-Purpose Lane. Term to describe a
fluctuating sound.                                          traffic lane on a highway that can be used by all
                                                            types of vehicles including single occupant
Express Service. Transit service where a very
                                                            autos, carpools, trucks and motorcycles.
limited number of stops are made.
                                                            Grade Separated. Parallel or crossing lines of
Facilities Energy (also, Station Energy). A
                                                            traffic that are vertically or horizontally
portion of the operational energy that includes
                                                            physically separated from each other and do not
the energy to operate parking lots,
                                                            share a common intersection.
administration buildings, and other facilities. It
does not include propulsion or maintenance                  Greenhouse Gases (GHG). Greenhouse gases
energy.                                                     include CO2, methane (CH4), O3, water vapor,
                                                            nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons
Facility. The means by which a transportation
                                                            (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur
mode is provided. For example, a sidewalk is a
                                                            hexafluoride (SF6). These gas emissions are
facility for pedestrians as is a highway is a
                                                            collectively leading to the greenhouse effect,
facility for vehicles.

                                                     A4-8                                    East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                                                        December 2008
                                                                                    Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

trapping the sun’s solar rays and leading to an             for example, more than two or three people per
increase in Earth temperature.                              automobile. Typically includes carpools with
                                                            two or more people, vanpools, and buses.
Ground-Borne Noise. Noise that is transmitted
through the ground, typically reported in                   Hours of Service. The number of hours during
decibels.                                                   the day between the start and end of service on
                                                            a transit route, also known as the service span.
Ground-Borne Vibration. A small but rapidly
fluctuating motion transmitted through the                  Hydrocarbon (HC). Nonmethane hydrocarbon
ground, typically reported as velocity or                   that contributes to the formation of
acceleration.                                               photochemical oxidants (commonly known as
                                                            smog), primarily ozone.
Guideway. Specifically designed way traversed
by transit vehicles constrained to the way.                 Impedance Value. A factor used to weight the
                                                            time spent waiting for transit. Often computed
Habitat Function. Terrestrial plant
                                                            as 2.1 times the in-vehicle time.
communities, wetlands, and aquatic systems
such as streams provide a variety of functions in           Indirect Energy. A term used to denote all
the environment. For instance, depending on the             energy inputs for the construction, operation,
condition and location of a wetland, wetland                and maintenance of a system.
functions may include water quality
                                                            Indirect Source. An entity that does not directly
improvement, groundwater recharge, nutrient
                                                            emit pollutants but attracts emission sources
and sediment filtering, and habitat for a variety
                                                            such as automobiles and trucks. Shopping
of animals, as well as education and recreation
                                                            centers, stadiums, and highways are examples
opportunities for people—the habitat function is
                                                            of indirect sources.
one of several functions potentially performed
by wetlands. Similarly, terrestrial and aquatic             Induced Trips. Trips generated because of the
systems each also may perform many functions.               construction of a new (transportation) facility.
When they provide habitat for animals, they are             (Different from Shifted Trips).
said to be performing or providing a “habitat
                                                            Integration with Other Modes. Method by
                                                            which a transit system interfaces with other
Habitat Value. The value of plant community’s               modes of transportation.
function as determined by the habitat’s ability to
                                                            Interchange. The system of interconnecting
support the needs of biological species. High-
                                                            ramps between two or more intersecting
value habitats are those that support or may
                                                            roadways or guideways that are grade
support threatened, endangered, and/or
sensitive species as determined by the federal,
state, and local jurisdictions.                             Interim Terminus. A station where the project
                                                            would operate until the next portion of the
Headway. The headway between vehicles in
                                                            project can be built. The terminus would
public transit systems is the amount of time
                                                            typically include a station with tail tracks
(usually in minutes) that elapses between two
                                                            extending beyond the station for layover of
vehicles passing the same point traveling in the
same direction on a given route.
                                                            Interslab Subduction Zone. Interslab
High-Capacity Transit (HCT). A system of
                                                            subduction zone is the zone between the earth’s
public transportation services within an
                                                            crustal plates. This zone is the source of large
urbanized region operating principally on
                                                            earthquakes off the coast of Washington.
exclusive rights-of-way, examples include light
rail transit or express buses on exclusive bus              Joint Development. Opportunities for the
ways and their supporting services.                         development or redevelopment of adjacent
                                                            parcels (in station areas) in a manner which
High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV). Any
                                                            would support both the transit investment and
passenger vehicle that meets or exceeds a certain
predetermined minimum number of passengers,

East Link Project Draft EIS                          A4-9
December 2008
Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

the community objectives through the use of                 Local Service. A type of transit operation
both public and private funds.                              involving frequent stops and consequent low
                                                            speeds, the purpose of which is to deliver and
Kilowatt (kW). A unit of electrical energy.
                                                            pick up transit passengers as close to their
Kilowatt-hour (kWh). One kilowatt of energy                 destinations or origins as possible.
used over one hour.
                                                            Locally Preferred Alternative (LPA). Following
Key Observation Point (KOP). A view location                the publication of a Draft EIS, the Sound Transit
used to describe existing visual conditions and             Board identifies a preferred alternative,
to analyze                                                  consisting of routes and station preferences.
                                                            This is known as a “locally” preferred
Lacustrine soils. A soil that has been formed in
                                                            alternative because FTA has not yet selected a
a lake bed.
                                                            preferred alternative.
Land Development Pattern. The use, types, and
                                                            Maintenance Area. Maintenance areas are
intensity of development. Land development
                                                            geographic areas with a history of
patterns affect trip demand, average trip length,
                                                            nonattainment of National Ambient Air Quality
and therefore, energy consumption.
                                                            Standards (NAAQS) but which now consistently
Landscaped Habitat. A habitat in urban areas                meet NAAQS.
having limited native species. Vegetation
                                                            Maintenance Energy. A portion of operational
generally consists of mowed lawns and exotic
                                                            energy that is applied to repair and maintenance
trees and bushes.
                                                            of vehicles and buildings in the system. It does
Ldn. The day/night average noise level.                     not include propulsion or facilities energy.
Leq. The equivalent steady-state sound level                Median Track Alignment. In rail operations, a
that, in a specified time period, would contain             type of alignment where tracks are positioned in
the same acoustic energy as the varying sound               the median on the street, as opposed to being
level during the same period; considers volume              positioned on one side of the street.
capacity, travel speeds and delay.
                                                            Megawatt (MW). 1,000,000 watts.
Leq(h). The hourly value of Leq.
                                                            Microgram per Cubic Meter (µg/m3). A unit of
Level of Service (LOS). A qualitative measure               concentration equal to one thousandth of a gram
that represents the collective factors of travel            per cubic meter.
under a particular volume condition. A measure
                                                            Minimum Operable Segment (MOS). A shorter
of traffic congestion.
                                                            segment of the project route that could be
Light Rail Transit (also Light Rail). A mode of             successfully operated on an interim or long-term
mass transportation comprising light rail                   basis if necessary, and could be extended at a
vehicles, which travel on steel tracks and are              later time.
powered by electricity from overhead wires.
                                                            Minimum Turn Radius. Generally assumed to
This mode is characterized by its ability to
                                                            be the minimum horizontal turn radius (tightest
operate in both at-grade and/or grade-
separated environments.
                                                            Minority Residents. Those persons who, in
Line Source. A general classification of the
                                                            responding to the 1990 U.S. Census, indicated
origin of an air pollutant (e.g., highways and
                                                            their race to be something other than “White” or
other roads are line sources of carbon monoxide
                                                            reported entries that the Bureau of the Census
                                                            categorized as something other than “White.”
Link. Sound Transit’s light rail system.
                                                            Mobility. The ease of continuous movement
Load Factor. The average ratio of passengers to             along the transportation system.
seats, during some specified period of operation
                                                            Mobility Limited. As defined for 1990 U.S.
of a public transit route.
                                                            Census data, persons who had a health

                                                    A4-10                                 East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                                                     December 2008
                                                                                       Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

condition (physical and/or mental) that had                    Nonattainment Area. An area designated by the
lasted for 6 or more months and which made it                  EPA as presently violating the National
difficult to go outside the home alone.                        Ambient Air Quality Standards, based on
                                                               archival air quality data.
Mode. A particular form or method of travel,
such as pedestrian, bicycle, automobile, bus, or               NOX. Oxides of nitrogen (nitrogen oxide and
light rail.                                                    nitrogen dioxide). The pollutants released
                                                               during high-temperature combustion of fossil
Mode Share. The percentage of travelers that
                                                               fuels such as diesel.
travel either by SOV, HOV, or transit modes on
a given roadway facility.                                      Off-Peak. Those periods of the day when
                                                               demand for transit service is not at a maximum.
Mode Split. Forecast of proportion of total
person-trips that would use each of the various                Open Field Habitat. A habitat characterized by
modes of transportation that include transit and               various species of perennial and annual grasses,
cars.                                                          forbs, small and large birds, small mammals,
                                                               and snakes. This habitat is especially important
Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA). The Model
                                                               in providing nesting sites and food for various
Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation, WAC
                                                               song and predatory birds.
173-340, implements the Model Toxics Control
Act, RCW 70.105D, which addresses strict                       Operating Costs. Recurring costs incurred in
requirements for site discovery and reporting,                 operating transit systems, including wages and
site assessments, and site remediation. Most                   salaries, maintenance of facilities and
important, the regulation defines standard                     equipment, fuel, supplies, employee benefits,
methods used to assess whether a site is                       insurance, taxes, and other administrative costs.
contaminated or clean.                                         Amortization of facilities and equipment is not
Modeled Concentration. An air pollutant level,
excluding the background level, predicted by a                 Operating Revenue. The gross income from
model (see Background Concentrations).                         operation of the transit system including fares,
                                                               charter income, concessions, advertising, etc.
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
                                                               Does not include interest from securities, non-
(NAAQS). Federal limits on levels of
                                                               recurring income from sale of capital assets, etc.
atmospheric contamination necessary to protect
the public from adverse effects on health                      Operational Energy. The energy used for
(primary standards) and welfare (secondary                     vehicle propulsion, facilities, and maintenance
standards).                                                    for a specified period, usually one year.
National Historic Preservation Act of 1966                     Originating Ride (or Trip). A one-way trip
(NHRA). The act that established the National                  taken on a transit line or group of lines, where a
Register of Historic Places and State Historic                 transfer from one line to another is not
Preservation program and set forth guidelines                  considered to be the start of a new trip.
and regulations for environmental review of
                                                               Overhead Catenary System (OCS). Electrical
projects involving federal funding.
                                                               transmission poles and lines that supply power
National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).                   to the light rail system.
The official list of the nation's cultural resources
                                                               Ozone. A gas consisting of three oxygen atoms
determined to be worthy of preservation; the
                                                               formed in reactions of nonmethane
register is maintained by the National Park
                                                               hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in the
                                                               presence of sunlight. Ozone is one of the Criteria
Network. A system of real or hypothetical                      Air Pollutants.
interconnecting links that forms the
                                                               Palustrine Wetland. Freshwater wetlands
configuration of transit routes and stops which
                                                               dominated by trees, shrubs, and emergent
constitute the total system.

East Link Project Draft EIS                            A4-11
December 2008
Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

Park-and-Ride Lot. A lot that provides parking               through an intersection over a specified period
for patrons of a transit facility.                           of time.
Parking Utilization. The number of parking                   Person Trip. A trip from a point of origin to a
spaces being utilized at a given location, it is             destination made by a person by any travel
calculated as the total number of parking spaces             mode. Within transit, transfers are not counted.
occupied divided by the total parking supply at              That is, a person traveling from home to work
a given location.                                            on a bus with one transfer creates only one-
                                                             person trip.
Partial Acquisition. A property that would be
partially acquired in order to build and operate             Photochemical Oxidants (Smog). Gaseous
the light rail.                                              pollutants formed from reactions of non-
                                                             methane hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides
Pasquill Stability Class. A category of
                                                             (NOx) in the presence of sunlight (e.g., ozone).
atmospheric stability ranging from Class A
(extremely unstable conditions) to Class F                   Platform Hours. Elapsed time from when a
(moderately stable conditions).                              transit bus or train pulls out of the garage into
                                                             service to when it returns to the garage after
Passenger Load/Passenger Load LOS. The
                                                             completing its service.
number of passengers on a transit unit (vehicle
or train) at a specified point.                              Point Source. A general classification of the
                                                             origin of an air or water pollutant, usually
Passenger Mile. A measure of travel equivalent
                                                             characterized as smokestacks or outfalls.
to one passenger traveling one mile.
                                                             Pollutant-Generating Impervious Surface
Patronage. The number of person-trips carried
                                                             (PGIS). Impervious surfaces considered to be a
by a transit system over a specified time period.
                                                             significant source of pollutants in stormwater
Peak Hour. The hour of the day in which the                  runoff. Such surfaces include those subject to
maximum demand for service is experienced,                   vehicular use, industrial activities (as defined in
accommodating the largest number of                          the Ecology Manual), or storage of erodible or
automobile or transit patrons.                               leachable materials, wastes, or chemicals, and
                                                             which receive direct rainfall or the run-on or
Peak Particle Velocity (PPV). Specifications for
                                                             blow-in of rainfall.
allowable levels of vibration from blasting, pile-
driving, and other construction processes with               Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB). Hazardous
the potential of causing building damage are                 environmental pollutants upon which the
almost always expressed in terms of peak                     federal government has placed additional
particle velocity since this is thought to be well           controls regulating disposal.
correlated with maximum stresses in buildings.
                                                             Potentially Affected Area. This is defined
Peak particle velocity is the instantaneous
                                                             differently by each technical discipline. It
positive or negative peak in the vibration signal.
                                                             includes the area that could be affected by the
Peak Period. A time period or periods when                   alternatives.
travel activity is at its heaviest.
                                                             Poverty-Level Household. As used for 2000
Pedestrian Level of Service (LOS). An overall                U.S. Census data, the average poverty threshold
measure of walking conditions on a route, path,              for a family of four persons was $17,603 in 2000.
or facility.                                                 The defined family poverty level threshold
                                                             varied by total number of family members,
Person Demand. The number of persons that
                                                             number of children under 18 years, and number
use a specific roadway or highway facility thus
                                                             of persons over age 65. For a detailed discussion
creating a demand for usage of the facility, it is
                                                             of the poverty definition, see U.S. Bureau of the
often compared to roadway capacity to
                                                             Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60,
determine the level of congestion.
                                                             No. 171, Poverty in the United States: 1988 and
Person Throughput. The amount of persons                     1989.
that can pass a point on a roadway or pass

                                                     A4-12                                   East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                                                        December 2008
                                                                                     Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

Power. The time rate of energy use.                          by dense vegetation consisting primarily of
                                                             willow, alder, and cottonwood species,
Preferred Alternative. Following publication of
                                                             supporting a wide variety of waterfowl,
the Draft EIS, the Sound Transit Board identifies
                                                             songbirds, amphibians, and small mammals.
a preferred alternative including route and
station options. The Final EIS further evaluates             Route. The course followed by a transit vehicle
the preferred alternative as well as other                   as a part of the transit system.
                                                             Route Miles. The length of a route measured in
Propulsion Energy (also, Direct Energy). In                  miles between its end points.
transportation analysis, a portion of operational
                                                             Runoff. The rainwater that directly leaves an
energy that includes fuels and electricity to
                                                             area in surface drainage, as opposed to the
propel vehicles and provide lighting, heating,
                                                             amount that seeps out as groundwater.
and air conditioning within them.
                                                             Screenline. A screenline is an imaginary line
Pulsing. The coordinated arrival and departure
                                                             across a section of freeways or arterials.
of buses on a number of different bus lines at a
                                                             Screenlines are often used in traffic analyses to
transit center to facilitate transferring of
                                                             determine how much volume is entering or
passengers among those bus lines. Usually, local
                                                             exiting a particular area.
feeder bus lines are scheduled to arrive at the
transit center just ahead of the trunkline bus or            Section 10. Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors
train and then depart just after the trunkline bus           Act of 1899 established authority to issue
or train.                                                    permits for obstructions or alterations of any
                                                             navigable waters of the United States. This
Queue. A line of vehicles, bicycles, or persons
                                                             permit program is administered by the U.S.
waiting to be served by the system in which the
                                                             Army Corps of Engineers.
flow rate from the front of the queue determines
the average speed within the queue. Slowly                   Section 106. Section 106 of the National Historic
moving vehicles or people joining the rear of the            Preservation Act of 1966 established a procedure
queue are usually considered part of the queue.              to review the potential effects on cultural
The internal queue dynamics can involve starts               resources by projects receiving federal funds.
and stops. A faster-moving line of vehicles is
                                                             Section 4(f). Section 4(f) of the Department of
often referred to as a moving queue or a
                                                             Transportation Act restricts the United States
                                                             Department of Transportation’s approval of
Radial System. A network of transit lines that               projects affecting the following properties:
meet in the downtown area.                                   publicly owned land from a public park,
                                                             recreation area, or wildlife and waterfowl
Region. The four-county Puget Sound Regional
                                                             refuge, or any land from a significant historic
Council region, including King, Pierce,
Snohomish, and Kitsap Counties.
                                                             Section 404. Section 404 of the Clean Water Act
Reliability. How often transit service is
                                                             is a permit program administered by USACE
provided as promised; affects waiting time,
                                                             under guidelines by EPA to protect the nation's
consistency of passenger arrivals from day to
                                                             waters from dredged and fill sources.
day, total trip time, and loading levels.
                                                             Section 6(f). Section 6(f) of the Land and Water
Representative Alignment. The East Link
                                                             Conservation Act of 1965 established restrictions
general alignment that consists of Alternatives
                                                             on, and replacement requirements for, the use of
A1, B2E, C8E, D3, E1.
                                                             land acquired with funds authorized under the
Right-of-Way. The corridor (horizontal and                   Land and Water Conservation Fund Act.
vertical space) owned by the transit agency for
                                                             Section 9. Section 9 of the Rivers and Harbors
the transportation way.
                                                             Act of 1899, established authority to issue
Riparian Habitat. A habitat type associated                  permits for bridges and causeways across any
with stream and lake margins and characterized               navigable waters of the United States – Section 9

East Link Project Draft EIS                          A4-13
December 2008
Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

Permits are administered by the U.S. Coast                    Sounder. Sound Transit’s commuter rail system,
Guard.                                                        which will travel from Everett to Lakewood,
                                                              through Seattle.
Segment. This refers to the five sections of the
East Link Project, as defined in Chapter 2 of the             Sound Transit 2 (ST2). A package of HCT
Draft EIS.                                                    investments in the regional transit system,
                                                              adopted in May 2007, which included light rail
Sensitive Receptor (Auditory). A local area or
                                                              as the mode choice for the East Corridor on I-90.
site that supports activities easily disrupted by
audio intrusions or distractions, such as a park,             Staging Area. Section of land near a
school, historic landmark, or residential                     construction site designated for equipment and
neighborhood.                                                 truck storage, maintenance, and warm up prior
                                                              to engagement in construction activities.
Sensitive View. A view that is identified by
local jurisdictions as requiring protection.                  State Implementation Plan (SIP). A plan
                                                              required of each state by the Clean Air Act that
Sensitivity Analysis. A “what-if” type of
                                                              describes how the state will attain and maintain
analysis to determine the sensitivity of the
                                                              the National Ambient Air Quality Standards.
outcomes to changes in parameters; if a small
change in a parameter results in relatively large             Stormwater Detention. The temporary storage
changes in the outcomes, the outcomes are said                of stormwater runoff and subsequent release at
to be sensitive to that parameter.                            a slower rate.
Service Frequency/Frequency. The number of                    Stormwater Treatment. Stormwater ponds and
transit units (vehicles or trains) on a given route           underground vaults are used to remove
or line, moving in the same direction, that pass a            sediments and dissolved metals from
given point within a specified interval of time,              stormwater. They collect sediments on the
usually 1 hour.                                               bottom of the pond or vault, where maintenance
                                                              workers can clean them out on a regular basis.
Side-Track Alignment. In rail operations, a type
of alignment where the tracks are positioned on               Straddle Bent. Light rail guideway support that
one side of the street, as opposed to being                   extends across the width of the street.
positioned in the median of the street.
                                                              Subarea. A unique portion of the Regional
Signal Phasing. A group of three traffic signal               Transit Authority taxing district, one of five as
timed intervals (green, yellow, red) that are                 defined in Sound Move (Snohomish County,
assigned to an independent traffic movement or                North King County, East King County, South
combination of movements.                                     King County, and Pierce County).
Signal Preemption. Traffic signal options that                Subduction Zone. An area where one crustal
may modify normal traffic signal phasing for                  plate is descending below another. The Puget
preferential treatment of transit vehicles.                   Sound area is close to a subduction zone, which
                                                              is formed by the Juan de Fuca plate descending
Signal Progression. A series of traffic signals
                                                              below the North American plate. This action can
timed and coordinated to optimize the flow of
                                                              cause significant seismic activity.
selected traffic movements.
                                                              Terminal. The terminating point of
Smog. See Photochemical Oxidants.
                                                              transportation routes with transfer facilities and,
Social Interaction. Intra-neighborhood                        often, amenities for passenger convenience.
communication and circulation using street,
                                                              Terminus. A transit station located at the end of
sidewalk, and bikeway connections between
                                                              a transit (including light rail) line.
residential areas and community facilities, retail
businesses, and employment centers. Also                      Threatened Species. According to the Federal
includes verbal interaction and                               Endangered Species Act of 1973, any species
telecommunications facilities.                                that is likely to become an endangered species

                                                      A4-14                                  East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                                                        December 2008
                                                                                     Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

within the foreseeable future throughout all or a            Transfer Ratio. The number of boarding trips
significant portion of its range.                            divided by originating trips.
Through Route. Interconnected transit lines in               Transfer Time. The elapsed trip time required
the downtown area, or a transit center, that                 to change between modes (e.g., bus to light rail)
allow buses (or trains) entering downtown or                 or to transfer between routes of the same mode
the transit center on one line to pass through               (e.g., bus to bus).
and exit on another line. This eliminates the
                                                             Transfer. The portion of a trip between two
need to turn transit vehicles around downtown
                                                             connecting transit lines, both of which are used
or at the transit center and allows some
                                                             for completion of the trip.
passengers to continue without transferring.
                                                             Transit. A transportation system principally for
Title 23, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 771
                                                             moving people in an urban area and made
(23 CFR Part 771) (Revised 1987). Federal
                                                             available to the public usually through paying a
Highway Administration and Federal Transit
Administration regulations governing the
preparation of environmental impact statements               Transit Center. A station with shelters where a
and related documents.                                       large number of transit vehicles and passengers
                                                             can be brought together with safety and
Title 23, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 777
(23 CFR Part 777) (Revised 1980). Federal
Highway Administration (FHWA) and FTA                        Transit-Oriented Development. The
regulations providing policy and procedures for              Transportation Research Board provides several
evaluation and mitigation for impacted,                      definitions of transit-oriented development that
privately owned wetlands.                                    emphasize high-quality walking environments,
                                                             mixed land uses, and high-density
Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL).
                                                             developments linked to transit. Generally,
For 303(d)-listed water bodies, TMDLs are
                                                             transit agencies agree that what constitutes a
developed by Ecology for the pollutants that
                                                             transit-oriented development is a pattern of
exceed water quality standards as a means for
                                                             dense, diverse, pedestrian-friendly land uses,
ultimately attaining the standards.
                                                             near transit nodes that, under the right
Total Suspended Particulates (TSP). Air                      conditions, translates into higher transit
pollutants that consist of solid particles (dust,            patronage.
lead, salts, etc.) suspended in the atmosphere.
                                                             Transit Service Reliability. Reliability is
TSP is a criteria air pollutant.
                                                             defined as the degree to which transit service
Total Suspended Solids (TSS). Organic and                    can be counted on for consistent, on-time
inorganic particles that are entrained within and            performance.
carried by water. The particles are typically
                                                             Transit Street Classification System. The City
sand, silt, and clay, but may include pebbles and
                                                             of Seattle’s system for designating certain streets
larger rocks in fast-flowing water.
                                                             as being important for transit. This is part of the
Total Travel Time. The total elapsed time                    city’s overall street classification system.
between trip beginning and end, including
                                                             Transportation Corridor (also, Corridor). The
travel, terminal, and waiting time.
                                                             group of travel movements (or travel flows)
Traction Power Substation. Electrical station                between two or more locations. A corridor may
that provides the power needed to drive the                  have components, or subcorridors. A corridor
trains. The substations are housed in either                 includes all facilities, transit and highway, that
standalone structures, or within transit stations,           may be used to accommodate the specified
typically within or adjacent to the right-of-way.            travel movement.
The substations would typically be built about
                                                             Transportation Systems Management (TSM).
one and a half miles apart.
                                                             Incorporates relatively low-cost approaches to
                                                             improving mobility without constructing major

East Link Project Draft EIS                          A4-15
December 2008
Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

new transportation facilities. TSM generally                  specific geographic area over a given period of
emphasizes smaller physical improvements and                  time.
operational changes such as intersection
                                                              Vehicle Occupancy. The number of persons per
improvements, minor widenings, traffic
                                                              vehicle. Usually an average number for a
engineering actions, operational changes such as
                                                              specified trip type, area and analysis year.
queue jumps or queue bypass lanes for buses,
expanded bus service, transit centers, and                    Vehicle Throughput. The number of vehicles,
improved transit access.                                      usually on a highway, that get through a
                                                              screenline over a short time period such as an
Travel Time (in vehicle). The time required to
travel between two points, not including
terminal or waiting time.                                     Vent (also Remote Vent). Vent structures
                                                              provide emergency ventilation and access for
Trip. The one-way movement of one person
                                                              tunnel sections, and are often located adjacent to
between his origin and his destination,
                                                              station entrances. Vents that are not adjacent to
including transfers and the walk to and from the
                                                              the station are called “remote vents.” Surface
means of transportation.
                                                              vent buildings enclose the vent and include an
Trip Demand. The number and type (public or                   exhaust and intake in the roof, a fan room, and
private origin and destination) of trips                      space for electrical and communications
measured, calculated, or forecasted in a                      equipment.
specified area having a given land development
                                                              Vibration Propagation. The transfer of
pattern. Trip demand also depends on
                                                              vibration through soil or other media.
prevailing economic, behavioral, and attitudinal
conditions.                                                   Vibration Propagation Test. A test that
                                                              provides an estimate of vibration levels as a
Trip Length. The number of miles per trip. This
                                                              function of distance from a vibration source, in
is usually an average number for a specified trip
                                                              this case the light rail vehicle. Tests are done on
type, area and analysis year.
                                                              the surface to evaluate propagation at-grade, or
Turn Pocket. Term used to describe a traffic                  at the bottom of a bore hole for tunnel routes.
lane that separates turning vehicles from thru
                                                              Vibration Velocity. Vibration velocity is the
lanes. For example, a left-turn pocket is also
                                                              basic measure of ground-borne vibration. It is a
commonly known as a left-turn lane.
                                                              measure of the rate at which particles in the
Unity. In visual analysis, the visual coherence               ground are oscillating relative to the
and compositional harmony of the landscape.                   equilibrium point.
Use of Section 4(f) Land. According to                        Vibration Velocity Level. It is generally
regulations of the U.S. Department of                         accepted that, over the frequency range
Transportation, use of Section 4(f) land is                   important for ground-borne vibration from
defined as: (1) acquisition of title or easement to           transit systems, human response to vibration is
land, or (2) in unusual circumstances, serious                best correlated to the root-mean square (rms)
indirect impacts, such as increase in noise,                  vibration velocity. In this report, rms vibration
visual intrusion, or access obstruction.                      velocity is always expressed as decibels relative
                                                              to 1 micro-inch per second.
Vehicle Hours Traveled (VHT). The total
vehicle hours expended traveling on the                       Viewer Sensitivity: The extent of the viewer’s
roadway network in a specified area during a                  concern for a particular view or viewshed.
specified time period.                                        Viewer sensitivity to the viewed environment is
                                                              classified as low, average, or high.
Vehicle Mile. An amount of travel equivalent to
one vehicle traveling one mile.                               Visual Amenity. An object or element (such as
                                                              buildings or vegetation) that enhances the visual
Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT). The total
                                                              character of a view or area.
number of vehicle miles traveled within a

                                                      A4-16                                   East Link Project Draft EIS
                                                                                                         December 2008
                                                               Appendix A4 Acronyms and Glossary

Visual Character. Visual character is an
impartial description of the landscape in terms
of dominance, scale, diversity, and continuity.
Visual character-defining environments and
features include landforms, vegetation, land
uses, transportation facilities, overhead utilities,
open spaces, water bodies, designated
viewpoints, and views to the visual
Visual Encroachment. The imposition of an
object, or objects, on a view such that the view is
disrupted, obstructed, or otherwise modified
from its original state.
Visual Quality. Visual quality is an assessment
of the visual character and is categorized as low,
medium, or high, as follows:
•    Low Visual Quality. Areas that have low
     visual quality may have features that seem
     visually out of place, lack visual coherence,
     do not have compositional harmony, and
     contain eyesores.

•    Medium Visual Quality. These areas can be
     generally pleasant appearing, but may lack
     distinctiveness, memorability, drama, and
     compositional harmony, or may simply be
     very common and ordinary landscapes.

•    High Visual Quality. These areas may be
     memorable, distinctive, unique (in a positive
     way), intact natural or park-like areas or
     urban areas with strong and consistent
     architectural and urban design features.

Volume to Capacity (v/c) Ratio. The ratio of
demand flow rate to capacity for a highway or
arterial facility; a v/c ratio below 1.0 means that
traffic volumes are below the capacity of the
roadway, when identified as greater than 1.0,
the traffic volume has theoretically exceeded the
carrying capacity of the roadway.
Washington State Department of Ecology
303(d) List. The federal Clean Water Act (CWA),
adopted in 1972, requires states to restore their
waters to be “fishable and swimmable.” The
CWA established a process to identify and clean
up polluted waters. Every 2 years, all states are
required to prepare a list of water bodies that do
not meet water quality standards. This list is
called the 303(d) list because the process is
described in Section 303(d) of the CWA.

East Link Project Draft EIS                            A4-17
December 2008

Shared By: